Batman vppon Bartholome his booke De proprietatibus rerum, newly corrected, enlarged and amended: with such additions as are requisite, vnto euery seuerall booke: taken foorth of the most approued authors, the like heretofore not translated in English. Profitable for all estates, as well for the benefite of the mind as the bodie. 1582.
Bartholomaeus, Anglicus, 13th cent., Trevisa, John, d. 1402., Batman, Stephen, d. 1584.
Page  57

¶Of the Liuer. Cap. 39.

*THe Liuer is called Epar in Latine, and lecur also, and if hath that name for fire hath place therin, that passeth vp spéedely to the braine, & commeth thence to the eden, and to the other wittes and lyins. And ye luler by his heat draweth inward sweat and iuyce, and turneth it into bloud, and serueth the bodie and members therewith to the vse of féeding: and is called Epar, for that it féedeth such members. In the lyuer is the place of voluptuousnesse and lyking of the flèsh,* the endes of the lyuer be called Fibre, for they be strayght & passing as toūgs, and beclyppeth the stomacke, and giueth heate to digestion of meate & and they be called Fibre, because the igroman∣cers brought them to the Altars of their God Phoebus, and offered them there, and then they had aunsweres. Huc vs∣que Isidorus. Constantine sayth, that the syuer is a member, hot, hollow, and slender, set in the right side of the beast, vnder the stomacke, to helpe the first di∣gestion with his heate: and also hée is loudy and e in colour, for the vnpour thereof is turned into humour of blod, by full great heat: and he is some drale hard, that he be not soone Suf and grie∣ued, and the liuer is diuers in men in 〈…〉 neilie of parte,* for in men it is grea∣ter, than in other beasts of the same quantisie. The number of parts thereof, in some is double, & that is at the least: in some treble,* or quatreble, or at ye most quintreble. And out of the broad hollow∣nesse of the lyuer commeth a veyne, that Phisitions call Porta: & this veyne, or he come out,* is departed in fiue small veynes, entring into parts of the lyuer. The lyuer draweth in his hollownesse, the vapour of the first digestion by cer∣taine veynes, and by boylyng of kinde heate doth make digestion: secondly, it tourneth the bloudie lumpe, into y kinde of foure humors: and what is hot and moyst passeth into the kinde of bloud, & is receiued and kept in the veynes: and what is hot and drye passeth into ye kind of Cholera, and is receiued properly in the skibbet of the gall: and what is cold & drye passeth into the kind of Me∣lancholy, & his proper receit is ye skibbet of the splene & what is floting and ra∣trie, passeth into fleame, and the receiuer thereof is the kings. Héereof it follow∣eth, that the lyuer is the chiefe founda∣tion of kindly vertue, and gretest helper of the first digestion in the stomacke: & the lyuer maketh perfectly the second di∣gestion in the stomacke, in the hollow∣nesse of his owne substaiunce, and depar∣teth cleane and pured, from vncleane & vnpured, and sendeth féeding to all the members, and excited loue or bodelye lust, and receiueth diuers passions. And the lyuer is grieued sometime by great seruent heate, that openeth the poores within: by whose opening, the vertue dimishing away, the liuer worketh more sacklye. And sometime by ouermuch colde, which letteth the vapours that is drawen, to be turned into bloudy kinde: and héereof many times commeth the dropsie. For the dropsie is nothing els, (as the Philosopher saith) but errour of the vertue of digestion in the hollownes of the lyuer: for if this vertue erte and faile in his working, néedes the bloud is corrupt, and if the bloud be vndissolued, the body that is fed therewith swelleth and stretcheth, and thereof commeth the dropsie. Also the lyuer is grieued by euil cōplection of his substance, & that is by ye distemperance of ye foure humors: the which distemperaunce hath mastery in the lyuer. Also it is grieued by stop∣ping of his veynes: for it happeneth oft that the great humors and gleymie are gathered in the veynes of the lyuer, and so when the bloud is closed, and maye not passe out, it causeth strayghtnes and stopping. The same also channeth by too great heate, drying the bloude hu∣mour, and making the substaunce of the veynes of the lyuer straight, that ye bloud may not fréely shedde it selfe to féede the other members of the bodye. The same may happen sometime by too great colde congealyng the humours, and making straight the wayes of the lyuer, and tes∣ting the passage of bloude to féede the members.

Page  [unnumbered]The same also happneth by an impo∣stume, grieuing the substaunce of the li∣uer, and bréeding matter therein. Al∣so the same happeneth by winde inclo∣sed, stretching the tender skinnes of the lyuer, and also by discordaunce of mem∣bers breeding woe and sorrowe. Also it is ofte grieued by vnmeasurable passing or running out of bloud, that commeth of opening of the veynes, that spring out of the lyuer: and that commeth of too great sharpnesse of bloud, or els of too great replecion, or féeblensse of vertue of holding, or of too great businesse and labour, as Constan, sayth. And yet of the kinde & tokens of complection of the liuer Galen saith in Tegni, a token of ye liuer when it is hot, is largnesse and widenes of the veynes that be not pulses. Upon this place Haly saith, when great heate hath the masterie in the liuer, the liuer is more, and the veyne thereof wareth more wide and great: and when that veyne is great, all the veyns that be not veynes of the pulse, in all the members be great,* and the bloud thereof is hot, & sometime, thereof is bred Citrina Cho∣lera. And by continuance and passing of time after the state of youth, the citrius Cholera is burnt, and thereof is made blacke Cholera, and diuers passions are bred, increase, and come of such Cholera, And sometime the coldnesse of the heart with andeth the passing and ouer great heate of the lyuer: for the lyuer is ruled & gouerned in his working by ye heart, as by the superiour and more noble and worthier member. And this same sayth Aristotle lib. 13. where he setteth yt hart before the lyuer, as ruler and gouernour thereof. Also Galen saith, that the heate of the hart tempereth ye coldnes of ye ly∣uer, & signe & token of coldnesse and dri∣nesse of the lyuer, is straightnesse of the veynes & scarsitie of bloud: as softnes of veynes & much bloud, is token of moy∣sture. Also Haly sayth, that the lyuer is the well of moysture of the bodye, and therefore if the lyuer that is the roote and well of humour be drye, it may not worne nor chaunge any member of the bodie to humour, neyther to moysture, to withstand his drinesse.

The drinesse and the moysture of the lyuer is more or lesse after the dispositi∣on of the heart. Then the lyuer is a no∣ble and precious member, by whose al∣teration the body is altered: and the ly∣uer sendeth féeding and vertues of fee∣ding to the other members, to the nea∣ther without meane, and to the ouer, by meane of the heart, as Galen saith. Yet contrariwise Aristotle saith, lib. 13 that the heart doth all that is aforesaid, by meane of the lyuer; which of these opi∣nions is of more truth and certaintie, & put and leaue to the iudgement and dis∣cretion of other men.

The lyuer is none other thing,*than congealed bloud, which doth ralifie the stomacke like the fire vnder a pot, and doth make digestiō, & as the third prin∣cipall member in man, in whom rest∣eth the animall spirites. And whereas many affirme, that mans lyuer maye waste, it is not so: yet may the lyuer haue many and diuers infirmities, as heate, water gulls, kernells and opilati∣ons, with such lyke diseases. The lyuer is hot and drye.

¶And this that we haue treated of at this time is sufficient touching the properties of the lyuer.