Batman vppon Bartholome his booke De proprietatibus rerum, newly corrected, enlarged and amended: with such additions as are requisite, vnto euery seuerall booke: taken foorth of the most approued authors, the like heretofore not translated in English. Profitable for all estates, as well for the benefite of the mind as the bodie. 1582.
Bartholomaeus, Anglicus, 13th cent., Trevisa, John, d. 1402., Batman, Stephen, d. 1584.


FOrasmuch as we haue spoken of the properties of humours, we shall speake now of the dispo∣sition of members, that be made of the foresayd hu∣mours and first of the properties therof in generall, and then of each somewhat in speciall.

¶Of the properties of members in generall. Chap. 1.

AVicen saith, that members are bo∣dyes made of the first meddlyng of humours. Either as it is sayde, Secun∣dum Iohannem, A member is a stedfast and sadde parte of a beast, composed of things that be lyke either vnlyke, and is ordayned to some speciall office: and by that it is called a stedfast parte, it is seperated from the part that is not sted∣fast, as a spirite. In that that it is sayd to be made of things that be lyke and vnlyke, it is vnderstoode, double di∣uersitie of members, simple or vnlyke: and compounded, or of office. For the members be called members lyke and simple, the whole parts be of the saure kinde with the whole, as euerye part of bloud is bloud, and so of other.

And such simple members, and lyke, are rather in kinde, than the members or lymmes of office: for the simple, be partes of the lymmes that are composed: And the simple partes are rather in kinde, than the Page  34 thing that is composed. The members and the lims be composed to sée, to féele, and to mooue, and bée instrmments of the soule, as hand, foote, and eien, & other such bée néedfull in diuerse qualities to the working of the soule, kinde maketh instrumentes of bodye couenable to the vertue of ye soule. The soule hath diuers vertues, & therefore diuerse members & limmes be néedful, as it fareth in hands, in the which be manye fingers and di∣uerse in qualitie and quantie, that they may holde great things as well as smal. And for the soule hath thrée manner workinges, which be called Animalis, Naturalis, and Spiritualis, Feeling, Kindly, and Spirituall: the members and limmes bée néedfull to these work∣ings of the Soule: And so the members that followe the vertue Animall, be cal∣led Animata, which bée néedful to shape féeling and spéedie mouing in al beasts, as the braine, the sinewes, the eyen, and other instruments of féeling. The mem∣bers that be obedient to the vertue of liuing, be called spirituallye Vitalia, which bée made to draw breath and spi∣rituall lyfe, to slake heate, and saue the lyfe, as the heart, the lungs, and such other. The members yt serue the vertue of kinde, be called Naturalia, & Nutriti∣ua, of ye which some bée Nutratiue, the which change ye meat into substance of members. As the stomacke, the liuer, and such other: and some serue to gen∣dering, and to kéepe & saue the things of kinde, that generally be distinguished by speciall, and speciall, by singulars. For when all the singulars shall be cor∣rupt, it néedeth that it be restored by the vertue of the gendering, and so sa∣ued in speciall béeing, that it be not all lost. Some other members serue to these members Generatiue, and helpe them, and members helpe eyther other. And of these members that serue and bée profitable in many manner wise, some make ready, some purge, and cleanse, and some defend, and some beare a∣bout. So the first bée they that make readye, as the limmes of wittes that serue the braine, the heart, the lungs, the liuer, the stomacke, and the limmes for meate. The second be they that beare, as the sinewes, the which receiue the spi∣rit Animall of the braine, and carrye it to euerye member to make moouing and féeling. Also the organe serueth the hart, the vaines, and the liuer, for the wosen taketh the spirit of the heart, and bea∣reth it forth to make the pulse: and the vaines take bloud of the liuer, to nou∣rish and to féede the bodie. The third be they that purge and cleanse, that is to wit, they that put off superfluities and things that grieue. As the holes of the nose in the head, and the waye by the which the heart sendeth out superfluitie of smoake to the lungs till it bée put all out. Also the case of the gall, and the splene cleanse and purge the liuer from superfluities of cholar and melancholy, as the reines cleanse from watry mat∣ters. The fourth be they that defend, as the two skinnes and the skul defend the braine from grieuing and hurting. Phi∣sitions furthermore call these two skins the hard Mother & the middle mother. Also the bones of the breast defend the heart, and the brawnes, and the snailes of the ribbes defend the liuer. Among the spirituall members, the heart is chiefe: for it is the principall well of all the life and foundation of kindly heate. The lunges, the skinne, the brawnes, and wosen, be helpers thereof, by whose mouing aire is drawne to coole the hart, and to remoue therefrom fumous super∣fluous heate. The defence whereof, are the thinne skinnes, that be within: of the midriefe and other such members of kinde, and of féeding, the liuer is chiefe, therein is digestion made, by the which all the bodye is fedde. To the seruice of the liuer, the members that be nigh ther∣to be ordeined. Héereof it followeth that some members be principall. For of other members they bée principles, rootes, and originalls: and some bée the members of office, that receiue of the foresayne members the influence, and working of vertue: and kéepeth the best, and also serueth euerye other. And some bée lyttle, that Constantinus calleth Onuomeria, that is simple part.

Page  [unnumbered]For they be of one kinde with their parties touching nature: For euery part of visible flesh is flesh, and euery parte of fatnesse is fatnesse, and so of other. Then gather thou of those foresayde things, that the membes of kinde, ordei∣ned by crafte, make the bodye that hath soule perfect, and they take of the soule, the influence of vertue. Also they be ioi∣ned together in a wonderfull proporti∣on, that is called Armonica, for ye more be coupled to ye lesse, & so the lesse to the more, with the sinewes and other bands. Also these members serue each other, & know their works and vertues. For the ouer giue influence and gouernaunce to the neather: and the neather holde vp the vpper: The middle and the ineane couple, and ioyne the ouer and the nea∣ther in working For the eye ruleth the neather members: the féete and the thighs helde and beare vp the waight of the other members: and the hands and the armes helpe & defend both the head and the feete, the ouer and the neather. Also as long as the members be ruled by the soule, they be profitable & whole, to perfect working and perfection of the bodie: but if they loose the gouernance of the spirits, they be grieuous to the other part of the bodie. Also the members of cleane and pure complection be more a∣ble to be obedient to the working of the spirites. Therefore Liber 18. Aristotle sayth. That the head hath little flesh, and little fatnesse, to haue the better wit and vnderstanding. And that one cause is, because the spirit in the sinews of e∣ling is much let in his passing by hard∣nesse and greatnesse of flesh. Also the members be so set togethers, that for their binding and •••ting togethers, euery hath compassiō of other. And ther∣fore the member that is lesse grieued, hath compassion of the member that is more grieued. And therfore if one mem∣ber be hurt, the humour of the other members runne and come to the sore place: as it is sayd in Aphori. The grea∣ter sore and ach that chaunceth in one member, swageth the ach of another member, and taketh away most part of the ach thereof, as it faceth in them that haue the phrensie, in ye which if yt thighs and armes be hard wrong, the ach of the head ceaseth. For ye spirites & humours runne and come to the member yt is hard wrong whereby the head is eased. Also the more noble ye members be of sub∣staunce, and of making, ye more grieuous∣ly, and the sooner they féele the griese of any hurt: As it fareth in ye eye yt is more grieued with a little dust, then the hand or the foote is with a great wound. And yt is for the nobilitie and preciousnesse of the eie. For the spirite of feeling hath more masterie in the eie then in other members. And so a very litle hurt in ye ioyntes of the members, in the sinewes of féeling, is most grieuous. For by let∣ting of such members, the vertue of fée∣ling and moouing is principally and most hastely let. And the armonie, accorde, or ioyning of all the bodie is dissolued: Al∣so by errour of kinde ingendering of members, sometime it happeneth, ye su∣perflueus and monstrous members are made, as is said, Li. Animal. 17. and that oft time beasts are séene with one body and many heads, nor that is no wonder but because it is seldome seene. Also som∣time in the Egge be two yolks, that bée diuided in two, and one webbe and call. And that happeneth through comming togethers of two séedes, that drawe ey∣ther to other in diuerse imes not long a sunder. He sayth also that it happeneth oft of such an Egge commeth a member wonderfully shapen, as a chicken wt one bodie, and one head, and foure féete and foure wings, as Aristotle saith ther. And this wonderfull errour happeneth most in shéepe and Goates, and in beastes of many broodes: And therfore he saith, that in old 〈…〉 & Goat Buck was seene wt bornes in the thighs. This wonderfull shape in members superfluous, falleth generally of superfluitie of matter, and default of the vertue informatiue, as hée saith in the same booke. Wherefore wée ought to esteeme, yt this wōderful shape in members cōmeth of ye matter: when the vertue of working is strong, and the matter is little, and by some occassion di∣minished, then it happeneth that manye members be seene, and in all his default Page  35 and lacke: for the vertue, through the default of kinde, might not at the full worke, as it intended, as saith the same authour. The vertue operatiue strongly working, worketh nothing perfectly, or at the full. Augustinus. liber. 16. de Ci∣uitate Dei. chap. 8. speaketh of men, that be called Cenocephalos, and be wonder∣fully shaped, and haue hounds heads, and, barking in stéed of voice: And of other without nowles and neckes, and with eien in the shoulders. Also he sayth that in his time was a childe borne, that was two in the ouer part, and one in the neather parte. For he had two heads, two breasts, and foure hands, and one bellye, and two féete. And manye such things Austen there rehearseth, in all which is assigned errour of kinde. Also among the members is great diuersitye in dignitie and in order. For some giue of themselues, and take not of other, as the heart that taketh not of other, as A∣ristotle saith. Neuerthelesse the heart giueth to other liuing and moouing. And some giue and take as the liuer and the braine taketh strength of the heart, and be principles of vertues: For they giue vertues to the other members. And some mēbers neither giue vertues nor take, but stand in their owne vertue by the skill of Phisitions, as the members of one kinde. And some members take and giue not, as the members that bée instrumentes, the which take of the braine the vertue of féeling or of moo∣uing, and sometime of either. But the vertue that they take, they sendeth not to the other members: For the eye can∣not giue the vertue of sight, that it re∣ceiueth of the braine, to the féete, or handes, or other member: neyther the care the hearing. And neuerthelesse these members bée most néedfull to the bo∣dye. For by their proper office they rule all the other members of the bo∣dye: excepte perchaunce by some mis∣hap they be lette in theyr working, as hurt, or when they bée corrupt. It is proper to all the members of office, to put themselues in perill for the princi∣pall members, as sometime the hande putteth it selfe kindlye without all ad∣uisement for the defence of the head or heart. Also a member that is in good health, helpeth the member that is sicke and sore, and drawing the matter of the disease to it selfe, is wont to cleanse and ease the member that is sick, and so oft the whole member is hurt for the sore member. If a member bée rotted, either dead it is grieuous to it selfe and to all the bodie. And there∣fore is there none other remedie, but cut it off, that it destroye not nor cor∣rupt all the bodie. And this that is spo∣ken of members in generall shall suffice at this time.

¶Of the properties of the head. Chap. 2.

AMong the principal members of man,* we shall first beginne to treate or the head. For the head is first and principall part of a man among all the vtter mem∣bers of the bodie, touching place and of∣fice, the head hath the best principate. Isidore liber. 10. chap. 2. saith, that the head hath this name Caput, of Capere, that is to take: For all the wits and si∣newes haue and take beginning and spring of the head. Also out of the head springeth all cause and reason, of lyfe, of thirst, and of féeling. In the head all the wits bée séeme, and therefore in a man∣ner it presenteth the person of the soule, that counsaileth and ruleth the bodie. Then the head is principall place and seate of the wits, Principium, and be∣ginning of all the senses organike, and the proper house or habitation of the vertue Animalis, shedding out, and sen∣ding forth to all the lower members fée∣ling and moouing: And hath seauen holes, that be instruments of wits, and answere to the seuen speres of planets, as some men suppose. And so the head is worthyer and more noble then all the other members. For it is gouernour and ruler of all the body, and giueth ther∣to perfection of vertue to doe his work∣ings of féeling. And therefore the head hath by kinde the highest place of the body, to rule and dispose all that be there vnder, by the order of kinde as HalyPage  [unnumbered] saith Super Tegni Galen. The disposi∣tion of all the head is knowne by thrée things, that is to wit, by the quantitye thereof, and by that that commeth ther∣of, and by haire that groweth thereon. For the head shuld be meane betwéene great and little, and proportionate in quantitie to other members. For if the head be too lyttle, it is not to praise: for it betokeneth default of matter, and fée∣blenesse of the vertue informatiue. And likewise if the head bée too greate, it is not to praise: for that commeth of the default of vertue working, and of super∣fluitie of matter, as Haly saith. Also the shape of the head is round, and that is to put off griefes and hurts, & for to take and receiue the better of the braine. And neuerthelesse the head is somwhat euen∣long, and about the temples some deale plaine. For the perfection of a good head is, when it is disposed in roundnesse to the lykenesse of a ball of waxe, thrust together betwéene two handes, or be∣twéene two péeces of woode, for such a ball is round. And yet neuerthelesse, in eyther side it is somewhat plaine. In the fore parte the head is some deale com∣ming narrowe, and high, and that is to withholde the bagge of the braine. In the fore parte of the hollownesse of the head, out of the which come the sinewes that make the fiue wits. In likewise it is some deale narrow in the hinder part, for to take and receiue the bagge in the hinder part, out whereof commeth mar∣row of the ridge bone, and the sinewes that make spéedi mouing. Also it is a token of a good head, when the members that come thereof, and be next adioy∣ning thereto, be of good perfect dispositi∣on. As and if the necke be strong and meanely great, & all the sinewes strong, and great, and of good mouing. Also the head is knowen by haire that groweth thereon. For the disposition and com∣plection of the head is knowne by the qualitie and quantitie, the swiftnesse or slownesse of growing of the haire. For much haire and crispe, and soone grow∣ing, betokeneth the heate and the humor of the head. And againeward, as it shall be said within of the haire. Haire well disposed in growing on the head, as long as they sticke fast to the head, they ey hyght, and defend the head. And if the haire be away and cleane plucked from the head, the head is foule and vnséeme∣ly, as it fareth in balde heads and bare a∣fore, or behinde in the nowle or powle. Also the head is made of many bones, and that is for defence of the braine: for the substaunce of the braine is tender & soft. And therefore it might bée lightlye hurt, were it not that the skull & other bones defended it from vtter huries and griefes. Also somewhat it hath of flesh∣nesse, that is néedfull for the temporance of the bones and sinewes, least too great colde of bones should grieue the tender∣nesse of the braine by some manner occa∣sion. But the head in his owne compo∣sition hath little fleshnesse and satte in comparison to other members. And that is for the sharpnesse of wit and helpe of vnderstanding. Aristotle lib. 12. Also the head though it séeme hard in compositi∣on of his parts, and namely in ye bones: neuerthelesse within it hath much soft∣nesse and marrowe. For all the shape of the bodie hath moysture of the softe∣nesse of the braine, that is closed within the bones. Also the head hath many si∣newes in his first composition: and that was néedfull, for the ioyning and knit∣ting of vnlike bones: And also for the working of spéedie moouing. For by si∣newes the soule worketh moouing and féeling in the bodie. And without a si∣new comuting from the head, is no mē∣ber coupled to another: But if that ver∣tue be let that commeth by sinews from the head, by vice and corruption of si∣newes, the vniting & the ioyning of all the bodie faileth. And the head is the chimney and healing of all the bodie. And therefore it taketh and receiueth in it selfe many sumosities, that come out of all the bodie. Also kinde made all the substaunce of the head, full of holes and powers priuely and openly: priuely, that by the secret powers, the superfluitie of priuie sumosities may be voided and put out. Openly, that the open sumosities and boistous filth may be voyded and cleansed by open and sniting holes. Also Page  36 the head hath some properties, that be∣tokeneth default of kinde, as it appea∣reth in heads wonderfully shapen. For Aristotle. liber. 12. saith, that sometime it happeneth, that one heart is in a beast, and yet it séemeth to haue two heads, or many members. And contrariwise, sometime there séemeth to be two hearts and other members, and yet there is but one head. But all this is euill shape. And that falleth not but by er∣rour of kinde, eyther superfluitie of matter, either else by sailing of vertue, as Aristotle proueth liber. 18. Where he saith, that the cause of such euill shape is not but in the matter. And then it followeth. Such euill shape happe∣neth in beasts that gender many broods, and happeneth selde in women except it bée in women of Aegypt, yt beare many children more then in other Countries, or more then women of other lands, ex∣cept there, where other women bée like to the women of Aegypt. Also when the head, which is the roote of all the bo∣dye, and of all corporall vertues, the first and principall foundation, is well disposed and ordered, all that bee vnder the head, bée in ye better disposition and state. And againewarde, if the head bée corrupt and distemporate, with Sintho∣ma, of corruption of head ach: néedes must the neather members of the bo∣dye be diseased. Sometime the head is diseased with an inwarde cause, as by these passions that bréede and come of the braine, with such as long thereto, as it fareth in the head ach, phrensie, and Epilencia, the falling Euill, and such other. And sometime he is diseased by an outward cause, as by chaunge of heate, or colde, or otherwise distempered ayre, or anye other reason. And some∣time by ioyning and binding of other members. As fareth in the stomake, that is full of corrupt humours, for the su∣mosities delaide, by reason they be nigh, they couet to come to the braine, and the hollownesse, if they finde any voide, to fill: and they thrust and stretch the skinnes of the braine, and so pricking, they breede ach in the same skinnes. Al∣so the same commeth of great fasting and abstinence, as it fareth in them, that fast and wake too much. For as Galen sayth, long watching breedeth head ach. Also the same commeth of great resec∣tion, as it happeneth in dronken men: For the superfluitie of sumositie that commeth of winde, commeth vp to the braine, & puncheth and pricketh it; and maketh the head to ake and suffer ma∣ny euil passions. Also Constantine saith, that all the ach of the head commeth of the stomacke reléeued, when the sto∣macke is voyded, and is augmented, when the stomacke is filled with meate, that tourneth into euill qualyties.

Also as Aristotle sayth liber. 12. Kinde hath ordeined in the head wittes and in∣struments of wittes, by the nobyltye of them, and as it néedeth to the beast. And therefore kinde hath set the eyen in the formost and vpper parte of the head be∣cause the beast shall sée what is afore him. For the witte of sight is more sub∣till and more noble then other wittes. Kinde hath set the instruments of hea∣ring in the middest of the round head: for limmes of hearing, heare not onely forth right, but all about. Kinde hath set the wit of smelling after the eyen, as middle and meane betwéene the sight and the taast. For the wit of smel∣ling is more boistous then the sight, and more substill then the taast. The tongue is sette last, that is the instru∣ment and limme of taast and touch, the working whereof is about great and boistous substaunce. And so if the wits be so ordeined, the head is perfect and perfection and ornament of all the body. And as Aristotle saith, the limmes and wits be not so well set in the heads of foure footed and vnreasonable beastes. For the eares of such beasts bée in the ouer parts of the head: and so appeareth that such a beast is not right, neither vpright of bodie, but looking downward to the earth. Also sometime kinde goeth out of the way and erreth in some men wonderfully shapen, that haue all the body of a man, saue onely the head. For they haue the face lyke a grim beast, or as a hound, as Solinus telleth. Also kind erreth in some beasts strāgly shapē, as it Page  [unnumbered] fareth in a beast that is called Lamia,* that hath as the Glose saith Super Tre. an head as a maide, and bodie like a grimme beast. And it is sayd that when these beasts Lamie, will take any man, first they flatter with him with a wo∣mans face, and maketh him lye by them while he may indure, and when he may no more accomplish their lecherie, then they rent & draw him with their téeth, and slaieth him, and eate him.

Of the Braine. Chap. 3.

AS Constantine sayth in Pantegni. li. secundo. ca. 11.* the braine is a white bodie without bloud, and hath much of spirit and of marrowe, and is distingui∣shed and departed in thrée cels or dens, and is the beginning and principall of the sinewes of all the bodie. And it is closed and conteined within two thinne skinnes, which be named the milde and harde mother: and is set in the highest place of the head, as in the most excellent place of the bodie. The braine is white by kinde, for to receiue the lykenesse of all coulour, and hath much of the spirit for to haue much mouing therein: and also hath much marrow, to temper and slake the sharpnesse of heat, that is bread and commeth of moouing. And hath but little of bloud, least it should be infected and smitten with the coulour therof: and so all things that is apprehended should séeme redde. Also it is moist and with∣out bloud, that it may soone be chaunged and likened to the kinde of féeling, as sayth Constantine. And it is diuided in thrée celles or dens: For the braine hath thrée hollowe places, which Phisitions call Ventriculos, small wombes. In the formost cell and wombe imagination is conformed and made, in the middle, reason: in the hindermost, recordation & minde. The formost is called Prora in Latine, as it were a fore shippe. And the hindermost is called Puppis, as it were the after ship. This Puppis, the hinder part, is the lesse part. For fewe sinewes come thereof. And this Puppis is hard, that the sinewes of mouing may moue the easilier and the sooner. And is colde and drie, and hath little of spirit and of marrowe. Colde for it should holde the better and the sooner. It hath litle of spi∣rit, to bréeding of rest. It hath little of marrowe in comparison to the formost parte, that it be meanely harde, that the printing of shapes and likenesse be ther∣in the longer holden. Prora the formost part, is more soft, and hotter, and more floating. More, that the sinewes of fee∣ling may come thereof. Soft, that the si∣newes of féeling may be disposed to re∣ceiue the sooner the doing of féeling. Hot∣ter, to bée the more able to receiue the shape and forme. More fléeting, & more moyst somewhat, that the sinewe of féeling be the easilyer moned. The cell & the wombe, in the middle betwéene Prora and Puppis, is hot and moyst, & hath more of spirit and more of marrow then the other. More of spirit, that more perfect discreation be made therein by reason, as in other members by digesti∣on cleane and pure, is departed from vn∣cleane and vnpure. And hath much of spirit, to haue much moouing and much marrow, to temper the moouing of the soule, that it may the better deeme and know, what it conceiueth. In these three cells and wombes bée thrée principall workings. For in the first, shape & like∣nes of ye things be felt, is gendered in the fantasie or in the imagination. Then the shape and lykenesse is sent to the middle cell, and there be* domes made. And at the last after dome of reason, that shape and likenesse is sent into the cell and wombe of Puppis, and betaken to the vertue of minde. The braine is round, to be the more able to receiue spi∣rits, and also that it bée not lightly hurt. To defend the braine two garments bée néedfull, which be called the mothers of the braine: the one is great and is cal∣led the hard mother, and it is set vnder the skull: But in the middle braine, it waxeth greate, and is sadde to haue the more strength: and is not ioyned to the skull, but departed therefrom, and be∣clippeth the braine about: This harde mother is néedfull to defende the milde mother that is more tender, from the hardnesse of the skull, and to binde toge∣thers Page  37 the vaines and the organe or concauite of the braine: And also to ful∣fill the voide places, if there be any. The second web and skinne is called Pia ma∣ter, the méeke mother, that is set vnder the hard mother, and is neher and softer then the hard mother, & compasseth the substance of the braine, and departeth a∣sunder the foresayd cells. And the milde mother is not superfluous neither to much: for it harboureth & holdeth toge∣thers the veines of the braine within. And kéepeth & knitteth the braine toge∣thers, that it flow not neither faile by ye fléeting and softnesse thereof. Also this milde mother helpeth and beclippeth the braine, and defendeth it from the harde mother. Also by vaines that it hath, it nourisheth the braine, and by the organe and small vaines that it conteineth, it sendeth spirit thereto. Also the braine is a member moouing and ruling all the lower members of the bodie, and giueth to all these limmes féeling and mouing. If the braine be let, all that is in the bo∣dy is let: And if the braine be well, all that is in the bodye is the better dispo∣sed. Also the braine hath this property, that is éeleth and followeth the mouing of the Moone. For in the waring of the Moone, the braine wareth: and waneth in substaunce of vertue in the waning of the Moone. For then the braine gathe∣reth togethers in it selfe, and is not so fully obedient to the spirit of feeling, and that is séene in Lunatike, and Epalen∣tike men, that bée most gréeued, when the Moone is newe, and also when it is olde. And that is it that Aristotle saith liber. 12. of the signes good and bad of the braine. Of the braine he sayth, When it is too drie either too moist, doth not his worke and déed: but maketh the bo∣die colde, and melteth the spirite. And therfore falleth sicknes of loosing of wit, and of vnderstanding, and dyeth at the last. Also beastes that haue too greate braine bée full slouthfull, and that hap∣peneth by reason of moisture that is re∣solved and commeth thereof, & changeth into smoake, & stoppeth the vaines of the braine, and causeth sléepe. Also Aristotle sayth in the same place, that the braine hath in it selfe no feeling of touching, as the bloud nor other superfluities animal, hath no féeling of touch, and is not in the bodies of al beasts but to ye preseruation of kinde. And, which is wonder, yt braine giueth feeling to all the parts of the bo∣dy: and notwithstanding of it selfe, and in it selfe it feeleth nothing. Also he saith in the same place. Euery beast that hath bloud, hath braine, or some other mem∣be in stéed of braine, as a beast with ma∣ny féete, and other that be lyke thereto. And though euery beast that hath bloud hath braine, yet the braine conteineth no bloud in the substaunce of his marrow, as Aristotle sayth liber. 3. Also liber. 16. Aristotle saith, that the substance of the braine is colde and moyst, and therefore it is set afore the well of heate of the beast, that is to wit, the heart: to moy∣sture & to temper the superfluitie of heat and drinesse of the arterves or small vaines, of the which the cau of ye braine is wone. For Haly sayth, that artery, the small vaines come out of the heart: of yt which is made a meruailous cause, in which the braine is wound & wrap∣ped, and in that caue the spirit of féeling is laied and ruled: and by that spirit the vertues of the braine passe to other mē∣bers. And therefore as Aristotle sayth there, the braine is the first member in the making of a beast, and after the ma∣king of the heart. But Galen saith, that the braine, that is well complectioned ought to be tēperate in foure qualities, But as Haly sayth there, the kindlye complection of the braine ought to bee more colde and moyst, then hot and dry. And that is néedfull to coole the foresaid caue, and to sake the accidentall heate of the braine that commeth of the con∣tinuall moouing thereof: alsō liber. 15. Aristotle saith, that among all beastes, to his quantitie, onely man hath most braine, for the heart is most hotte, and therefore by masterye of heate and of good complection man is of good wit, and of more vnderstanding then all other beasts. And children may not long hold vp their heads, for greatnesse and heauinesse of the braine: till it be made lighter by heate of the heart, and of the Page  [unnumbered] arteryes and organe. Good disposition of the braine and euill is knowne by his deedes, for if the substaunce of the braine be soft, thinne, and cléere: it receiueth lightly the féeling & printing of shapes, and lykenesses of thinges. He that hath such a braine is swift, and good of perse∣ueraunce and teaching. When it is con∣trarye, the braine is not softe: ey∣ther if he be troubled, he that hath such a braine receiueth slowly the féeling and printing of thinges: But neuerthelesse when hée hath taken and receiued them, he keepeth them long in minde. And that is signe and token of drinesse, as sluxibility & forgetting is token of moi∣sture, as Haly sayth. And so it is to vn∣derstand of other qualities.* Ensample. If a man bée busie and mooueable, by vsage vnstable and variable, hardy, and wrathfull, it seemeth that such one hath a hot braine. And the contrarye betoke∣neth the coldnesse of the braine. And if he be a sluggard and slowe and sorrow∣full and sleepie,* it is a token of a moyst braine. And in likewise if he be a great waker, and strong of minde, it signifieth drinesse of braine.* If there be passing great moysture with heate, then ther is much superfluitie, and many diseases chaunce to ye head. Hot and moist,* grieue such a one, and namely the Southerne ayre, and the Northerne winde helpeth: such a one is very sléepie, nor he maye not wake long time. And when he slée∣peth, it happeneth him to haue Subeth, that is, false rest:* and hath troubled sight, and vncléere wits. If drinesse in∣creaseth with heat, ther falleth and com∣meth worse Synthomata, euills & sick∣nesses, sauing there bée not so many su∣perfluities. Such haue their wittes suf∣ficiently cléere and cleane from superflu∣ities. But they wake more then other men, and they be hardie, great boasters, or vaine speakers, and vnstable, and such waxe bald after youth, though they haue much hayre afore. Also if cold pas∣seth with drinesse, such bée wont to haue cléere wits, and cleane wayes from su∣perfluities in youth, & vtterlye without sicknes, but when age cōmeth they waxe feeble for a light cause, & olde age com∣meth swiftly. And it appeareth soone in ye head, for they haue soone hoare haires. And if the drinesse be stronger then the colde with hoarinesse, they waxe balde. And if the cold be stronger then ye drines then they waxe not bald: but when ye cold passeth with moisture, then cōmeth deep sléepe. And the wits of such men be euil, and ther is much superfluitie. And if the colde either the moysture waxeth strong, such a man falleth into Apoplexiam, that is an euill, that withdraweth a mans minde and mouing, and féeling: or else hée falleth into a palsie, eyther dieth. And he that is so disposed shall not be bald, as Galen saith in Tegni. and in the Comment. Halye sayth the same. But this sufficeth that is spoken of the properties of the head and of the braine.

¶Of Caluaria. Chap. 4.

CAluaria is the formost parte of the skull,* and hath that name Caluaria, of balde bones for default of haire. And is called Vertex* also. And so Liber de∣cimo, cap. secundo. Isidore sayth, that Vertex is the part of the head without, there the haire is kit, there the haire is woundē. So Occiput the powle is ye hin∣der part of ye head, as it were set against Capitium. The formost parte of ye head waxeth soone bald for drines therof. The ouer part latter: but the powle last or neuer, and that is for superfluitie of hu∣mours. Of the properties of the haire, seeke more within.

Of the eyen. Chap. 5.

LIbro. 10. chap. 1. Isidore sayth,* That the eyen bée sayde as it were hidde. For the liddes couer and hide them, that no griefe come to them or hurt them, or else they be so called because they haue light secretly hid within them. Among all the wittes, the eyen bée next to the soule. For in the eyen is all the iudge∣ment of the Soule. For in the eyen is séene and knowne the disturbaunce and gladnesse of the Soule. And also loue and wrath, and other passions.

Page  38They bée called lyghts, for they receiue light without, and conuey it and send it forth. The eyes bée the instrumentes of sight, as Constantine saith. And they bée two, least if by happe the one were diseased, that other might supplye the lacke thereof. And for the eie is in steede of a write, or a spie, kinde setteth them in the highest place of the bodye. The eye is made of tenne things: Of seauen smal curtils, and thrée humours. Among the humours, the first is Whitish, the second Cristaline, the thirde Glassie. The seauen curtills bée seauen skinnes, either webbes, that beclippe the foresayde humours, and diuideth them a sunder. And in the middle of these hu∣mours the sight is formed. And they be of kinde so ordinate: togethers, that foure bée in the formost parte. Of the which the first is called Tela Aranea, as it were the webbe of a Spider. The se∣cond Vuea Grapic: The third Cor∣nea, Hornie: The fourth Coniunctiua, Able to ioyne. And thrée bée in the in∣ner part, the which three, bée called Re∣thina, Sderina, and th••tica, that is, hard, as it shall bée shewed héereafter. But among all these, one alone is the instrument of sight, that is the humour Cristalline. And hath that name of Cri∣stall: for it is lyke Christall in cou∣lour. This humour Christallinus, as Constāntine sayth, is white, bright, cléere and plaine without: and is set in the middle of all the other, that all the other shoulde serue it euenly. It is pas∣sable, cléere, and bright, that it may the sooner bée chaunged into coulours oppo∣site, and haue & take lykenesse of all coulours indifferently. Also it is round in shape and substaunce, that it bée not lightly h••rt and grieued. And also that no superfluitie be gathered in ye corners thereof: by the which superfluitie, it might happely bée grieued. And because it shoulde not be too much moueable by too much roundnesse, it is somewhat plaine, to be of measurable swiftnesse. For euery thing that is all round (hurt) in the sides is vnstable, and vnstead∣fast, as Constantine saith. And that by this humour the sight is made, it is thus proued. For it ought to bée closed be∣tweene this humour and the spirite of fight, as some humour or other thing: the working and the dooing of sight is away and faileth. For the spirite of sight may not pearce, and come therto sor the let that is betwéene. This humour spring∣eth of the ouermost parts of the braine, that be pure, thinne, and bright, that letteth not passing of light. And pro∣perly to speake, this is the blacke of the eie: and is called the middle of the eye, or the point of the eie, & therin is porper∣ly the vertue of sight, & of seeing. Wher∣in vnto vs beholding néere, appeare cer∣teine Images, as it were in a mirrour: but thereof we shall speake heereafter. This humour is set in the middle of the other two, betwéene the glasse and the white. The glassie humor is cleane, pure, & bright as glasse, so ye we may see there through, and is called Gelados in ye lan∣guage of Arabia, & helpeth in two man∣ners. First & principally it taketh bloud to nourish the humour Cristalline, & ma∣keth it white and able to turne soone in∣to the substance of the humour Cristal∣line. It is not conuenient that so cleane & pure a humour should receiue vnpure feeding: the which it should doe, if ye red bloud not defied, not whited, not made subtill, were by any occasion medled wt the humor Cristalline. The second wise it helpeth & defendeth & kéepeth the hu∣mour Christalline frō touching & sharp∣nesse of tunicles: the which in respect thereof be hard & more boistous. Like∣wise the humour that is called Albugi∣neus, the which by another name is cal∣led Euagaidos, is in ye further part: & hel∣peth the Cristalline in two manners: for it saueth him from hurting & grieuing, & by his moisture tempereth the Christal∣line, for the humour Albugineus in the yen is more moist, & the Christalline yt is called also Christallidos is more drie. Also this humour Albugineus by his thicknesse gathereth togethers & comfor∣teth the spirit of sight. These thrée parts of ye eie, though •• they be called humours, yet they be not properly humors: for they be not soft & fléeting as humours be, but they haue much more thicknes in them∣selues Page  [unnumbered] then humours haue. They be also liuing bodies, and haue kindly vertues, the which long to no humor: yet they be called humours: for they haue more soft∣nes & more cleerenesse then other mēbers of ye body. And they be more obedient to the working of ye spirit & vertue of féeling thē other lims of féeling. These three hu∣mors be departed a sunder with ye rumes inner & vtter, for they shuld not be med∣led togethers. These seuen curtils be or∣deined in this manner. Fast by ye humor Christalline in the neather side is ye cur∣tel that is called Rethina,* and springeth and commeth of the vaines and hollow∣nesse of the skinne that is called ye mid∣dle mother, in manner of a web or aul, & beareth feeding with her to the humor Vitreus: & sendeth feeling by ye sinewes thereof to the Christalline. Next to this Rethina, immediatly followeth ye second curtel, that is bread and commeth of the middle mother: & feeddeth & defendeth ye curtel Rethina, that it be not by any hap broke or hurt. The third curtel follow∣eth, that is called Sclirotica, yt is ful hard & commeth of the hard mother of the braine, and defendeth all the other from the hardnesse of the bone, & is as it were the bend of the eie. In the formost part next to the Christalline humor, is imme∣diatly the curtel that is called Tela ara∣nea, & is called so for the subtilnesse ther∣of, that it may be passable to the spirit, & is bread & commeth of that most subtill parts of the curtill that is called Rethi∣na. This curtil is set betwéene the Chri∣stalline humour, & Albugineus: and kée∣peth that they fret not togethers. This curtil Tela aranea ioyned with the inner part Rethina, maketh ye first roundnes. For these two curtills close the humor Christalline within them. After this fol∣loweth the curtill that is called Vuea, Grapie, & hath that name, for it is like in coulour to a blacke grape, & that by wise counsaile of kinde. For all the other, that we haue spoke of in the composition of the eie be white & cléere, and sheddeth the spirit of sight. And therefore it néedeth to haue therwith the curtill Vuea, gra∣py, to gather light in ye eie by the black∣nesse thereof. For blacknesse is a cou∣lour that gathereth sight. And also this rume is full of holes, as a Spunge, and conteineth thrids of sinewes, as Constā∣tine saith, to cleanse & to purge the hu∣mour Christalline, frō superfluous moi∣sture. This curtell Vuea, Grapie, is ioy∣ned in the farther part of the head, with ye curtel Secundina, in the inner part: the which so ioyned, maketh ye second round∣nesse, and closeth the humor Albugineus, that kinde setteth there to make the spi∣rit cléere, and to giue kind of moisture to ye humor Christalline. After this curtell followeth the curtell that is called Cor∣nea, Hornie, and hath that name of the doing therof. For it is sul like to a bright horne, and is bright and cleere to ye spi∣rit of sight. And by the brightnes & cleer∣nesse thereof: and by the reason of some∣what of thicknesse therof: it helpeth som∣what the spirit of sight, to gather ye sight, Also because of strength therof and sad∣nes, it defendeth the inner curtells, that be lesse strong from vtter griefes. And this curtell Cornea, hornie, is ioyned to ye inner curtell, that is called Sclirotica, hard, and maketh another roundnesse. For these two curtells, Cornea, the vt∣ter, and Sclirotica, the inner conteine and close within themselues all rounde, the humour Vitreus, Glassie. At the last in the vtter part of the eye without is set the curtell Coniunctiua, the commeth downe from the braine panne, and coue∣reth not all the eie, but remaineth in the corners of the eien, and bindeth and holdeth them, that they abide in a due stedfastnesse.

