Batman vppon Bartholome his booke De proprietatibus rerum, newly corrected, enlarged and amended: with such additions as are requisite, vnto euery seuerall booke: taken foorth of the most approued authors, the like heretofore not translated in English. Profitable for all estates, as well for the benefite of the mind as the bodie. 1582.
Bartholomaeus, Anglicus, 13th cent., Trevisa, John, d. 1402., Batman, Stephen, d. 1584.

Of the Feete. chap. 54.

A Foote is called Pes in Latine,* and hath that name of Podos in Gréeke as saith Isidore. For the féete setting to the ground one after another goe forth. The foot is the vttermost part of a man and beareth vp all the bodie. Constant. sayth that the foote is made of 44. bones, of the which bones two be the héeles, and two of the cheines or ancle bones, 10. of the combe, and 30. of the foes. Page  64 And the sole of the foote is fleshie and plaine, forward and backward, and some deale hollow in the middle. It is fleshie to defend the sinewes, strings & veynes from hardnes of the bones. It is plaine, to haue footing, and to be more ready to beare that is set thereon. It is hollow, to haue succour in the hollowe place, if the plaine slide or faile. The bones of the féete be bound with diuers sinewes and bonds, and that is néedefull to haue more strength, for strong sustenaunce of the body, and also for that the féet shuld haue the more easie mouing. Féete of beasts be diuers: For Aristotle libro. 14. saith, That some footed beastes haue feete afore and behinde, and some haue in the sides, as a beast with bloud and with many féete: and the propertie of that kinde of beasts, is to haue féete in the former part of the bodye, and the cause thereof is, for that the former and the hinder are ioyned and houed in one place. Also Ibidem he saith, that in foure footed beasts kinde hath set the fore féete in stéede of the handes: the hinder féete be necessary to beare the wayght of the beasts. And it was much necessary, that foure footed beasts shuld haue foure féete, for all the body of them boweth kindly toward the earth, and also is moued to the earth with all beastly appetite: and therefore it néedeth to haue so many vn∣dersettings and vpholders, that such a beast may the more ably & quickly moue, and goe, and stampe. Also therefore the hinder feete be néedefull: for Arist. saith, the fore part of the foure footed beast, is more and more large than the hinder part. And therefore for to rise vp and moue themselues, and to moue lyghtlye before and behinde, the hinder féete are needfull. The contrary is in children: for the ouer part in children is heauyer than the nether, and therfore they créepe on féete and handes, and vse their hands in steede of foure féete in créeping, for they may not reare vp their bodies, be∣cause ye ouer part of ye body is more than the nether. This changeth yet in youth, for yet in youth, the nether part wareth, and the ouer part wareth lesse than the nether part of the body, and so by lyttle and little he reareth himselfe vp an end. But the disposition of foure footed beasts is contrary: for the nether part is first very great, but in youth the ouer parte wareth and areareth, and therefore the rearing vp of the head and foreparte of horses, is much more than the hinder part. And there it is said, that the token and signe héereof is, that a colte touch∣eth his owne head with his hinder foote: but when he commeth to age, he cannot doe it. Also Arist. li. 2. saith, that the lesse foote of such beasts on the fore parte is not so frée neither so lyght in mouing, as the left hand of a man, except the E∣lephant. Also there it is sayde, that the Elephant in sitting, bendeth and boosteth his feete, but he may not bend his foure féete at once, for heauinesse and wayght of his body, but he foldeth and bendeth the hinder féete as a man doth. Also it is sayd there that Volatile bendeth ye hin∣der féete backwarde and the wings for∣ward, which be in steed of handes.* Also ther it is sayd, ye generally in beasts the right foot moueth more than the left, and therefore it is sayde, That some beastes moue first the right foote when they shall goe or step, as the Lyon, Camell, & Dro∣medarie. But yet somtime some beasts moue first the left foote, as the Fore and Woolfe, that haue féete and legs longer in the left side, than on that other. And therefore they halt alway, and reare and rise vpward from the left side toward the right side. Also generally in beastes the right foote hath more heate in mouing & strength than the lefte foote. Super A∣phorism. Galen sayth in taken héereof, That if a woman which goeth with childe stande vpright, and both hir féete together, if she be with a childe Mascu∣lyne in hir wombe, and is sodaynly cal∣led, she moueth first the right foote to come to the callyng: and if it be a maid childe, she moueth first the lefte foote.

Also he sayth libro 2.& 3. That euerye beast with many toes in the féete; haue many children, and contrariwise. And the féete of foure footed beasts are made of bones, & sinewes, and of lyttle flesh. And also the féete of fowles and of two footed beasts, except mans féete; which Page  [unnumbered] hath much flesh beneath, and that is to defend the manifold & diuers bones and sinewes. Also some beasts vse the foote in stéede of the hande, as an Ape among foure footed beasts, & the Popingay & the Pellycan among the sieng fowles: for they feede themselues with the foote. And he saith lib. 13. that no beast with many cliftes in the feete haue bornes. And yet euerye beast with long strouting tuskes in the mouth, is cloue footeed as ye Bore, Also he saith lib. 14. that in ees ye hin∣der feete be more then the former, or middle, for going, and to rise from the earth when they lyst to take their flight, and their waye. Item libro. 16. euerye beast with many clyfts in the foote, gen∣dereth blynde whelpes, as the Lyon, the Hound, the Wolfe, and Fore. Then to haue in remembraunce the properties of the foote: the foote is the vttermost part of the beast, ordained for perfection ther∣of, and it is long, plaine and hollow, for shape and printing of the Fore: and is distinguished with toes, for his strong holding: bonie and sinewie for better during. And is néedefull in beastes for the rearing of them and mouing, & also for ward and defence of them In foules clouen feete and crooked clawes are néed∣full to get their liuing. In fowles clo∣sing of the feete is needfull for their lea∣ding, stirring and ruling in waters. And this sufficeth touching the feete.