Batman vppon Bartholome his booke De proprietatibus rerum, newly corrected, enlarged and amended: with such additions as are requisite, vnto euery seuerall booke: taken foorth of the most approued authors, the like heretofore not translated in English. Profitable for all estates, as well for the benefite of the mind as the bodie. 1582.
Bartholomaeus, Anglicus, 13th cent., Trevisa, John, d. 1402., Batman, Stephen, d. 1584.

Of the side. Chap. 31.

THe side is called Latus in Latine and hath that name of Latere,* to lurke, either to be hid. For when a man lyeth, the side is hidde. And there is both the left side and the right side of the bodye, that is called in Latine Dextra & Sini∣stra: and in ye right side is most able mo∣uing, but the left side is more strong and more couenable to ye burthēs & charges: & therfore ye left side is called Leua in La∣tine, & hath ye name of Leuare to heaue, & Page  52 lyfte: for it is more able to lyfte and to beare some thing, as sayth Isidore. That side beareth the shield, and the buckler, sword, the quiuer, the knife and other burthens, that the right hande maye bee ready at lybertie to doe what it shall, as sayth Isidore. The sides be speciallye strengthened with the bones of ribbes. And the ribbes be called Costae as Isi∣dore saith: because the ribbes kéepe the inner part of the body, and all the softe∣nesse and tendernes of the belly, is wise∣ly kept and saued by the office of ye ribs. And the side ribbes be made and com∣pounded of many bones ioyned & bound to the bones of the ioyntes of the ridge bone, and of diuers gristles, that ioyne the foresayd bones together, as sayeth Constantine. And these boanes haue the lykenesse of halfe a Circle: & when they be ioyned togethers to the ioyntes of the ridge bone and of the brest boane, they séeme to make a full circle, as saith Constantine. The boanes be fourtéene saith he, set in the either side seuen, seuen on the one side, & seuen on the other, the which be bound togethers to the closure of the breast, with seuen tender boanes, that be as it were of gristly kinde. Of which the endes are tender and gristlye, shapen as the poynt of a sword, and set vnder the mouth of the stomacke for de∣fence thereof, and of the heart. And so in the making or composition of the ribbes and breast, in all be two & thirtie bones, of the which fourtéen be in the sides, & in the composition of the brest, ten. Behind in the ridge be eight gristle boanes, to∣gethers as sayth Constantine. It hap∣peneth that the side is ofte griued, som∣time by cause that is without, as by fal∣lyng, breaking, smiting, and other such. And sometime by cause that is within, as by fléeting and concourse, and com∣ming togethers of the humours to the place and hollownesse of the small ribs. And somtime a postume is bred therin, as it fareth in a plurisie, that is bred and commeth of a postume, that is in ye ten∣dernesse of the rybbes. The tokens ther∣of be ache of the side, cough, and Febris Acuta, and is speciallye knowen by bloudie spittle: if it come of bloud, by citrinesse or yeolow: if it come of Cho∣lera, by white spittle: if it come of fleme, by bloo spittle: if it come of Melancho∣lia, but it bréedeth selde of Melancholia, as it is contayned in Practica. Such postumes when they be rooted and pight in the side, then they be cause of sore ach, stiffeling, and burning, and then he that hath that euill, may not rest vpon the side that the postume is on. Therefore it is said in Pronosticis, that it is a good signe that a sicke man in Febribus acutis, lye on his side, & specially on his right side. For that betokeneth, that the nigh pla∣ces haue no postume, and that the spiri∣tuall members be frée, and haue large place to open and to spred, and so a man breatheth the better: for neither the sto∣macke, nor other members grieueth, nei∣ther thirsteth the spirituall members. Also it happeneth, that vnder the small ribs in a voyde place, winde is gathered and closed within the small skinnes of the ribs, and by the stretching thereof is bred sore pricking and ache. And some∣time it happeneth that the place is stop∣ped and made hard by gathering of great humours. And so the side places be ha∣ed and rent, eyther made too harde, ei∣ther shrunke, eyther too much heaued vp. And therefore it is sayde in Pronosticis Hippocratis, In the small ribs if they are without ache and sore, and if they be softe, and well com∣pounded in euery side, it is good. And if they ake, or haue the Crampe, and be drawen togethers, as it fareth in the Crampe: If there be onely great quaking and leaping in anye of them, it betokeneth woe and sorrowe, either ra∣uing, &c.

¶And that is a speciall token in Fe∣bribus Acutis, and specially if the sight of the eyen bée horrible staring and in∣ordinate, as sayeth the same Com∣mentatour. And if the mouing of the Eyen bée ordynate, it is not so great dreade of rauing in Acutis, Vt dicit Idem.