The disposition of the eies. cha. 6.

TO the eie so disposed & perfectly mē∣bred, the spirit of sight is brought in this manner. From the formost part of ye braine come out two hollowe sinewes, which be called Optici, which fixe them∣selues in ye substance of the humor Chri∣stalline. These two hollow sinewes bée pight in ye eien, & come either ouerthwart either crosse wise, & be ioined in a point: & that maketh kind wisely, yt if that one eie be closed or let, the spirit of sight may come to that other, & do ther perfectly his Page  49 déede, and so the blacke of the eye in the art of seeing is comforted by the ioyning of the vertue of sight, as it fareth in shoo∣ters, that close that one eie for to shoote the more euen. Also the spirits Vitalis be therefore ioyned together, that by su∣steining of each other, they may bée the more strong. And therefore also they come and méete together in the bounde of touch, that one thing séeme not twaine, the which should fall, if eyther eye a sunder sawe his owne Image.

Therefore it néedeth, that the vertue of sight be conteined in one limme, in the which is one well of vertue, that sprin∣geth into ye black of the eie, as saith the Authour of Perspectiue, as it fareth in them that set theyr fingers vnder the eyen, in which the blacke of one eye is borne downewarde, and the blacke of the other eie vpwarde. And so the spi∣rite of sight is departed and dealed, and one thing séemeth twaine. And the cause is, for the light commeth from the one eie vpward, and from that other down∣warde. And so the beame of light yt com∣meth from either eie, touching the vtter∣most part of the thing that is séene, set∣teth not the space, for the aire is be∣twéene, and so he séeth as it were two bodies, and yet there is but one. Neuer∣thelesse euery squint looker séeth not so, though his eies be vneuen. For stéepely the beame passeth by a right line to the vttermost partes of the thing that is séene, as it is said afore in ye third booke, in the Chapter of the sight. A well dispo∣sed eye is considered touching the per∣perfect composition of his parts, as it is said afore. Also touching the scituati∣on: for it challengeth the highest place, for the dignitie of his subtiltie, & name∣ly for the néerenes it hath with the soule, as sayth Isidore and Aristotle also. And touching due proportion of quantitie. For the eie ought not be strained too far out, neither lifted vp too high. For that betokneth disturbāce of discretiō: neither to déep in. For ȳe betokeneth default of matters & of vertue. Then ȳe mene is wor∣thy to be praised: but li. 19 Aristotle saith that a déep sight séeth a far. For it is mo∣ued & lightned ere it come out of ȳe lim, and the light is not departed neither de∣led: but the beame of ye sight passeth forth right to the things that are séene, as it is shewed before of the sight. Also it is con∣sidered by diuers mouings: for it ought to moue meanly: For if ye eie be to much mouing, it betokeneth excesse of heate, & betokeneth also vnstedfastnes of thought and mutablenesse of affection. If it moue too slowly, it betokeneth the contrary dis∣position, that is excesse of colde and obsti∣natnesse of thought and of will. Then meane mouing is to be praised: for it sig∣nifieth easie perceiuing of the minde, and in things perceiued, due fastning. Ther∣fore Aristotle saith, li. 12. that the clo∣sing of the eye must be meanely swifte, for if it be of great opening and of little closing, it betokeneth shamefastnesse and folly, as he saith li. 1. But if the opening be too slowly, it betokeneth default of vertue & compaction of matter in the si∣newes: For it is not obedient so ye wor∣king of the spirit,* as it fareth in them yt haue Lethargia, Forgetfulnesse, this im∣pediment cōmeth through colde rume, if not of some ouer moistered impati∣ence, & doth lie in the hinder part of the head or braine pan. Also the eies be considered properly touching the perfec∣tion of their working: For if the eie ap∣prehendeth well and lightly, without a∣gaine smiting, & déemeth of that he séeth, it betokeneth good disposition, as it fareth in the eien of Egles, that spéedely behold and sée the Sun in roundnes. The wor∣king of the eie is déemed & considered by sharp & dim. For he that hath a subtile sight, séeth well a far off & néere, because the sight is much, it séeth a farre: for it is subtill, it hath a full discerning of things that be séene. For an eie of litle sight, as Aristotle saith. li. 19. shall not sée well a farre, for the thicke spirit séeth much a farre, because of his bignesse: but not per∣fectly because it is thicke. A little spirit & subtil, séeth nigh & perfectly, & not a far, for the scarcitie of ye spirit of sight. For when he séeth perfectly, yt is by reason of the subtilty therof. Little sight & thicke seeth not a far, & that is for scarcitie ther∣of, nor seeth, not perfectly, for ye thicknes therof. For the thicker & the more trou∣bled Page  [unnumbered] spirit yt a man hath, the féebler and the vneasier of sight he is. Also the eye is déemed by chaunging of colour: for li. 19. Aristotle saith, the eien in the beginning of bréeding, be of gréene coulour: and then they chaunge into black, either into yeolow, either into anye meane coulour séemely thereto. For if ther be much hu∣mour & little spirit of sight, disturbed by any happe, the blacke coulour therein is strengthened. If there be little humour & féeble spirit of sight: the coulour shalbe yeolow. For as Aristotle saith, yeolow∣nes of eien is mouing of féeblenesse. And if the humour be meane, & the spirit tē∣porate of cause according to whitenesse & blacknes the coulour is diuerse. If ye eien be black, they be of sharpe sight by day, by reson of gathering togethers of light, & of humours in the same lim of ye sight: and by night they be dim of sight. For the light of the night is féeble, & the hu∣mour of the night is kindly of more hea∣uy mouing, as Aristotle saith. A yeolow eie contrariwise is feeble of sight by day & strong by night. For the matter of yeolownesse that is brighter of it selfe when it is ioyned to the daye light, is more darke, & therefore ye spirit of sight, the light remaining, is féebled in ye déede of fight. By night the spirit of sight in the eie is holpe by cléerenes, that is con∣teined within a little humour, & the day light passeth, and there abideth in the eie the vertue of séeing and of deeming some deale in darknesse, as it fareth in Cats, Also the eie is knowen by disposition of the parts that be about it. As of the eye lids and browes. For if the eye lids yt be the helers & couerers of the eyen, be full of flesh within, and of superfluitie of hu∣mours, they hinder sight. For such eye lids by cause of their little mouing, put not of thick aire. Liber primo Aristo∣tle sayth. If the place of teares that fol∣loweth to the corner of the eie, be much fleshie,* as it fareth in the eie of Kites: it signifieth wilynesse and euill fortune. Séeke for other properties of the eie be∣fore in the treatise of sight. And this that is sayd of the composition, ffectese, and dooings of the eyen, is sufficient at this time.

¶The blacke of the Eie. Chap. 7.

LIber. 12. chap. 2. Isidore sayth, that the blacke of the eye, wherein is the vertue of sight, and is called Pupil∣la in latine, for the final images that be séene therein. And small children bee called Pupilli. And the blacke of the eye, is so called, because it is cleane and pure as Puella, a little maid childe. Phi∣sitions say, that the Images that we sée in eyen, bée not séene in eyen of ye them, that shal die,* thrée dayes afore. And if the sayd Images bée not séene, it is a cer∣teine token of death. The blacke hath a∣bout it a circle yt is called Corona. By ye Corona the blacke of the eye is mar∣ked and bounded. And the white parts of the eye departed therefrom. This Co∣rona by the roundnesse thereof highteth the blacke of the eie all about. And in this Corona is yt most fayrenesse of the eye. Hetherto speaketh Isidore. Halye saith, that in the blacke of the eye as in glasse appeareth Images of their things, that be séene in the eye. And all that is in the eye, of reumes and humoures, eyther they helpe or serue the blacke of the eye: And therefore it sitteth in the middle, as a Quéene. The blacke of the eye is little in quantity & most in ver∣tue among all the members. And ther∣fore as it is least, it taketh and com∣prehendeth things that be most of spi∣rit, that commeth of the braine with∣in, and taketh lykenesse and recey∣ueth without by lyght. And so by light it taketh in it selfe the lykenesse of the thing that is séene, and sendeth it to the perseueraunce of the Soule. For from all partes of the thing that is seene, lines come togethers and make a Pi∣rami in a toppewise,* either in a shield wise, of the which steeple the sharpe ende is in the blacke of the eye, and the broade ende in the thing that is seene, as it is shewed afore of the sight, looke there: this blacke of the eye perceiueth & hath discouering of the coulours and shape of all thinges by the vtter parts. And hath lyking in the middle coulours Page  40 and figures of shapes, as by the lynes perspectiue are expressed, and is corrupt in the vttermost partes, eyther at least is heauie and faint by contrariousnesse, as saith the Philosopher. Also it séeth & déemeth al things, that is without it, & set afore it: but it neuer séeth it selfe by lynes, vpon the which the lykenesse of the thing that is séene commeth to the sight. But when it séeth it selfe, that hap∣neth by reflection and rebounding of beames, that is, when the likenesse of the thing that is séene, is first multiplyed, & reboundeth to the myrrour, and from the myrrour againe to the sight, as sayth the Authour of Perspectiue. And there∣fore peraduenture the spirite of sight, hath lyking in the sight of a myrrour.

For it is somwhat fortified and streng∣thened: as it were tourned agayne to it selfe, by reflection or rebounding of the beames.

Also the blacke of the eye comprehen∣deth all things by a corner: For whe∣ther the lymmes passe out of the blacke of the eye to things that be séene, eyther come to the blacke of the eye from the thing séene: alway they be ioyned in the middle or center of the black of ye eie, as it wer in a corner, corner wise, for yt cor∣ner is the touch, & méeting of two lines. And forsomuch as the lynes, by yt which the sight is shapen, are ioyned, and as it were cornered in the middle of ye blacke of the eye: Therefore the Philosopher saith well & properly, that the eye seeth all things by a corner. Also among all the parts of the bodye, the blacke of the eye most soonest feeleth: and for the no∣bilytie and preciousnesse of the complec∣tion thereof, it is most passible: And therefore it is soonest grieued and hurte, and worst and hardest and most daunge∣rous to be healed. And therefore kinde hath giuen thereto curtills or rimnes, and couerings of defence, that it may so the better put off win & without things that grieue. Of these properties and pas∣sions of the eyen, and of the blacke ther∣of, serch within, in a special treatise. li. 6.

¶Of the Eye lyddes. Cap. 8.

THe Eye lyddes be couerings of the eyen, and are called in Latine Cilia, and hath that name of Celare to couer; For they hele & couer the eyen in saue∣gard, as saith Isidore lib. 11. cap. 2. The eye lyddes be in substaunce nowie and thinne, for easie mouing. For by theyr continuall mouing they put awaye the aire: and so they kéepe and defende the eyen without from grieuing and hurting of the aire. These eye lyddes are called Cilia in Latine, and Palpebre also: for Palpitando, as it were ofte féelyng: they moue alway: for they close vnselye to∣gethers, to féede the busie mouing, as saith Constantine and Isidore also. The eye lyddes be warded and kepte with rowes of hayre, to put off if anye thing fail or chaunce to come neere the eyen, when the eyen be open: and to sléepe the more quietly and surelye, while the eyen be closed therein. Also that they meanly may, cutting the ayre, quicken, kéepe, and saue the sight cleere & bright. Hetherto speake Isidore. cap. sup. Con∣stantine saith that the eye lyddes haue haire, not all straight, but somewhat bent and crooked. And that kinde hath wisely ordayned, to make them more a∣ble & stronger to close themselues, and to put off more mightely griefe & hurt if a∣ny fall. Also in growing, these eye lyds haue of kinde a certaine quantitie: and thereof the haire of them spreadeth not, neither wareth not, as the heate of the head, but they haue a certaine poynted proportion. And therefore Constantine sayth, that the eye lyds be not soft, ney∣ther full of poores, but rather harde, that the hayre that groweth thereon: may be hard and somewhat crooked and bend. And that they shoulde not growe too soone in length, as an hearbe yt grow∣eth in harde lande, is lyttle and vp∣right, and not as that hearbe yt grow∣eth within softe lande. Kinde giueth these eye liddes the beautye of the bo∣dye, and to helpe the eyen. And there∣fore Libe. 12. Aristotle sayth. That eue∣rye beast that gendereth onelye, hath haire on the eye liddes, and euerye foure footed beast, closeth the eye with the ouer lidde.

Page  [unnumbered]A bird in stéede of an eye lydde, hath a heler to couer and kéepe the sight:* and closeth ye eye with a web, ordained ther∣fore in the vttermost parts of the eye: & for that the kinde of the eye is watrie & moyst, therefore it néedeth such a keep∣ing. Also euery bird closeth the eye with the nether lydde. Also euery foure footed beast that wanteth eye lyddes, is féeble of sight, as it fareth in Fish, Hares, and such other, as Aristotle saith li. 4. &c.

¶Of the browes. Chap. 9.

THe browes be called Supercilia, be∣cause they be set aboue the eye lids, and they be furnished with much haire to the intent to helpe the eyen, to put off the humour and sweate that com∣meth downe from the head. The middle space betwéene ye browes, bare without haire, is named Intercilium, as Isidore saith lib. 11. The browes helpe the eye lyds, as saith Constantine, to kéepe that no griefe nor hurt come to yt eyen from without. Also they adorne and make the person to seeme honest and faire. For no man is séemelye without browes. Browes haue a vertue hid, that sheweth outward the passions of the soule, as saith Aristotle. For when the browes be straight as lynes, they signifie wo∣manly softnesse, either lightnesse of head. Also hanging browes ouer measure, be∣tokeneth an enuious man. As Aristotle saith lib. pri. Also high browes & thicke of haire, signifie hardinesse. And euen-long browes with little haire, signifie towardnesse. Also if they be thick with long haire, somewhat shaddowing the sight, they betoken passing excesse of heat. Also if they be much fleshie, and lyttle haire, they signifie harde and blunt wit, for the colde that hath masterie in the principall members. Also, if they bée without haire they signifie corruption of yt bloud within: as it fareth in leprous men: either wasting of kindly humors, as in Ethykes and such other:* eyther stopping of the veynes of the humours, as it fareth in them that are gelded. And we see that they ware and grow against age, insomuch that they let the sight, ex∣cept they be cut or shorne, as saith Ari∣stotle. lib. 3. Also he saith there, that in them that vse much the seruice of Ve∣nus, hayre of theyr browes fayleth, or turneth white. That is for wasting of moysture, and for default of vertue, and for increasing of colde of the brayne: for too much drinesse bréedeth baldnese, and passing colde hoarenesse, as it is sayde afore.

Of the Forehead. Cap. 10.

THe Forhead is called Frons, & hath that name of the holes of the eyen, as Isidore saith. And the forhead shew∣eth outward the imagination and dispo∣sition of the thought by gladnesse or he∣uinesse. Constantine saith, that of verye truth and soothnesse, the forhead is aboue halfe rounde, and not full hard neither full softe. And that is néedefull that it be temperate yt it hurt not, neither griue the place that is nigh to the eyen. It is safely warded and couered with the skinne to defend it selfe, and to conti∣nue the other lymmes of féelyng, and to hight or adorne all the head. The ver∣tue and worthinesse of all the beast shi∣neth namely in the head.

The Philosopher saith, that the for∣head of a man and woman, is the seate of shame and of worship. And that is for the highnesse of the vertue imagina∣tiue. By the vertue imaginatiue, things that be sorrowfull either gladde, seemely either vnséemelye, are sodaynly brought to the perseueraunce of reason, and there they be déemed. Also the forehead is the tower of defence of all the sinnewes that come downe from the brayve, to make the féelyng somewhat perfect. Within the hollownesse of the Fore∣head commeth downe sinewes to all the lymmes and instruments of the ne∣ther powers. By the seruice of which sinewes in the house of reason, is iudge∣ment made of all things that is felt and knowen.

And therefore Gregory saith, That the forehead is the worthiest part of the vtter head, wherein is set the print Page  41 and token of the Crosse, that was som∣time token of payne and of torment, and now hath place in the forehead of Em∣perours. Then a forhead well disposed sheweth all things that be sayd afore: but and it be passing out of kinde & out of meane, it signifieth and figureth other things as the Philosopher saith. Aristo∣tle saith, liber. 1. If the forhead bée too much, it betokeneth slownesse, or selfe-will, that draweth to follye: and when it is meanely lyttle, it betokeneth good∣nesse of vertue. But when it is too high, and it were round without, it signie∣fieth excesse of cholar and of feruour, & sharpnesse: and ofte such be disposed to the passions of Cholera, as to frensie & madnesse. In comparison to other mem∣bers of the face, the forehead hath lyttle of flesh and of fatnesse. And Haly and Aristotle saith, that the cause thereof is: for that much flesh and superfluitie of fatnesse letteth wit and vnderstanding. And therefore too much flesh in the fore∣head with a manner shining and stret∣ching of the skinne, is a token of cor∣ruption, as it fareth in leprous men. Al∣so too much leannesse of the forehead, & riuelyng of the skinne, is a token of de∣fault of the braine within, and finall wa∣sting of the subtill humour, as it fareth in olde men, that be beyond helpe consu∣med, spent, or wasted by age, either sick∣nesse, and euill of long time.

¶Of the Temples. Cap. 11.

THe Temples are called the mem∣bers of the head, that lye in the left and in the right side of the head, & haue that name, because of continual mouing. For they be changed as it were sundry times, as Isidore saith lib. 11. cap. 2. And Constantine saith, that they be bones set on either side of the eyen, the which bée somewhat soft and sinewy, and that is néedfull to make perfect the mouing of the eyen. For the spirite of féelyng is brought to the lymmes of the senses, by the temples and by sinews. And also, as the science & crafte of Anathoma mea∣neth, the spirite Vitalis is sent from the heart to the brayne by the temples, and by some organes of veynes. And so for gendring of sinewes of féeling, and for the organe and veynes of pulse, in the place of the temples, the temples be pas∣sible, and easier to be hurt and grieued: and therfore a beast striken in the place of the temples, dyeth lyghtly forthwith. For as Aristotle saith lib. 19. the smi∣ling that falleth vpon the boanes of the temples is deadly. For if they be woū∣ded, the beast is in perill And that chan∣ceth by reason that the humour that is in the Temples passeth hastely out for thinnesse of the bones. And the temples ware gray soone, for scarcitie of humour, and for drinesse that hath masterie ther∣in, and because they be able to be tour∣ned to the kinde of olde. Also the tem∣ples haue dennes and holes within, ther∣fore they receiue the humour that com∣meth from ye braine, & bringeth the eyen a sléepe. And if the said dennes and holes be pressed and wrong, then by trapping of the humour that is contained within the Temples, the teares fall out of the eyen.

¶Of the Eares. Chap. 12.

THe Eare is the Instrument of hea∣ring, and hath this name Auris, of Haurio, to take and catch, and for because he taketh and catcheth ye voyce & sound, or because Greekes cal a voyce, Auden∣siden: and so the eares be called as it were Audes, hearers: for the voyce smi∣ting and comming to the windings of the eares, maketh sound and noyse: by which the eares take perfection of hea∣ring.

The ouer most part of the Eare, is called Pinnula in Latine: Did men call it Pinnum, sharpe. Haec Isidorus. The substaunce of the very eare is griftly for two causes that are néedfull to defende the same, that nothing hurtfull fall into the hearing, as the eye lyddes defende them: and also to helpe the hearing. For when the voyce of the ayer smi∣ting, commeth to the gristle bone, there it is greatly holpe and then it entreth into the holes that be the proper instru∣ments of hearing.

Page  [unnumbered]Those holes be set in a stonie bone, in yt which sinewes be fastened that come frō the braine, and bringeth to the eares fée∣lyng and mouing, and bringeth lykenes of the voyce that is receiued in the holes to the iudgement of the soule. And these holes be wreathed and wound as a spin∣dle of a presse or vice: and that is, that colde aire should not enter too swiftlye, to grieue the inward celles or ye sinews, and to kéep that nothing hurtful fall in, to let the instrument or lymine of hea∣ring, as it is sayd in Pantegni. lib. 4. ca. 16. The eare is grieued in many man∣ners. For sometime by a postume, that is therein,* and so commeth Quitter out of the eare. Also by wormes that créepe into the holes of the eares, & by w••ms bred therein of corrupt humours and rotted: the token whereof, is itching within the cares and tickelyng, and the mouing of such wormes is felte. Also, the eare is grieued by a Wormes, lyke Malshaue, and by superfluitie of flesh, when euill humours be gathered therin, Also it is grieued by euill disposition of the sinewe that commeth and entereth into the eares, as it fareth of sounding, ringing, and such things that fall and come of wind in the skins of the brain, and be closed in part of the sinew Auri∣cularis. Also it is grieued by thicke hu∣mours that moue therein, and then the head is grieued with sound and noyse in the eares. Also the hering faileth, for de∣falt of vertue of hering, or by riueling & shrinking of ye sinew of feelyng, as it fa∣reth in old men. Also somtime hapneth deafenesse, when the childe is bred in the mothers wombe, when kinde is want∣ing and not sufficient to pearce an hoale in the lymme of hearing: and that is for default of it selfe, or els for that the matter is not aunswerable to kinde. Al∣so it is grieued by sharpe sicknesse, when cholaricke humours going vp to the braine, letteth the hearing. It helpeth such, if Cholera be purged by digestion. Wherefore it is sayd in Aphorism. If Cholera be wasted in deafe men, deafe∣nesse is taken away. Huc vs{que} Constā∣tinus. Also lib. 11. Aristotle sayeth. The lymme of hearing is full of the kindly spirite. For lyke as the kindlye spirite maketh the mouing of the pulse in the veynes, so it maketh in the eare the ver∣tue of hearing. And for that all thinges bée learned by the power of hea∣ring. And it is sayd there, that the making of the eares is an open kno∣wen web and containeth things, and is slender, and that for the subtiltie of the selfe hearing. Also the hearing is feebled in time of moyst complection: & name∣ly in them, that ofte serue Venus. And that through the disturbaunce of the spi∣rites, yt maketh the hearing perfect. For as Aristotle sayth, too oft seruice of Ve∣nus grieueth the body and the hart: Ha∣ly saith the same. Aristotle saith lib. 12. in a man the eares be kindlye set in the middle of the round head: for the eare heareth not onely straight one wayes, but rather all about on euery side. In foure footed beasts that haue ye head han∣ging downward to the earth, and body not reared vpright: the eares be in the ouerpart of the head, as it fareth in Or∣en, Asses, and Horses: and the eares of such beasts moue greatly, & that for the high place. And for yt they moue much toward diuers places, they take sownd & noise by much reboūding. Also Ari. saith there, that no beast that layeth egs, hath cares growing vpright without: But yet such beasts haue some priuy wayes. And also birds & fowles, which fly, haue none eares outward: neuerthelesse they haue a meane hole, and an open way, by the which they heare perfectly. Also* a∣mong all these beastes a mans eares moue least, and also be shortest in dimen∣tion of seituation and place: but to heare they be most: able and liuely: as it is sayd lib. pri, and that is through good∣nesse of complection. Wherefore if there be great excesse in the greatnesse of the eares of a man, with other signes and tokens agreeing thereto: it is a token of dulnesse, and of slow wit and vnder∣standing, as Aristotle saith.

¶Of the Nose. cap. 13.

ISidore saith, that the Nose is the instrument of smellyng, & hath the Page  42 name of the nosethrills. And the nose∣thrills be so called, for that by them wee smell, sauouring and vitall things, and discerns betwéene swéets and stinking. And so because smellyng remaine to vs by them: they be called nosethrilles, as by the contrary, men blockish, carelesse, vnskilfull, and ignoraunt, be called, as it were without nosethrills. Constan∣tine saith, that the nose hath two holes, that is diuided a sunder by a manner gristle bone; and one of these two holes, commeth to the hollownesse of ye roofe of the mouth: and that other passeth to the skinnes of the brayne, to drawe the ayre to the brayne, and to bring the spi∣rite of féelyng to the nosethrils to make the sense of smellyng perfect. The first hole is néedfull to put off superfluities, that come from the brayne: & the other to draw spirite and breath, and to make perfect the smellyng. But properlye to speake, the instruments of smellyng, be two holow fleshy peeces, that hang from the nosethrills as it were scales that re∣ceiue first in themselues the aire that is drawen, and then sendeth it into the in∣ner part of the brayne. To these teates the vtter nosethrilles serue drawing in aire, and closing it within themselues, & making it subtil, that it be lightlyer and the more perfectlye changed and likened in the lymmes of smellyng. A sinewe commeth from the brayne, and entereth into the sayd teates of the nose, and gi∣ueth to them the spirite of féelyng, as saith Constantine. Then by meane of the ayre, the nose draweth in a fumositie that ioyneth it selfe to the spirite of fee∣lyng, the which spirite taketh lykenesse of that smoake, and presenteth it in the brayne to the gouernment of the soule. Therefore Constantine sayeth, that the nose is needfull to drawe in ayre tem∣perately, to cleanse and pourge ye braine by suiting places, and to temper ye kinde heate in the dennes and chambers of the braine: and also to giue perseueraunce to know smokes that be resolued & dis∣pearced from what substaunce it be, whe∣ther it smell swéetely or stinke seruent∣ly. And therefore lib. 12. Aristotle saith, the wit of smellyng is departed, as is the wit of hearing. And except it were so, it should not doe the acte and déede of smelling, and also the witte of smellyng should not be, but to draw in ayre in a beast yt hath a nose And this lim, yt nose, is in the midle of ye formost part of the head, and for that kinde setteth the nose in the middes of the three instruments of f••lyng, as it were the tongue in the ballaunce: for mouing of the breth that is needfull to the other wits. Then ga∣thers briefly by these-things aforesayd. yt the nose is a member of office, to knowe and drawe, and to put out ayre, to déeme smellyng, to clense and to purge ye brain of great superfluityes, to serue the spirit of feelyng, and by drawing of ayre to open and close the lungs. And therfore as Constantine saith, the nosethrills bée set not euen afore the lungs, but thwart ouer, that the colde aire that other whyle commeth to the lungs should not grieue them: and if dust or anye other thing entereth with the ayre, it should not an∣noye the lunges. And also as Gregorie super Cantica sayeth, The Nose be∣seemeth most the Face, insomuch, that if the nose lacketh, all the other parte of the face is more vngoodly and vnseeme∣ly. The disposition of the nose should be meane, so that it passe not due manner in length, breadth and highnesse. For if the nosthrills be too thin, either too wide: then by great drawing in of aire, they betoken fiercenesse of heart, and indig∣nation of thought. For by disposition of the members of the bodye, the affections and will of the soule are foreshewed & déemed, as it is sayd, Iu principio Phi∣losophiae: For the accidents of ye soule be often chaunged according to the acci∣dents of the body as white wine, taketh the lykenesse and coulour of a redde glasse, that it is poured in. And therefore meanes of disposition betokeneth means of goodnesse, as the Philosopher saith in libro suo In principio super Pronosti∣ca. Gaien saith that the nose is let of this dooing and working.

And there hée sayeth also, that a sharpe nose, and hollowe eyen, &c. through strength of heate that wasteth moysture.

Page  [unnumbered]*And therefore if the nosethrilles ware sharpe, and the eyen déepe, in sharpe fea∣uers, it is a token of death. And that falleth to the nosethrils, as Galen saith, when the kinde heate is so féeble, that it maye not stretch and spreade it selfe into the vtter partes. And therefore it followeth, that the spirite & bloud maye not come together to the vtter partes. And then through colde that slayeth, the lymmes shrinke togethers, and the heart is altered, and then commeth sharpnesse of the nosethrils, that is the worst signe and token, and the deadliest, of them that haue the ague. Also the nose is let other while, as Constantine saith lib. 9. cap. 15. by euill disposition of the brayne: Sometime by stopping of the sinewe of smelling, sometime by fulnesse and re∣plection of stinking and corrupt humors in the teates of the nosethrilles. And somtime by bréeding of superfluitie and corrupt flesh in the holes of the nose, as in sniuelards and leapers. And this grie∣ueth not onely the smellyng: but also it decayeth the voyce. And sometime it is grieued by superfluities of humors, that flitte into the dennes and chambers of the brayne: and chat commeth of disso∣lution and dealyng of heate, either of too great constrayning & closing that com∣meth of colde: as it fareth oft in a reuine that falleth to the breast. And sometime by repletion and sharpnes of the veynes. Neuerthelesse bléeding at the nose, is speciall cause of dissolution of the euill in many sicknesses, & certayne token of recouery and of health, as it fareth in sharpe Agues, that ende and passe away ofte by such bleeding. And in Aphoris. it is saide, it is good for a woman De∣ficientibus mentruis, to bléede at the nose.

¶Of the Cheekes. cap. 14.

*THe Chéekes be the neather partes of the eyen, wherof beginneth yt beard, as saith Isidore li. 11. cap. 2. For Genos in Gréeke, is Barba in Latine, in Eng∣lish a beard. The same parts are called Maxilla in Latine*, & haue that name of Malis, per diminutionem. Male be called high, and are partes set vnder the eyen, for defence of the eyen: and be cal∣led Male, either for that they wer round vpward to the eyen, which the Greekes call Mala, or els because they be aboue Maxillas, the chéekes: and so Maxilla is the Diminutiue of Male, as Praxil∣lus is the Diminutiue of Palo, as sayth Isidore. It requireth heedfulnesse,*to vnderstande of Malae, Malae is the leure or space of the face, which is close to both sides the nose, from the roofe of the mouth, vnto the eye browes. Constantine saith, that ye chéeks be made and compounde within, of si∣newes and of bones. And the bones ther∣of be ioyned to the braine pan, yt which be therfore compound and made of ma∣nye diuers péeces, least if one haue anye hurt, the other should be grieued. And outwardly they be hot and fleshie, to tē∣per and asswage the colde of the bones, and of the gristles of the eares and of the nosethrills: and also to serue and succour by their heate the limmes of fée∣lyng that be all about them. And ther∣fore the chéekes be set vnder the eyen, to defend and saue them. They be set in the middle of the senses, for seruice of foode. They be hot and fleshie, to slake the colde lymmes of féelyng. They bée white and red to hight the face, & make chéere. The most fairenesse in man is in the chéekes, as saith Constantine, & in the chéekes the complection of man is most knowen. For if they bée much reddie, & medled with temperate white∣nesse,* and not fat in substance, but mean∣lye fleshie, they betoken hotte and moyst complection, and temperatenesse thereof. But if they be of white colour, without meddelyng of rednesse,* and in substaunce fat, and softe, and quauing: they betoken excesse of superfluitie of colde and moysture. And if they bée browne in colour,* either citrine or peo∣low, and thinne and leane in substance, they betoken mastery of too gret drought and heate, as it fareth in cholaricke folkes. And if they be as it were wan and in colour blewish,* and of lyttle flesh in substaunce, they betoken excesse and superfluitie of colde and drinesse: as it Page  43 fareth in them that be melancholy. And the cheekes shewe not onely the diuersi∣tie of complection, but also the qualytie of affection and will of the heart. For after the affections of the heart, by so∣daine feare, either ioye, they were so∣daynly pale or red. This saith Constan∣tine.

