Batman vppon Bartholome his booke De proprietatibus rerum, newly corrected, enlarged and amended: with such additions as are requisite, vnto euery seuerall booke: taken foorth of the most approued authors, the like heretofore not translated in English. Profitable for all estates, as well for the benefite of the mind as the bodie. 1582.
Bartholomaeus, Anglicus, 13th cent., Trevisa, John, d. 1402., Batman, Stephen, d. 1584.

Of the sinewes. Chap. 60.

THE sinewes bée some of the partes of the bodye,* and bee called Neuros in Gréeke: because the ioyntes bée fast coupled together with the sinewes: And it is certaine that the sinewes make most vertue and strength. And the thick∣er that the sinewes bee, the more sted∣fastnesse commeth of them, as saith Isid. And Constantine saith, that the sinewes bee néedefull, to beare and to bring fee∣ling and moouing to the members, and namely to the gristles and bones, and to such that haue of themselues neither fee∣ling neither mouing. And the braine is chiefe foundation of the sinewes: for it is the well of wilfull moouing & feeling. For all sinewes spring and come out of the braine, or else out of the marrowe of the braine, that is of the marrowe of the ridge boanes. Such a meane is néede∣full, least if they all shuld come without meane from the braine, either in break∣ing they shuld be griued, or else for farre way from the well of féeling, in the deede of féeling, and in the might of giuing of lyfe, they should lacke in might. Then those sinewes, which come and spring out of the braine, bée more softer then they which procéede and come out of the marrowe of the ridge boane, for they bée more hard. And those sinewes which come & growe out of the formost parte of the braine, be most softe: for they beare féeling to the other. For soft∣nesse chaungeth into féeling hastely. The sinewes which come of the hinder parte of ye braine, be more harder to suffer mo∣ning: For soft things break lightly with switt mouing. Sixe paire of sinewes come frō the braine. The first paire passe to the eyen; and to the other lims of fée∣ling, to giue to thē féeling & mouing: and these be more hollowe, greater, and sof∣ter then other sinewes. Page  [unnumbered] And they be more hollowe, to giue more plentier spirits to the wits: And they be more greater, that the substaunce of them breake not in the hollownesse: and ye they may haue shut in them the more plentie of spirits. Also they be soft to make feeling in them the more spéedely proceede. In the out passing of the braine the sinewes be nesh and soft, but the far∣ther they be from the braine, the harder they be in kinde.

¶The second paire of sinewes begin∣neth behind the first: and that paire cō∣meth out by a certaine hole, that is nigh to the hollownesse of the eyen, and gi∣ueth mouing to the cien. The third paire beginneth behinde the second, and com∣ming by the eate of the head out of the hinder part of the braine, is departed in foure perticular sinewes, and spread in∣to diuerse places in a net wise. The fourth paire is ioyned to the first payre before: but beeing afterwarde departed therefrom, spreadeth into the milde mo∣ther, to giue thereto féeling of touching. The fift paire, in his out going is de∣parted into two sinewes. The one wher∣of commeth into the holes of the eares, and spreadeth there, and giueth hearing to the eares. That other commeth by the care bowes to the chéeks, and sprea∣deth and helpeth the working of mem∣bers there about. It seemeth that the sixt paire commeth out of the hinder part. And out of euery each of these thrée come sinewes, to ordeine féeling and mouing, and spreadeth in lyke vpwarde and downwarde. And yet besides these paires, there commeth one out of the hinder parte of the braine. And of this paire the marrowe of the ridge boane, commeth and springth. This spreadeth into the partes of the tongue and of the throate, and giueth to them féeling and mouing. Except these foresayde si∣newes, all other sinewes of the bodye, come out of the braine by meane of the marrowe of the ridge bone. And the si∣newes be accounted in all to the num∣ber of. 32. paire and one odde sinew. And all these bée spread, dealed, and fastened in euery side to the chinnings of the bo∣dy, by wonderfull crafte of kinde. Haec vsque Constantinus. lib. 2. cap. 12. Item liber. 3. Aristotle saith, that in the place of bones is the multitude of sinewes: and a sinew stretcheth kindly in length and not in bredth, and is greatly stretch∣ed out. And about the sinewes is much vntuous moysture, which kéepeth and saueth the sinewes. And euery beast that hath bloud hath sinewes: and a sinewe which is cut a sunder and detrenched, groweth neuer after, neither the sinew which is slit and clouen, closeth nor ioy∣neth, lyke as a veine doth. For if a veine be slit and clefte, it will bee soone ioyned whole againe. Also he sayth. liber. 29. That the most vertue of a beast is in the sinewes, and namely in a Bull: For the elder he is, the stronger and the har∣der he is, and the harder be his sinewes, and therefore it maye bée drawne and stretched in length, and straighted as a corde or rope. Then gather of this that is sayd, that a sinew springeth and com∣meth out of the braine. And receiuing thereof féeling and moouing, doth distri∣bute the same to the other members: And coupleth and bindeth togethers the other partes of the bodye, and is softe in the out comming, and hard forthward. The sinew in the hollownesse and void∣nesse therof receiueth spirit, and kéepeth it. And by the folding thereof the sinews bend and folde the limmes that be flexi∣ble. And as sayth Constantine, they in∣dure diuerse griefes, as cutting and slit∣ting, pinching and pricking, and slaking, and stopping, as appeareth in Pantegm. li. 9. cap. 8. &. li. 11.