Batman vppon Bartholome his booke De proprietatibus rerum, newly corrected, enlarged and amended: with such additions as are requisite, vnto euery seuerall booke: taken foorth of the most approued authors, the like heretofore not translated in English. Profitable for all estates, as well for the benefite of the mind as the bodie. 1582.
Bartholomaeus, Anglicus, 13th cent., Trevisa, John, d. 1402., Batman, Stephen, d. 1584.

¶Of the Pappe. Cap. 34.

THe pap is called Mammilla in latin,* & taketh that name of roundnes, for Maso in Gréeke is round in Latine, as saith Isid.* The teate or nipple is ye head of the pap,* that the child sucketh and ta∣keth betwéene his lips, is called Papilla in Latine, & hath y name of Palpare to grope: for ye childe oft toucheth it, & gro∣peth therafter. Also ye paps be called V∣bera in latin, either for yt they be full of milk, or of humuors of milke, as it wer a bottle. For after ye birth of a childe, if bloud be not wasted with feeding, it cō∣meth by a kind way into ye paps, & war∣eth white by vertue of them, and taketh the qualitie of milke, as saith Isido. And Constant. saith, that the pappes be made Page  [unnumbered] and compounded of a manner kernell substaunce, that is soft, fleshie, and white: as the kinde of milke is. The veynes & strings in the kernell substaunce of the pappes are medled: by the which bloud with breath is conueyed to the pappes. The paps be set in the breast to be nigh to the heart, that by decoction of ye heate of the heart, the bloud maye the easelyer be turned into the kinde of milke: For bloud commeth by an hollow veyne to the heart, and then to the breast, & pear∣ceth at last and commeth to the pappes, and in the hollow flesh of the paps, the bloud by vertue of heate, tourneth into the substaunce and hinde of milke. And the flesh of the pappe hath dens & holes as a spounge, and therefore it is méete to breeding of milke to the féeding of anye childe. The pappe hath this propertie, as it is said vpon Aphoril. That the paps of a woman that shal haue childe before hir time, ware softe and tender, as sayth Hippocrates. Also he sayth, That if the right pappe of a woman that goeth with two children,* wareth tender and soft, the man childe shalbe borne before his time: and if the lefte pappe waxe soft, then the female shall be borne before hir time: and if both the pappes grow tender and softe, both the children shall be borne a∣fore their time. And in Commento Ga∣len telleth the cause héereof, and sayeth, that the smalnesse of the pappe betoke∣neth scarsitie of milke: and therefore if the childe hath not due feeding, hée must needs be dead born before his time. Also Hippocrates saith ther, that in wo∣men in which superfluitie of hot bloud turneth to the pappes, betokeneth mad∣nesse. Galen telleth the cause thereof, & sayth, that when superfluitie of seruent hot bloud commeth to the pappes, if it may not be turned into milk for passing great heate and abundaunce therof, then it is dispearced and turned into sharpe smoke, and goeth vp to the head, & trou∣bleth the brayne, and so breedeth mad∣nesse. Also he saith there: If thou wilt make the bloud of Menstruum in a wo∣man lesse, thou shalt set a coppe to ye pap,* to ye veyns which come from ye Mother, as sayth Galen: and by such manner of drawing, the superfluitie of bloude, is drawen to the paps, and so the neather bleeding of Menstruum is diminished, as Galen rehearseth. Also he sayth, If much milke run out of the pappes of a woman, that goeth with childe, it is a token that the childe is feeble: and if the pappes be harde, it is a token, that the childe is féeble, for the milke is not di∣minished, by reason that the childe is fée∣ble to receiue and tourne it into his fée∣ding. Therefore too great dropping of the pappes is a token of corruption and im∣perfection of the childe as saith Galen. And if the pappes be meanly hard, it is a token of the childes health. For too great smalnesse and leannesse of the paps after the conception, is a token that the childe is féeble and corrupt, and it is a token that the childe shall be dead born, or els to be borne afore the time, as saith he. And if a woman be with childe of a man childe, the right pappe is more then the lefte: and if she be with childe of a female, then is the left pappe more than the right: and that is first knowen, when the childe beginneth to moue himselfe, as sayth Aristotle liber 19. Also as he sayth, ofte time by reason of too muche milke and crudding thereof, the pappes ware ouer harde. And if there growe a∣ny haire while the brests e ouer hard, there commeth a great sicknes and sore, that is called Pilosa,*(A kindly humor lacking heate or moysture, is turned to vlceration, and beginneth his swellings like a ball or wenne: but if the hu∣mour retourne shortlye after delyue∣raunce, then Pilosa disolueth into his former kinde,) and the ache ceaseth not till matter and corruption commeth out as saith Aristotle. Also he sayth lib. 6. that beastes with many pappes, bring sorth manye at a time, and they haue teates diuided, as it fareth in a Bitch, and in a Sowe. When a Sowe far∣roweth, shée giueth the first pappe to the first Pigge, and the nexte to the se∣conde, and so of the other. And beasts with fewe teates bring foorth fewe at a time, as a Woman and an Ele∣phant,* that hath teates set afore in the breast.

Page  54Then the pappe is a néedfull member to feede and nourish the childe, & to take menstruall bloud to turne into milke: & to cause ye bloud that is vnpured, to dis∣solue, and to make it white, swéete, and thicke, and to defend the breast and the heart, and to know Sexus and ages, and is shewer of corruption. And the pappe is rounde, euenlong, sinewye, fleshre, dennie, and fully set to the teeth of chil∣dren.