¶Of the beard. Cap. 15.

COnstantine saith, that the beard is* the seemlines and ornament of mans face: and so appearing and couering the cheekes, in one part it beautifieth, and in another it helpeth: for by the hairinesse thereof, it defendeth the sinewes of the chéekes from colde aire. And therefore the beard is a needfull feature for the cheekes, and the beard is a token of ver∣tue and strength of kindly heate. And this is ye cause why a man hath a beard, and not a woman: for a man is kindly more hot then a woman. And therefore in a man the smoake, that is matter of haire, increaseth more than in a woman: and for that kinde sufficeth not to wast that smoke, it putteth and driueth it out by two places, in the head and in the beard. And therefore sometime women hot & moyst of complection haue heards, and in the wise men of colde and drye complection, haue lyttle beards, and ther∣fore on men that be gelded, growe no beards: for they haue lost the hot mem∣bers that should bréed the hot humour & smoake, the matter of hayre. And so it followeth, that thicknesse of the beard is signe and token of heate and of substan∣tiall humour, and of strength, and a cer∣taine assay to know difference betwéene men and women. In children grow no beards, though they be hot and moyst: for the superfluitie of the sumositie, that is, the matter of hayre, pas∣seth and turneth into the waxing and fée∣ding of children. Huc vsque Constant. And Aristotle sayth li. 19. that ye haires of the bearde, lyke as the haires of the head, in the disposition thereof, presenteth and sheweth the qualytie of the vapour or fat humour, of the which they be gen∣dred: for if the humour be smokie, hot, and drye, the haire as well of the beard as of the head, shall be crispe and curled. And that falleth, because they passe by two contrarye wayes: For the earthie parts moue toward the neather partes, and the heate moueth toward the neather parts: and so the haire is curled and crispie for feeblenesse thereof. And that happeneth through scarcitie of moysture, and multitude and plentie of the earthy part, and so by great heate they be cris∣pie and curled. But if the vapour be ful moyst, the hayre shall be softe and long: for the humour runneth making slippe∣rie till it come to the haire. And there∣fore the haire of the head & of the beard of them that dwell in Thracia,* be softe and smoothe: For their complection is moyst, and the arye that they dwell in is moyst. And contrariwise it hapneth in men that haue drye brayne, and dwel in hot regions and countreyes, for the dry∣nesse of the ayre that they dwell in. And he saith, That the coulour of the hayre of the bearde, chaungeth by chaun∣ging of age: and therefore in age the beard wereth hore, for féeblenesse of heat and plentie of colde. And sometime the hayre of the beard falleth away, through withdrawing of heate and of moysture, as it f••eth in men that be gelded, and sometime through corrupt humours, as it fareth in lepers. For as Aristotle sayth, The fallyng of haire,* is lyke to the fallyng of leaues of trees, and the cause heereof is, withdrawing of hot hu∣mours and fat: and therefore the leaues of trées in which is fat humour fall not. Huc vsque Arist. lib. 19.

¶Of the Iawes. Cap. 26.

ISidore sayth Libro. 11. That Man∣dibulae the Iawes,* haue that name Mandibulae of Manducare to cate. Of the iawes, one is the ouer iawe, in which the ouer teeth be fixed: another is the neather iawe, in which the neather teeth be rooted. And the ouer iawe hath this propertie, that in euery beast it is stedfast and moueth not, except the Cro∣codile,* that moueth the ouer iaw against kinde of all other beasts, and holdeth the neather iawe still, and moueth it not, as saith Aristotle lib. 3.

Page  [unnumbered]The Iawes be made and composed of diuers hard bones, bound and knitte togethers with diuers sinews & strings. And that is needefull for the centinuall mouing, and for neede to open and close, as sayth Const. And they be as it were two milstones, that continually to bruse and grinde the meate, moue themselues thereto: and so they serue all the body of meate. The iawes be dypped about and heled with fleshly perceils and sin∣newie: which are called Gingiue, and that is the more to strength the putting and setting of the téeth in the depth of the iawes, and for to serue the sinewes of the teeth of foode, and to slake ye cold∣nesse of the teeth. And Isidore saith, they haue that name Gingiue, a gignendis dentibus, of gendring of teeth. For the teeth be bred and nourished in them, and yet they be made to fasten the téeth, and are also needfull to heale the teeth, for if ye téeth wer bare they should be lothsome and not faire. Also they be beclypped a¦bout with ye skins of the lips, & that doth kind, for they shuld not only help ye teeth and the chéeks within, but also to defend them from outward griefes: and so it hapneth that the gummes be corrupt* in beasts, sometime by retchlesnesse, & some time they be infect and corrupt by rooted humours, and then they bréede diuers griefes and diseases, as strench, falling out or wagging of the teeth.

¶Of the Lips. Cap. 17.

ISidore saith, that Labia the Lyps,* haue that name of Lambendo, to lyeke. The ouer lyp is called Labium in Latine, and the neather is named La∣brum. Constantine sayth, that the lyps be néedefull, for they defende to hele and couer the téeth. And they be also sinewy, and be mate of diuers strings, that so they maye be more able to seele and to moue. For to the forming of the voyce they open and close themselues: For if they be cut off, eyther let by stopping, by shrinking, or else by riuelyng, wordes maye not bee perfectlye pro∣nounced.

Also the lyppes are softe and fleshie: and that is néedfull to temper the hard∣nesse of the téeth. For the teeth and the sinewes of them which be cold of kinde, should bée too much grieued with ayre that is colde, if they were not defended by the couering of the lyppes. Also the vtter parts of the lippes be ruddye, and that happeneth, as Constantine sayeth, through subtiltie of the skinne of the lyppes, which casilye receiue some deale a ruddye qualytie of a sanguine beate, and therefore the ruddinesse of the lyps, is a token of cleane & pure complection, without medling of troubled bloud, and of the inner vertue: as contrary wise, wannesse of lyppes is token of defaulte of vertue and kindly heate. Also the lyppes be thinne in substaunce, to be the more plyaunt to mouing, and the more able to put in, and for to cut the ayre, that when it is drawen so darnly, it griue not with chilnesse, the inner parts. And therefore the lippes put themselues agaynst the colde ayre, and pureth and cleanseth it, that it maye the more sweéetelye and profitablye bée drawen inwarde. All this sayeth Constan∣tine.

Aristotle liber 12. about the ende, sheweth lyke properties, where he saith, That mans lyppes be softe and fleshie, and may be seuered and departed for pre∣seruation & keping of the téeth, & for to be equall to pronounce a word. And there∣fore the lyppes haue trouble vse & ser∣uice, as the tongue, that is made to taast moysture and to speake, as Aristo∣tle expressely sayth, and therefore it née∣deth that the lyppes be moyst. For if the creation of the lyppes were not of such disposition, the tongue might not reach to the lippes to speake, and to pro∣nounce many manner of letters. For some letters be pronounced by smiting of the tongue, and some by closing of the lips. And therfore making of the lyps is needefull, that the working of kinde should be best. And therefore mans rsh is verye softe, for man is of good fée∣lyng and taaste, more than other beastes. All this telleth Aristotle Li∣bro. 12.

Then consider thou, that the lyps be Page  44 comely lyniments and couerings of the téeth, to kéepe and saue, and temper the hardnesse of the téeth, by their softness, & to shape the voyce or speach of al lettrs; to put off colde and hot aire, and to ma∣nifest the default and strength of vertue; by rednesse and palenesse of them, and be the proper limmes of vertue interpre∣tiue, to expresse the passions of the soule, that is to wit, hatred and friendship, so∣row and woc. And therefore it is sayd, that quaking of lyps in frensie and other sharpe sicknesses-betokeneth death, as it is said in Pronosticis and this sufficeth at this time touching the lyppes.

¶Of the Chin. Cap. 18.

*THE Chinne is called as if were the foundation of the iawes, for that they spring and grow of the chin, as Isidore saith. The shinne hath two boanes, as Const. saith, and these said bones be ioy∣ned togethers in the middle, where the small téeth are pight, that be Quadrupli and Pares, and the endes of these bories be departed, and haue two forkes or twists: that one is sharp, and the sharp∣nesse thereof is pight therein as a man∣ner bonde, which bonde stretcheth from the side of the temples: and therby ope∣neth and closeth the other forke is great and rounde, by the roundnesse whereof the chin is soft as saith Const. For this member is néedfull for the spring of the iawes, and for the fastening of the nea∣ther téeth, & for kindly or spéedie closing and opening of aire: and is also coue∣nable for the complection of the face, and for the perfect finishing of the face. And if the chinne be proportionate to the forhead, it maketh faire and séemely all the face. All this saith Const. In the chin of a beast is the most strength for the hardnesse of the bone, and for ye hard compaction of the sinewes, and for strong rooting of the téeth. And therefore beasts suffer not lightly to be handeled by the chinne: For if their chinne be broke, all theyr cruelnesse and fircenesse faileth, as their weapon were lost. As it is written 1. Regum. cha. 17.*Dauid brake ye beares chin, and deliuered the shéepe out of his mouth &c. By touching the chin of a man is token of loue and of trust. 2. Reg. 16. Ioab held the thin of Amasa, as though he would kisse him, &c.

Of the mouth. chap. 19.

THE mouth is called Os in Latine, for that thereby we put in meate, as it were by a doors, and put out spittle and breath: either for that out of the mouth words come, as it were but at a doore, as sayth Isidore. And also Isidore sayth, That the mouth is the messenger of the soule.* For we tell out by the mouth, what we conceiue beforeth soule and in thought. Gregorie sayth, That the mouth is closed & compact with ma∣ny kéepings and wardes, as with téeth, and lippes, that by so many meanes the witte and the soule may determine and abuise first what to speake, ere that anye word be spoken, that the word may ra∣ther passe by the lim then by the tongue. Constantine saith, That the instru∣ment of the mouth is néedfull to receiue feeding and nourishing. For no member in a beast is nourished, but it receiue first nourishing at the mouth. For the mouth first receiueth meate, and chew∣eth and seasoneth it, and maketh it able to digestion, and sendeth it to the sto∣macke, and therefore kinde maketh the mouth moyst within, to temper and chaunge the easilyer the drynesse of the meate by moysture of the mouth. Also kinde maketh the mouth sinewie and meanelye harde and hollowe. Sinewie to féele the easilyer the sauour of the meate: Hard, that it be not grieued and hurt with roughnesse of the meate: And neuerthelesse it is not made too hard, but meanelye harde: least the sense of taast shoulde be lost by too greate hardnesse. The mouth is hollowe and round with∣in, that the meate taken may moue the easilyer hether and thether, and that breath may passe by the téeth without let. Also the mouth is néedfull to drawe the aire and breath. For the aire and breath drawen in by the mouth is chan∣ged, purified, and made subtile in the hollownesse thereof.

Page  [unnumbered]And is so sent by the organe of ye lungs, to coole the heart: without coolyng wher∣of, the heart shuld be burnt and destroy∣ed by too great heate. Also the mouth is néedfull to shape the voyce, and for that intent the roofe of the mouth is hollow, that the doubling of the tongue, maye moue the easelyer to shape the voyce, & moue vp and downe. Also it is profitable to put out and east off the great super∣fluities, that come of the braine to the lunges: the which superfluities, when they be cast out by the dore of ye mouth, in the heart and the braine of the beast, the spirite vitall, doth his office more spéedelye. Also it is profitable to dis∣charge the féeding members of superflu∣itie: for when the stomacke is charged with rawe humours, kinde working by the vertue of out putting, cleanseth the stomacke by the office of the mouth, as saith Constantine and Galen super il∣lud Aphoris, saith: In spewings & pur∣gations that be hastely made, if they be made as they should, they profit & helpe: and the contrary falleth, if they are not made as they shoulde. Constantine in viatico saith, that the mouth is grieued sometime by forenesse and sicknesse of the lymmes that be nigh thereto, and is grieued with pimples & blaynes, and with whelkes and botches, and with such other, and with corrupt humours that fall to the mouth from other places. And if the mouth be red and some deale browne, and hot, and aking, and burn∣ing: the matter is of bloud and Chole∣ra. And if it be much blacke, it is the worse and the more grieueus, and the more to dread least it bréede a canker. It happeneth that totches bréede in the mouths of sucking children: the which totches come of sharpnesse of milke and of corruption thereof. Hetherto speaketh Constantinus in viatico, &c.

¶Of the Teeth. cap. 20.

*DEntes in Gréeke be called Edentes, as it were cleauing & diuiding all that commeth betwéene them, as sayth Isid. And Const. saith, that the téeth be a cer∣taine manner of plants sticked and pight by rootes and mores in the bones of the chéekes & of the chin. And Con. saith that a man hath .xxxii. téeth: sixtéene be set in the chéeke bones, foure of them be set in the formost part, and be called Pares;* and Quadrupli also. And these téeth bée broad and sharpe, & Phisitions call them forcutters; for they be able to carue all thing, and all thing that they reteyne, they brus and bite asunder. And there be other two that are called Camni. & they be set beside the téeth that are na∣med Quadrupli,* and they be sharp in the endes, and be able is bruse and grynde harde incates. And Isidore saith, That they are called Canini, Boundish, to the lykenesse of houndes téeth. And houndes with the sayd téeth gnaw bones and be stronger and sharper, longer and roun∣der, than the téeth that be called keruers: and therefore some men call them the necke of a maide, and what the first téeth may not kerue and breake with biting, they betake it to these téeth, as to ye strō∣ger to bruse & to bite. And there be other x. in either part of the ouer iawe, that he set beside the keruers: and these be broad and great, and they be Molares, grinders, and they be apt to grind meat, for the thing that is bitten and broke by the foretéeth in the mouth, commeth be∣twéene the grinders, as saith Isid. Then in the ouer iawe are xvi. téeth: foure of which are called Quadrupli and Pares, keruers, and two; which be called Cani∣ni,* houndish, and x. which be called, Mo∣lares,* grinders: and so many be set in the nether iawe, or in the chin. Then touch∣ing their number and office, the téeth bée parted and diuided in foure manners, for some be keruers, which be foure, two a∣boue, & two beneth: & these be first séene. And some are Pares, & they be foure, two aboue & two beneath, & be set in eyther side beside ye kerners, & touch each other. And some be called houndish, which are foure: two aboue & two beneath, striking each other. Some are called grinders, which be xx. ten aboue and as many be∣neth, & they touch each other, & grinde al∣way as milstones, ye meate yt the other téeth began to kerue. And all these bée pight and rooted in the iawes, & be some∣what forked and twisted, but diuer slye. Page  45 For the formost which are called Qua∣drupli and Pares the foretéeth, haue but one little forke or twist, or one roote, Ca∣nini the grinders haue thrée forkes or foure, as sayth Constantine. The qua∣lytie of a man and of a woman, by com∣mon skil, sheweth ye number of téeth: for a man hath mo téeth then a woman, as sayeth Constantine and Isidore. Also the téeth be diuided and knowen by age: for Aristotle lib. 2. saith. That téeth in olde men and beasts be generally black and not sharpe: as it fareth in hounds, whose age is knowen by the téeth. For young hounds haue white téeth and sharpe, and olde the contrarye. Out of this generalitie Aristotle exceptoth the téeth of horses, that ware white by age. Also there it is sayd, it néedeth to know, that beasts with many téeth ioyned to∣gethers, be of long life: and beasts with few téeth set thin and a sunder, be of short life. Also there it is said, that eue∣ry foure footed beast, that getteth & gen∣dereth a beast lyk to it selfe, hath téeth. Also mans foreteeth falleth in youth, and not the chéeke téeth, and that happeneth perchaunce for this cause, for féeblenesse of the forkes and twists, and of ye rootes: and for the contrary cause, the chéeke téeth fall not so soone. And it is generall in other beasts, that there fall not anye tooth, before such other spring and grow in their stéede. Also Aristotle li. 12. saith, that euery beast that lacketh téeth in the ouer iawe, is drye and of earthie kinde: and euery beast that hath téeth in ye ouer saw, is lyke to fatnes. Also li. 13. he saith, kind doth not make any thing, but that that is best & most perfect. And therefore it néedeth that yt matter of carthie part draw in some beasts toward ye ouer part and turne into téeth, mans haire, and feathers, and in some beasts into bornes, and therefore a beast with hornes, maye not haue téeth in either iawe. Also li. 16. he saith, Onely téeth among other bones grow while the beast dureth: and that is knowen in téeth that ouergrowe, and by leaning and bowing & side, touche each other: and the cause of the growing of them is for the working of them. For if they should not grow, they should bée soone wasted. And therefore the téeth of beasts that eate much, and haue no great téeth, be soone brused and wasted: and therefore kinde wisely gathereth ye téeth togethers for age and ende, els if lyfe dured a thousand yeare, alwaye shoulde grow téeth more and more. And so li. 2. he saieth, Téeth that growe within the gums, growe not in men and women, but after twentie yere, and in some wise they grow in women after fortie yeares with full fore ach. Also li. 19. he sayeth, sharpe téeth be néedefull to bite first the meate, for it néedeth to bite rather then to grinde: and therefore they growe the sooner, for that they be lesse: for the lesse thing groweth by heate sooner than the more thing. Also the heate of milke ma∣keth téeth grow soone: and therfore chil∣dren that sucke better milke haue teeth sooner. Also he sayth there, that the fore∣téeth grow in a thin bone and a féeble, & therefore they sayle soone. Hetherto spe∣keth Aristotle. And Constantine there to saith in viatico particula. 2. The help of the téeth is great, and with helpe, a great hightinesse of the body, that is to vnderstand, if the téeth be not fore: for in sore téeth the working is corrupt. And the passions of the téeth be diuers, which part of diuersitie is openlye knowen to the sight, as chill, rottennesse, stinking, breaking and brusing, holes mouldring or fallyng, watring, and such other. The part not apparing, is hidde, as when the téeth ake sore, and yet they séeme to be in good case without.

The cause of such aking is humors that come downe from the head, eyther vp from the stomacke, by meane of fu∣mositie, either els by sharp humours and beating in the gums: and then is sore ach felte with leaping and pricking, through the mallyre and sharpnesse of the humours. And if the ach come of the head, the head is heauie, and aketh in the face, that commeth of red bloud, or of Cholera, that commeth downe to the rootes of the téeth. And if the ach come of the stomacke, the aking and paine is felt in the stomacke, and ther goeth & burst∣eth out continuall belching. Also some∣time téeth be pearced with holes & some∣time Page  [unnumbered] by worms they be changed into ye∣low colour, greene, or black∣al this com∣meth of corrupt and euill humours, that come downe of euill meates by the sin∣newes to the strings of the téeth. Also sometime the téeth shake and wag, and that is for humours that be in ye rootes of the téeth. For if the humdre be sharp, néedes the teeth shall haue hoales, and stinch and matter shall bréede iu them. And if Wormes be the cause, full sore ache is bred: for they eating, pearce in∣to the subtill sinew, and make the téeth to ake, and grieue them very sore, by fore humors within either without, that infecteth the sinewes of feelyng, and sée∣meth sometime to sléepe, because of great colde, as by snow or yce, that conseray∣neth the sinewes of the téeth. Also some∣time, the téeth fall-out, because of great moysture that looseth the striuges of the téeth. And sometime by great drynesse, as it tareth in olde men, whose téeth fall out through withdrawing of moysture of feeding. Constantine rehearseth these and many other passions of the téeth, but these shall suffice. Then vnderstande, that the téeth be rooted and sticked in the iawes, as in their preper ground & soun∣dation, and by reson of colde hauing ma∣sterie in them, they be whiter than other bones, and for that they be hard, they be not easely hurte. The substaunce of the téeth eeleth not, for they haue not powce of féelyng, as sayth Constantine. And therefore a broken tooth aketh not: yet it is sayd, that a tooth is grieued and aketh, through the sinew of feelyng, that in the roote thereof, is often hurt and grieued. Teeth be bound within with si∣newes; and téeth passe the bounds of the flesh; and they feele, no sorenesse within themselues; and be closed with lrye, that they be not scene: it is vncomely when they be seene, except it be in laughing: And the ouer and the neather come ofte togethers, and touche each other: and though the neather moue sometime, the ouer be stedfast and moue not, and be ordinatelye ordeinos, speciallye to shape the voyce of word and of speaking, and they serue all the body.

Of the tongue. Cap. 21.

THe tongue is called Lingua in latin,* and hath that name of Lingere, to lyeke: for it liketh meate. Or by the tongue, the sounde of speaking bindeth words: for as a weast tepreth strings, so the tongue smiteth the euery, as saith Isidore. The tongue is the instrument of taast and of speaking, as saith const. and is made and composed of soft flesh, full of hoales lyke a spounge. It is sin∣newie, for feelyng and moouing: it is ful of holes, that the sauyour: may pearce and come the rasilyer to the sinnewes, that make the taast, to the which ome ma∣ny veynce full of bloud, therefore it is red in colour. All this worketh it by the same skinnes that close the space of the mouth and oofe acue: and on the ouer side the tongue is all seene, on the nether side it is seene to the strings, by ye which it is fastened to the chinne, and so the rootes and mores of the tongue, and the subtill sinewes by the which it laketh feelyng and mouing of the spirites, be hid and vnseene. As Const. saith, in some the tongue is constrayned more than it needeth; insomuch that it maye not moue into diuers parts, therefore it nee∣deth to at the strings to haue the larg∣er mouing be all the space within the mouth. The tongue is subiect to haue many passiers and grieses, as in the sub∣stance therof, & in the sinewes, that cme, theet & therefore in Viatico Cons.saith, The tongue of a beast is seth quiet mo∣uing, & the vse of speking, the cause ther∣of commeth of defalt of 〈…〉 of ma∣ni•• ye braine by stap∣ping of ye••wires, by ye which, ye vertue of feeling passeth: somtime of a postume, either of vlains ye rise on ye tongue: som∣time by yeper defaults in ye substance of ye tongue, as euill cōplection; by ye which ye feeling 〈…〉 stpered by too gret heat or colde, or monsture, or drinesse, or a po∣stume, or wolting, and such other. And if the tongue be grieuouslye swollon, it betokeneth encosse of heate: and if it be white, it betokecneth coldness; & if it be soft, it betokeneth moysture: and if it be drie & rough, it betokeneth drinesse. And all such things, let the vse of the tongue, Page  46 or take away all the vse or part therof. If the tongue seemeth whole and with∣out wemme, and the speach fayleth: the default commeth of the braine, or of the sinewes of feeling stopped. Some∣time loosing of speach commeth by loosing of wit, as in phrensie and Litargi.* Hi∣therto speaketh Constantine in viatico. In Pantegni, Constantine assigneth other defaults of the tongue, where hée sayth, That there ryse broad blaines spread into the vtter skinne of the tongue, as it faceth in children that suck euill milke: And these blaines be some∣time white, and sometime blacke. And sometime happeneth a Postume in the tongue, that maketh it greatly swollen, and passeth out of the mouth: and that Postume is called, outlawing of the tongue is called. And another Postume of the tongue Rana, a Frogge. For be∣cause it is bread as a Frogge vnder the tongue, and taketh awaye and benim∣meth the vsage of the tongue. And so it is called a dumbe Frogge, for the effects and déed Also there is an other postume of the tongue, full of bloud, whereby all the tongue is gréeued, and the speath and tast is le. By gleamie humours, that haue maistery in ye tongue, ye sence of tast is corrupted and chaunged so that sweet things séeme bitter and wearise: and contrariwise as sayth Galen. Also Ga∣len sayth, that sometime it happeneth, that the tongue stuffeth and flamereth by too much moisture when the stringes of the tongue may not stretch and spread into the utter parts thereof for too much moysture, as it fareth in dronken men, that stamer when they bée soe much in moisture in the braine. Therefore Ga∣len sayth, that kindlye stamering men, ••• through too much moisture of the braine, or else through too much moi∣sting of the tongue, or for both. Also that superfluitie of moysture is the cause why that some men maye not readilye pronounce all letters: but sometime sowne it for I, other C, for L, as it fa∣reth in children that spel and corrupt ma∣ny letters, and cannot pronounce them, All this sayth (Galen•••er Aphoris. lpod.〈…〉. Ratteling men moyste: for too much moysture of such men, which is cause of ratteling, commeth to the stomacke, and maketh oft the bow∣ells slipper, and bréedeth Diarrian,* that is the flire of the wombe, as sayth Ga∣len. Also in Paotegi, Constantine saith, that in the sides of the stringes of the tongue be some veines that serue the tongue of spittle, and these veines spring out of the beginning of the tongue. And of these veines come a flumatike moy∣sture, that is called spittle, and so Phisi∣tions call them the veines of spittle, and the hours of spittle. The beginning of the tongue, wherof the veines come and spring, is white kirnell flesh, and brée∣deth spittle, that moysteth the tongue, and tempereth drinesse of mea•••d in∣treaseth the iuyce thereof, as it shall bée sayd after. Aristotle. b. 6. saith, that some sheep haue white vaines vnder: ye tongue, and they haue white lambes: and some haue blacke vaines, and they haue black lambes. Then galyer briefly of that is said, that the tongue is a substance ••• bloudie, and holow, and receiueth the in∣fluence of spirit, and is hot and moist in complection, and slender and euerlong, in disposition shapen as a swoorde in the formost part, redde in coulour, set in a holow & moist place, to moue easily, to fore the speach And voice, to know sa∣uiours, to moist the month by emission of spittle, & to tell the mouing of thoughtes of the soule. And it is closed with ye téeth and lips, as with double wal, and in ma∣ny beasts concerning the forme, it hath a diuers shape. For in some beasts it is short & great, & in some contrary wise. They that haue great tongues heuie ho∣low or sad voice, and contrariwise: and some beasts haue tongues meltineable & healthful, which commeth either of the goodilesse of kinde & of some other hidden prope•••, as the tongue of a hounde, as sayth Cassioderus: and some Hane slai∣eng tongues & venemons, threnath mal∣lise & woodnesse of the humour hath mastery therin, as ye tongues of serpents, adders, dragōs, & of a wood hound, whose biting is most venemous, his tongue hāeth alway without ye mouth, & droppeth veill, corrupteth & inketeth ye water, in Page  [unnumbered] which it falleth in, and who that drink∣eth of that water shall become mad, as sayth Auicen and Constantine in trac∣tu de venenesis animalibus & venenis. And Aristotle sayth, that the tongues of Adders be blacke, wan, or reddish, speck∣led, sharpe, and in moouing most swifte. And that happeneth through the mad & venemous humour, the which so swiftly moueth the tongue, that one tongue sée∣meth forked and twisted. And though the tongue of an Adder, that is called Aspis in Latine, is full of deadly venim while it liueth in the bodie of the Adder:* yet when it is taken from the bodie of the Adder and dried, it looseth the venim: and by it is knowne when venim is present. Therefore in the presence of ve∣nim such a tongue vseth to sweat. Ther∣fore such a tongue is néedfull and profi∣table, and is accounted precious among treasures of kings, though it were vene∣mous, &c.

¶The properties of Spittle. Chap. 12.

THe spittle is a flumatike humour, bread in the kindly vaines of the tongue, as sayth Constantine. Spittle is kindly moist and white in coulour, and by continuall mouing of the tongue, and the spirituall instruments it is fomie, wearish, and sauourlesse. For it is able to take all manner fauour. For if it had a certeine sauour of his owne, it shoulde not receiue other sauour. Also Constan∣tine saith, that the spittle is meane be∣twéene the skill of tast, & the thing that is tasted. For nothing is tasted by the wit of tast, but if the sauour thereof bée presented by the spittle in the limme of tast. Therefore the Spittle is chaunged and lykened by the sauour of the thing that is taasted. Constantine sayth, that Spittle is néedfull to moyst the mouth, that the mouth be moysted by the bene∣fit of the spittle: and also to prepare the first digestion. For drie meate taken in the mouth, may not be sent profitablye in the stomack, except it be wet first, and moysted by the spittle. For without help of spittle, a drie thing may not be easily swallowed. Also the Spittle is profita∣ble to either verding of superflutie of ye braine, and of the lungs. For such sni∣tings made hard or clawmie with heate or with colde: cannot so castlye be spit∣ted and pot out by the doore of ye mouth, but if they be first made able and supper to passe out by helpe of the humour of spittle.* Also the spittle of a man fasting: hath a manner strength of priuie infec∣tion. For it gréeueth and hurteth the bloud of a beast, if it come into a blee∣ding wound, & is medled with ye bloud, as in Tractatu de venenis the foresayd Authours tell. And that peraduenture is, as saith Auicen by the reason of rawnes. For rawe humour medled with bloud, that hath perfect digestion, is contrarye thereto in his qualitie, and disturbeth the temperance therof, as Authours say. And therefore it is that holy men tell. & Pli∣mus sayth. That the spittle of a fasting man slayeth Serpents and Adders, and is venim to venemous beasts, as sayth Basilius super illud verbum in exemo∣ron:* He shall bruse thine head, and thou shalt lie in a waite vpon his héeles and steppes Gen. 3. Also as Galenus super Aphotis. sayth, In the spitting of rawe humour & filth, is isik and fluxe bread: And where the spittle is held and with∣drawen, men die, &c.

Tisike men alway cough because of the Botch, of the lungs. And by spitting they discharge themselues of the matter, of the botch of the lungs, as well as they may. But yet death followeth, when they may not spit. For spittle helde and kept in with matter, stoppeth the vaines of the holes within: and so men yt haue the Tisicke be stifled and die. Also as Galen sayth in li. Gil. betwéene. Sputum and Saliuam, there is difference. For spittle that is called Saliua in Latine, is the super fluitis of kindly féeding of the breast, and gendereth in good digestion. And the spittle that is called Sputum, commeth to the breast by diuerse kindly courses, and by courses that be not kind∣ly, and is not alwaie digested and defi∣ed. And therefore Sputum, that Spittle in sharpe Agues, and Postumes, if it passe easilye with tokens of digestion, Page  47 and without trauailous cough, it betoke∣neth strength of vertue, and failing of the euill: and it is sayde in Pronostre. and againe ward. Therefore Golen and other Commentours there tell, that in eyther spitting wée shall take héede generallye of thrée things: of Coulour, small, and Sauour: For if the spittle be blo in co∣lour,* it betokeneth hurting and grieuing of the heart, and of the spirituall mem∣bers. And if it be redde, meddeled with rotten bloud, it betokeneth Botches of ye lungs. And if it be stinking in sauour it betokeneth corruption within. Also if it bée bitter either sowre in sauour, it betokeneth that corrupt humours haue mastery in the stomacke & in the lungs, or else in the substaunce of the tongue. Also much spittle is a token of flumatik complection: therefore in olde men is much great spittle and thicke, gleamye, and reaming, after the strength of colde, and wasting of the substanciall moy∣sture.

Of the voice, Chap. 23.

* A Uoice is a very thin smiting of the ayre, and shapen with the wrest of the tongue, as saith Isidore & Priscian. The instruments of the voyce be many as sayth Constantine, that is to wit, the lungs, the arterye strings, the throate, and lidde of the organe, the mouth, the téeth, the lippes, and the tongue. For without the seruice of these, the voyce is not shapen. And some of these receiue the voice as the lungs, with the recepta∣cles, organe, and pipes thereof. And some order the voire, as the lidde of the wo∣son* as Constantine sayth, that maketh the voice faire & strong, when it is pro∣portionate to other instruments: and it tempereth the aire that commeth in, and letteth and kéepeth that the ayre passe not too soone out; and saueth and letteth the throat, and the organe from dust, that would fall therein. Some send out the voice, as the pipes of the lungs and the organe, that be as it were pipes: the which if they bée lyght, cleane, tempo∣rate, and smooth: they make the voyce euen and temporate. And if they bée rough, and ouer measure broade, ey∣ther straight, or else, too much awrye, they make the voice ouer sadde or slen∣der sowne or vneuen. Then to shape the voice, the aire is receiued in the leaues of the lungs, and by ordinate moouing of ye organe, the aire commeth out of the mouth: and so by swifte mouing of the air and by stretching of the instru∣ments of the voice, the sownd is made; the which in the mouth of a beast is brought forth, and shapen with the wrest of the tongue, is called of wise men a voice. Hue vsque constantinns is Pan∣te 〈…〉 liber 4. Aristotle sayth, that the lungs be the first receiuers of the voice. And therfore euerye beast that is with∣out lungs, is without voice and speach. Speaking is distinguishing of voice. And so euery beast that hath no tongue vntyed, as he sayth-Ibideni.ées and Flyes haue no voice,* but they make & noisy in flieng, stretching, and drawing, two wings by the aire, that falleth be∣twéene the bodie and the wings, and so doe long Flies. And by experience they make no sownd sitting, but onely flieng, but a Frogge hath a proper voice, and his tongue is applyed to the mouth a∣fore, And that part of the tongue that is nigh to the pipe of the lungs is vntied. And therefore he hath a proper voice, and it is called coax in Latine. And maketh not that, but in the water onelye, and namely in the male in time of bréeding, when he calleth the female by a voyce knowne. The Frogge multiplyeth the voice, when he putteth the neather iawe into the water, and stretcheth the ouer iawe. And by stretching of the two iawes, they make a noyse and voice. And for the greate force of stretching, theyr eyen shine as Candles. They sing and crye more by night then by day. For then is the time of theyr, gende∣ring. Also there he sayth, that small birds crie and chatter more then great, and namely in time of gendering: for then is greatest chattering and crieng of birdes. And he sayth, that the Cocke croweth ofte after battaile and victo∣rye.

