Batman vppon Bartholome his booke De proprietatibus rerum, newly corrected, enlarged and amended: with such additions as are requisite, vnto euery seuerall booke: taken foorth of the most approued authors, the like heretofore not translated in English. Profitable for all estates, as well for the benefite of the mind as the bodie. 1582.
Bartholomaeus, Anglicus, 13th cent., Trevisa, John, d. 1402., Batman, Stephen, d. 1584.

Of the necke. Chap. 25.

THE Necke is called Collum in La∣tine,* because it is great and round, & beareth and susteineth the head. The for∣most parte is called Gula, and the hin∣der Ceruix, the nowle, as sayth Isidore: And hath that name, for by that parte the marrow commeth to the ridge bone. Therefore Ceruix is sayd. Quasi via ce∣rebri, as it were the way of the braine, as sayth Isidore. The necke is a round member, and racane betwéene the bodye and the head, and is bonnie, made and composed of many bones and sinewes. It is boanie to be the more strong to susteine and beare the head. It is sinewy to make quicke mouing, and to send fée∣ling to the neather partes of the bodie. The necke receiueth and taketh of the braine influence of ye vertue of mouing, and sendeth it by sinewes to the neather parts of the bodie. The necke ought to haue a concord and proportion with the head. For if the head bée temperatye great, and the nape of the necke in mea∣surable quantitie, it betokeneth lightnes of complection and disposition, as sayth Constantine. And if the head be little, & the necke great, not proportionate to the quantitie of the head, it betokeneth great superfluitie of matter, and default of the Page  49 vertue Informatiue of shaping. And such an head is trauailed & grieued with head ach, and ach of the eares, as sayth Constantine. Aristotle. li. 14. saith, that the disposition of the necke varieth and chaungeth in beasts and in soules. For in foure footed beasts with thicke bodies and meane thighs, the necke is short and great: and much strength of such beasts is in the necke. As it faceth in Oxen, Bulls, Beares and Wolues, the most strength of thē is in the bone of the neck: and therefore Oxen be commonly yoked by the necke. And beasts with long thighes and greate bodies haue oft long necks, and that is néedfull for to pasturs or feede. As it faceth in Horses, Camels, Hartes, and such other beasts. And the most fairenes of an horse is in the neck. For by the beginesse, and thicknesse, and stretching thereof, he is accounted fierts in courage of many men. Also in eo. li. Ari. saith, ye soules yt haue crooked bills, hath short neckes, as it farth in Goshaukes, Eagles, & Sparhaukes. And soules that haue long billes and straight, haue long neckes, as it fareth in Crames, Hearnes, Bées and Ganders: and that is for to get then meate in déepenesse of moeres, fennes, and riuers. Also he sayth there, that all soules that haue long bills, haue great neckes and thicke, and flye with the neckes straight out, and if they haue long néetres and stretching forwarde, they bēnd and plye them as it wet fol∣ding or pleytes, when they flye. Also he saith, that if a beast hath long thighs, he hath a long necke: and if he hath short thighes, so hath a short necke. Euerye beast that hath a necke, and he breathe not, he hath none aire within. Also eue∣ry beast that hath a necke, hath lunges, and that beast that draweth no ayre in, hath no necke.

All beasts that forward winde them∣selues round as a ring, haue no necke distinguished from the body as fiste••. Celes, and adders, and such other long wormes that head themselues, and that for they haue no shoulders. For nothing is called the neck, but that member that is betwéene the head and shoulders, as saith Aristotle there.