Batman vppon Bartholome his booke De proprietatibus rerum, newly corrected, enlarged and amended: with such additions as are requisite, vnto euery seuerall booke: taken foorth of the most approued authors, the like heretofore not translated in English. Profitable for all estates, as well for the benefite of the mind as the bodie. 1582.
Bartholomaeus, Anglicus, 13th cent., Trevisa, John, d. 1402., Batman, Stephen, d. 1584.

¶Of the Kidneyes. Cap. 43.

THe kidneyes are called Renes in La∣tine:* for of them springeth the hu∣mour Seminall, as sayth Varro, for the veynes and the maraow, sweate out a thin humour into the kidneyes, and that lycour is ofte resolued by the heate of Venus, and runneth and commeth, and sheddeth it selfe into the place of gen∣dring as sayth Isidore. And the place which is in the sides of the ioyntes of the ridge, in which be the seates of ye kid∣neyes, be called the loynes: and be cal∣led in Latine Lumbi, for lust and liking of the fleshly acte, as saith Isidore: For in men the cause of bodely lust, is in the kidney and loynes.

And Const speaking of the kidneyes sayth, that they be made to sucke wa∣try humour from the lyuer, and to clense and purifie it, and the purgation there∣of, which is the vrine, the kidneyes sen∣deth to the bladder by the wayes of the vrine: and so sayth Haly also, Super Tegni. And he sayth, that the highest maker and Creator hath made and or∣dained two kidneyes to drawe watrye moysture of bloud from the lyuer, and to sende it to the bladder to passe out. A∣ristotle lib.13. saith, That the reynes bée made for the bladder, that so the work∣ing of the bladder, should be the better and the more perfect: For the reynes cleanse the superfluitie of moysture, that runneth to the bladder. Also he saith, that the right reyne is higher than the lefte, in euery beast that hath reynes, and that because in the right side, the heate is higher and stronger. Also he sayth, that in all beasts which haue reynes, the left reyne is lesse fatter than the right, and higher: For kinde in the right side is more light, and of more mouing & heate, for heate dissolueth and wasteth fatnes. Also the reynes be the vttermost of the inner members, and therefore they neede greate heate. Then consider, That the reynes are hot, and keepe kindly heate, and they temper the coldnes of ye ridge and of the ioynts of the ridge bone, and drain watry humours from the lyuer, & dyeth and coloureth bloud, and comfort∣eth the vertue of kinde, and bréedeth Se∣minall humor: and they be fleshly, hol∣low, round, and couered with fatnesse. They are fleshly and powrie, to drawe and to receiue the easelier, watrie super∣fluitie: they are round, that they should not gather no humour to rotting & cor∣ruption: and are cloased and warded with fatnesse, that they be not grieued with the coldnesse of the ridge boanes: and they receiue certaine veynes of the stomacke, that come out of the lyuer. In the which veynes the superfluitie of hu∣mour in the second digestion is brought to the reynes. Therefore if the sayde veynes be stopped and let in their office, the reynes be grieued and the liuer also. Sometime in the reynes fail diuers griefes, as sayth Constantine lib.2. cap.34. If the veynes of the lyuer be stop∣ped, the reynes lacke humour of blend to their féeding, and therefore they were leane & small. And if the neather wayes of them be constrained or straighted with heate either with colde, then by ye pre∣sence of superfluous humour, that com∣meth into their substance, they be ouer∣much stretched and dilated, and so con∣sequently corrupted, or els the humors being fordried, they putrifie and tourne into the stone.

Page  60*The reynes are also sundrye wayes grieued, with a postumate winde, that commeth of extreame colde, or of a fer∣uent heate.