Also it is so among birds and foules, Page  [unnumbered] that the male crieth and not the female. As the Cocke and males of Quailes. Speaking is appropried to mankinde: Men that bée kindly dombe be deafe they haue voice, & all vndistinct as saith Aristotle also in Eodem liber, he saith, that all females haue smaller and shar∣per voice then males, except the cowe, that hath greater voice then the bull. Al∣so there he saith, that pasting of spearme in males is in the time of chaunging of the voice, and that is in the time and end of 14 yeares yet sometime the voice changeth sooner in some men, which sig∣nifieth the stirring of Venus. And there he saith. When horse beginne to gender, theyr voice is greater, and likewise the Mare, but the voice of the Mare is more cleere: also the voice of the Males change when they be enamoured. Also in lib. 8. it is sayd, that the voice of all foure foo∣ted beasts chaunge, & bée made lyke the voice of women when they be gelded. And liber. 19. it is said, that the cause of sharpenesse and of chaunging of voyce, is by chauging of age. For the voyce of young beastes is sharper then the voice of olde: and the voice of women is shar∣per then the voice of men: and the voice of all beasts is sharper in youth then in age. And he sayth, that many females and many younglings crie with a sharpe voice, for by féebless they moue but lit∣tle and scarce aire, and that that is little and scarce, is mooued swiftly, and swift is sharpe: The heauinesse of the voyce followeth the slownesse thereof, & much aire is slowly nideed. Males and olde men moue much aire, and therfore they haue greater voice. Males haue stronger sinewes and strings then females: and olde men haue stronger then children, & vngeldod haue stronger then gelded. Hi∣therto speaketh Aristotle. Then an euen, close and strong binding and a pis∣ant voice, meane betwéene heanie and sharp, is good & pleasant. As contrariwise a voice quaking, hoarse, and rough, fée∣ble, and discording too heauie, or too sharpe, is euill and dispraised. For a dis∣cording voice & an inordinate, troubleth the accorde of many voices. But accor∣ding voice swéete and ordinate glad∣deth and moueth to loue, and shewesh out the umors of the s••e, and wishes∣seth the strength and vertue of the spi∣rituall members, and shewesh purenesse and good speak on of al them, and reser∣ueth 〈…〉, & putteth of desease & sor∣row. And maketh to be known the male and the female, and get ••, and wmneth praising, also chaungesh the affectinn of the hearers as it said in ye sbles of one Orpheus,* that pleased trees, woods, hills, and stones with swéete melodie of his voice. Also a farre votte is according and friend to kinde, and pleaseth not one∣ly men, but also bruite, beasts, as it fa∣reth in Oxen that hée tired to frauaile more by wéere long of the herde, shew by strolies and prickes. Also ildes and foules haue liking in melody of swéete voice, in so much that oft by swéete noise the soules bringeth them to grinnes and snares, as the Poet sayth. The pipe sin∣geth swéetly while the soule deceiueth the bird.

Also by swéet songs of harmony and accord of Musicke, sicke men and fran∣tike come oft to their witte againe and health of body. Wherevpon Constatinus in viatico particula. 2. cap. 1. de amore, que dicitus hereos, sie dieit.*

Some men haue solde that Orphe∣us reporsed: Emperours desire mée to feasts, to haue liking of me, but I haue liking of them, which would bend theyr hearts from wrath of mildnesse, from sorrow to gladnesse, from couetousnesse, to largenesse, from dreade to boldnesse. This is the ordinaunce of Musitions, that is knowne aboue the swéetnesse of the soule. And with swéete melody some∣time frends be put of, & compelled to passe out of bodies: as it fared in Saule, out of whom an euill spirit was compelled to passe by the voice of Dauid, as it is written. 2. Reg. 17.

Now it is knowne by these foresayd things; how profitable* is a merry voice and swéete; And contrarywise is of an vnordinate voice & horrible, that glad∣deth not, neither comforteth: but is noi∣full and discomforteth, and grieueth the eares and the wit. Therefore Capitulo supra dicto Constantine saith: That a Page  48 Philosopher was questioned, why an horrible man is more heauie then anye burden, or wit.* And men seeing that he answered in this manner. An hor∣rible man is burden to the soule and wit &c.

¶This sufficeth at this time of the voice good and euill: for it is rehersed a∣fore of thinges letting the voice in the treatise of the tongue, and yet it shall be spoken of héereafter.

Of the throate. Chap. 24.

THE throate is the vttermost parts of the pipes of the lungs,* as sayth Constantine, and is of double helpe. The more and the first is to draw and send aire, the second is to receive and bring in meate and drinke, and to make the voice and sownd. The substaunce of this pipe is grislye and harde, that when the ayre goeth out, the voice shuld bee cleere. For the hearsenesse of the voice commeth of the moysture of the organe of the lungs. The voice is made and composed of thrée gristells, the first is knottie and bending outwarde, and within hollowe. The second is more then the first, and is set fast in the mouth of the stomacke. The third gristell is in the middle betweene the first and the se∣cond. Of these three gristells the throate is made, as it were cheined togethers, that it maye open and close. And all the substaunce of the throate is closed with∣in the same clothing and skinnes that cloth the tongue and the roose of the mouth. The hollownesse of the throat, in the which ayre commeth in and out, hath a bodye composed lyke the tongue, of gristells, fatnesse, and skinnes. And Phisitions cal it ye tongue of the throat, or Cataracta: and is the first instru∣ment of the voice, as it is sayde. And the voyce may not bée, but if this Cata∣racta waye bée closed. For if the waye of the throate bée open, the voyce maye in no wise bée: for the ayre passeth out little and little. And therefore the ware of the throate is needfull to with-holde and ose in the breath. And for that the throat is somtime grieued by humours, that come downe from the head, thereof commeth hearsnesse of ye throat & cough, & sometime it happeneth by drawing of corrupt and drie aire. And sometime it chaunceth by entering in of dust. There∣fore the throate hath nerues and gristels to withstande and let the dust, & other such grieuous thinges, that they enter not to the lungs: and that is needfull to make the voice fayre, strong, and rea∣die. And it releeueth the aire that com∣meth in, and tempereth the coldenesse thereof. Therefore some men die when that the tongue of the throate is cut: for then too much ayre entereth and cooleth the throat and the lungs, then the throat is a needfull instrument to make & shape the voyce, and to bring in meate and dislike to the first place of digestion. that is the stomacke: And is long and round to drawe in and put out much aire: the more easily to coole the heate of the heart, and it is more hollowe in ey∣ther end, and straight in the middle to shape the voyce the better. And it is made and composed of diuers gristells, that couer themselues in a cup, to bee the stronger, and to bend it selfe the easilier, to varie the voyce by tendernesse of the gristell. inde ordeineth wisely aboute the throate, double o••ce, néedfull to a beast, and double hollownesse of waye. It hath a pipe waye to drawe the ayre and breath. And it hath an open way to take meate and drinke. And this double waye is departed in two, by a couering that is called Epiglotum: and is in the vttermost part of the throate, as it were cloth or héeling to couer the two holes of the throate. And when kinde desireth meate, the hole of the breath is closed, & the hole of the receiuing of the meate, openeth it selfe. And in likewise when kinde desireth breath, the other hole of the throat closeth, and stoppeth it selfe at ful. Also the throat is oft greeued by com∣passion without, and by many griefes, and sometime by vnwise and vnware taking of meate and drinke. For if the meate some in at the way, by ye which breath is drawen. ye waye of the spirite and breath is lightly closed and stopped,* and the beast is choked & stifed. Some∣time Page  [unnumbered] by gathering of humours & ruine. The humours come from the head the pipes of the throate, and they maketh there a postume: and if the matter bée cholarike and coniealed, it stifleth & ouer-commeth the body spéedely. For as Con∣stantine saith, It straighteth the breath, so that the sicke man may scarcely take meate and drinke, and is full of griefe and sorrowe. And if the matter bée of bloud, the sicke man séemeth full of cor∣ruption in the bodie,* red in the face, the vaines be full, and the pulses: the swel∣ling is hot and swéet by plentie of bloud. And if the matter be of redde Colera,* then the forehead aketh, and hath great anguish Then is great heat with great thirst, and bitternesse in tast. And if the matter be of Flegma.* then the tongue not onely aketh but swelleth, and is softe. And if it be of falt steame, all that com∣meth in the roote seemeth salt: & the voice is made like as it were the voyce of young whelpes. For by drinesse of the salt steame, the arterie Trachea is made straight, as sayth Constantine. And it happeneth, that this matter is sometime all gréeued within the skinne, that de∣parteth the way of the breath, that is cal∣led Trachea arteria,* from the way of the meate and drinke, that is called Isopha∣gus, and brédeth Squinanci, that slayeth in one daie: For by pressing and thru∣sling togethers the waie of the breath: the frée passage of the ayre that shoulde come to the heart, is forbid and let, and by wringing and pressing of Isophagi, the way of meate and drinke is forbid & let. And sometime this matter is gathe∣red within, and sometime without, and then againe it is called quinanci and is not so perillous as the other. And sometime all the matter is without, and is called Sinancia, and is lesse perillous. In all these is strong ach of the throate, and namely in the first with stifling of the voice, and straightnesse of breath: and so full the sinewes be of Squinantia, and the chéekes haue so the crampe, that vnneth the téeth may be opened with an hammer. And the tongue is so shortned that it is vnneth drawen out or neuer. In all these euills that grieue the throat, swift breathing is a good token: for: then the waye of the breath is not ouer pres∣sed. Therfore it is not in daunger of stif∣fling. Nothing is more to dread in this euill then loosing of breath: For a beast may not be without breath the. 27.* part of an houre, without great perill. These euills and many other the throate inf∣fereth, as Constantine saith, as with whelks, pushes, & swellings, immoderate thirst, hoarsenesse of voice, that commeth of so much moisture shedde in the way of the pipe of the throate, and letteth the voice: and sometime taketh it away, and roughnesse of voice that commeth of dri∣nesse of aire, either of the bodie, of the meate and of drinke, either of dust that maketh the instrument of the voyce rough. This that is said of the voice suf∣ficeth at this time.

Of the necke. Chap. 25.

THE Necke is called Collum in La∣tine,* because it is great and round, & beareth and susteineth the head. The for∣most parte is called Gula, and the hin∣der Ceruix, the nowle, as sayth Isidore: And hath that name, for by that parte the marrow commeth to the ridge bone. Therefore Ceruix is sayd. Quasi via ce∣rebri, as it were the way of the braine, as sayth Isidore. The necke is a round member, and racane betwéene the bodye and the head, and is bonnie, made and composed of many bones and sinewes. It is boanie to be the more strong to susteine and beare the head. It is sinewy to make quicke mouing, and to send fée∣ling to the neather partes of the bodie. The necke receiueth and taketh of the braine influence of ye vertue of mouing, and sendeth it by sinewes to the neather parts of the bodie. The necke ought to haue a concord and proportion with the head. For if the head bée temperatye great, and the nape of the necke in mea∣surable quantitie, it betokeneth lightnes of complection and disposition, as sayth Constantine. And if the head be little, & the necke great, not proportionate to the quantitie of the head, it betokeneth great superfluitie of matter, and default of the Page  49 vertue Informatiue of shaping. And such an head is trauailed & grieued with head ach, and ach of the eares, as sayth Constantine. Aristotle. li. 14. saith, that the disposition of the necke varieth and chaungeth in beasts and in soules. For in foure footed beasts with thicke bodies and meane thighs, the necke is short and great: and much strength of such beasts is in the necke. As it faceth in Oxen, Bulls, Beares and Wolues, the most strength of thē is in the bone of the neck: and therefore Oxen be commonly yoked by the necke. And beasts with long thighes and greate bodies haue oft long necks, and that is néedfull for to pasturs or feede. As it faceth in Horses, Camels, Hartes, and such other beasts. And the most fairenes of an horse is in the neck. For by the beginesse, and thicknesse, and stretching thereof, he is accounted fierts in courage of many men. Also in eo. li. Ari. saith, ye soules yt haue crooked bills, hath short neckes, as it farth in Goshaukes, Eagles, & Sparhaukes. And soules that haue long billes and straight, haue long neckes, as it fareth in Crames, Hearnes, Bées and Ganders: and that is for to get then meate in déepenesse of moeres, fennes, and riuers. Also he sayth there, that all soules that haue long bills, haue great neckes and thicke, and flye with the neckes straight out, and if they haue long néetres and stretching forwarde, they bēnd and plye them as it wet fol∣ding or pleytes, when they flye. Also he saith, that if a beast hath long thighs, he hath a long necke: and if he hath short thighes, so hath a short necke. Euerye beast that hath a necke, and he breathe not, he hath none aire within. Also eue∣ry beast that hath a necke, hath lunges, and that beast that draweth no ayre in, hath no necke.

All beasts that forward winde them∣selues round as a ring, haue no necke distinguished from the body as fiste••. Celes, and adders, and such other long wormes that head themselues, and that for they haue no shoulders. For nothing is called the neck, but that member that is betwéene the head and shoulders, as saith Aristotle there.

¶Of the shoulders. Ca. 26.

MAns shoulders are called Humeri in Latine,* for distinction betwéene man and other beasts, and so our shoul∣ders be called Humeri, and haue armes, as saith Constantine. And the shoulders are composed of diners bones, of which the* shoulder blades be chiefe, & are called blades, for ye they be shapen as a broad sword. Spaton, is to vnderstand, broad, & these bones be néedful, as Con. saith, for double cause, either so defend the breast, that it be not greued behind by outward things: or els to binde togethers the bones of the shoulders, that be hollowe within, and bending outward. The hol∣lownesse within is néedfull to helpe the ribbes, and these bones haue knottes, which be called the eyen of the shoulder blades, as Phisitions lay, and haue that name of office: for as the eyen defend and ward all the fortparts of the body, so these defend and kéepe behinde the breasts and ribs: these eyen be hollow, that the sharpnesse of the shoulders may enter. The shoulders blade hath two sharpnesses, that one is behinde lyke to a rauens bill, by the which the shoulder blade is bound to the forke, that it ••e not out of his ouer place inward: heer∣to kinde sendeth and setteth that other sharpenesse of the shōulders, that it shuld not passe our downward. The twisted forkes be néedfull to binde the shoulders, and to depart them from the breast. The bones of them be round without, & hol∣low within, and bound to the tendernes of the breast, and behinde to the place called, the rauens byll. The bondes of them be griftly bones, and are called, the heads of the shoulders, and onelye set to cheyne or fasten the shoulders lynke wise togethers. Héereof & follow∣eth, that the shoulders be néedfull to defende the spirituall members, and to binde and cheyne togethers the boanes of the breast, of the armes, and of the ribbes.

Also to beare by the boanes and ioynes of the necke. Also they are néed∣full to beare burthens and wayghte, Page  [unnumbered] for by reason of their boninesse and sin∣newinesse, they be verye strong & migh∣tie. Also after the head, the necke is highest of the bodye aboue other lyms, that be set vnder the head, as it fareth in all beastes. And sometime the shoul∣ders be grieued without by woundes & by diuers hurtings, and by continuance of great trauayle and bearing: and then they be chiefely cured by rest, or by annoynting with some oyntments. And Aristotle saith li. 7. that men vse to an∣noynt the ioynts of the Elephaunt with Oyle Olyue, the more easelye to suffer trauayle and charge of bearing, and to sleepe the better. Also sometime ye shoul∣ders be grieued by flowing of humors, that come to the ioynts in the sinewes of the shoulders, by the which, the sin∣newes are grieued and let in their ef∣fectes and dooings. And sometime the ioyntes are full of superfluitie of hu∣mours, by the sharpnesse and byting whereof, ache breedeth in the sinewe of feeling.

¶Of the Armes. Cap. 27.

*ARmes are called Brachia in Latine, and haue that name of Darim in Greeke, that is strong as sayth Isidore. In the armes be brawnes-called Tho∣ri, and they be of great strength, and are called Thori, for that they be defending members, as sayth Isidore. Constan∣tine sayth, That the arme is made of two boanes: one is aboue, that is cal∣led the ouer Cubite: and the other is beneath, that is called the neather Cu∣bite. The neather boane is more than the other; for the bearer shoulde beée more stronger than the thing yt is born. The arme is cheyned together with the ouer shoulder, and is ••itte with most strong sinewes: by ••cane of which sin∣newes, the arme taketh féelyng and spée∣die mouing & sendeth it after to ye hande. The armes be round, to be more able to worke, to moue, and to withstand the better, that they be not lightly grieued. And they be bending any pant in thrée ioynts, that is to wit at the hand, at the elboe, & at the shoulders, to be the more able to quicke mouing, & more ready to be obedient to ye commandement of the will. Also in comparison to other lims, ye armes be lesse fleshie, & that is through the substance of bones & sinewes, of the which they be cōposed, & to haue ye more vertue & strength: For in the armes is the most strength of a man, to beare, to lyfte, to hold hard, to put from, to fight, & to worke. Also the bones of the armes be great, hard, holow, and ful of marow. They be great & hard, that they breake not lightlye: they are hollowe, that they should not be too heauie by massiuenesse. They are full of marrow, to moyst the drye and hard bones by fatnesse therof: and that the spirites that come from the sinewes and veynes be saued by tempe∣rance of marrow, and nourished. They are cloathed and couered with skinne, brawne and strings, with flesh among: that they should not be lyghtly hurt & grieued by any thing without. And also they are couered in ioynts & whirlbones, with gristles, that the sinews of féeling he not grieued by hardnes of bones, that smite and moue together, & that the same bones in their ioynts, moue the more speedely by smoothnesse and softnesse of gristle, and that they be not taried, ney∣ther let by méeting and féeling of rough∣nesse. Also for that the armes are nigh the heart, they take spirite and pulse by veynes and strings and diuers chaung∣ings, for to know and shew the state of default or profit in the veynes of pulse. Also for the armes are nigh the braine, they haue a kindly and a priuie accorde with the head, and take of him influence of priuie vertue And therefore for de∣fence of the head by féeling of kinde, & without aduisement, ye ar••ws put them forth against hard strokes. Also ye veyns of ye body, & namely they that are about the head and the heart, & the liuer; come together: in the hands and the fingers, & féede them. And therefore they that féele themselues full of bloud & grieued, vse to open some veyne of the armes: and so the armes are oft times wounded and grieued to cause the other lims to haue the profite of good heale.

Also Phisitions say, as it is written in Page  50libro de Flebothomia,* he that is sick on one side of the bodie shall open the vaine on the other side. And so he that is grie∣ued in the right side is let bloud in the left side, and so of other. Except the mat∣ter be venimous, or else post••ate. For then the bloud should not be drawen to the other side, least the venim of the mat∣ter passing by the heart, either by some other member, that is noble, bée hurt and griued as it is said ther. Also the armes for profit of other partes of the bodye, serue each other: And for kéeping of other members, they bée wounded and stri∣ken and made to bléede, and they faint or yéeld not, and they abide strokes. Ga∣len sayth, that the armes haue this pro∣pertie, that what the heart loueth, the armes loue and imbrace it cheerefullye. And whom they know, that the heart lo∣ueth, they belip it, and set it as nigh the heart as they maye: Insomuch that if they might, they woulde print it in the heart all that the heart loueth. Also in Acutis Febribus,* vncouering and put∣ting out of bare armes is token of death.

¶This that is spoken of the armes, and of the properties of them sufficeth.

¶Of the hands. Chap. 28.

THe hand is called Manus in Latine, for that it is the gifte of all the bo∣die, as sayth Isidore.* For the hande ser∣ueth the mouth of meate, and disposeth and doth all workes. By the hand wée receiue and giue. And abusiuely the hand is called a crafte or a worke: as it is sometime sayde of a Painter or a wri∣ter: He hath a good hand, that is to vn∣derstand, a good skill of writing, eyther of painting. Dextera, the right hande, hath that name of Dare, to giue. For as Isidore sayth, Suretie of peace is giuen with the right hand, and he is witnesse of faith, trust, and saluation. And this is that Tully meaneth. I gaue publyke fayth vppon beheast of the Senatours, that is to say the right hand. And the A∣postle Gala. 2. When they perceiued the grace that was giuen vnto mee, Iames, Cephas, and Iohn, which are counted to be pillers, gaue to me and Barnabas the right hand of fellowship, &c. The left hand is said as it were suffering the right hand. For it suffereth the right hande worke and hath that name Sinistra, of Sinere, to suffer. And the hand is called Palma, when the fingers be straight cut: and fist when they be closed in And ye list is called Pugnus in Latine, & hath that name of Pugillus, & is called Palma, whē ye hand is straight cut as it were beauhs and braunches spread. Also the hand is a great help and ornament of the bodie: & is the proper and principall instrument of touching and of feeling. For no part of the bodie toucheth and feeleth so surely as the part of the hande, as saith Isiderus, & also Constantine. And Constantine saith, that the hand in the vtter part is made of nine small bones and diuers, without marrow, and be sad bones. And hath so many bones to be moueable. The bones be of diuerse shapes: Some be kno••e, some be hollow, and some straight, that when they be all ioyned togethers, they may be as it were one bone. And these bones stand of two orders, of ye one side with the roots of the fingers, and of that other side with the two armes they bee cheined and strongly bound. The ouer cheining haue thrée of these bones that enter into the hollownesse of the armes: by the which fastning the hand openeth and closeth sidelong. And the neather cheining and the lesse is ioyned to the inner end of the arme by sharpnesse ther∣of. And this cheining maketh moouing forward and backward.

The hollownesse of the hande is cal∣led Vola, and is the inner parte, that the wit of touching and of feeling, hath most working in. And therefore in that parte it is the more fleshie, and more softe, for good touching and feeling: and hath two partes. Pecten the combe is one parte, and the other parte is the fingers. Pecten, the Combe, is the space of the hande within the fingers, and is composed of foure boanes: For if it happened that one were hurte: that other should not bee grieued. In the hol∣lownesse of foure bones of the Combe, that commonly be called the Palme, the foure fingers be set and closed therein.

Page  [unnumbered]And therfore Aristotle. li.. 14. saith, that the hand is not one instrument but ma∣ny. For kinde hath giuen to man in∣struments according to his vertues: as the hands, in which bee many fingers & diuerse, that they maye thereby holde small things and great. For as he saith, The making of the hande is proporcio∣nable to many workes, and to contrary workings: and is diuided and straigh∣ted into many parts: And a man may vse one part alone, or two, or mo, in di∣uerse manners.

The palme of a mans hande hath this propertie, yt it is neuer heary with∣in, though haire growe without on some handes: and that doth chaunce most in handes of males, and that is for plen∣tie of heate that hath the masterie. And the right hande is of more strong heate, & hath more driesse then the left hand. And therfore the right hand is lighter & able to worke then the left hand. Ther∣fore. li. 2. Aristotle saith, that foure footed beasts that gender beasts haue foreféet in stéed of mans hands. And the left foote in such beasts is not so frée, neither so light of mouing as the right foote is, as the left hande in a man is not so able to work as the right hande, except the Ele∣phant. For as Aristotle saith. liber. 1. the Elephant hath a long nose like a trump, which he occupieth in stéede of handes: and with that nose he taketh meate, and putteth it in his mouth, and with that nose he putteth drinke into his mouth, and no beast may doe yt with his Nose but he. Among Birdes and foules, the Popingay and the Pellican vse ye foot in stéede of an hande. For the Popingaye taketh meate with his foote and wetteth it in water, and when it is wet putteth it in his mouth with his foote: and so doth the Pellican that is called also Porphirio. The hand is grieued in ma∣ny manners, by the Crampe, shrinking of the sinewes, by crookednesse, by dri∣nesse, by blaines and whelkes, by kit∣ting and cheines, by fretting of worms, by itching and tickeling, by wrasting and wrenching of ioyntes, by Chiraga Passio, that is the gout in the handes. The cause of shrinking & crookednes cō∣meth sometime of hot humours and dry, which dry the sinewes: either of cold hu∣mours & moist, which infect the sinews, & closeth ye passage of the spirits, as it fa∣reth in Paralitisis & Leprosis,* the handes of whom be shronke, & crooked by reason of corrupt humours that dry and destroy the sinewes.* The hands be dried by wt∣drawing of due féeding. As it fareth in olde or ueraged men, and in men that be defaced & ouercome with great tra∣uaile of fastings, & ouerféebled with age, trauaile, & disease.* And sometime by di∣stemperance of heate & excesse, that wa∣steth ye moisture, as it fareth in Tisiks, Ethiks, & such other. And sometime by vice & default of the vaines and of the sinews, yt which he stopped: and so by de∣fault of humours & of spirits, the vertue of ruling is let: wherby yt hands die, and leeseth strength & fatnesse. Blaines and swelling bladders be bred & come of su∣perfluous and corrupt humours, which come to the vtter parts: and so the flesh within is wasted and corrupt in the vt∣ter side, and the skin swollen vp is tur∣ned & chaunged into blaines & bladders, clifts & chins, and other such, come of hot humours & sharpe, and of fumosities be∣twéene the skin & flesh, that cut the skin, & with their sharpnesse they diuide and pearce the vtter flesh: & first they cause itching, and tickeling, & afterward great ach and smarting. Also corrupt humour hid in the skinne, when it is not put out neither wasted by kinde heate, and lyt∣tle and lyttle, it is corrupte more and more, and is chaunged and tourned into small wormes: The which wormes little and little eate and fret the skinne, and cause tickeling and itching. And bre∣king out of ioynts sometime happeneth of falling, either of smitting, eyther of hard thrusting and wringing. For by such violence the limme falleth out of ioynt and of his place: And then cōmeth sore aking & smarting, & all the hande is made vnmighty to worke any workes. The same hapneth also of some inwarde cause, as of too much humour cooling and slippering, and slaking the sinews of the ioyntes. And so lightly the limme fal∣leth out of his place. The passion which Page  51 is called Podagra in the féete,* is called Cirogra in the hands, and is bread and commeth of great humours and rawe, gathered in the ioynts. Therefore the ioynts of the toes & fingers waxe hard, and be made as it wer knotty. And such sicknesses bée called Longa artherica, & are bred in the hands. And scarcely to be cured or healed, if it hath long indured, as it is sayde Super Aphoris. Manye other diseases occupie oft the handes, as blaines and such other: but this that is sayde shall suffice at this time. Saue onely this woulde bee noted, which is spoken in Aphorisin. that a woman vseth not the left hand and the right all alike. Uppon which word Galen saith, that males worke alyke with both the handes, which we neuer sawe, neyther heard of no woman. And that commeth of default of her kinde. For except shée is strong to worke with the right hand, so much she maye the lesse with the lefte hand. Males haue strong sinewes and brawnes in either side: and they haue stronger heat then women: and for that cause it happeneth oft, that they worke with the left hand, & with the right hand also.

¶Of the fingers. Chap. 29.

* THE fingers be called Digiti in La∣tine, & either they haue that name of Decem, that is the number of tenne in English, for they be tenne other of this word Decem, in English seemely. For they be séemely set and ioyned, and they haue among themselues a number or∣der right faire, as saith Isidore. The first is called Polex, the thombe: for that among other hée hath most vertue and might. The second is called Index and Salutans, and is called Demonstratiuus, the shewer. For with him we gréet, and shew, and teach all thing. The third is the middle finger, and is called Impu∣dicus also.* The fourth is called Annu∣laris, the ring finger: for thereon the ring is borne. And also he is called Medi∣cus or Medicinalis, the leech. For with him they doe Colerium about the eye. Colerium is a principall medicine for ye eie. The fift is the little finger, and is called Auricularis, the are finger, for with him we clawe and picke the eares, as saith Isidore. Constantine sayth, that the fingers bée composed and made eue∣rye each of thrée bones cheined toge∣thers. And the foure fingers be cheined and bounde to the sayde combe of the hande: and the thombe is ioyned with the inner cheining of the arme. The nea∣ther péeces and knobbes of the fingers be greater and broader then the ouer, as the bearer is stronger then the thing that is borne. They ought to be broader and more stedfast, as saith Con. li. 3. Aristo. saith, that the moueablenes of the fingers is conuenient to take & to hold. And the fingers be proportioned in slendernesse & length & departed a sunder. In the ends they be warded with nailes. And the more euen that they be, and the more bending and pliant: the more couenable they be and able to diuerse works. They be but little fleshie, for casinesse of moo∣uing and of touching and groping. For nothing in the bodie knoweth and dée∣meth so easily betweene things that bee touched and felt, as the ends of the fin∣gers. And that may hap is through the quicke liuelinesse of the sinewes, that be bend againe in the ouermost parts of the fingers: and for softnesse and smooth∣nesse of the skin in the vttermost parts of the fingers, as sayth Constantine, and the fingers haue these propertyes: they be greater afore meate then after. And therefore a ring that is straight on a finger, and may scarce bee taken of a∣fore meate, may easily bee taken of after meate, as it is sayd Super Aphoris. A∣ristotle sayth. liber. 8. that water soules haue betwéene theyr toes and clawes, as it were a skinne, and their dwel∣ling is in waters. And foules with toes, and clawes diuided, and cloaue footed, dwell properlye nigh water, and bée fed with meat that groweth on the land. And these foules eate no fish, neither liue with rauine, as doe foules with crooked toes & clawes, that eat all beasts yt they may hunt & take: & they liue by bloud, & yet they eat not each other: but they spare foules of their owne kind. And so do not Page  [unnumbered] fish, for they eate fish of their owne kind.

Of the Naile. Chap. 30.

*THE naile is the vttermost part of the finger, set in the ouermost part thereof. And Constantine sayth, That it is ioyned verye nighe thereto with flesh and skinne: and the bounds there∣of bée full of strings. And to the nailes come vaines and sinewes, and arteries, to giue them féeling and kindly helpe. The nailes grow in length & in breadth proportionate to the fingers. And that that groweth ouer and passeth the touch of sinewes hath no féeling. And there∣fore they bée cut and pared without fée∣ling of sore and of smarting. For the growing and féeding of the naile is like to the growing of haire. And there∣fore in growing they passe the endes of the fingers, as sayth Constantine. The naile is bread of certeine fumosities, that are resolued from the heart, and spread on the fingers ends, where ye fumosities entering in, are dried with the vtter aire, and chaunged into the substaunce of the naile, as it is sayde in the booke of Pro∣nosticis, in the comment. And they bée made to helpe and succour the fingers ends to defend them and saue them with hardnesse, or they should else for tender∣nesse be lightly hurt and grieued. And so nailes help & strengthen much ye fingers. The naile is softer then a boane, and harder then flesh or gristell. And hath some deale disposition & kinde of horne: For they be cleere and plaine on the vt∣ter part thereof, cleane & bright as horne. And so therin is séene a māner of bright∣nesse and shape. And for the naile is bred of fumositie of the hart, liuing and dieng of the heart is in the nailes most openly shewed. For if the heat of the heart fai∣leth, the nailes waxe blacke and pale. And therefore by chaunging of them, shrinking and riueling, bodeth and beto∣keneth quenching of heate, and dieng & slaieng of kinde, as it is said in Prono∣sticis. Also Aristotle. li. 7. saith, that the clawes of Egles waxe crooked and dull when they sit a broode vpon Egges, and féedeth their birds: and their wings waxe white and féeble. And the Egle hath this propertie, that when he sitteth on a tree & resteth the beholdeth oft his clawes, and dreadeth least they waxe soft and tender. For he hath clawes in stéed of wepons. And therefore least his clawes should be hurt & grieued, he setleth not gladly vp∣pon a stone. And whē he resteth, he ben∣deth and closeth in his clawes, yt so they may be kept and saued without harme & griefe: So doth the Lion, and beasts with crooked claws: also li. 8. he saith, ye whole footed foules drinke not, except a fewe: and al foules yt haue crooked claws, haue crooked bills, and short and great necks, and eate flesh and hunt birds, but they eate no birds of their owne kinde, ney∣ther pursueth, neither praieth on thē, to the intent to eate them, but they fight to∣gethers, and hurt one another with their bills, and with clawes, they teare each other for the females and for neasts. In all beasts and foules be diuerse manner of clawes and nailes, touching their dis∣position and also their dooing. For in a man the nailes ence and adorne the hands: and in foules and birds they fence and arms the féete. And in some beasts the nailes & houes be round and whole, as in horses, in some they be long and clouen as in swine. li. 13. Aristotle saith, That euerye beast hauing stiffe stan∣ding haire, hath clouen féete, as Swine. And kind setteth strength in the clawes & nailes of beasts: and therfore li. 14. Ar. saith, that kind alway setteth strength in lims & members, that beastes vse, as in féeth that be as it were yron, and in the clawes and nailes, for strength and help.

Of the side. Chap. 31.

