Batman vppon Bartholome his booke De proprietatibus rerum, newly corrected, enlarged and amended: with such additions as are requisite, vnto euery seuerall booke: taken foorth of the most approued authors, the like heretofore not translated in English. Profitable for all estates, as well for the benefite of the mind as the bodie. 1582.
Bartholomaeus, Anglicus, 13th cent., Trevisa, John, d. 1402., Batman, Stephen, d. 1584.

Of the flesh. Cap. 62.

*Flesh is called Caro in Latine, and hath that name of Carie, that is mat∣ter and rottennesse, as saith Remigius. Gregory saith, that the flesh is oft chan∣geable, and therefore it rotteth hastely. And Gregory sayth, That there be ma∣ny manners of flesh: For some is flesh of Fish, some of Fowles, and some of Serpents, and some of Adders. And in this mans flesh is priuiledged, for man is formed to the noblest and worthyest, that is to wit, is ioyned to the reasonable soule. Therefore it is aboue wonders, and most wonderfull, that in the last time mans flesh is made Gods fleshe, when Gods sonne became man, and dwelled among vs. When the flesh that was traile and brittle of mankinde, was made highest aboue other, when it was ioyned to Gods sonne, as sayth Grego∣rie. Constantine sayth, That flesh is kindly hot and moist, and feedeth kindly heats, and couereth sinewes, boanes, and braine, and defendeth them, and tempe∣reth the coldnesse of them. And there is thrée manner of fleshes, some is medled with muscles, sinews, and strings, and is called brawne: the other manner of flesh is temperate betwéene hard and soft, and is called gristlely, the third is kirnellye. And pure flesh is most in the ridge and in the gummes. The flesh that lyeth in the vtter partes of the bones, that rest∣eth vpon that flesh, is as it were a néed∣full Tapit of casement for ye sayd bones. The flesh of the ridge boane is néede∣full both within and without, for two causes. For it heateth the marrow of the ridge boane, and filleth the hollownesse betweene the ridge boanes, and also kee∣peth and saueth the sinewes that come vpwarde and downewarde, that they breake not nor faile, by reason of the long waye, and the flesh specially de∣sendeth the ridge from distemperate aire, and from vtter griefes and harmes. The flesh that is betweene the teeth kee∣peth and saueth the moores and rooes of them: and feedeth these moores and rootes, and maketh them steadfast and stable. Knottye fleshe hath thrée proper∣tyes. One maketh wet and moyst, as the flesh of pappes and teares, and the kir∣nells vnder the tongue, which breedeth spittle, for the mouth, the tongue, and the cheekes, that they bée not let of mo∣uing with too great drinesse. The other parte that is kirnelled and knottie, fil∣leth and occupyeth voyde places, and succoureth the deines and the sinewes, and receiue the superfluitye that wo∣seth out of them. The thirde parte of flesh beclippeth the stomacke and the guttes: And with this parte is medled certaine netes and causes of sinewes, veines, and wosen, which bring moo∣uing and féeling to the inwardes. Nor theyr waye should not bee sure, with∣out this kirnelled flesh were so spread, that the sinewes and the arteries might rest easily therevpon: And also that the sinewes and the arteryes maye finde a soft place to flye to for succour, if it hap∣pened them to méete with any thing that should grieue them with hardnesse. Huc vsque Constantinus. li. 2.cap.14. Flesh that is temperate and meane betwéene fat and leane is good & healthful, namely if it be not medled with corrupt bloud, nor bred thereof, nor fed therewith. For such flesh is the beginning of corrupti∣on, as sayth Aristotle. libro.3. And like∣wise Constantine. libro. 11.cap. 17.Ari∣stotle liber. 12. saith, That too much flesh letteth the workings of the spirite. And therefore the head is not made of much flesh, that it may be of the better witte and perfect vnderstanding. Item. liber. 1. If the place about the oyen haue much fleshe,* it betokeneth euill disposition, guile, deceit, and euill custome, and de∣fault of vertue Informatiue. And so if there bée too much flesh, and the vertue of formation and shape bee féeble: then wonderfull passions and euills breede in the bodie, as Arist. lib. 16. sheweth an en∣sample of a woman, that supposed that Page  68 she was with childe, and at last shée brought forth a grislye lumpe of fleshe, which is called Mola among Phisiti∣ons, &c. Also the very pure flesh is ten∣der and softe: and therefore it will not away with trauaile. Wherefore liber. 2. it is sayd, that the f••et of a Camell haue much-flesh, as the féete of a Beare, and therfore men make to the Camell strong shooes of haire and of Leather, when hee shall worke, to kéepe him from ach and sore hurting. Also (as hée sayth Li∣bro. 12.) The flesh is not the first mem∣ber of féeling, neither a member conur∣nient to féeling: But the sinewe, which is within the flesh, is the limme of fée∣ling. And therefore dead flesh féeleth nothing, nor flesh which is cut and de∣trenched ail of. For it hath not the well of feeling of it selfe, but of sinewes.

Therefore if the sinewes bée corrupte or stopped at the full, the flesh féeleth no∣thing, as it fareth in limmes, which be talten and vexed with the palsie. All Fowles with crooked billes and sharpe clawes, be fedde with fleshe, and wilde beastes also, and fleshe is the praye of such Fowles, for néede of meate and of foode, as it is sayd. Liber..14 And foules of praie that bée but little fleshye, bee bolde and hardie, and good of flight, and sharpe of sight, as it is there sayde. And Fowles of greate fatnesse, bée slowe of moouing and of flight, and they be more fleshie in Winter then in Summer. For in Winter the powers bée closed, and the humours ware thicke and tourneth into flesh and fatnesse: and also by rea∣son of rest. For then Fowles moue lesse from place to place, as saith Isaac in Dietis.