Batman vppon Bartholome his booke De proprietatibus rerum, newly corrected, enlarged and amended: with such additions as are requisite, vnto euery seuerall booke: taken foorth of the most approued authors, the like heretofore not translated in English. Profitable for all estates, as well for the benefite of the mind as the bodie. 1582.
Bartholomaeus, Anglicus, 13th cent., Trevisa, John, d. 1402., Batman, Stephen, d. 1584.

¶Of the Backe. Chap. 32.

THe ridge is called Dorsum in latine,* and hath that name of hardenesse, Page  [unnumbered] for it is the hardest part of the body, as it were a stone strong to beare, and to suffer durable, as saith Isidore. And the ridge hath another name, that is called the backe: for therevpon we lye backe∣ward and vpright on the earth, and so may a man doe, and not other beastes, for other beasts lye on the wombe, ey∣ther on the side: and therefore it is vn∣properly sayd, yt any beasts haue backes, as saith Isidore. But it maye be called backe, for beating and bearing, for it is beaten with diuers manner of whips: and not onely the backes of beastes, but also the backs of men that be prisoners, as saith he. Or as Remigius saith, This word Tergum maye be said of Teros in Gréeke, that is round in Latine: For the ridge of a beast hath a manner of roundnesse, for all the bones in the body be founded in the ridge, as a ship on the keele. Constantine saith and Isidore al∣so, that ye ridge beginneth from the nape of the head, and stretcheth néere to the kidneyes: and the ridge is made & com∣pounded of diuers bones and ioynts, and that for foure causes. First, for he is the foundation of all other, and thereon all the other bones be set, as the shippe is on the keele. The second, for it is ye defence and healyng of the inner partes. The third, for it is help and succour of the si∣newes, that come from the brain down∣ward to diuers parts of the body, to giue qu••k mouing and féeling in euery part. The fourth to beare marrow that com∣meth down from the braine and to kéep the marrowe, and saue it from griefes, within those powers. The ridge boane of a beast is made and compounded of many bones, that they may the easilyer rise and settle vp themselues, and bende, and to beare more strongly charges and burthens. And the ridge boanes be cal∣led Spondilia in latine, and are hollow, that the marrowe of the ridge bone, that Phisitions call Nucha, may the easilyer be borne and come to the neather mem∣bers, to make the quicke mouing: and the same kinde and vertue is as well in the braine, as in the marrowe of the ridge bone, as saith Constantine. And there∣fore it is cloathed with a double skinne, as the braine is, as saith he. And there∣fore if this marrowe in the ridge bone, bée in anye wise let either hurte, the vertue of féeling is hurt in working and doing, as it is when the braine is hurt, and therefore if this marrowe be hurt, the beast dyeth lightly, & therefore kinde maketh the ridge bones hard & sinewy, & also picked and sharpe, for the more de∣fence of the marrowe, and for the more easie withstanding and putting off, of hurting and wrong. The skinne of the ridge is harder and thicker than the skin of other parts of a beast, and that is for the cause aforesayd, and the ridge suffe∣reth many griefes within and without. For without it is beaten and hath ma∣ny griefes. Within it suffereth shrink∣ing of sinewes, to much replection of hu∣mours, stopping of the veynes and the gates of the spirites, sore pricking and putting, and stopping, and griefes of di∣uers goutes and dropsies.