THe side is called Latus in Latine and hath that name of Latere,* to lurke, either to be hid. For when a man lyeth, the side is hidde. And there is both the left side and the right side of the bodye, that is called in Latine Dextra & Sini∣stra: and in ye right side is most able mo∣uing, but the left side is more strong and more couenable to ye burthēs & charges: & therfore ye left side is called Leua in La∣tine, & hath ye name of Leuare to heaue, & Page  52 lyfte: for it is more able to lyfte and to beare some thing, as sayth Isidore. That side beareth the shield, and the buckler, sword, the quiuer, the knife and other burthens, that the right hande maye bee ready at lybertie to doe what it shall, as sayth Isidore. The sides be speciallye strengthened with the bones of ribbes. And the ribbes be called Costae as Isi∣dore saith: because the ribbes kéepe the inner part of the body, and all the softe∣nesse and tendernes of the belly, is wise∣ly kept and saued by the office of ye ribs. And the side ribbes be made and com∣pounded of many bones ioyned & bound to the bones of the ioyntes of the ridge bone, and of diuers gristles, that ioyne the foresayd bones together, as sayeth Constantine. And these boanes haue the lykenesse of halfe a Circle: & when they be ioyned togethers to the ioyntes of the ridge bone and of the brest boane, they séeme to make a full circle, as saith Constantine. The boanes be fourtéene saith he, set in the either side seuen, seuen on the one side, & seuen on the other, the which be bound togethers to the closure of the breast, with seuen tender boanes, that be as it were of gristly kinde. Of which the endes are tender and gristlye, shapen as the poynt of a sword, and set vnder the mouth of the stomacke for de∣fence thereof, and of the heart. And so in the making or composition of the ribbes and breast, in all be two & thirtie bones, of the which fourtéen be in the sides, & in the composition of the brest, ten. Behind in the ridge be eight gristle boanes, to∣gethers as sayth Constantine. It hap∣peneth that the side is ofte griued, som∣time by cause that is without, as by fal∣lyng, breaking, smiting, and other such. And sometime by cause that is within, as by fléeting and concourse, and com∣ming togethers of the humours to the place and hollownesse of the small ribs. And somtime a postume is bred therin, as it fareth in a plurisie, that is bred and commeth of a postume, that is in ye ten∣dernesse of the rybbes. The tokens ther∣of be ache of the side, cough, and Febris Acuta, and is speciallye knowen by bloudie spittle: if it come of bloud, by citrinesse or yeolow: if it come of Cho∣lera, by white spittle: if it come of fleme, by bloo spittle: if it come of Melancho∣lia, but it bréedeth selde of Melancholia, as it is contayned in Practica. Such postumes when they be rooted and pight in the side, then they be cause of sore ach, stiffeling, and burning, and then he that hath that euill, may not rest vpon the side that the postume is on. Therefore it is said in Pronosticis, that it is a good signe that a sicke man in Febribus acutis, lye on his side, & specially on his right side. For that betokeneth, that the nigh pla∣ces haue no postume, and that the spiri∣tuall members be frée, and haue large place to open and to spred, and so a man breatheth the better: for neither the sto∣macke, nor other members grieueth, nei∣ther thirsteth the spirituall members. Also it happeneth, that vnder the small ribs in a voyde place, winde is gathered and closed within the small skinnes of the ribs, and by the stretching thereof is bred sore pricking and ache. And some∣time it happeneth that the place is stop∣ped and made hard by gathering of great humours. And so the side places be ha∣ed and rent, eyther made too harde, ei∣ther shrunke, eyther too much heaued vp. And therefore it is sayde in Pronosticis Hippocratis, In the small ribs if they are without ache and sore, and if they be softe, and well com∣pounded in euery side, it is good. And if they ake, or haue the Crampe, and be drawen togethers, as it fareth in the Crampe: If there be onely great quaking and leaping in anye of them, it betokeneth woe and sorrowe, either ra∣uing, &c.

¶And that is a speciall token in Fe∣bribus Acutis, and specially if the sight of the eyen bée horrible staring and in∣ordinate, as sayeth the same Com∣mentatour. And if the mouing of the Eyen bée ordynate, it is not so great dreade of rauing in Acutis, Vt dicit Idem.

¶Of the Backe. Chap. 32.

THe ridge is called Dorsum in latine,* and hath that name of hardenesse, Page  [unnumbered] for it is the hardest part of the body, as it were a stone strong to beare, and to suffer durable, as saith Isidore. And the ridge hath another name, that is called the backe: for therevpon we lye backe∣ward and vpright on the earth, and so may a man doe, and not other beastes, for other beasts lye on the wombe, ey∣ther on the side: and therefore it is vn∣properly sayd, yt any beasts haue backes, as saith Isidore. But it maye be called backe, for beating and bearing, for it is beaten with diuers manner of whips: and not onely the backes of beastes, but also the backs of men that be prisoners, as saith he. Or as Remigius saith, This word Tergum maye be said of Teros in Gréeke, that is round in Latine: For the ridge of a beast hath a manner of roundnesse, for all the bones in the body be founded in the ridge, as a ship on the keele. Constantine saith and Isidore al∣so, that ye ridge beginneth from the nape of the head, and stretcheth néere to the kidneyes: and the ridge is made & com∣pounded of diuers bones and ioynts, and that for foure causes. First, for he is the foundation of all other, and thereon all the other bones be set, as the shippe is on the keele. The second, for it is ye defence and healyng of the inner partes. The third, for it is help and succour of the si∣newes, that come from the brain down∣ward to diuers parts of the body, to giue qu••k mouing and féeling in euery part. The fourth to beare marrow that com∣meth down from the braine and to kéep the marrowe, and saue it from griefes, within those powers. The ridge boane of a beast is made and compounded of many bones, that they may the easilyer rise and settle vp themselues, and bende, and to beare more strongly charges and burthens. And the ridge boanes be cal∣led Spondilia in latine, and are hollow, that the marrowe of the ridge bone, that Phisitions call Nucha, may the easilyer be borne and come to the neather mem∣bers, to make the quicke mouing: and the same kinde and vertue is as well in the braine, as in the marrowe of the ridge bone, as saith Constantine. And there∣fore it is cloathed with a double skinne, as the braine is, as saith he. And there∣fore if this marrowe in the ridge bone, bée in anye wise let either hurte, the vertue of féeling is hurt in working and doing, as it is when the braine is hurt, and therefore if this marrowe be hurt, the beast dyeth lightly, & therefore kinde maketh the ridge bones hard & sinewy, & also picked and sharpe, for the more de∣fence of the marrowe, and for the more easie withstanding and putting off, of hurting and wrong. The skinne of the ridge is harder and thicker than the skin of other parts of a beast, and that is for the cause aforesayd, and the ridge suffe∣reth many griefes within and without. For without it is beaten and hath ma∣ny griefes. Within it suffereth shrink∣ing of sinewes, to much replection of hu∣mours, stopping of the veynes and the gates of the spirites, sore pricking and putting, and stopping, and griefes of di∣uers goutes and dropsies.

¶Of the Breast. Cap. 23.

THe breast is the ouer bonie parte be∣twéene the paypes and teates, and is called Pectus,* because it is next betwéene the head and the paps, as sayth Isidore. Isidore and Constantine say also, that the originall of the breast is set within the ridge and is very hollow, to kéepe and to saue, and to defend the inner members, as the heart and the lunges, with other spirituall members. The great hallow∣nesse of the breast is néedefull and profi∣table, that the lungs may close and open to coole the hot smoake of the heart. And it is bonie and full of sinewes, for the more strength and stronger defence of the members of lyfe. And the breast is compassed and defended within with skinnes, and a manner of fatnesse to nourish and to saue kindly heat, and to asswage the coldnesse of boanes of the breast plate. Constantine saith, That in the breast be two hollownesses departed in twaine with some manner skinnes: and this departing is néedfull to kéepe the breath in one part of the breast, if it happen that it were lost in the other: and so to saue and to kéepe the lyfe of Page  53 the beast in the other part. For if either hollownes were grieued, and the breath stopped, then the beast should soone dye. Also the heart and the lunges be bounde togethers with skinnes of the brest, and they be wrapped therein, that they pase not out of their place, as saith Constant. li. 2. ca. 15. Then the breast is the foun∣dation of the paps & nipples: and that is not onely for beautie and fairenesse, but also for néedfull helpe of the breast, with his fleshinesse, it healeth: and tempering the bonie coldnesse thereof, couereth and defendeth from outwarde hurte of colde aire. And so the breast is the most noble member of man: for it is the place and seate of wit and wisedome, & the house of heate of lyfe and of strength, & if the brest be wel disposed and in good poynt, with all that is therein, all the strength of ye body is comforted in his working. And contrary, if the breast be grieued, al the making of the body is disgraced, and the breast is grieued many wayes. Som∣time by great colde, constraining the si∣newes & strings of the breast bone, they be grieued and hurt, and be let in theyr works and déeds. And somtime by great heate and drinesse, wasting the substaun∣tiall humour therof, and constraining or shrinking the sinewes of the breast, as it fareth in*Ptisicis and Etiis, that be spen∣ded & wasted with too great heat. Some∣time by too great moysture of bloud, ei∣ther of fleame,* comming and fillyng the waies of ye breast, & so somtime follow∣eth stifling, and somtime hoarcenes, and somtime withdrawing & léesing of voyce, as saith Const. Sometime of a corrupt humour gathered in the skinnes of the brest, that bréedeth a postume in ye brest, and letteth the breath, and so sometime the beast is stiffeled. Somtime the brest is grieued by gathering of other mem∣bers that be grieued, for if the throte bée grieued, or the lungs, or the stomacke, needes must the breast be sore & sharply grieued, and the griefes of the breast bée most perillous, & namely they within, for the nighnesse of ye hart, that is the place of life: and therefore a little pricking or pinching in the breast within, is more sore than a great wound in the arme or in the thigh without. Diuers dispositi∣ons of the breast is in men & in fowles, as sayth Aristotle. For men haue broad breastes and somewhat bending in the right side and left, and that hollow ben∣ding is token of oldnes and of strength, and no beast hath paps in the breast, but men and Elephants, as saith Aristotle lib. 2. And some beastes haue pappes in the side, or in the wombe, as Swine, Hounds, Asses, Bine, Sheepe, and other such. A beast that hath pappes in the wombe bringeth forth manye moe at a time, (as it fareth in Houndes and Swine) then those that haue teates in the breast, as it fareth in women and E∣lephants, that gendreth neuer but one, as saith he lib. 5. And Fowles haue ge∣nerally sharpe breastes, and namelye fowles of praye, with crooked billes and sharpe clawes, and little flesh, and good flight and sharpe sight: for they see their meate very farre off. And therefore such fowles flye vp in the ayre, much more higher than other Fowles, and that is for praye, as sayth Aristotle lib. 2. The sharpnesse of breast is a token of bolde∣nesse and of gentlenesse,* as saith Isidore of a Goshauke, that is of more boldnesse in brest, than in bill or clawes, and more armed with the breast, than with bill or clawe. And therefore the Goshauke is bolde in the breast, and in the ayre hée smiteth his praye to the ground.

¶Of the Pappe. Cap. 34.

THe pap is called Mammilla in latin,* & taketh that name of roundnes, for Maso in Gréeke is round in Latine, as saith Isid.* The teate or nipple is ye head of the pap,* that the child sucketh and ta∣keth betwéene his lips, is called Papilla in Latine, & hath y name of Palpare to grope: for ye childe oft toucheth it, & gro∣peth therafter. Also ye paps be called V∣bera in latin, either for yt they be full of milk, or of humuors of milke, as it wer a bottle. For after ye birth of a childe, if bloud be not wasted with feeding, it cō∣meth by a kind way into ye paps, & war∣eth white by vertue of them, and taketh the qualitie of milke, as saith Isido. And Constant. saith, that the pappes be made Page  [unnumbered] and compounded of a manner kernell substaunce, that is soft, fleshie, and white: as the kinde of milke is. The veynes & strings in the kernell substaunce of the pappes are medled: by the which bloud with breath is conueyed to the pappes. The paps be set in the breast to be nigh to the heart, that by decoction of ye heate of the heart, the bloud maye the easelyer be turned into the kinde of milke: For bloud commeth by an hollow veyne to the heart, and then to the breast, & pear∣ceth at last and commeth to the pappes, and in the hollow flesh of the paps, the bloud by vertue of heate, tourneth into the substaunce and hinde of milke. And the flesh of the pappe hath dens & holes as a spounge, and therefore it is méete to breeding of milke to the féeding of anye childe. The pappe hath this propertie, as it is said vpon Aphoril. That the paps of a woman that shal haue childe before hir time, ware softe and tender, as sayth Hippocrates. Also he sayth, That if the right pappe of a woman that goeth with two children,* wareth tender and soft, the man childe shalbe borne before his time: and if the lefte pappe waxe soft, then the female shall be borne before hir time: and if both the pappes grow tender and softe, both the children shall be borne a∣fore their time. And in Commento Ga∣len telleth the cause héereof, and sayeth, that the smalnesse of the pappe betoke∣neth scarsitie of milke: and therefore if the childe hath not due feeding, hée must needs be dead born before his time. Also Hippocrates saith ther, that in wo∣men in which superfluitie of hot bloud turneth to the pappes, betokeneth mad∣nesse. Galen telleth the cause thereof, & sayth, that when superfluitie of seruent hot bloud commeth to the pappes, if it may not be turned into milk for passing great heate and abundaunce therof, then it is dispearced and turned into sharpe smoke, and goeth vp to the head, & trou∣bleth the brayne, and so breedeth mad∣nesse. Also he saith there: If thou wilt make the bloud of Menstruum in a wo∣man lesse, thou shalt set a coppe to ye pap,* to ye veyns which come from ye Mother, as sayth Galen: and by such manner of drawing, the superfluitie of bloude, is drawen to the paps, and so the neather bleeding of Menstruum is diminished, as Galen rehearseth. Also he sayth, If much milke run out of the pappes of a woman, that goeth with childe, it is a token that the childe is feeble: and if the pappes be harde, it is a token, that the childe is féeble, for the milke is not di∣minished, by reason that the childe is fée∣ble to receiue and tourne it into his fée∣ding. Therefore too great dropping of the pappes is a token of corruption and im∣perfection of the childe as saith Galen. And if the pappes be meanly hard, it is a token of the childes health. For too great smalnesse and leannesse of the paps after the conception, is a token that the childe is féeble and corrupt, and it is a token that the childe shall be dead born, or els to be borne afore the time, as saith he. And if a woman be with childe of a man childe, the right pappe is more then the lefte: and if she be with childe of a female, then is the left pappe more than the right: and that is first knowen, when the childe beginneth to moue himselfe, as sayth Aristotle liber 19. Also as he sayth, ofte time by reason of too muche milke and crudding thereof, the pappes ware ouer harde. And if there growe a∣ny haire while the brests e ouer hard, there commeth a great sicknes and sore, that is called Pilosa,*(A kindly humor lacking heate or moysture, is turned to vlceration, and beginneth his swellings like a ball or wenne: but if the hu∣mour retourne shortlye after delyue∣raunce, then Pilosa disolueth into his former kinde,) and the ache ceaseth not till matter and corruption commeth out as saith Aristotle. Also he sayth lib. 6. that beastes with many pappes, bring sorth manye at a time, and they haue teates diuided, as it fareth in a Bitch, and in a Sowe. When a Sowe far∣roweth, shée giueth the first pappe to the first Pigge, and the nexte to the se∣conde, and so of the other. And beasts with fewe teates bring foorth fewe at a time, as a Woman and an Ele∣phant,* that hath teates set afore in the breast.

Page  54Then the pappe is a néedfull member to feede and nourish the childe, & to take menstruall bloud to turne into milke: & to cause ye bloud that is vnpured, to dis∣solue, and to make it white, swéete, and thicke, and to defend the breast and the heart, and to know Sexus and ages, and is shewer of corruption. And the pappe is rounde, euenlong, sinewye, fleshre, dennie, and fully set to the teeth of chil∣dren.

¶Of the Lungs. Cap. 35.

*THe lunges be the bellowes of ye hart: for in the lungs is a spirit that blow∣eth and moueth, and receiueth and put∣teth out aire. Or els, the lungs be called Pulmo in Latine, because it beateth in opening of it selfe, that it maye take in breth, and thrusting together may: put it out.*Vnto the lungs belong the thote boll, that is to say, the gul of the throte, the lung pipe and weo pertaining to the lyghts and to the heart, conueying aire to them both, and diuideth it selfe by many pipes within the lungs. The lungs or lights, are called the bellowes of the body, for it draweth and sendeth forth againe the aire, with the which, the hart & other members be tēpered, and fashioned much like an Oxe hofe: and is in continuall mouing, in draw∣ing in and out of breath, as saith Isidor. And the lunges are made of flesh softe & airely, full like to the fome that is run & crudded, as saith Con. The lunges help∣eth the heart, and beclippeth it al about, and serueth the heart of colde ayre to make it temperate: also the lunges bée the instrument of the spirite and of the voyce. The spirite and breath is néede∣full for the heart to draw in aire to coole the heart, and to put out superfluitie and fumositie by chosing of the lunges. And therefore the lungs be a meane betwéen the heart and the throate, that colde aire breake not sodainly into the heart: but rather to temper the ayre that is recey∣ued.

Also the lunges are the lykenesse of a lyttle folde, that kéepeth colde ayre to swage great heate of the heart, that is néedefull to make the voyce, and hotte ayre that is néedfull to the heart and to the breath. For without the lungs may no voyce be formed neither breath, as sayth Aristotle li. 13. And for these cau∣ses the flesh of the lunges is softe, and smooth, and hollow, to chaunge the ease∣lyer ayre into his owne kinde, that the spirite of lyfe may so passe easely, into the hollownesse of the heart, to kéepe and saue the lyfe of a beast: and it is gene∣rall as Aristotle saith, that euery brea∣thing beast hath lungs, and all beastes that goe doth breath, and some water beasts doe breath, as the Dolphin. Also euery beast which gendreth hath blacke lunges, and much bloud through ye heate of kinde. The lungs of a beast, which layeth egges is lyttle and drye, and may swell, and is hollow, as saith Aristotle. And as he saith lib. 13. some beasts haue no lungs, but they haue branches in stéed of lungs. Also lib. 16. he saith, that euery beast that hath lunges, is hotter than a beast that hath no lunges: and a beast that hath lunges, hath much bloud in comparison to a beast that hath no lunges. And the lunges be grieued many wayes: Sometime by the reumaticke humor comming to the pipes of ye lungs, and then be diuers passions bred, by di∣uers floating of humours to the princi∣ples of the lungs, as Squinancie; tisike, cough, hoarcenesse, hasknesse of the voyce, and such other. And sometime by gendring of humours in the wosen and pennis of the lunges: and so commeth Tisike, and other dreadfull passions, as it fareth in them, that spitte bloude and corrupt matter, as sayeth Constan∣tine.

Also sometime the lungs be grieued by botches in the substaunce thereof, and that commeth of sharpnesse of a humor, which fléeteth to the substaunce of the lunges and such a passion is not light∣ly cured.* For when the substaunce of the lunges hath botches by the sharpnes of the humour that commeth thereto,* it may not be lyghtly closed and cured, for the tendernesse and continuall mouing of the lunges.

And so then the aire drawen in at the Page  [unnumbered] hole of the botch broken vanisheth ease∣ly away: and therefore it sufficeth not to temper the heate of the heart, but oft for scarcitie of aire drawen in, the heart it selfe fainteth and dyeth. Also libr.13. Aristotle saith, that if a beast draweth breath in and out, while that he eateth, and so some part of the meate falleth in∣to the hollownesse of the pipes of the lunges, then the beast cougheth, and sometime by mishappe is strangeled and choaked. For coughing is nought els-but mouing of ye vertue of the soule to put out superfluities, that be about the instruments of the spirite, as saith Con∣stant. Then gather ye by these things aforesayd, that the lunges be the proper instrument of the heart, for it cooleth the heart, and by subtiltie of his substaunce chaungeth the ayre, that is drawen in, and maketh it more subtill. The lungs shapeth the voyce, and ceaseth neuer of mouing. For it closeth it selfe and spre∣deth, and kéepeth the aire to helpe the heate in his dennes and holes. And ther∣fore a beast may not lyue vnder the wa∣ter without stifling, but as long as hée maye holde in the ayre that is gathered within. The lunges by continuall mo∣uing putte off ayre that is gathered within, either cleanseth and purgeth it, and ministreth continuall and couena∣ble féeding to the vitall spirit, and depar∣teth the heart from the instruments of féeling, and breedeth fomie humours, and beclyppeth a side halfe the substaunce of the heart.* And when the lungs be grie∣ued by any occasion, it speedeth to death ward, and letteth and disquieteth ye wor∣kings of the vertue of lyfe. All these things saith Constantine by order.

*Next vnto the lunges, is the mid∣dresse, called Diaphragma, Septū trans∣uersum, and Precodi, it is a thicke skinne, which diuideth the vpper part of the body from the neather part, that is to say, the heart and lunges from the splene and liuer.

¶Of the heart. Cap. 36.

*THe heart is tearmed Cor in Latine, and hath that name of Cura, busines, for therin is all businesse and cause of wit and of knowing: and is nigh the lunges to be tempered by remedie of the moyst lungs, if it be het with wrathe. The hert is set in ye middle of ye body of a beast, to giue & to sende lyfe & mouing to all ye mēbers of ye body, as saith Isid. And Constantine sayth, That the heart is a fleshie substaunce, dennie, hard, hol∣low, euen, long, and round, and the heart is hollow to kéepe heate, and the heart is the foundation of powres to all the bo∣dy, and it is dennie and hollow, to moue it selfe the more easely closing and ope∣ning: and it is hard, that it be not light∣ly grieued and hurt: and it is round, to haue therein the more plentie of spirits: and it is euenlong, shapen as a toppe, to make the working of kinde heate that commeth alwayes into the sharpe ende, the more strong. And the heart is set betwéene the two hollownesses of the breast, in the middle of the beast, that the spirite of lyfe may come from the heart, as it were from the middle of the vtter parts of all the body, and the head of the heart that hath the sharpe ende, is set in ye left part of a mans body. And for that the sharpe ende of the heart, hath most strength in that side, and the spirit of lyfe is therein, therefore in the left arme the pulse is most strongest, and the heart li∣eth toward the left side of a man, to tem∣per the coldnesse of the left side by heate of the heart. And the hart hath two hol∣lownesses, one in the left side, that com∣meth sharpe: and one in the right side, that is within, and these two hollownes∣ses be called the celles of the heart.*

And betwéene these two celles, is one hole, that some men call a veyne, other, an hollow waye. And this hole is broad afore the right side, and straight afore the left side. And that is néedfull to make the bloud subtill; that commeth from the right wombe to the left, and so the spirit of lyfe maye be bred the easelier in the left wombe. Augustine in the booke, De differencia spiritus & animae, saith, that in the right wombe of the heart is more of bloud than of spirite: and in the left wombe the contrary. For there the spirite of lyfe is wedde to giue the beast Page  55 lyfe, and commeth by certayne veynes spread all about. The lefte part of the hart hath two holes, one within ye ve••es of the veyne that bringeth bloud from the heart to the lungs: The other hole is it, from the which commeth the great∣ter arterie, that is the shape and forme of arterie veynes and wayes, of all the bodie. And the pulses thereby be bredde in the heart, and namely in the left syde, for the cause that is sayd afore. Also the right part hath two holes, one commeth & entreth into the veyne which is called Concaua, and bringeth bloud from the Liuer to the holownesse of the hart. And of the other hole commeth ye veyns of the organ and his wayes, to féede the lungs. And these holes be couered with certain small skinnes, the which skinnes open and send bloud from the heart. And the they close and let the comming againe. In either wombe of the heart is a peece formed as an eare without. And these two peeces be called the eares of ye hart: and in them the veynes, organnes, and stringes he placed The hart hath in the bredth thereof two grystly bones, which be called the seates of the heart. About the heart goeth a maner clothing, that is called the shryne and cofre of the heart. And this clothing is fastened with the clothings or pa••cles of the breast.

This clothing is not ioyned to nigh the heart, least the mouing of the hart should be let, which is nedefull to the hart for the foundation of kindely heate, where∣by a beast is bred.*Hue vsque Constan∣tinus. lib 4. cap. 21. Also Aristotle li. 1. sayth, that there is no member in which bloud is so set as in the heart: Bloud is placed in the lungs, but it is more sted∣fastly placed in the heart. Also as he saith lib. 11 the hart is set of euery beast in the myddle of the breast, except man. For the heart of a man leaneth towarde the left syde. And the sharp ende of the heart leaneth inward to the breast, in all bea∣stes, except fishes. For in them the sharp ende is hanging towarde a parte of the head, in the place of ioyning of the gylls. Also he sayth there, that euery beast that hath bloud, hath lyuer and heart. Also libro. xii. he sayth, that in the heart is the well and the beginning of the veynes & the first vertue which breedeth bloude: and the bloud of the heart, is cleane, cleere, hot, and of greater feeling, and ac∣cording to wit and vnderstanding. And he sayth ther, that the well or beginning of feelyng of beasts, is in the heart, and the wits of feelyng, are continually with the heart. And lib. 13. it is sayd, that the heart is set in the formost parte of the breast, in the middle: for it is the well of lyfe, and all mouing and all feeling is therein. The feelyng and mouing is not but in the former part of the heart, and therefore meane and last is distinguish∣ed. And the breath goeth first into ye in∣ward part of the heart: and the kinde of making and composition of the heart is of veynes, for it is of the kinde of veynes. And the scituation or place of the heart is conuenient, for it is set in the ouer place and in the formost: For because it is more noble, it is more kind∣ly ordayned in the nober place. Among all the members, the heat is most no∣biest: and therefore it is set in the mid∣dle of the body, as it is most expedient: for it is the accomplishment and perfec∣tion of the beast, and no member is so néedfull to the lyfe, as is the heart.

Wherefore if the heart be hurt, ye beast cannot lyue: and therefore the bodye of the heart is in the middle: and the ma∣king thereof is in a sad body, & thicke, and kindly hollow. For the well of the veynes spring thereof: and it is hol∣low to receiue bloud, and is thick to saue it, and is the well of mouing, and in no member is bloud without veynes, but in the hart alone: for bloud commeth out of the heart, and goeth into the veynes: and no bloud commeth to the heart out of other places. For the heart is the be∣ginning and well of bloud, and the first member that hath bloud, as it is shew∣ed in Anathomia. For the making of the heart séemeth first of bloud, and is the beginning & wel of mouing, of liking & of vnliking. And generally of all wits, the mouing beginneth of the heart, and thervnto resorteth, and the vertue therof is spred & straight into all the members, & after one manner. And in some beasts Page  [unnumbered] is a bone founde in the heart to susteine the heart, as bones bée set in other mem∣bers. And in the hearts of beasts of great courage be thrée wombes or cells. And in the heart of a beast with a little heart be onely two chābers. And for this cause a wombe ought to be in the heart of a beast. For the heart must be the place of receiuing of pure bloud & temperate in quātitie & qualitie: and is ful hot & moist, for the heart is a member, in the which is the first vertue. Huc vsque Ari. li. 13. where he speaketh much of this matter. Also liber. 16. he saith, that the heart of a beast must be complement, therefore the heart is made first, because of the heate of the heart, & for the springing of veines out therof, kinde hath set afore the heart a colde member, that is the braine. And therfore the head in generation is created after the heart. And it happeneth that the heart is grieued either by binding toge∣thers of other members (as sayth Con∣stantine.) Or else by distemperaunce of it selfe. For if passing heat haue mastrie in the heart, the bloud of the heart boy∣leth and moueth, and so the vitall spirite is grieued. For if the heart be constrai∣ned by ouermuch colde,* the bloud is congealed, and therefore commeth death. And sometime the heart is grieued by some Postume, that infecteth the coffer thereof: and then the beast liueth not long. Also the heart sometime quaketh, & that commeth of watrie moisture shed and spread in the skinnes of the heart, the which moisture letteth the due ope∣ning and closing thereof. And so it sée∣meth to a sicke man, yt the heart moueth from place to place. Also it happeneth that the heart hath a default that cōmeth of wasting of spirites, and of spirituall vertue and of passing out of spirits. And this doth chaunce either of too great re∣pletion that grieueth and confoundeth the vertue, or else of too greate wasting, that wasteth the vertue, as it fareth in them that haue a Cardiaca,* and in some men that sweate too much or drinke too sharpe drinke. Also sometime the heart is grieued by some sumosities & smoake, corrupt and venimous entering to the heart, and corrupting the openings of the heart, wherevpon death followeth a∣none. Also sometime the heart is grie∣ued by stopping of the hollowe vain, whereby the bloud that is the féeding of the heart, and of the vitall spirit, is war∣ued. In these manners and in many other the heart is grieued as sayth Constant. liber. 9. chap. 23. Galen in Tegni. sayth, that the vertue and complection of the heart is knowne by these tokens:* That is to wit, by greate breathing and blow∣ing, by swifte pulse and thicke, and ha∣stie, by swift working, by wrath, hardi∣nesse, and madnesse: by largenesse of brest and hairenesse thereof. All these bée tokens that heate hath masterie in the heart. And al the tokens contrary to those betoken the contrary héereof. Upon the which place Haly in his commeth saith, that in a man the heart is as a root and a more in a trée. The organe or long pipe that commeth of the left cell of the hart, is like the stocke or legge of the trée: the which a good waye runneth forth as boughs of a trée into two partes, of the which one goeth vpward and that other downward. They spread abroad & diuide as it were spraies or small boughs into all the bodie, euen to the arteries of the head. And when the heart openeth, all the organes & vaines open together: & when the heart closeth, they close also: and by opening of them colde ayre is drawen from the vtter part of the heart to the in∣ward part thereof: and in closing there∣of foule smoake that is bread in them, is wrong out and drawne out some deale: and by ye drawing out thereof the com∣plection thereof is made euen. And as he saith the vertue of moouing that is pight in the heart, runneth and passeth by the weson & vains to euery part of the body, and bringeth to euery of them proper life and proper kinde heate. The breast ser∣ueth the heart in opening of it selfe, and drawing in of colde aire, and closing of it selfe, and putting out of smeakye vapour that is bred in the heart. Where∣fore if the breast, weson, and vaines, and other instruments of lyfe be safe, the vertues be concordaunt in theyr work∣kings: and if they bée sicke and grie∣ued, the vertues bée not obedient.

Page  56Therefore the goodnesse and euill of lys that serue, either helpe or let the heart to worke and to doe the dades thereof. And therefore when the heart is strong, and hath the members therto obe∣dient, both in opening and closing well disposed, then commeth from the heart strong breathing, and strong pulse, and strong working, after the goodnes of the member and of the vertue. And when the vertue is feeble and slacke, it may not spred the wosen and veynes into euery place of the body, and therefore breath∣ing is lesser, and pulse also. Also if the heart be too colde and too moyst, and the pulse softe, the man is berest of boldnesse and hardinesse, and is fearefull and slow, and bare of haire in the breast, for scar∣citie of smokie vapour, of yt which haire is bred. And if the heart be too drie and colde, it maketh the pulse rough, harde, and small, & slow breath and selde, name∣ly, if the beast be lyttle & straight. Huc vsque Haly super Tegni Galen.

*The heart is the principall member of a man, & it is the member that hath the first life in man, and it is the last thing that doth dye in man. The heart doth viuificate or quicken all other mē∣bers: and it is sooner decayed of vital operation, by thought and care, than by distemperaunce of homour or vnsatia∣ble sufet: and yet the gretest of these euills, is to be auoyded in time, by a godly regard and Christian abstinence, And this of the heart sufficeth.

Of the breath. Cap. 37.

*THe breath is the mouing of the hart and of the lunges, gendered through drawing in of colde ayre, to temper kinde heate, and expulsing out of the same ayre: for the heart by no meanes can suffer the lacke of drawing of aire, for if the heart should rest a lyttle while of drawing of aire, it should be grieued, or fayle. And therefore the heart hath contrary mouings: For it openeth the lunges, and draweth in ayre: and clo∣seth the lunges, and putteth out ayre. And so the breath by drawing in of aire tempereth the heate of the heart, and by putting out of ayre, it cleanseth ye heart of smokie vapour, and also it seedeth and nourisheth the spirituall lyfe. Also by strength and feeblenes of breath is shew∣ed the state of the spirituall members: as it is sayd afore of the properties of the limges. Also in breathing there is more ayre drawen in, than is put out. For a great deale turneth into the seeding and nourishing of the spirituall life: and the breath is taken within the lungs, and the beast lyueth without stffeling, as long as the spirite is cloased within the instrument of breth. Also when the in∣struments of the breath be grieued, the spirites are corrupt, and chaungeth after the qualytie of the lymme and the in∣strument that is grieued, as saith Con∣stantine.

The breath is sometime grieued by default of vertue that moueth and ru∣leth the sinewes. Sometime by stopping of the instruments of the spirite, that commeth of great and thicke humours, or of great ventositie and winde, that stoppeth the waye of the breath: or els of some postume of the lungs, that grie∣ueth the cloathing and the skinnes of the heart: or of the great heate of the heart, hauing masterie in the substance of the lunges. By reason of all which diseases, the breath is made feeble and scant. And if the breath be swifte and lyttle, it betokeneth strong heate, that stifleth and ouercommeth the vertne, and namely if the touch be hot, and if there followeth thirst and drinesse of the tongue. And colde breath and lyttle in Febribus acutis, is token of death: for slownesse of breath betokeneth default of vertue of out putting: and coldnesse be∣tokeneth quenching of kinde heate: and default of vertue in the substance of the heart, and of the instruments of spirite. Also chaunging of breath commeth of vniuersall corruption of the inner mem∣bers, as it fareth in leprosies, in yt which the breath stinketh and is corrupted, and infeteth the aire that is nigh. Where∣fore the blowing of such is wont to in∣fect those that come neere them: it infect∣eth and corrupteth the ayre neere about, lyke as the hissing of the Serpent, cal∣led, Page  [unnumbered]Regulas, whose blowing corrupt∣eth the aire, and slaieth the birds ••eng, as Aucen and Constantine say.

¶Of the Stomacke. Cap. 38.

