Batman vppon Bartholome his booke De proprietatibus rerum, newly corrected, enlarged and amended: with such additions as are requisite, vnto euery seuerall booke: taken foorth of the most approued authors, the like heretofore not translated in English. Profitable for all estates, as well for the benefite of the mind as the bodie. 1582.
Bartholomaeus, Anglicus, 13th cent., Trevisa, John, d. 1402., Batman, Stephen, d. 1584.

¶The blacke of the Eie. Chap. 7.

LIber. 12. chap. 2. Isidore sayth, that the blacke of the eye, wherein is the vertue of sight, and is called Pupil∣la in latine, for the final images that be séene therein. And small children bee called Pupilli. And the blacke of the eye, is so called, because it is cleane and pure as Puella, a little maid childe. Phi∣sitions say, that the Images that we sée in eyen, bée not séene in eyen of ye them, that shal die,* thrée dayes afore. And if the sayd Images bée not séene, it is a cer∣teine token of death. The blacke hath a∣bout it a circle yt is called Corona. By ye Corona the blacke of the eye is mar∣ked and bounded. And the white parts of the eye departed therefrom. This Co∣rona by the roundnesse thereof highteth the blacke of the eie all about. And in this Corona is yt most fayrenesse of the eye. Hetherto speaketh Isidore. Halye saith, that in the blacke of the eye as in glasse appeareth Images of their things, that be séene in the eye. And all that is in the eye, of reumes and humoures, eyther they helpe or serue the blacke of the eye: And therefore it sitteth in the middle, as a Quéene. The blacke of the eye is little in quantity & most in ver∣tue among all the members. And ther∣fore as it is least, it taketh and com∣prehendeth things that be most of spi∣rit, that commeth of the braine with∣in, and taketh lykenesse and recey∣ueth without by lyght. And so by light it taketh in it selfe the lykenesse of the thing that is séene, and sendeth it to the perseueraunce of the Soule. For from all partes of the thing that is seene, lines come togethers and make a Pi∣rami in a toppewise,* either in a shield wise, of the which steeple the sharpe ende is in the blacke of the eye, and the broade ende in the thing that is seene, as it is shewed afore of the sight, looke there: this blacke of the eye perceiueth & hath discouering of the coulours and shape of all thinges by the vtter parts. And hath lyking in the middle coulours Page  40 and figures of shapes, as by the lynes perspectiue are expressed, and is corrupt in the vttermost partes, eyther at least is heauie and faint by contrariousnesse, as saith the Philosopher. Also it séeth & déemeth al things, that is without it, & set afore it: but it neuer séeth it selfe by lynes, vpon the which the lykenesse of the thing that is séene commeth to the sight. But when it séeth it selfe, that hap∣neth by reflection and rebounding of beames, that is, when the likenesse of the thing that is séene, is first multiplyed, & reboundeth to the myrrour, and from the myrrour againe to the sight, as sayth the Authour of Perspectiue. And there∣fore peraduenture the spirite of sight, hath lyking in the sight of a myrrour.

For it is somwhat fortified and streng∣thened: as it were tourned agayne to it selfe, by reflection or rebounding of the beames.

Also the blacke of the eye comprehen∣deth all things by a corner: For whe∣ther the lymmes passe out of the blacke of the eye to things that be séene, eyther come to the blacke of the eye from the thing séene: alway they be ioyned in the middle or center of the black of ye eie, as it wer in a corner, corner wise, for yt cor∣ner is the touch, & méeting of two lines. And forsomuch as the lynes, by yt which the sight is shapen, are ioyned, and as it were cornered in the middle of ye blacke of the eye: Therefore the Philosopher saith well & properly, that the eye seeth all things by a corner. Also among all the parts of the bodye, the blacke of the eye most soonest feeleth: and for the no∣bilytie and preciousnesse of the complec∣tion thereof, it is most passible: And therefore it is soonest grieued and hurte, and worst and hardest and most daunge∣rous to be healed. And therefore kinde hath giuen thereto curtills or rimnes, and couerings of defence, that it may so the better put off win & without things that grieue. Of these properties and pas∣sions of the eyen, and of the blacke ther∣of, serch within, in a special treatise. li. 6.