*THe stomacke is the doore of the wombe, and taketh meat and drinke, and sendeth it to the guts, as sayth Isi∣dore. And Constantine saith, That the stomacke is round, euenlong, hollowe within, rough in the bottome, manifolde and fleshly, and hath two mouthes, one aboue and another beneath. And it is rough and manyfolde to holde the better the meate that it taketh: for if it were slipper and smooth within, by slidernesse thereof the meate should passe out with∣out digesting. And it is fleshie in the bo∣tome to comfort digestion. The flesh of the stomacke is hotte and also moyst:* of which qualities the digestion is specially strengthened in the bodie of the beast. And it is round to be more able to take & receiue the more meate. And if the sto∣macke were of another shape, three cor∣nerd or such other, uill humours there∣in shuld easily be gathered to corruption, and rotting. For such a shape might not for corners be dryed and cleansed of su∣perfluities. It is euenlong for yt it should not presse and thrust the spiritual mem∣bers by too great roundnesse therof, & also that it may the more easilye be ioyned with the ouer & the neather parts. Fur∣ther the stomacke, and specially of man, is straight in the ouer part, and wide and broad in the neather parte, and that also is néedfull. For sith a man goeth more vpright then other beasts, his meate go∣eth downward alway: And therefore the neather breath and widenesse of his sto∣macke is profitable to take therein the more meate & drinke. Also it is sinewie to haue the more subtilnesse of feeling & vertue and strength of appetite. Also it is compassed in with yt liuer to haue of the liuer the more heat to conco & digest the meat and drinke. For the liuer with his fiue pipes beclippeth the stomacke, & gi∣ueth it heat: and taketh inyee, grease, and humours, whereof bloud is bred by cer∣teine veines, yt the Phisitions call Mise∣acas, & turneth grease,* iure & humour into bloud by strong working of heate. And Constantine saith, if the stomacke be substauntially hot, it digesteth well great & grose chawed meates, and wast∣eth liking meates, and digesteth too soone, and for likenesse it desireth most hotte meate, & may not suffer hunger. And if ye stomack be cold, it defieth not wel great meat, and is soone grieued therwith, and chaungeth them some into sowre & cor∣rupt humours. And a dry stomack is soone a thirst, and a little water sufficeth not thereto: and if the water be to much, it maketh roring & rolling in the wombe. And if the stomacke be moist, it thirsteth not: but it desireth moist meat, & desireth but litle. Hue vsque Con. li. 1. ca. 13. And he saith. li. 9. cha. 26. that to the stomack chaunce diuerse griefes: as euill digestiō, fumosities, flure, spuing, yering, blowing, swelling & belking: and these come of di∣uers causes. For somtime they chance of euill complection: somtime of too much emptines: somtime of too much repletion of meate & drinke: somtime of too great sharpnesse & biting of humours: somtime of putrifaction of the heart: sometime of default of vertue digestiue: sometime of the qualitie of ye meate, which if it punch and pricke, the stomacke is tormented & pricked, and compelleth it to passe out: or else if it bo gleamie the stomack is made slipper, and so the meate passeth out ea∣sily: And sometime griefe of the stomack commeth of the féeblenesse of the vertue of outputting: and griefe of the stomack commeth not onely of it selfe,* but also of company and by meanes of other mem∣bers. And the stomacke is the purueiout and husband of all the body, and the sto∣macke taketh feeding for all the mem∣bers: and serueth all the members ther∣of, as it needeth, as sayth constantine. Through the pipe called Gula,*and the interiour Colli Fistula, the inner pipe or conduct of the necke that commeth frō the neck to the stomack, & through it is conueied the meate & drinke, which by the mouth is sent into the stomacke, the vpper parte of the sto∣macke is called, Os Stomachi.

Page  57

¶Of the Liuer. Cap. 39.

*THe Liuer is called Epar in Latine, and lecur also, and if hath that name for fire hath place therin, that passeth vp spéedely to the braine, & commeth thence to the eden, and to the other wittes and lyins. And ye luler by his heat draweth inward sweat and iuyce, and turneth it into bloud, and serueth the bodie and members therewith to the vse of féeding: and is called Epar, for that it féedeth such members. In the lyuer is the place of voluptuousnesse and lyking of the flèsh,* the endes of the lyuer be called Fibre, for they be strayght & passing as toūgs, and beclyppeth the stomacke, and giueth heate to digestion of meate & and they be called Fibre, because the igroman∣cers brought them to the Altars of their God Phoebus, and offered them there, and then they had aunsweres. Huc vs∣que Isidorus. Constantine sayth, that the syuer is a member, hot, hollow, and slender, set in the right side of the beast, vnder the stomacke, to helpe the first di∣gestion with his heate: and also hée is loudy and e in colour, for the vnpour thereof is turned into humour of blod, by full great heat: and he is some drale hard, that he be not soone Suf and grie∣ued, and the liuer is diuers in men in 〈…〉 neilie of parte,* for in men it is grea∣ter, than in other beasts of the same quantisie. The number of parts thereof, in some is double, & that is at the least: in some treble,* or quatreble, or at ye most quintreble. And out of the broad hollow∣nesse of the lyuer commeth a veyne, that Phisitions call Porta: & this veyne, or he come out,* is departed in fiue small veynes, entring into parts of the lyuer. The lyuer draweth in his hollownesse, the vapour of the first digestion by cer∣taine veynes, and by boylyng of kinde heate doth make digestion: secondly, it tourneth the bloudie lumpe, into y kinde of foure humors: and what is hot and moyst passeth into the kinde of bloud, & is receiued and kept in the veynes: and what is hot and drye passeth into ye kind of Cholera, and is receiued properly in the skibbet of the gall: and what is cold & drye passeth into the kind of Me∣lancholy, & his proper receit is ye skibbet of the splene & what is floting and ra∣trie, passeth into fleame, and the receiuer thereof is the kings. Héereof it follow∣eth, that the lyuer is the chiefe founda∣tion of kindly vertue, and gretest helper of the first digestion in the stomacke: & the lyuer maketh perfectly the second di∣gestion in the stomacke, in the hollow∣nesse of his owne substaiunce, and depar∣teth cleane and pured, from vncleane & vnpured, and sendeth féeding to all the members, and excited loue or bodelye lust, and receiueth diuers passions. And the lyuer is grieued sometime by great seruent heate, that openeth the poores within: by whose opening, the vertue dimishing away, the liuer worketh more sacklye. And sometime by ouermuch colde, which letteth the vapours that is drawen, to be turned into bloudy kinde: and héereof many times commeth the dropsie. For the dropsie is nothing els, (as the Philosopher saith) but errour of the vertue of digestion in the hollownes of the lyuer: for if this vertue erte and faile in his working, néedes the bloud is corrupt, and if the bloud be vndissolued, the body that is fed therewith swelleth and stretcheth, and thereof commeth the dropsie. Also the lyuer is grieued by euil cōplection of his substance, & that is by ye distemperance of ye foure humors: the which distemperaunce hath mastery in the lyuer. Also it is grieued by stop∣ping of his veynes: for it happeneth oft that the great humors and gleymie are gathered in the veynes of the lyuer, and so when the bloud is closed, and maye not passe out, it causeth strayghtnes and stopping. The same also channeth by too great heate, drying the bloude hu∣mour, and making the substaunce of the veynes of the lyuer straight, that ye bloud may not fréely shedde it selfe to féede the other members of the bodye. The same may happen sometime by too great colde congealyng the humours, and making straight the wayes of the lyuer, and tes∣ting the passage of bloude to féede the members.

Page  [unnumbered]The same also happneth by an impo∣stume, grieuing the substaunce of the li∣uer, and bréeding matter therein. Al∣so the same happeneth by winde inclo∣sed, stretching the tender skinnes of the lyuer, and also by discordaunce of mem∣bers breeding woe and sorrowe. Also it is ofte grieued by vnmeasurable passing or running out of bloud, that commeth of opening of the veynes, that spring out of the lyuer: and that commeth of too great sharpnesse of bloud, or els of too great replecion, or féeblensse of vertue of holding, or of too great businesse and labour, as Constan, sayth. And yet of the kinde & tokens of complection of the liuer Galen saith in Tegni, a token of ye liuer when it is hot, is largnesse and widenes of the veynes that be not pulses. Upon this place Haly saith, when great heate hath the masterie in the liuer, the liuer is more, and the veyne thereof wareth more wide and great: and when that veyne is great, all the veyns that be not veynes of the pulse, in all the members be great,* and the bloud thereof is hot, & sometime, thereof is bred Citrina Cho∣lera. And by continuance and passing of time after the state of youth, the citrius Cholera is burnt, and thereof is made blacke Cholera, and diuers passions are bred, increase, and come of such Cholera, And sometime the coldnesse of the heart with andeth the passing and ouer great heate of the lyuer: for the lyuer is ruled & gouerned in his working by ye heart, as by the superiour and more noble and worthier member. And this same sayth Aristotle lib. 13. where he setteth yt hart before the lyuer, as ruler and gouernour thereof. Also Galen saith, that the heate of the hart tempereth ye coldnes of ye ly∣uer, & signe & token of coldnesse and dri∣nesse of the lyuer, is straightnesse of the veynes & scarsitie of bloud: as softnes of veynes & much bloud, is token of moy∣sture. Also Haly sayth, that the lyuer is the well of moysture of the bodye, and therefore if the lyuer that is the roote and well of humour be drye, it may not worne nor chaunge any member of the bodie to humour, neyther to moysture, to withstand his drinesse.

The drinesse and the moysture of the lyuer is more or lesse after the dispositi∣on of the heart. Then the lyuer is a no∣ble and precious member, by whose al∣teration the body is altered: and the ly∣uer sendeth féeding and vertues of fee∣ding to the other members, to the nea∣ther without meane, and to the ouer, by meane of the heart, as Galen saith. Yet contrariwise Aristotle saith, lib. 13 that the heart doth all that is aforesaid, by meane of the lyuer; which of these opi∣nions is of more truth and certaintie, & put and leaue to the iudgement and dis∣cretion of other men.

The lyuer is none other thing,*than congealed bloud, which doth ralifie the stomacke like the fire vnder a pot, and doth make digestiō, & as the third prin∣cipall member in man, in whom rest∣eth the animall spirites. And whereas many affirme, that mans lyuer maye waste, it is not so: yet may the lyuer haue many and diuers infirmities, as heate, water gulls, kernells and opilati∣ons, with such lyke diseases. The lyuer is hot and drye.

¶And this that we haue treated of at this time is sufficient touching the properties of the lyuer.

¶Of the Gall. Chap. 40.

THe Gall is called Fel in Latine,* for it is a case of a thin sell, and conay∣neth humour that is moyst and bitter, for red Cholera hath masterie and do∣mination therein, as sayth Isidore.*And the gall receiueth the refuse and dregs of the bloud, and it cleaueth chiefely to the lappes of the liuer. For the case of the Gall is a certaine skinne, set vpon the bounch or rising of the lyuer, and hath two sprayes: by the one therof, red Cholera is borne to the guts, to comfort ye vertue of out putting, yt the guts may be purged and cleansed the better, & the more easilye, by the sharpnesse of that Cholera: By the other spraye, Cholera is brought to the stomacke, that it maye with heate thereof helpe the vertue of digestion.

Then the Gall is a member hot and Page  58 dry,* set on the rising part of the lyuer: & is the propre receiuer of red Coler, and helpeth to clense the bloud from red Co∣ler. For by the presence of Coler the bloud should be burnt, but if the super∣fluitie therof had a place within the case of the Gall, and the Gall by heate ther∣of helpeth and susteineth the séething of meate and drinke, and perteth and suc∣keth by his subtiltie, and poncheth and prycketh by his byting and sharpnesse, and gnaweth and byteth the guttes, and exepteth and styrreth to put out super∣fluities and styncking things: And the Gall for great heate is most bytter, and by medlyng thereof with sweetenesse of the bloud, chaungeth or altereth. Huc vsque Constantinus, Aristotle, lib. 3. sayth, that the Dolphyn hath no Gall: and all kynde of foules and of sysh, and all maner of beastes, which lay Egges, haue Galles. Some haue more and some haue lesse: And by some manor of wise it is in subtil waies, that stretcheth from the Liuer to the guttes, by one maner, these waies stinken: And one maner the Gall is in a gutter diuersly, for some∣time in the nether, and sometyme in the myddle, and sometime in the ouer, and some foules haue Galls priuely hyd in a gutte, as Culuours or Doues, and wa∣ter Crowes, and Swallowes. And some haue a great Gall on the Lyuer, and in the wombe, and in a gutte, as in a Gos∣hauke, and in a Kite or Glede.

Also, lib. 14. Aristotle sayth, that some beasts haue no Galls, as Horses, Mules, Asses, and Olyphants. The Camel hath no Gall distinguished, but he hath smal veynes, in which is gall.

Also some men haue great gall in the Lyuer, and some haue not so great. And the Gall is a certaine superfluitie, which is gathered as dragges in the Wombe: But yet kynde vseth superfluitie to cer∣taine help and succour. In them that haue the kynde of the Lyuer whole and sounde, and well disposed and ordred, and haue kyndely swéete bloud, no Gall is founde: Or if it be founde, it is but lyt∣tle, and that in right small veynes. And therefore theyr. Lyuer that haue no gall, is of good colour, and more swéeter then the other. In a beast that hath Gall, is somewhat, which is of very swéet smell, founde vnder the Gall: For by gathe∣ring of the Gall into one place, the other parts being nigh ther about, are the swée∣ter and more pleasant.

Also the Gall by his subtiltie & sharp∣nesse, arueth and cutteth great humors, and wasteth them by his dryenesse. And therefore to clense the eye sight, and to make it cleare, and to put of the impedi∣ment and lette of the spirit of lyfe, and namely the Gall of & oshauke; and of other foules, which lyue by rauine, is ne∣cessary, as sayth Con in Viatico. And by continuing hease, and great boyling of the humour of the Gall, comming again to the Lyuer, the bloud is infected, which being infected, bothe after the nourish∣ments that are sent to féede the mēbers, and apphyreth and enfedeth them: and also maketh and causeth the skinne to be yelow of colour or els gréene, or blacke. The tollens of those passions be these: The infection of all the body, thirst, byt∣ternesse of ye mouth, che of the forhead, rynging in the eares, yelow brine with yelow some continuall yelow spewing. And sometyme it happeneth, that the pooes of the case of the Gall be stopped and letted: And then Coler infecteth the Lyuer, and bréedeth the same maner of passion. Therfore in Viatico, Con saith, that when the case of the Gal is greued, that than saylleth the vertue thereof, by the which he vseth to drawe out the red Coler of the Lyuer: And so the Coler a∣byding with the bloud, the bloud is dy∣ed & chaunged. Also he sayth, that when Apostume is bred in the wayes by the which Coler passeth to the Gall, the Coler turneth to the Lyuer, and passeth about with the bloud into all the body. For if the nether hole be stopped, than Coler passeth vp to the ouer waye, and to the stomacke, and than the fare is yelow, and the mouth is bitter and dry, burning and thirst in the stomacke.

The Uryne and dyrt commeth whyle, for that Coler is farre from the Lyuer and the Keynes; where the Uryne is wont to be dyed. And if the ouer hole be stopped, than Cōler dyeth the nether Page  [unnumbered] partes: And tokens be séene that be con∣trary to the foresayd tokens, as Con∣stantine sayth. The gall lyeth vpon the liuer like a bladder, hauing a skin ea∣sie to breake, named Cista Fels, the Filme of the Gall.

¶This that is spoken and treated of the Gall, sufficeth touching to this matter.

¶Of the Splene. Cap. 41.

*THe Milt is called Splen in Latine, and hath that name of Supplere, to fulfill: for it supplyeth the lefte side be∣fore the lyner, that it be not emptio. And some men suppose,* that the mylt in the cause of laughing. For by the Splene we are moued to laugh: by the Gall, we be wroth: by the Heart we be wise: by the Brayne, we feele: by the Ly∣uer, we loue.

¶And if these be in good state, whole, and well disposed, the beast is all whole, as saith Isidore. And Constantine saith, That the mylt is set in the lefte side, & the shape thereof is euenlong, & is som∣what hollow toward the stomacke, and rising vp toward the ribbes. In these two places it is bounde with certayne small clothings. And men say, that the mylt hath two veynes, by the one ther∣of, he draweth to him blacke Cholera, of the bloud of the lyuer, and by the other he sendeth that that sufficeth to the sto∣macke, to comfort the appetite thereof. The mylt helpeth to sulfill the default of the body in the left side, and to an∣swere to the lyuer in the other side, to the conseruation of ye stomacke, to draw to him the dregges of bloud, for clean∣sing of the lyuer: and to send what suf∣ficeth to the appetite and desire to com∣fort the stomacke. The substaunce of the mylt is thin and hollow, to drawe easelye the humour of dregges: and he is blacke, for the lykenesse of black Cho∣lera, that he receiueth and contayneth: and he is also set in the left side, between the ribs and the stomack, for temperance and cooling of the lefte side, and for to saue the heating of the stomacke, to whom he is ioyned. He is somewhat hard, that he be not lightly hurt by quan∣titie and qualitie of the burnor of dregs, that he draweth and taketh. The mylt is ofte grieued: sometime by the default of vertue of containing and holding, and that is, when he maye not drawe to it selfe humour, nor is not able to sende it that is drawen to another place. And sometime by stopping, when great hu∣more and gleymie be gathered, and stop∣peth the wayes of the mylt, and let the working thereof. Also sometime, by too great repletion of humours, for humors fléeng to the mylte are drawen thether, for kindly working therrof, and maye not be doyded at the full, and therefore the humours encrease gleymie and hard in the hollownes of the mylt, insomuch, that it seemeth, that the mylte groweth bigger. But by the sentence of Hippo∣crates, if the splene be great, the body wi∣thereth and fadeth: and if the mylt di∣minisheth and fadeth, the body fatteth. Therefore if the mylte be somewhat more drawing to lyttlenesse, than to muchnesse, it is a signe and token of good complection, as saith Constantine lib.9. cap. 22.

The mylt is a spongeous substance,*lieng vnder the short ribbe, in the left side, by which equall of kinde, man is disposed to mirth, otherwise there fol∣low, the passions of sadnesse.

¶Of the Bowells. Cap. 42.

THe bowells be commonly called the guts,* which are set vnder and subiect to the members of life, as saith Isidore. And they be called Intestina in Latine, and be bounds togethers within with a bonde, and beare a manner seruice and reuerence to the higher members, and he their necessary instruments, and they be called Viscera in Latine, as it were ha∣uing life: for they be néere about those places that be nigh the heart, where the lyfe is bred and ingendred. Huc vsque Isidorus. And Constantine saith, That the guts be members, which holde euery each other within hollow and round, set into the wombe in length and in bredth, The making and substaunce of them, Page  59 is like to the stomacke. And they be nū∣bered fire principall guts: three of them be subtill, and be ioyned aboue: and three are grose, and begin from beneath. The first gut of the three subtill guts, is cal∣led, Duodenum, for in his length by the measure of euery man, he containeth twelue inches: & this gut stretcheth vp by the ridge, and bendeth toward no side. The second gut in Latine is called le∣iunium, to vnderstand in English, fast∣ing: for he is alway voyd of meate and drinke. And wise men and practisers tel, that when a beast is dead, that gutte is alwaye founde voyde and emptie: But some men say, as such as knowe Ana∣thomia, yt this gut putteth of all things from it selfe, and holdeth nothing to his owne feeding. The thirde little gut, is called in Latine Subtile, much lyke to the second, but he is neuer found with∣out somewhat of meate. Among ye other great guts, the first is called in Latine, Orbum, and hath a mouth in the subtill ende: and that gut hath that name, for he is in rest, as it were made a window, without the other mouth. And when other guts haue two mouths, that gut hath but one: and therefore he fareth as a sack, for he receiueth much, and putteth out but lyttle, in comparison to other guts. The seconde gut is set vnder Or∣bum, which is called the sacke, and this second gut is named leon:* For in that gut is the sicknesse that is called lliaca pasaio gendered. The third gut is named Colon, in the language of Gréeke, and is ioyned fast to the neather opening of al the body: and in this gut is bred a right grieuous sicknesse, that is called Cellica pssi, that commeth either of great straightnesse of that gut, or els of gathe∣ring of great and colde humours, that stop that gut within, as saith Constant. and Galen super Aphor. By that that is afore sayd, it is knowen whereto the guts be needfull. For they chaunge the meate into féeding, and receiue the su∣perfluities in their hollownesse to dis∣charge kinde. And also heereto is néede∣full roundnesse of guts, and swellyng & solding, as sayth Constantine, that the meate from the stomacke cleaue some part in the hollownesse of the guts, and to put out superfluitie, and to hold what is néedefull for the beast: and they bee round, least any superfluitie gathered of the stomacke shuld abide in any corner, and breede corruption in the guts. Also the guts be clothed with two full subtill clothes and small, either wrapped there∣in, and that is needfull: for if the one were grieued, the other cloath may help. Also the guts be some deale folded and rough within, and the folding thereof is straight in bredth, to put out the super∣fluitie of dregges, and to with-hold co∣uenably what is needfull to foode. Also the guts be clustered and bound toge∣ther, so that the lesse may haue succour of the more, and small and feeble of the greater and stronger: that the working of the vertue of kinde, be made perfect & coueable to put out superfluities, & to with-hold what is needfull. Also liber. 2. Aristotle saith, that the kinde of guttes varieth and chaungeth in quantitie and qualytie by diuersitie of teeth in the iawes of a beast. Therefore he saith, that in all beasts with teeth in either ia, the gut is lesse than the gut in beasts with∣out teeth, & no beast hath an euen strayt gut, except he haue teeth in either iawe. And he saith there, that the wombe of a serpent is straight & like to a large gut, and if he be little by kind, he hath a gall in the guts, & if he be great, he hath a gal vpon ye liuer. Also li. 13. he saith, That all beasts with large & straight guts be full great gluttons: for by scarsitie of vse of meat & indigestion, he desireth indigest superfluitie of meate, & the meate passeth soone out, & therefore he desireth much, and seeketh meate alwaye.

The guts and bowells are grieued in many manner wise, as saith Con∣stantine libro 9cap.26. Sometime by a cholariche humour, or by a melancho∣licke humour, fretting the guttes, and gnawing and bréeding the flure that is called Dissenteria, that is a right euill passion, and ofte bringeth to death as it is sayde in Aphorsin. If blacke Cholar come out in the beginning of a Flure, that Flure is deadlye.

Also sometime by gnawing, punching, Page  [unnumbered] and wounding of the guts, and that is by an vtter impostume, breeding matter & punching in the clothing of ye guts: or els by outward hurting & grieuing. Also they be somtime grieued by wind inclo∣sed, that haleth & stretcheth ye clothing & sinewes of the guts: and that is a bitter and grieuous paine, so that sometime it séemeth that the guts be fretted & woū∣ded: Also sometime by a humour great and sleumatike that stoppeth the nether parts of the guts, and letteth the out passing of the orders and bréedeth an E∣uill, which is called Iliaca passio, or els that euil which is called Collica passio,* And each euill is pestilent and deadly, & full seldome healed and cured, and ofte slayeth the second day or the thirde, ex∣cept men haue succour hastely. For the other passions of the guts, seeke in the Treatise, De infirmitatibus, & Collica passione.

¶Of the Kidneyes. Cap. 43.

THe kidneyes are called Renes in La∣tine:* for of them springeth the hu∣mour Seminall, as sayth Varro, for the veynes and the maraow, sweate out a thin humour into the kidneyes, and that lycour is ofte resolued by the heate of Venus, and runneth and commeth, and sheddeth it selfe into the place of gen∣dring as sayth Isidore. And the place which is in the sides of the ioyntes of the ridge, in which be the seates of ye kid∣neyes, be called the loynes: and be cal∣led in Latine Lumbi, for lust and liking of the fleshly acte, as saith Isidore: For in men the cause of bodely lust, is in the kidney and loynes.

And Const speaking of the kidneyes sayth, that they be made to sucke wa∣try humour from the lyuer, and to clense and purifie it, and the purgation there∣of, which is the vrine, the kidneyes sen∣deth to the bladder by the wayes of the vrine: and so sayth Haly also, Super Tegni. And he sayth, that the highest maker and Creator hath made and or∣dained two kidneyes to drawe watrye moysture of bloud from the lyuer, and to sende it to the bladder to passe out. A∣ristotle lib.13. saith, That the reynes bée made for the bladder, that so the work∣ing of the bladder, should be the better and the more perfect: For the reynes cleanse the superfluitie of moysture, that runneth to the bladder. Also he saith, that the right reyne is higher than the lefte, in euery beast that hath reynes, and that because in the right side, the heate is higher and stronger. Also he sayth, that in all beasts which haue reynes, the left reyne is lesse fatter than the right, and higher: For kinde in the right side is more light, and of more mouing & heate, for heate dissolueth and wasteth fatnes. Also the reynes be the vttermost of the inner members, and therefore they neede greate heate. Then consider, That the reynes are hot, and keepe kindly heate, and they temper the coldnes of ye ridge and of the ioynts of the ridge bone, and drain watry humours from the lyuer, & dyeth and coloureth bloud, and comfort∣eth the vertue of kinde, and bréedeth Se∣minall humor: and they be fleshly, hol∣low, round, and couered with fatnesse. They are fleshly and powrie, to drawe and to receiue the easelier, watrie super∣fluitie: they are round, that they should not gather no humour to rotting & cor∣ruption: and are cloased and warded with fatnesse, that they be not grieued with the coldnesse of the ridge boanes: and they receiue certaine veynes of the stomacke, that come out of the lyuer. In the which veynes the superfluitie of hu∣mour in the second digestion is brought to the reynes. Therefore if the sayde veynes be stopped and let in their office, the reynes be grieued and the liuer also. Sometime in the reynes fail diuers griefes, as sayth Constantine lib.2. cap.34. If the veynes of the lyuer be stop∣ped, the reynes lacke humour of blend to their féeding, and therefore they were leane & small. And if the neather wayes of them be constrained or straighted with heate either with colde, then by ye pre∣sence of superfluous humour, that com∣meth into their substance, they be ouer∣much stretched and dilated, and so con∣sequently corrupted, or els the humors being fordried, they putrifie and tourne into the stone.

Page  60*The reynes are also sundrye wayes grieued, with a postumate winde, that commeth of extreame colde, or of a fer∣uent heate.

¶Of the Bladder. Cap. 44.

THe bladder is called Vesica in La∣tine,* and hath that name for taking and receiuing of winde, as sayeth Isi∣dore: for by drawing and receiuing of wind, the bladder openeth and spredeth: as contrariwise by sending out of winde it closeth and goeth togethers. And is cal∣led Vesicula in Latine as it were the diminutiue of Vesica, and it hangeth as it were a birds croppe vnder the throte, lyke a purse, in the which the first meat of the foule is receiued, and kept therein to the second digestion, that shalbe made in the guysarne or mawe: and the meat is kept in that croppe, as it were in a proper spense and sellar against hunger that may come. But as we speake heere (as Constantine sayeth) The Bladder is a cauie skinne, and rounde, and hollow as a sacke, close on euery side, ex∣cept the ouermouth alone, and the sub∣stance thereof is hard, that it be not gre∣ued by biting and sharpnesse of the U∣rine, the which is receiued & taken ther∣in: and it is close in euery side downe∣ward, that the lycour that is drawen in, be not sodainly put out, and vnuolunta∣rily, and so the vrine goth in by an hole, and out by the same, as it is shewed in Anathomia. Also the bladder is round, to open and spred as the cleansing and purging of bloud wareth more, and to be the more able to receiue the pourging & clensing, yt is vrine. Also li. 13. Ar. saith, that euery beast that hath lungs thirst∣eth much, & for him néedeth moyst meat more than drye: and therfore ye bladder is néedfull to receiue the moysture of such superfluitie. Also he saith, that no beast with feathers, with scales, with rindes, neither with shells, hath bladder, except the Lortell of the sea and of the land. For in such beastes the superfluitie passeth into féeding of fethers, scales, and such lyke. Also li. 3. he saith, that euerye beast that gendereth hath a bladder, and those which laye egges haue none: ex∣cept the kinde of Eutes: and moysture commeth net out of the bladders of dead bodyes. In one manner, drye superflu∣itie is gendred in the bladder, and there∣of commeth the stone. Also li. 6. he saith, That in euery beast without a bladder is easie out passing of durt, and of super∣fluitie of moysture.

The bladder,*receiueth the vrine di∣stilled from the lyuer & the reynes of the backe, by the powers named Vriti∣des or Vrichides, the bladder may haue many impediments, as scabbes, vscerati∣ons, inflamations, and also a quaking debilitie, that such a diseased cannot hold his water.

¶Of the Vrine. Cap. 45.

ISaac saith, that vrine is the purga∣tion of bloud and of humoures,* and is gendered and bredde by working of kinde, for it taketh beginning of the ly∣uer, and substaunce and colour in the reynes. For watry substaunce of bloud is sent by certayne subtill veynes to féed the reynes. And so when it commeth to the reynes, there it is dried and cleansed, as Ware that is molten and purified, and made perfect. And by the strength of heate of the lyuer and of the reynes it is dryed and couloured, and so it swea∣teth and passeth forth by certaine holes and poores into the bladder, and is ga∣thered and brought into the hollownesse therof: and so after y't this moist substance and fleeting is put out of the bladder, it is vrine, and hath that name, for it is Vritiua, burning and biting For as E∣gidius saith, what that the vrine touch∣eth it viteth, dryeth and burneth: For if hath burning and drieng kinde, and therefore it helpeth against scabs small and great, against Uleynes and whelks, if the diseased be washed therewith. Also, li13.Arist. saith, that vrine dronken help∣eth Splenetikes, & clenseth rotted woūds and scabbed places. Urine medled with the gall of a Goshauke,* & wisely and wa∣rely dropped in the eyen that be anoyn∣ted therewith, fretteth, gnaweth, and doth awaye webbes and filth of the eyen, Page  [unnumbered] as saith Constantine openly, and Galen also. And therefore men shall not be squeymous of vrine, for in many things it is profitable and needfull: and U∣rine also hath that name of Vrith, a word in Gréeke, that is to vnderstande, shewing, for it sheweth and maketh the inner parts knowen: for we haue know∣ledge of the vrine, and be certified, how it standeth with the inner powres. For it sheweth and maketh vs knowe, the state of kindly vertue of the lyuer, and in other neather members, and that by the substaunce and colour of vrine: and namely by diuers regions thereof, that Phisitions name Iposlasim. For if that region that is in the bottome of ye ves∣sell be white, fattie, well coued, and not departed: it betokenctly strength of ver∣tue and full working of kindly heate in the sayde members. And by the middle region of the vrine, that Phisitions call Eueorima, we déeme suppose, and iudge, of the heart and of the members that be nigh thereto. For if the vrine in the mid∣dle thereof be well disposed in substance and colour, not bloo, nor wanne, neyther darkned nor shadowed with myst, it be∣tokeneth that the spirituall members be well disposed in substaunce and colour. And by the ouer part of the vrine, that Phisitions call Nephilem, we déeme of strength of the vertue of féelyng, that is in the region of the head: for if there be a circle, not too great, red, blewe, nor gréene, not grauellous, neither, corny, but temperate in colour and substaunce, it betokeneth that the braine, and all the other members that serue the vertue of féelyng, be safe & sound: and if the signes be contrarie in the vrine, it betokeneth contrary disposition of the body. Urine is iudged and déemed namely by the sub∣stance and colour: for if it be thinne in substaunce, it betokeneth drinesse of hu∣mour that hath the masterie: and if it be thicke, it betokeneth moysture of the humour that hath the masterie: and if it be meanly, it betokeneth temperatenesse, euennesse, and meane disposition. And vrine is déemed by colour: for it hath many colours, to the number of xx. as saith Isaac and Egidius.

Of the which coulours, some betoken strength of heate, or els of colde, & some feeblenes, and some in a meane. For yeo∣low colour and lyke to milke, and such other, betokeneth féeblenesse of heat: and a déepe red betokeneth strength of heat: Dorrey and citrine, and light red, beto∣keneth meanly. Also among these con∣lours, some betoken death, as blacke, gréene and blew: and some default of digestion, as white, milkish and yeolow: and some beginning of digestion, as whitish and pale: and some perfect digestion, as citrine and reddish: and some passing strength of heate, as redde, and lyght red: and some burning, as pas∣sing brownnesse: and some passing bur∣ning and death, as black and greene Yet blacknesse commeth sometime of colde, that quencheth vtterly all kinde heate, & then commeth blewnesse afore: But when it commeth of the last burning, then commeth greenesse afore. It longeth not to this worke, to determine and rec∣ken the particular circumstance of these colours: but who that wil know them, let him read the bookes of Isaac, Theo∣phill of Constantine, and of Egidius, in them it is treated of vrine full perfectly.

Vrina is the Latine word,*in Greeke Curia: and as Egidius hath written, Vrina is deriued of Vrith, which by demonstration is to say, shewing: For by the Vrine, the humane dispositions are shewed, vnto the which belongeth sufficient learning, and well acquainted experience, thereby to discerne the hi∣postasie, the qualitie and quantitie of vrines, the sexe and kinde, the youth, aged, and decrepite. And touching U∣rines, let this suffice at this time.

¶Of the Belly. Cap. 47.

ISidore speaketh of thrée manner of wombes,* the one is called Venter in Latin, the other Vterus, and the third Aluus, Venter is that wombe, that ta∣keth and digesteth meate and drinke, & is séene outwarde, and is called Ven∣ter, for by Venter the wombe, meate and drinke, Venit commeth into all the body. Aluus is the wombe that taketh Page  61 meate and drinke, and is manye times cleansed.* Properly to speake Vterus, is the wombe of a woman, in which she conceiueth, and is called Vterus, for that she is conceiued and forward with child, as saith Isidore. Then Venter is the wombe that taketh the féeding of all the body, as Constant. saith, and is ye place of féeding and norishing and fundament of the first digestion and of the seconde: and the making therof is hot and moist, and that is fleshly because of digestion, & it is wrapped about with diuers subtill nerues and skinnes: and that is for the kéeping & sauing of the entrayles, whose disposition is round and euen-long: it is round, for the taking of meate & drinke, and for the containing of the members of féeding: it is euen-long, for easie ioy∣ning with the ouer partes and the nea∣ther: and this wombe challengeth place in the middle of the body, to deale and sende feeding to the ouer & to the nether members. Then this wombe among all the parts of the body, is most softe and vnstable, and is yet more profitable than other: for as the nourisher of the body, it taketh and séetheth meate and drinke, to féed all the members of the body, and sendeth due féeding to euery member, & gathereth many superfluities in it selfe, for the féeding of other members, and it putteth them out, for it may not sustaine them long time: & hath diuers griefes, that come of euil disposition of the mem∣bers of féeding, that this wombe contay∣neth in it selfe: the which griefes ye née∣ret they be then to the belly and mem∣bers of lyfe, the more perillous they be. The wombe is oft grieued by great ful∣nesse and repletion. And on the contra∣rye, if it be grieued by too great auoy∣dance, it is succoured by too great reple∣tion, as it is said in Aphor. Also the wor∣kings of ye wombe be diuers by diuersi∣tie of times. For in Winter kinde heate closed in the inner parts of the wombe, worketh strongly: and therfore in win∣ter is greater appetite and stranger di∣gestion, as it is sayd in Aphorism. In Winter and springing time wombes be hottest of kinde, and of longest sléepe.

¶Of the Nauell. Cap. 48.

THe Nauell is in the middle place of the body,* and is called Vmbilicus in Latine, as it were the middle bosse of twayne as the middle place of a buckler as saith Isidore. And by the Nauell the childe is holden and fed in the mothers wombe. Constantine saith, that the na∣uell is made and composed of sinewes, veynes and issues: and by the nauell the childe in his mothers wombe draweth and sucketh subtill bloude, and taketh breath by the sayd issue. In the birth cre, the childe come out, the nauell breaketh off fast by the Mother, and commeth forth with the childe, and the midwiues binde the nauell in the length of foure inches: and of that binding commeth the vttermost ende and roundnesse of the nauell. Huc vsque Constantinus. Et su∣per Ezec. 16.Hierome saith in this man∣ner: It is a kindly thing to children, when they are first borne, that the nauel be cut, and then to be washed with wa∣ter, and to haue away the bloud. The thirde to dyre vp the humour of ye childe in the Sunne: The fourth to be wrap∣ped fast in clothes, that the tender lyms fall not neither appaire. Also thereon Gregory sayth, that a childe in the mo∣thers wombe taketh féeding by the na∣uell, as trees & plantes by the rootes, with an hid humor of the earth are fed. And the genitals of women are set in the na∣uell, as the genitalls of man is set in the loynes. And therefore vnder the name of the nauell is signified lecherie. In Iob.40.*Behold now (Behemoth) his strēgth is in his loynes, and his force is in the nauell of his belly. Arist. li. 13. speaketh of the nauell, and sayth, that euery beast that gendereth with egges or laiding of egges, hath a nauell in tune of birth, and when the bird is waxed, the nauell is hid & not séene, for it is continued with some gut, by some part of & veynes. Also 〈…〉6 he saith that the making of the nauell, is not but as it were & rinde, that contay∣neth veines & is continued with ye child. And by veynes of the nauell as it were by conduits or pipes, bloud runneth from Page  [unnumbered] the place that is called the mother, to the feeding of the child. Then the child war∣eth and thriueth well by the nauell, as it is sayd in the same booke.

The nauell hath diuers impediments, it may fall out by ouer straining, and thereby come to Apostumation.

¶Of the genitalls. Cap. 49.

THe genitalls be the parts of the bo∣dy, that (as the name teacheth) haue vertue of gendring and getting of a childe,* as saith Isidore. Also for shame, these parts are called Pudenda, ye shame∣ly part: and therefore they be couered and hid, for that they haue not the same manner of fairenesse, as other members haue that be openly seene: and therfore they be counted vnhonest. Among the genitalls, one is called the pintle, Vere∣truth in latin: either because it is one∣lye mans member: or els for that it is a shamefast member, of Verecundo, or els for Virus Sperme commeth out thereof. For properly to speake, the humour that cōmeth out of mankind is called Virus, as saith Isidore. And other members be ground & fundament of ye vertue of gen∣dring, as ye ballock stones, that are called Tefticuli in Latine, the diminutiue of Testis witnesse: their number begin of two, without witnesse of which two stones, no man is perfect. These stones serue the pipe & giue it séede, & they take the séede of the marrowe of the ridge bone and of the reynes, to the acte of gen∣dring or begettiug. Huc vsque Isidorus. Constantine saith, that the substance of these stones, is made of vddry and crud∣dic flesh, white, soft and not full sad and hard and that is for kéeping and sauing of heate: and for changing of bloud into whitenes, which is done by strōg heat, in their substance that séetheth the bloud, & turneth and maketh it while. And these stones be called principall members, for they be the proper instruments of princi∣pall working of the kinde vertue of gen∣dering. And if they be cut off, meanelye strength passeth, and the male complecti∣on chaungeth into the female complecti∣on. And therefore li. 3.Aristotle saith, yt if men be gelded Ante pollutionē in somno, thereafter groweth no haire in ye body. And if they be gelded Post polu∣tionem, then except ye haire of the brest, all the haire of the body falleth away & becommeth as it were a woman softe & féeble of heart and of bodye. Therefore li. 8. Aristotle sayth, That the voyce of men when they be gelded, chaungeth, and be as the voyce of women: and al∣so the figure and shape of them chaun∣geth. And when beastes are gelded in youth they ware great and large: and if they be gelded after perfection, then then they encrease not. Also if Hartes bée gelded after perfection, they encrease not. Also if Hartes be gelded or theyr hornes growe, their hornes shall neuer growe:* and if they be gelded after that theyr hornes are growen, then the hornes grow no more, and such Hartes chaunge not, neither cast not theyr hornes, as other doe that be not gelded. Also there it is sayde, that if Calues bée not gelded soone after one yeare they shal be lyttle: and he saith, that when they be gelded, the rootes of the sinewes and strings are drawen out. And if there bréedeth a postume in the place of the wound, men shall burn one of the stones that is cutte off, and laye the ashes to the postume. Also some beastes bée gelded onelye for the gendring stones. as Castors and Bausons: which when the hunters pursewe them, they bite off their owne stones with their teeth, be∣cause the hunters shoulde pursewe them no more. And he sayth, that the males of the wylde Asses gelde with theyr to the their Coltes and bite off theyr stones: but the females beware, and hide the Coltes from the males, that they be not gelded. Also lib. 16. it is sayd, that the stones of Fowles be small after the time that is ordeained to them to gen∣der by kinde, insomuch that then they appeare not: but then they growe full fast, when the time of loue draweth on, Then the priuie stones with other meē∣bers that serue the priuie stones be the head and well of the humour seminall, and first foundation radicall thereof.

For as Constantine sayeth, The kindly getting and gendering of beasts Page  62 God hath ordained and made couenable members, in the which he hath sette the cause and the matter of generation: the which may not come forth indéede, and take effect, without affection of loue. In the members genitall God hath sowen such an appetite inseperable, that euery beast should be stirred and comforted to conserue and multiply beasts of his own kinde: and that is done by mouing of God, least that the gendring together be∣ing abhorred, the generation of beastes should be lost. And to fulfill such gene∣ration, it néedeth that two beastes come togethers, male and female, of the séede of them euery beast is increased: so that in one of them that is the female, is as if were the cause materiall and suffera∣ble, and in the male is the cause formall, and principall working. Therefore lib.5. Aristotle sayth, that the generation of beasts hath double cause, that is to wit, male and female. Of the male commeth cause of mouing and of shape: The fe∣male is as it were the matter: Of the commition of both, commeth the crea∣ture, &c. Then God ordayneth the mem∣bers of them that gender, that the one should giue the matter seminall, and the other should receiue it. And God that is most wise, maketh these members to their working, so that they may not be better neither more perfect, as saith Con∣stantine. But truly manye misuse these members, that vse them not to ye fruite of generation, but rather against the or∣der of reason, and lawe of kinde, not to get children, but to foule first, and filthye liking of lechery. And therefore I lette this matter passe with silence, Ne forte spermatis explanando originem, pro∣gressum vel finem videar carnalibus occasionem cogitandi cornalia exhibe∣re. Of this one thing I warne all folke. that no man suppose, neither take on him to misuse the office of the foresayde members by lewd lyuing. For whosoe∣uer he be, that sapeth with the genitall members, and wilfullye vseth them in fleshly lyking, otherwise then is graun∣ted by lawfull gene∣ration of children, he looseth God the Father and beginner of kinde: and he shall haue no place a∣mong the children of blisse, in the gene∣ration of righteous men, except that hée doe worthelye repent and amende. For misuse of generation offendeth and doth wrong to the Father of yght, and is worthye great payne and punishment: and besides that, it resisteth grace, and woundeth kinde, and leeseth company of Angells, and winneth the paine of hell, and blemisheth fame, and wasteth sub∣staunce, and is spoyle of endlesse blisse, as saith Saint Ambrose.

Carnall lust is lyke vnto the Horse∣leach,*whose propertie is, once tasting of bloud that seemeth pleasaunt, cea∣seth not drawing of the same vntill he burst: euen so, an vnbrideled will, flesh∣ly giuen, continueth so long in whole∣dome and vncleannesse, vntill the pa∣trimony be diminished, the bodie con∣sumed, and the soule confounded. It tourneth prosperitie into beggerye, health into sicknesse, the soule into sinne: to the bodies couering, the Le∣prosie, Podegra, the Poxe: in steade of Hauke, Hound and game, the canker, woolfe, nittes and lyceum steede of re∣nowme, shame of bodely seeing, griefe of conscience, and contempt of lyfe.

Therefore, let the vnsatiable minded know, that with the nat they flye in securitie for a while, by the lyght of fire vntill the flame being touched, and then sodainly is espyed the force ther∣of. The loue of the world consist in these. 3. things, The lust of the flesh, The lust of the eyes, The pride of life: but as the sweet smell of a perfume, la∣steth but a while, euen so good coun∣saile taketh small roote to conuert the wicked. Propertius. Scilicet in insano nemo in amore videt, to liue in immo∣dest loue, is to be aliue in another bo∣dy, and dead in their owne. The adul∣terous fornicators seeke to see signes and tokens, they shal perish, & their po∣steritie shall bee rooted out at the last, and their portion is prepared with the Diuell and his Angells.

¶Of the Mother. Cap. 49.

THe Mother in a woman is a singular member, disposed as a bladder, & kind Page  [unnumbered] hath ordeined that member to take & re∣ceiue ye humor seminall. Unto the which the menstruall superfluitie of humours, (as it were to a pumpe of the womans body) floweth, the which for ye menstrual flowing & reflowing thereof, is called Menstruum. For ye superfluitie is wont to follow the course of the Moone, as saith Isid. And it is called Muliebria also & du∣reth & lasteth kindly in women, as long as they haue vertue to conceiue childrē: and when Muliebria faileth, thē faileth the vertue of conceiuing. And it is called Muliebria, for in women alone this in∣firmitie is found. For onely a woman is Animal menstruale, as saith Isido. By touching of such bloud, fruite springeth not, neither buddeth, hearbs die, and trées loose their fruit, &c. Séeke the propertie & kinde of this bloud afore in the thirde booke, in the treatise of humours. This Menstruum is the beginning of mans generation, & common foode of rich and poore, of noble and simple in the mother wombe, héerewith the field of our birth is moisted, and the child is fed héerewith while he is in his mothers wombe. And the mothers womb hath two cels or hol∣lownesses, the right cell is it in ye which the man childe is bread: And in the left ell is the maide childe conceiued. The child yt is conceiued some deale in both, hath disposition of either sexes male and female. In Anathomia it is sayd, that the mothers hath thrée cells in the right side propried to males, and thrée in the left side ordeined to females: And in the middle is conceiued Hermophroditus, yt hath both sexes male and female.* And the childe that is conceiued in the Mother is called Fetus in Latine. The childe hath that name Fetus of Fouere, that is ten∣derly fed and nourished. The thin bag or skinne that the childe is wrapped in, is called Secundina, which commeth out with the childe when it is borne. And if it ha that by any chaunce Secundina a∣bideth in the mother after that the childe is borne: thereof commeth great perill, except it be put out and holpe of kinde, or else by medicine. The mother hath many griefes: somtime by conteining too much superfluitie of humours, and that is by a clammie humour that stoppeth the mouths of the vains, or else of cold, that constraineth, or else of drinesse that wasteth. And these diuersities be known by their owne proper signes and tokers. Also it is sometime griued with too much flowing & shedding of menstruall humours: and that commeth eyther of too great abundance, that kinde maye not holde, or else of too great violence of sharpnesse and byting of humours. And if this euill be olde or of long continu∣aunce, scarcely it may be cured & holpen. For if the months of the vaines haue bene long open, it is hard to close them. Also the mother is grieued with stifling: in that passion it séemeth to the woman that she shall be stifled.* For the mother presseth the spiritual members, and that commeth of too greate repletion of hu∣mours that stretcheth the mother in length and breadth: or else it chaunceth of a corrupt & venimous fumositie, that cōmeth of some corrupt humuor, & filleth the hollownes of the mother, & maketh the mother to ouerstretch in widenesse.

The Mother hangeth betweene the splene and the bladder,*but somewhat higher then the bladder, the bottome or hollownesse is extended vnto the nauell, & is the place of the first Frag∣ma, of conception called Embrion, be∣ware of carnall copulation.

And so ye ful mother asketh more place, & thrusteth vpward togethers ye spirituall mēbers: wherby the woman is nigh sti∣fled. Also the mother somtime falleth too much forward, either to ye right side, or else to the left side: & sometime goeth out of her own place. And ye commeth of sla∣king of sinews, therof, & of superfluity of humours, ye charge sore & grieueth ye mo∣ther. And somtime the mother is grieued with sore ach & punching of postumes: whervpon followeth grieuous ach pric∣king & burning. Also when she is concei∣ued with childe, the mother is grieued with ach & stretching of powers ye com∣meth of mouing of the child,* & namely a∣bout the time of trauailing of child: For in ye time the child moueth more strong∣ly thē afore. Therfore néeds ye mother is greued: it is most specially griued in tra∣uayle, Page  63 when it thinketh to discharge it selfe, and the outpassing of the childe by some manner happe is let: which some∣time happeneth through the straightnes of the wayes of the Mother: and some∣time for too great fatnesse of the woman: and sometime for greatnesse of the child; and féeblenesse, and for default of vertue of out putting in the body of the woman that trauayleth of childe. And somtime it happeneth that the childe is dead, and therefore it may not help it selfe to come out of the mothers wombe. And some∣time the woman supposeth that she go∣eth with childe: and she beareth in hir wombe some manner lumpe wonderful∣ly shapen, as sayth Aristotle lib 18. Also after in purgation, it happeneth women to haue an euill, that is called Mola.* For sometime a man laye by a woman, and after a certain time she thought that she had gone with child: for hir wombe began to rise and swell, and tokens of going with childe were séene in the wo∣man: and when the time of birth drew nigh, she brought foorth no childe, & the swellyng of hir wombe abated not, but she endured so thrée yeares: and at last she trauayled, and brought forth a lump of flesh, so hard, that scarcely it might be cut, either seperated with yron: & such a lumpe is called Molia in Latine. And there Aristotle saith, that this hapneth, when the matter that is conceyued, is stifled with a vapour & humour of euill digestion: for then such a lumpe is bred (that is called Mola) in the Matrice or Mother, &c. In these mannets and ma∣ny other, the wretched Mother is grie∣ued very sore.

¶Of the Buttockes. Ca. 50.

THe buttockes be called Nates in la∣tine,* and haue that name because the bodye resteth on them, while we sit or ride, as saith Isidore. And the flesh in the buttockes is frumpled and knottie: because they should not ake by wayght and heauinesse of the bodye that sitteth thereon. And so the stocke of the bodie is borne vp, which beginneth at the necke, and stretcheth to the buttockes, us saith Isidore. Constantine saith, that the buttocks be full of sinewes, and that is for to binde the ioynts of the thighes to the stocke of the body: and therefore they be fleshie, to temper the coldnesse of the sinewes and bones and to defend the féelyng of the sinewes as saith Constan∣tine lib. 3.Cap. 8.

The decay of the buttockes,*is vn∣constant dyet, much lechetie, and cold sitting.

¶Of the Thighes. Cap. 51.

THe thighes be called Femora in La∣tine,* for in that place of the bodye is distinction and difference betweene male and female: and the thighs stretch from the flanke and the chest, and from the buttockes downe to the knées. The thighes moue in ioynts: and the hollow parts of the sayd ioynts are called Ver∣tebra in latine, and Coxae, as it were ioyned to an Axell trée. The thighs bend inward and not outward, vnder, and not aboue, as the armes doe, and therefore some men call them Suffragines, as saith Isidore. The thighes be made & compo∣sed of great bones, as saith Constantine. li. 8. They be all hollow aboue, and bending afore, and haue two sharpnesses: the greatnesse is néedfull, either for that they be the foundation of the bones, or els for that they beare ye great brawnes and sinewes, by the which the féete are plyably moued. Also crookednesse and bending of the vtter parts is néedefull, that the brawnes and sinewes may haue place: for if they were within, they shuld be hurt and grieued. Also these same two bones be some deale rounde in the inner side, and that is néedfull: For if they were crooked onely on one side, then all the body should be crooked & vneuen. Also hollownesse is néedfull with the in∣ner bending and roundnes, that the pey∣ses thereof, may be the more stedfast. The hollownes is néedfull to haue some ente∣ring into the hollownes of ye legs Also ye thighs be couered & warded with flesh & with brawnes, that the bones may haue helpe and succour against outward hurts and griefes, and also to temper the cold∣nesse Page  [unnumbered] of the bones, Further they be •••t aboue, and small beneath: and thus is needfull, for they are meane betwéene: the ouer, partes and the neather. And there∣fore they must haue due proportion to euery part.

The thigh is the strongest part to the bodie,*vnto the which was assigned by God in Exodus, the. 28. chapter, That not only the vpper couering to the bo∣dye, but also thou shalt make them lin∣nen breeches to couer theyr priuities, from the loynes vnto the thighes shall they reach. It appeareth in those daies, no great choice of apparell, 1519. yeares before Christ, notwithstanding of so great antiquitie, is the making of ap∣parell, although Adam & Eues aprons were long before.

Of the knees. chap. 52.

*THE knées be the ioynts of the thighs and legges, and bée called in Latine Genua. For they be shapen in the mo∣ther with the cheeks, and they long ther∣to: and they be of kinne to the eyes, the iudges of teares and of wéeping. For the knées haue that name Genua of Ge∣ns the chéekes. For when a child is gen∣dered, hee is so shapen; that the knées be vpwarde. And by iust ioyning of the knees the eien be shapen and made hol∣lowe, either round. Secundum verbum philosophi. Genua cōprimit arta gena. Which is to vnderstand, Men wéepe the sooner if they knéele. For kinde will that the eyen and knées haue minde, where they were togethers in ye mothers wōbe in darknesse or they came to the lyght. Huc••isque Isidorus. Constantine saith, lib. 2.chap. 8. That the knées be a man∣ner round bones, gristly, & hollow. They be hollow & round, for that the legges and whirlebones should be the easilyer ioyned in the hollownesse of them: They be sinewie, that the legges be not light∣ly departed from the ouer partes: And also they be sinewie that the workings of the spirite of feeling may bée sent to the neather partes to cause moouing in them. Also for continual mouing ye knees be slender and poore of flesh and fatnesse. For if they wer much fleshie, they shuld be lightly stopped. And so ye working of ye vertue of feeling shuld be let by great∣nesse of flesh. And therfore the knees be∣cause they be sinewie, they haue greate feeling and be lightly hurt, when the si∣newes of feeling be grieued outward or inward, as sayth Constantine.

Of the legges. Chap. 53.

THE legges are called Crura in La∣tine, and haue ye name of Currere,* so runne: for with them we goe and run. Also they be called Fibie, for they be like pipes and trumps in shape and length, as sayth Isidore. And Constantine saith that the legges bée meane betwéene the feete and the thighes, and be cheined to them with sinewes and strings, by the which, the influence of going & mouing of the vertue of ruling, passeth and com∣meth to the féete. They be made of full strong bones, and be as it wer pillers of the bodie, able to beare the weight of the body. And they be couered on the ouer part within with brawnes & with flesh: that so in the folding of them with the thighs, they shall neither grieue nor bée grieued of the thighs. And so the flesh of the legs is set in ye ouer side within as a piller, or els as a boteras to holde vp the weight of the body. And also they be si∣newie that they may be the more able & strong to swift mouing. And they be ful of marrow, yt the liuely vertue of ye beast the which is dealed and spread by the sinewes and strings, may be preserued & kept: And also to moyst the drinesse of the bones with moisture of the marow, as saith Constantine.

Of the Feete. chap. 54.

A Foote is called Pes in Latine,* and hath that name of Podos in Gréeke as saith Isidore. For the féete setting to the ground one after another goe forth. The foot is the vttermost part of a man and beareth vp all the bodie. Constant. sayth that the foote is made of 44. bones, of the which bones two be the héeles, and two of the cheines or ancle bones, 10. of the combe, and 30. of the foes. Page  64 And the sole of the foote is fleshie and plaine, forward and backward, and some deale hollow in the middle. It is fleshie to defend the sinewes, strings & veynes from hardnes of the bones. It is plaine, to haue footing, and to be more ready to beare that is set thereon. It is hollow, to haue succour in the hollowe place, if the plaine slide or faile. The bones of the féete be bound with diuers sinewes and bonds, and that is néedefull to haue more strength, for strong sustenaunce of the body, and also for that the féet shuld haue the more easie mouing. Féete of beasts be diuers: For Aristotle libro. 14. saith, That some footed beastes haue feete afore and behinde, and some haue in the sides, as a beast with bloud and with many féete: and the propertie of that kinde of beasts, is to haue féete in the former part of the bodye, and the cause thereof is, for that the former and the hinder are ioyned and houed in one place. Also Ibidem he saith, that in foure footed beasts kinde hath set the fore féete in stéede of the handes: the hinder féete be necessary to beare the wayght of the beasts. And it was much necessary, that foure footed beasts shuld haue foure féete, for all the body of them boweth kindly toward the earth, and also is moued to the earth with all beastly appetite: and therefore it néedeth to haue so many vn∣dersettings and vpholders, that such a beast may the more ably & quickly moue, and goe, and stampe. Also therefore the hinder feete be néedefull: for Arist. saith, the fore part of the foure footed beast, is more and more large than the hinder part. And therefore for to rise vp and moue themselues, and to moue lyghtlye before and behinde, the hinder féete are needfull. The contrary is in children: for the ouer part in children is heauyer than the nether, and therfore they créepe on féete and handes, and vse their hands in steede of foure féete in créeping, for they may not reare vp their bodies, be∣cause ye ouer part of ye body is more than the nether. This changeth yet in youth, for yet in youth, the nether part wareth, and the ouer part wareth lesse than the nether part of the body, and so by lyttle and little he reareth himselfe vp an end. But the disposition of foure footed beasts is contrary: for the nether part is first very great, but in youth the ouer parte wareth and areareth, and therefore the rearing vp of the head and foreparte of horses, is much more than the hinder part. And there it is said, that the token and signe héereof is, that a colte touch∣eth his owne head with his hinder foote: but when he commeth to age, he cannot doe it. Also Arist. li. 2. saith, that the lesse foote of such beasts on the fore parte is not so frée neither so lyght in mouing, as the left hand of a man, except the E∣lephant. Also there it is sayde, that the Elephant in sitting, bendeth and boosteth his feete, but he may not bend his foure féete at once, for heauinesse and wayght of his body, but he foldeth and bendeth the hinder féete as a man doth. Also it is sayd there that Volatile bendeth ye hin∣der féete backwarde and the wings for∣ward, which be in steed of handes.* Also ther it is sayd, ye generally in beasts the right foot moueth more than the left, and therefore it is sayde, That some beastes moue first the right foote when they shall goe or step, as the Lyon, Camell, & Dro∣medarie. But yet somtime some beasts moue first the left foote, as the Fore and Woolfe, that haue féete and legs longer in the left side, than on that other. And therefore they halt alway, and reare and rise vpward from the left side toward the right side. Also generally in beastes the right foote hath more heate in mouing & strength than the lefte foote. Super A∣phorism. Galen sayth in taken héereof, That if a woman which goeth with childe stande vpright, and both hir féete together, if she be with a childe Mascu∣lyne in hir wombe, and is sodaynly cal∣led, she moueth first the right foote to come to the callyng: and if it be a maid childe, she moueth first the lefte foote.

Also he sayth libro 2.& 3. That euerye beast with many toes in the féete; haue many children, and contrariwise. And the féete of foure footed beasts are made of bones, & sinewes, and of lyttle flesh. And also the féete of fowles and of two footed beasts, except mans féete; which Page  [unnumbered] hath much flesh beneath, and that is to defend the manifold & diuers bones and sinewes. Also some beasts vse the foote in stéede of the hande, as an Ape among foure footed beasts, & the Popingay & the Pellycan among the sieng fowles: for they feede themselues with the foote. And he saith lib. 13. that no beast with many cliftes in the feete haue bornes. And yet euerye beast with long strouting tuskes in the mouth, is cloue footeed as ye Bore, Also he saith lib. 14. that in ees ye hin∣der feete be more then the former, or middle, for going, and to rise from the earth when they lyst to take their flight, and their waye. Item libro. 16. euerye beast with many clyfts in the foote, gen∣dereth blynde whelpes, as the Lyon, the Hound, the Wolfe, and Fore. Then to haue in remembraunce the properties of the foote: the foote is the vttermost part of the beast, ordained for perfection ther∣of, and it is long, plaine and hollow, for shape and printing of the Fore: and is distinguished with toes, for his strong holding: bonie and sinewie for better during. And is néedefull in beastes for the rearing of them and mouing, & also for ward and defence of them In foules clouen feete and crooked clawes are néed∣full to get their liuing. In fowles clo∣sing of the feete is needfull for their lea∣ding, stirring and ruling in waters. And this sufficeth touching the feete.

¶Of the sole of the foote. Cap. 55.

*THe sole of the foote is the vttermost part of the beast, and is called Planta in Latine for it is plaine: and it is néed∣full that it be plaine, to sticke the faster in the earth, as saith Isid. And it is heled and cloathed with harder skinne than the other part of the body, least it bée so∣dainly grieued with thornes, bryers, or with other prickes. And therefore of breasts the féete are wrapped, wounde, and armed with clawes, hooues & soles, that they are not lightly hurt with trea∣ding. And the soles of the feete beare all the heauinesse and waight of the bodye. And therefore they néede hosen & shooes, deast they be hurt and grieued, as sayth Isidore.

¶Of the Heele. Cap. 56.

THe héele is the hinder part & the ne∣ther of the foote, and is called Calca∣neus in Latine: for with them the fores or steps be pight and printed in the earth as saith Isidore. And the heele is round, that it be not lightly hurt: & it is euen long to be fast sticked and printed: and it is sad, that it be not soone brused: and it is bound to the anckle bone with soft bondes and strings, to moue the casely∣er vpward & downward. And hurtings and woundes of the héele, be harde to heale, both for scarsitie of flesh, and also for continuall mouing, as saith Con∣stantin lib. 2.cap. 10.

Calcanei,*the heeles of a man or wo∣man, may diuers times come by infec∣tions, as the gout, straining, the crampe, the kybes, and such like.

¶Of the bones. Cap. 57.

*FOr that it is sayd and treased of the principall members, and of the mem∣bers of office, now we purpose to treate of those mēbers, which be made of parts like, and of their conditions, and first of the bones. As we speak, heere is a thing made of partes lyke, and hath the same name & kind, that the parts therof haue: as bones be made & composed of bones. The bones be the sadnesse of all the bo∣dy, as saith Isidore, for the strength of a beast is in the bones. The bones be cal∣led Ossa in Latine, and they haue that name of Vsto, to burne: for in old time the bones were burnt. Or els as some other suppose, the bones haue that name Ossa in Latine, of Ore, the mouth: For that in the mouth the bones be séene.

For in euery place they be hid or coue∣red with flesh and skinne, except the mouth alone; in the which the bones of the téeth be seene. The bones of the head are called Compago: for that they bée ioyned togethers and bounde with sin∣newes, as it were with glew. The ouer endes of the bones be called Verticolae,Page  65 as it wer turnets and winders, or whir∣lers, and be warred with great knots.

And they haue that name, because they turne and winde in clitching, binding, & stretching of members, as sayth Isidore lib. 11.Constantine saith lib. 2. that the boane is the hardest and dryest parte of the body of a beast, and that is néedfull, either because the boanes be the founda∣tion of all the body, vpon the which, the building of all the body is set, and ther∣fore it néedeth that the bones be strong: or els because they defend ye inner parts from griefes that might hap and fall by diuers things that be without. Many & diuers bones are in the body, and that is for more sadnes and strength of the bo∣dy, or for easinesse of mouing, or to a∣uoyd great griefes from the body: & such bindings and accordes be betwéene the members of the body, that if one be gre∣ued, they are all grieued. And therfore kinde doubleth well nigh all the mem∣bers, that if one be grieued, the other may haue compassion and helpe him: & therefore it néeded that many boanes were made, and diuers in quantitie, for in great members be great boanes, and in small members, small bones. Also some bones be vnlyke in quantitie, and diuersly shapen, for some be long, some be round, some are hollowy, and some massiue and sad. They be sad, for the more stedfastnesse, and hollowe for the more lightnesse of mouing, for kinde be∣cause the bones are great and mouable, maketh them hollow: the which bones for two causes are full of marrowe, one is, least they should breake by reason of their hollownesse, and to be fedde by the marrowe. Therefore by the wosing of the marrowe, which woseth out by the bones at the poores, the flesh that is next the bones is swéeter than other flesh.

Also the bones are bound and strayned togethers with certaine sinews, for that they should not fall, neither depart asun∣der by great mouing: and for that they should helpe each other the more effectu∣ally. In the first ioyning of ye bones is a manner of glowy and gleymie moisture, because the bones should the more ease∣ly moue togethers: & in the endes they be cloathed with gristles, for that they should not be grined with fretting. Huc vsque Const. li. 2. ca. 51. Aristotle li. 12. saith, that the boanes were created for the sauegard of the soft body: For the bones thereof are full harde. And in a beast without bones is a member accor∣ding to the sayd bones, and is in ye steede of bones: as small hairy bones in Fish And as the heart and the lyuer, be head and well of all the veynes, so the ridge bone is wel and head of all other bones: for on the ridge bone all other bones be mored and sounded, as the ship on the heele is builded. Also the kinde of bones is continued with the ridge bone, because the ridge bone kéepeth and saueth ye ten∣derne sof the bodies of beasts: and the bones that be nigh the wombe are lyt∣tle, because they should not let ye rising of the wombe, when beasts eate & drink. Also generally and commonly the bones of males are stronger and more harder, than the bones of females: and specially the bones of a Lyon, out of yt which, if they be strongly striken togethers, fire shall spring and come out, as it were out of stones: and the bones of fowles, are féebler than of other beasts. Also Arist. li. 3. saith, that ye bones that be cut, grow no more, like as the gristle doth not. For the making of gristles is like to the ma∣king of bones: & though hornes, nailes, and clawes of beasts, and bils of foules, maye be made softe at the fire, crooked, straight and bended: yet bones may be made neither softe, crooked, nor euen, but bones may be cut, bewen and hacked: Item, idem li. 2. Beasts that haue hairie prickes in stéede of boanes, haue lyttle bloud. Also euery beast that hath téeth in euery iawe, hath bones with marrowe, and the marrow of them is lyke to fat∣nesse or grease. Some bones be thicke & hard, whereby they séeme to be wildout marrowe, as bones of Lyons & of Eli∣phants: for the marrowe of such beastes lurketh & is hid in the poores of ye bones. Then gather of this that is spoken, that the bones are the foundation of all the body, and be colde, hard, and drie. And be∣cause colde hath masterie in the bones, they be white, strong, and stedfast. Page  [unnumbered] And they be hollow within, and full of marrow, and are bound togethers with sinewie bondes, and beare euery each other continually. For the lesse be mo∣red and rooted on the more, and the more be couenably ioyned to ye lesse, by ye wō∣derfull craft of kinde. The bones be co∣uered and cloathed with flesh and with skinne, and are by the sustentation of both flexible: and they are bound toge∣thers with ioyntes, with sinewes, and strings and receiue temperance of kind, heate of flesh and bloud. Also the bones feele not, but in case the bones bée hurte either grieued, they grieue the body full sore, and namely, if they be broken or sore hurt, and that is, because they bée nigh ye sinews, with whose bonds they be knit together: bones be somtime grieued by outward doing, as by breaking, cut∣ting, smiting, hewing, wrasting & falling out of ioynts, and such other. And som∣time by doing & workings that is with∣in: and that is oftentimes of sretting & gnawing of woode and enraged matter, as it fareth in them that haue an euill and disease that is called Herisipila, which some men call the holy fire.

*Herisipulas is the Greeke word, a∣mong the Latines named, Apostenia calidum, of some tearmed Ignis facer, the shingles, which is a burning humor pricking: whose blisters are lyke wheales of white matterie colour, and beginneth in the necké and shoulders.

Sometime by ouermuch gathering and repletion of humours in the ioynts of the boanes, as it fareth of them that haue the gowte. And sometime they are grieued by corruption of the marrowe that is within, as it falleth in Leapers. And sometime of wasting of humours of the marrowe, as it fareth in them which haue the Etike, or be wasted and consumed: and the déeper in the hollow∣nesse of the boanes, the boane ache is rooted and maured, insomuch it is the more grieuous and perillous: And so the corrupt boanes doe corrupt by lyttle and lyttle the flesh that is next to them, and maketh them to rot.

¶Of the marrowe. Cap. 58.

MEdulla* in Latin, is in English, ma∣rowe, and hath that name, for that it moysteth the bones, and it comforteth and tempreth the coldnesse of them, as sayth Isidore. Constantine saith, That the marrowe is in substaunce hot and moyst, and is bred into the hollownes of the bones, of ye most purest parts & vne∣tuous humours of nourishment. And so the marrow by the heate thereof, tempe∣reth and coldeth the bones, and with his moysture, moysteth the drynesse of the bones, and by his substantiall propertie if feedeth, nourisheth and saueth the ver∣tue of féeling: for the marrowe recey∣ueth of the brayne influence of spirites, & namely of the ridge boanes, the which marrowe is called Nucha among Phi∣sitians. And this marrowe by meake of certaine veynes, serueth those members, which are set beneath the necke, and gi∣ueth to them féeling and mouing, as saith Constantine. lib. 2.cap. 10. Also Isidore saith, that the marrow by ye sub∣tiltie and moyst vnctuositie thereof, wo∣seth and sweateth out at the beanes a lycour, which is thin, and by the Uene∣riall heate, this licour is resolued in the reynes of beastes, and bréedeth lyking of lone and of lust. Looke before in the Chapter of the reynes. And therefore beasts with bones full of marrow, haue great lyking in lust, as saith Varro. And beasts that haue sad bones and voyde of marrow, are seldome moued to bodelye lust as the Eliphant. Vàrro saith, That the marrowe followeth the kinde of the stone: for it waxeth when the Moone waxeth, and when the Moone waneth, it minisheth. And by priuie inspiries and sentings, it féeleth the vertue and the strength of the Moone, and followeth the Moone in waxing and minishing: as it fareth in beasts and in trées, which haue passing plentie of humours and of war∣row, in the full of the Moone, and great scarcitie thereof in the new of ye Moone. And therefore in the new of the Moone it is not good to grasse trées: for ye fruit shall be full of wormes, and lyghtly rot. Page  66 And this perchaunce happeneth by rea∣son of superfluous moisture, that the graffe then gratfed receiueth in the say: And the superfluitie thereof may not bee ruled, neither haue digestion of kinde. Therefore such humours sent to ye fruit is cause of bréeding of wormes, and of soone rotting. Also Aristotle, li. 12. sayth, that a beast which hath téeth in eyther sawe, hath the marrow like to fatnesse: And some beasts haue but little marow, as a Lyon which hath hard boanes and thicke, in whom is but little marrow, and some doe faine, that the Lyon hath no marrowe at all. Dioscorides sayth, That marrowe is full medicinable and also healthfull, and namely of foules and of wilde beasts For it healeth breaking out, stripping, chins, cliftes, and whelks of the lippes, and slaketh ache in sore eares: and maketh softe the hardnesse of kirnells: And healeth the blaines of the féete: and ass wageth smarting and sore∣nesse of the throate, and of the brestes. and teates. And it is a principall reme∣die for the Tisike and Etike: And it hath vertue of recouering. Therefore it re∣storeth to the members the humour that is lost.

Of the gristle, chap. 59.

A Gristle is the tendernesse of the bones, and is called Cartilago in La∣tine, because it maketh no greate griefe though it be folde and bended, as sayth Isidore: as it fareth in the Nose and in the eares, and in the ends of the ribs: For the gristle is harder then the flesh, and softer then the bones And kind hath made such places of such disposition, be∣cause they should not breake when they should bée folded or bend, as sayth Con∣stantine. libro. 2.cap. 9. The Gristle doth cloath and arme the endes of the boanes, that they bée not grieued with fretting togethers, and that the boanes should be the easilyer ioyned to ye flesh. Aristotle liber. 14. sayth, That the gri∣stle cut groweth not againe. For the making thereof is like to the making of the bones. Also the gristle hath no féeling of it self, but only the sinew ioyned ther∣to, is cause of feeling & of moouing, when it feeleth or moueth, as saith Constan∣tine. In the middle of ye heart of a beast is a gristle bone set in the bredth therof, and that is called the seate of the heart, as saith Constantine. li. 3.cap. 20.

Of the sinewes. Chap. 60.

THE sinewes bée some of the partes of the bodye,* and bee called Neuros in Gréeke: because the ioyntes bée fast coupled together with the sinewes: And it is certaine that the sinewes make most vertue and strength. And the thick∣er that the sinewes bee, the more sted∣fastnesse commeth of them, as saith Isid. And Constantine saith, that the sinewes bee néedefull, to beare and to bring fee∣ling and moouing to the members, and namely to the gristles and bones, and to such that haue of themselues neither fee∣ling neither mouing. And the braine is chiefe foundation of the sinewes: for it is the well of wilfull moouing & feeling. For all sinewes spring and come out of the braine, or else out of the marrowe of the braine, that is of the marrowe of the ridge boanes. Such a meane is néede∣full, least if they all shuld come without meane from the braine, either in break∣ing they shuld be griued, or else for farre way from the well of féeling, in the deede of féeling, and in the might of giuing of lyfe, they should lacke in might. Then those sinewes, which come and spring out of the braine, bée more softer then they which procéede and come out of the marrowe of the ridge boane, for they bée more hard. And those sinewes which come & growe out of the formost parte of the braine, be most softe: for they beare féeling to the other. For soft∣nesse chaungeth into féeling hastely. The sinewes which come of the hinder parte of ye braine, be more harder to suffer mo∣ning: For soft things break lightly with switt mouing. Sixe paire of sinewes come frō the braine. The first paire passe to the eyen; and to the other lims of fée∣ling, to giue to thē féeling & mouing: and these be more hollowe, greater, and sof∣ter then other sinewes. Page  [unnumbered] And they be more hollowe, to giue more plentier spirits to the wits: And they be more greater, that the substaunce of them breake not in the hollownesse: and ye they may haue shut in them the more plentie of spirits. Also they be soft to make feeling in them the more spéedely proceede. In the out passing of the braine the sinewes be nesh and soft, but the far∣ther they be from the braine, the harder they be in kinde.

¶The second paire of sinewes begin∣neth behind the first: and that paire cō∣meth out by a certaine hole, that is nigh to the hollownesse of the eyen, and gi∣ueth mouing to the cien. The third paire beginneth behinde the second, and com∣ming by the eate of the head out of the hinder part of the braine, is departed in foure perticular sinewes, and spread in∣to diuerse places in a net wise. The fourth paire is ioyned to the first payre before: but beeing afterwarde departed therefrom, spreadeth into the milde mo∣ther, to giue thereto féeling of touching. The fift paire, in his out going is de∣parted into two sinewes. The one wher∣of commeth into the holes of the eares, and spreadeth there, and giueth hearing to the eares. That other commeth by the care bowes to the chéeks, and sprea∣deth and helpeth the working of mem∣bers there about. It seemeth that the sixt paire commeth out of the hinder part. And out of euery each of these thrée come sinewes, to ordeine féeling and mouing, and spreadeth in lyke vpwarde and downwarde. And yet besides these paires, there commeth one out of the hinder parte of the braine. And of this paire the marrowe of the ridge boane, commeth and springth. This spreadeth into the partes of the tongue and of the throate, and giueth to them féeling and mouing. Except these foresayde si∣newes, all other sinewes of the bodye, come out of the braine by meane of the marrowe of the ridge bone. And the si∣newes be accounted in all to the num∣ber of. 32. paire and one odde sinew. And all these bée spread, dealed, and fastened in euery side to the chinnings of the bo∣dy, by wonderfull crafte of kinde. Haec vsque Constantinus. lib. 2. cap. 12. Item liber. 3. Aristotle saith, that in the place of bones is the multitude of sinewes: and a sinew stretcheth kindly in length and not in bredth, and is greatly stretch∣ed out. And about the sinewes is much vntuous moysture, which kéepeth and saueth the sinewes. And euery beast that hath bloud hath sinewes: and a sinewe which is cut a sunder and detrenched, groweth neuer after, neither the sinew which is slit and clouen, closeth nor ioy∣neth, lyke as a veine doth. For if a veine be slit and clefte, it will bee soone ioyned whole againe. Also he sayth. liber. 29. That the most vertue of a beast is in the sinewes, and namely in a Bull: For the elder he is, the stronger and the har∣der he is, and the harder be his sinewes, and therefore it maye bée drawne and stretched in length, and straighted as a corde or rope. Then gather of this that is sayd, that a sinew springeth and com∣meth out of the braine. And receiuing thereof féeling and moouing, doth distri∣bute the same to the other members: And coupleth and bindeth togethers the other partes of the bodye, and is softe in the out comming, and hard forthward. The sinew in the hollownesse and void∣nesse therof receiueth spirit, and kéepeth it. And by the folding thereof the sinews bend and folde the limmes that be flexi∣ble. And as sayth Constantine, they in∣dure diuerse griefes, as cutting and slit∣ting, pinching and pricking, and slaking, and stopping, as appeareth in Pantegm. li. 9. cap. 8. &. li. 11.

Of the veines. Chap. 41.

THE Uaines haue that name,* for that they be Viae, the waies, conduits and streames of the fléeting of bloud, and sheddeth it into all the bodie. For by the veines all the members be moysted and fed, as sayth Isidore. And Constantine sayth, That the veines spring out of the liuer, as the arteries and wosen doe out of the heart, and the sinewes out of the braine. And veines be néedfull, as vessells of the bloud, to beare and to bring bloud from the liuer to féede and Page  67 nourish the members of the bodie. Al∣so needely the veines bee more tender & softe in kinde then sinewes. Therefore that they bee nigh to the liuer may som∣what chaunge the bloud that commeth to them. And all the veines are made of one curtill, and not of two, as the arte∣ries and wosen. For the arteries receiue spirits, and they kéepe and saue them. And the veines comming out of the ly∣uer, sucke thereof, as it were of theyr owne mother, feeding of bloud, and dea∣leth and departeth that féeding to euery member as it needeth. And so the veins spread into all the partes of the bodye: and by a wonder wit of kinde, they doe seruice each to other. Also among other veines open and priuie or secret, there is a veine that is called Arteria,* which is needfull to kinde to beare & bring kind∣ly heate from the heart to all the other members. And these arteryes bée made and composed of two small clothings or skinnes called curtills: and they bee lyke in shape, and diuerse in substaunce. The inner haue wrinckles and folding ouerthwart, and theyr substaunce is hard and more boistous then the vtter be. And without they haue wrinkles & folding in length, of whome the sub∣staunce is harde for néedfulnesse of mo∣uing, opening, and closing. For by ope∣ning doth receiue it selfe from the heart, and that by the wrinklings and folding in length. By closing it selfe doth put out superfluous sumositie: which is done by wrinkling and folding the curtelles ouerthwart in bredth: in the which the spirit is drawen from the heart: Wher∣fore they bee harder without then all the other veines, and that is needfull, least they breake lightly and some. Also these veines spring out of the lefte hollow∣nesse of the hart. And two of that side bee called Pulsitiue: Of which, one that is the innermost hath a soft skinne: and this veine which is called Pulsitiue, is needefull to bring greate quantitye of bloud and spirits to the lungs:* and to receiue in ayre, and to rieddle it with bloud, to temper the feruentnesse of the bloud. This veine entereth into the lungs, and is departed there in manye manner wise.

¶The other arterie is more then the first, and Aristotle calleth it 〈…〉e, this arterie commeth vp from the heart and is diuided in twaine, and the one parte commeth vpward, & ••••eth bloud that is pured and spent of lyfe to the braine that so the spirit of feeling may be 〈◊〉, nourished, kept, and saued. The other part goeth downewarde, and is departed in many manner hase toward the right side & toward the left. Huc vsque Con∣stant. li. 2.cap.12.

¶Then marke well, that a vaine is the bearer and carrier of bloud, eyer, and warden of the life of beasts, and con∣teineth in himselfe the foure bloudy hu∣mours cleane and pure, which be ordei∣ned for feeding of all the partes of the bodye. Moreouer a veine is hollower, to receiue bloud the more easilye, and as it néedeth in kinde, that one veine bring and giue bloud to another veine. Also a veine is messenger of health and of sick∣nesse For by the pulse of the arteries and disposition of the veines, Phisitions deeme of the féeblenesse and strength of the heart. Also if a vaine be corrupt, and conteineth corrupt bloud: it corrupteth and infecteth all the bodie, as it fareth in lepers, whose bloud is most corrupte in the veines, of the which the mem∣bers be fedde by sucking of bloud, and taketh thereby corruption and sicknesse incurable. Also the veine of the arme is ofte grieued, constrayned, and wrong, opened and slit, and wounded to releeue the sicknesse of all the bodye by hurting of that veine. Also the veines that bee ouermuch straighted or wrong with far∣nesse or with flesh, haue lesse of bloud and of spirit then the other veines. And therefore in the substance of such veines kindly heate faileth, and the spirite vi∣tall is lessed. Therefore such beasts liue and indure the lesse time, as saith Con∣stantine. liber. 11.cap. 17.Aristotle. lib.2 saith, If a veine be cut or slit, it maye be healed and ioyned againe, and so may not a sinew, Item ibi. li. 6. Such as the veines be vnder the tongue of a beast, such is the coulour that that beast brin∣geth forth. And therefore hée sayth, Page  [unnumbered] That sheepe with white veines vnder ye tongue, haue white lambs. And in like wise sheepe with black veines vnder the tongue, haue blacke lambes. If ye desire to know more of this matter, seeke afore in the chapter of the tongue.

Of the flesh. Cap. 62.

*Flesh is called Caro in Latine, and hath that name of Carie, that is mat∣ter and rottennesse, as saith Remigius. Gregory saith, that the flesh is oft chan∣geable, and therefore it rotteth hastely. And Gregory sayth, That there be ma∣ny manners of flesh: For some is flesh of Fish, some of Fowles, and some of Serpents, and some of Adders. And in this mans flesh is priuiledged, for man is formed to the noblest and worthyest, that is to wit, is ioyned to the reasonable soule. Therefore it is aboue wonders, and most wonderfull, that in the last time mans flesh is made Gods fleshe, when Gods sonne became man, and dwelled among vs. When the flesh that was traile and brittle of mankinde, was made highest aboue other, when it was ioyned to Gods sonne, as sayth Grego∣rie. Constantine sayth, That flesh is kindly hot and moist, and feedeth kindly heats, and couereth sinewes, boanes, and braine, and defendeth them, and tempe∣reth the coldnesse of them. And there is thrée manner of fleshes, some is medled with muscles, sinews, and strings, and is called brawne: the other manner of flesh is temperate betwéene hard and soft, and is called gristlely, the third is kirnellye. And pure flesh is most in the ridge and in the gummes. The flesh that lyeth in the vtter partes of the bones, that rest∣eth vpon that flesh, is as it were a néed∣full Tapit of casement for ye sayd bones. The flesh of the ridge boane is néede∣full both within and without, for two causes. For it heateth the marrow of the ridge boane, and filleth the hollownesse betweene the ridge boanes, and also kee∣peth and saueth the sinewes that come vpwarde and downewarde, that they breake not nor faile, by reason of the long waye, and the flesh specially de∣sendeth the ridge from distemperate aire, and from vtter griefes and harmes. The flesh that is betweene the teeth kee∣peth and saueth the moores and rooes of them: and feedeth these moores and rootes, and maketh them steadfast and stable. Knottye fleshe hath thrée proper∣tyes. One maketh wet and moyst, as the flesh of pappes and teares, and the kir∣nells vnder the tongue, which breedeth spittle, for the mouth, the tongue, and the cheekes, that they bée not let of mo∣uing with too great drinesse. The other parte that is kirnelled and knottie, fil∣leth and occupyeth voyde places, and succoureth the deines and the sinewes, and receiue the superfluitye that wo∣seth out of them. The thirde parte of flesh beclippeth the stomacke and the guttes: And with this parte is medled certaine netes and causes of sinewes, veines, and wosen, which bring moo∣uing and féeling to the inwardes. Nor theyr waye should not bee sure, with∣out this kirnelled flesh were so spread, that the sinewes and the arteries might rest easily therevpon: And also that the sinewes and the arteryes maye finde a soft place to flye to for succour, if it hap∣pened them to méete with any thing that should grieue them with hardnesse. Huc vsque Constantinus. li. 2.cap.14. Flesh that is temperate and meane betwéene fat and leane is good & healthful, namely if it be not medled with corrupt bloud, nor bred thereof, nor fed therewith. For such flesh is the beginning of corrupti∣on, as sayth Aristotle. libro.3. And like∣wise Constantine. libro. 11.cap. 17.Ari∣stotle liber. 12. saith, That too much flesh letteth the workings of the spirite. And therefore the head is not made of much flesh, that it may be of the better witte and perfect vnderstanding. Item. liber. 1. If the place about the oyen haue much fleshe,* it betokeneth euill disposition, guile, deceit, and euill custome, and de∣fault of vertue Informatiue. And so if there bée too much flesh, and the vertue of formation and shape bee féeble: then wonderfull passions and euills breede in the bodie, as Arist. lib. 16. sheweth an en∣sample of a woman, that supposed that Page  68 she was with childe, and at last shée brought forth a grislye lumpe of fleshe, which is called Mola among Phisiti∣ons, &c. Also the very pure flesh is ten∣der and softe: and therefore it will not away with trauaile. Wherefore liber. 2. it is sayd, that the f••et of a Camell haue much-flesh, as the féete of a Beare, and therfore men make to the Camell strong shooes of haire and of Leather, when hee shall worke, to kéepe him from ach and sore hurting. Also (as hée sayth Li∣bro. 12.) The flesh is not the first mem∣ber of féeling, neither a member conur∣nient to féeling: But the sinewe, which is within the flesh, is the limme of fée∣ling. And therefore dead flesh féeleth nothing, nor flesh which is cut and de∣trenched ail of. For it hath not the well of feeling of it selfe, but of sinewes.

Therefore if the sinewes bée corrupte or stopped at the full, the flesh féeleth no∣thing, as it fareth in limmes, which be talten and vexed with the palsie. All Fowles with crooked billes and sharpe clawes, be fedde with fleshe, and wilde beastes also, and fleshe is the praye of such Fowles, for néede of meate and of foode, as it is sayd. Liber..14 And foules of praie that bée but little fleshye, bee bolde and hardie, and good of flight, and sharpe of sight, as it is there sayde. And Fowles of greate fatnesse, bée slowe of moouing and of flight, and they be more fleshie in Winter then in Summer. For in Winter the powers bée closed, and the humours ware thicke and tourneth into flesh and fatnesse: and also by rea∣son of rest. For then Fowles moue lesse from place to place, as saith Isaac in Dietis.

Of Fatnesse. Cap. 63.

*FAtnesse is a moyst thing, and sitteth vppon the small celles and places as sayth Constantine. For subtill bloud and vnctuous gathereth no fatnesse in hot places, there it may enter and pearce. But when it commeth to places, that kindlye are colde, there it congealeth at last, and tourneth into fatnesse. And that kinde doth for right greate néede, to temper with the moysture of fatnesse the sinewes and selles,* which be kind∣ly drye, that they shoulde not lyghtlye breake by some happe that might fall: And also to kéepe and saue with fat∣nesse that that is betweene the inner partes from colde aire that is without, as sayth Constantinus liber. 2. cap. 14. And Aristotle. liber.2. saith, that fatnesse is bread in the bodies of beasts, of bloud vndigested and vndested, and namely for scarcitie of moouing. And the more the fatnesse increaseth and waxeth, the more the bloud minisheth and vanisheth. And therfore in right fat men, is little bloud. And hée sayth, Libro. 16. Moouing wast∣eth and destroyeth fatnesse, and so doth heate also. Therefore in all beastes the right reine hath lesse fatnesse then the left reine, and is higher in place and stéede. For in the right side, the heate is more stronger then in the lefte side, and of more mouing. And Constantine saith, That fat bodies and too full of grease, be worst, and appropried to most worst euills and sicknesses. For in such bo∣dies oft kinde heate is stiffeled: And by stopping of fatnesse, the waye of the spi∣rit is closed and forbarred: And the in∣fluence of the spirites maye not come to rule the sinewes and arteryes. And hée sayth, that all fat bodyes fall into long sicknesse, which bée harde and slowe to heale: and that is for the great superflu∣itie of humours gathered together in them. For such bodyes charged with fatnesse, moue not themselues to trauell, whereby kindly heat should be augmen∣ted. And so the fatnesse congeled is dissol∣ued: and then kindly heate fayleth, and sodeine death followeth, but if there bée succour the sooner, as sayth Constantine liber. 11.cap..17 Then consider, that fat∣nesse by vnctuositie therof is fire nutra∣tiue: & for light aire that is therin, it pas∣seth into the vttermost part that is of a thing: & diminisheth the strength of yt si∣newes and ioynts, & defendeth them: and flaketh the strength therof; & maketh soft the skirt and stoppeth the neather pores and kéepeth and saueth kindly heate: and filleth and replenisheth the hollownesse and voidnesse of the body. And stretcheth Page  [unnumbered] out the wrinkling of the skinne: And presseth the vaines and arteryes of the body, and letteth the working of féeling and reason, and sloweth perfect gene∣ration of beasts. Also it is said in Aph. That a woman yt is too fat, conceiueth not till-shée become leane: and it is no wonder:* For the fatnesse letteth & stop∣peth the way of the mother. Also greace and fatnesse doth moyst things: and are not soone drie. Wherefore. li. 3.Aristotle sayth, That the broth of beastes with much greace renleth not, as the broth of a horse, or of a Swine. Item, euerye beast with greace not departed from the flesh, hath but lyttle fatnesse in the wombe. And when the wombes bée but lyttle, the flesh is verye fattie. Item hée sayth, that that is nigh the blarke of the eie in all beastes is full fat, though the eye be hard. And euery beast with much tallowe hath little séede: whether it bée male or female. And beastes with téeth in either iawe, haue no tallowe. Tallow congealeth anone when it is taken out of the bodye and set in colde ayre. Pin∣guedo, Adeps, and Aruina, bee all one touching theyr substaunce. But Isidore saith, Aruina is that fatnesse, that clea∣ueth to the skinne: Adeps is that fat∣nesse that beclippeth the guttes, and kée∣peth and saueth the members within. Zirbus is called a thinne skinne, vnto the which that fatnesse cleaueth that ma∣ny call Alluta: whereof followeth this verse. Intus adeps, aruina foris, pingue∣doque queuis. Which is to vnderstand, that in the beast is fatnesse, that is cal∣led Adeps, Aruina without, & both with∣in and without it is called Pinguedo, fatnesse.

Of the Skinne. Chap. 64.

*THe Skinne is the vttermost part of the bodie of a beast, and is called Cutis in latine, for it couereth the body, and is oft cut and coruen as sayth Isi∣dore. For Cutin in Gréeke, is Incisio in Latine, that is, cutting in English. Also the skin is called Pellis in Latine, and hath that name of Pellere to put of: For it putteth off the vtter griefes of the bodie, as winde, and raine, and suffe∣reth Sunne burning and other griefes. And when the skin is flaine, & is draw∣en of, then it is called Corrium, that is saide of Caro in Latine, flesh. For the flesh is couered with the skinne, as saith Isidore. Then the skin is the vttermost part of the body, and beclippeth the flesh and bones, & couereth and defendeth all the inner parts, & is now stretched out, and now drawen together, after as the diuerse néeds of the body axeth. Also for defence of the inner part of the body the skinne putteth it sefe forth against di∣uerse griefes of the aire. And the skinne hath a kindly thinnesse, as sayth Con∣stantine, for that it shuld not occupy the body ouer measure. And the skinne is sad to conteine the more easily the parts which bée within, and also to lette and withstand the vtter griefes. In men the skinne is more nesher and softer then in other beasts. And that is for to haue good touch and feeling. For if the skinne were harde and thicke, as the shell of a fish is, it should not féele any thing. And if they were rough and hairye, as the skinne of an Asse: then it should féeble and appaire the witte of féeling and of groping. Therefore in the palme of the hand the vtter skinne is more and sof∣ter then in other partes of the body, that it should the rather be chaunged to tou∣ching. And the skin is all full of poores, and namely the skinne of the head, and that is néedefull to put off superfluous fumositie. For by heate the pores open, and the superfluitie that is betwéene the fell and the flesh, is put out by va∣pours and sweating.

Also mans skinne is not in all mem∣bers like: For the skinne of the visage is more tender and thin, and more subtil then other: And that is for the perfectnes of féeling and shewing of fairenesse. For if the skin of the visage were too great, men shuld not sée there through the red∣nesse of bloud: Also if it were thicke, it were not according to ye working of the wits, yt be in ye visage: and ye skin is so fast ioyning to ye body, yt it may not easily be flaine & departed therfrom, & namely in ye soles of ye féet, & in ye palms of the hands: Page  69 in the which it cleaneth to the sinewes of the heart, and brawnes as saith Con∣stantine. Aristotle li. 3. saith, That after the coulour of the skin the haire and the nailes of beasts vary. For if the skin be black, the haire and the nailes be black. And if the skin be white, the haire and the nailes be white. And euery beast that hath bloud hath a skinne. And if the skinne be hurt, or if it be flaine off, it hath no féeling. And the skinne hath this propertie, that if in a place without flesh, it bée cut off, it groweth no more, nor draweth not together, as it fareth in the Nauell, and in the breadthes of the eye liddes. Also liber.19. In some beasts the skinne is small and thinne, and in some greate and thicke, as the humour small or great hath the masterie. And in a great skinne groweth great haire, and in a small skinne small haire. And in age the skinne waxeth great and harde, and shrinketh and riueleth, for defaults of heate, and consuming of kindlye hu∣mour, and then the beautie chaungeth. Also the skinne is oft grieued as other members bée. Sometime the cause is without, as with wounds and slitting, with heate of the Sunne, with burning, with hot and colde, wherewith it wax∣eth pale, wanne, and bliewe, and taketh many diuerse vnséemly coulours: Som∣time the griefes of the skinne come of a cause that is within, as riueling, which commeth of wasting of the substantiall moysture, as it fareth in olde men and women. Sometime of infection of hu∣mours, as it fareth in leprous, and in thē that haue the Morpheu. For kinde put∣teth out from the inwarde partes the matter that is infect to the skin: and that matter abideth vnder the skinne, and chaungeth and infecteth the skinne.

Sometime it is grieued with scales and sometime with itching, with drye scabs and wet: Sometime with striping and pilling, and with many another griefe. And skinnes of beasts be right necessa∣rie for men, for right many manners and diuerse vses, as for clowting, and for armour, for writing, for bootes & shoes, and for many other necessaryes, the which were long to reheare.

And scarce is any beast found, but that his skinne is couenable to some vse of mankinde.

If the skinne be white it doth come of fleme,*if red, then of bloud, if blacke of blacke Choler, if Tawnye or shining of coulour, adusted, if gray∣ish or greenish, then of melancholy & colde humours.

Of the haire. chap. 65.

THe haire is called Pilus in Latine,* of Pellis the skinne, for the haire com∣meth out of the skinne as sayth Isidore. And the haire is bred and commeth out of a fumositie, hotte and drie as sayth Constantine. For when the subtil smoak commeth out of the powers, it is dryed with the aire without, and when the vt∣ter softe smoake commeth out, there is not dealed to giue it full passage. But the aire letteth the passage of this softe smoake, and dryeth it and tourneth it in to the kind of haire. The aire helpeth & highteth the body, as saith Const. li. 2.& vltimo. And liber. 3.Aristotle saith, that haire groweth not but in the bodyes of beasts, which gender and get beastes. And the haire is diuerse by diuersitie of skinne of the beastes, in the which it groweth as it is sayd, liber. 19. for beasts that haue greate skinnes, haue greate haire, and that is for the multitude and plentie of the earthly part, and also for widenesse of the veines and poores. And if the skinne be continued and thick, the haire is full thinne and small, for the straightnesse of the waies. And when the humour of fumositie that is in the skin drieth swiftly, there groweth not much haire nor long: And if that humour be great, thicke, and fat, the haire is then contrariwise. And therefore the hayre of mans head is full long, because that humour is fat of kinde, and drieth not so soone. And therfore men and women that dwell in moist countries, and haue moist complections, haue ••esh haire and softe, As men and women in Thracia.* And contrary wise,* men and women that dwell in hotte and drie Countryes,* haue hard haire and crispe.* And name∣ly Page  [unnumbered] if they haue complections according, for by heat there the haire is bent, riue∣led, and pinched, as it is sayde there. And the haire groweth crispe and comming out of the skinne: for it ccommeth out by two contrary wayes. For the earth∣ly parte of the hot, fumositie and drye, comming out of the skin moueth down∣ward: and the part hot and light, moo∣ueth vpward: and so the haire is bowed and bent, riueled, and pinched, and made crooked and crispe. And when beastes that haue haire waxe old, then the haire waxeth hard and more stiffe then they were before; as feathers of fowles waxe ••• in age, and that is for scarcitie of s•••durs. Also there it is sayde, That ••• man is gelded, there groweth the haires on him neuer after: and that ••• scarcitye of humour, and through iiition of heae and humour in the principall members. Item, sometime the haire chaungeth coulour, that is by reason of some cause without. For as it is sayd there. 〈…〉. Hot water maketh white haire, and colde water maketh blacke haire. And the cause is, for in hot water is more, spirit then in cold water. And therefore when the water heateth, thereof commeth whitenesse. As it fa∣••• in some. And this chaunge acciden∣tally of ye haire, is as wel of small haires of the body as of the head. But it com∣meth not alway of changing of hot wa∣ter or colde.

Of the Haires of the head. Chap. 66.

HAires of the head be called Capilli in Latine, as saith Isidore, and bee made to hight the head; and to kéepe and saue the braine from colde. Haire shorne is called Cesaries: Shearing beséemeth well a man and not a woman. Hayre vnkit, is called Coma in Gréeke, wo∣mens haire is properly called Crines in Latine. For womens haire is dealed, shedde, pleated, and bounde with laces. And so the pleates of womens haire be knitte and bounde with laces that bée called Discriminalia in Latine,Huc vs∣••• Isid. And Const. saith, yt the haire of the head commeth out of fumositie thick grose, and hot. And that fumositie com∣meth of hot, firic, and intensiue hu∣mours, and passeth out at the pores of the head. And is dried with aire that is without,* and so tourneth into the substaunce of haire, while this humour groweth, the haire groweth, that is bread and commeth thereof, and is nou∣rished therwith. And who yt looseth this fumositie, looseth also ye haire of his head. And ye hair hath ye quality of this fumosi∣ty: for if this fumositie be black, ye haire is black: And ther is much haire when ye fumositie is much, and scarcitie of haire, when it is scarce. And when this fumo∣sitie faileth, the haires fal off, & the man is bald, for the haire groweth no more. And in this case medicines help not: and if such fumositie faileth not, but is infec∣ted or let by some other humour: then failing and lack of haire is not properly baldnesse, but a speciall euill yt Phisiti∣ons call Allopecia.* By that euill, ye nou∣rishing of the haire being corrupt, the haire falleth, & the fore part of the head is bare, and the fore skin of the head is ye fouler. Such men fare as foxes do: for the haire of them faileth haply through immoderate heate. Allopes in Gréeke & Vulpes in Latine, is called a Foxe in English. For such other passions & cau∣ses of failing and default of haire, search inner in the treatise of the infirmities, of the falling of, and of the faults of the haire. Of the hoarenesse and the cause thereof séeke likewise there. Also looke before in the treatise of the head, where ye shall finde the disposition, kinde, and diuersitie of the complection of the haire, by the equdition of Galen, Halye, and Hippocrates. But of hoare haire take héede, as Constantine and others Au∣thors tell For the masterie of colde fleine: and moist héedeth hoarnesse. For of white fumositie and colde commeth hoarnesse of the haire of the head, and of the other haire of the bodie. Arist. saith, that the hairs of the temples hoareth sooner then the other haire: & that is for scarcitie of humours and for the mastry of the coldnesse of the boanes there∣of.

Then hoarenesse betokeneth length Page  [unnumbered]Page  [unnumbered]

Page  70 of lyfe and of age, and the quenching and passing of fleshly lyking, the stint∣ing and flieng of vices and lyking of childhood, and ending of this lyfe, & need∣full tidings of the new lyfe that com∣meth afterward. Baldenesse is priuation and default of haire, and commeth of default of fumositie in the foreparte of the head, as saith Constantine. And it commeth sometime of great abstinence, and of default of moist fumositie, that is the matter of the haire, as Aristotle sayth liber.3. The oft seruing of Venus maketh the haire to fall, and broodeth baldnesse little and lyttle. And if it fall in youth, it groweth againe. And if it fal∣leth afterward youth is gone, it grow∣eth no more. Then it followeth that haire falleth in the fore part of the head, and such falling and default of haire cau∣seth baldnesse commonly. And it falleth off, either for the skinne is too thin, or for scarcitie of humours. Haire falleth not behinde the powle, and that is for sad∣nesse and thicknesse of the skin, & thick∣nesse of pores and of cleauing ofhumour that is there, wherby the haire is fastned and nourished, as saith Galen super A∣phorism. And there it is said, That chil∣dren and women ware not balde, and that is for plentie of moisture in theyr heads. Also gelded men ware not balde: and that is through chaunging of theyr compleition, and for masterye of colde, that closeth and stoppeth the powers of the skinne of the head, and holdeth to∣gethers ye fumositie that it may not passe nor vapour out, but in women and in gelded men, eyther haire falleth and ay∣leth, as saith Aristotle. lib.19. Then the haire of the head, keepeth, highteh, de∣fendeth, and heateth the head. And if a man be without haire on the head he seemeth the more unhonest. This defaulte falleth in youth, but most in age: for the foresaide causes and rea∣sons.

*All manner of haires come of grose matter or fume, being hot, wher∣fore this common Prouerbe be is vsed: Vir pilosus semper est luxuriosus, A man that is full of haire, is lecherous. There are seauen seuerall coulous of haires. The first Albrone haire, yeolow haire, red haire, black haire, flaxen haire, gray haire, and white haire.

Alborne haire and yeolowe haire deeme a gentle nature, where the con∣dition & complection be of like good∣nesse, proceeding of Sanguine, bloud.

White and flaxen haire, of Flegmae, redde haire, of grole humours and ill bloud.

Blacke haire, of cholarike humours mixt with melancholy, Gray haire, de∣fection of naturall heate, and corrupte fleame: euery haire hath a hollownes, forth of the which the powers streme, the haires of man haue diuerse impedi∣ments, it may be eaten with wormes, it maye fall, it maye also stinke and wi∣ther.