Batman vppon Bartholome his booke De proprietatibus rerum, newly corrected, enlarged and amended: with such additions as are requisite, vnto euery seuerall booke: taken foorth of the most approued authors, the like heretofore not translated in English. Profitable for all estates, as well for the benefite of the mind as the bodie. 1582.
Bartholomaeus, Anglicus, 13th cent., Trevisa, John, d. 1402., Batman, Stephen, d. 1584.

Of the throate. Chap. 24.

THE throate is the vttermost parts of the pipes of the lungs,* as sayth Constantine, and is of double helpe. The more and the first is to draw and send aire, the second is to receive and bring in meate and drinke, and to make the voice and sownd. The substaunce of this pipe is grislye and harde, that when the ayre goeth out, the voice shuld bee cleere. For the hearsenesse of the voice commeth of the moysture of the organe of the lungs. The voice is made and composed of thrée gristells, the first is knottie and bending outwarde, and within hollowe. The second is more then the first, and is set fast in the mouth of the stomacke. The third gristell is in the middle betweene the first and the se∣cond. Of these three gristells the throate is made, as it were cheined togethers, that it maye open and close. And all the substaunce of the throate is closed with∣in the same clothing and skinnes that cloth the tongue and the roose of the mouth. The hollownesse of the throat, in the which ayre commeth in and out, hath a bodye composed lyke the tongue, of gristells, fatnesse, and skinnes. And Phisitions cal it ye tongue of the throat, or Cataracta: and is the first instru∣ment of the voice, as it is sayde. And the voyce may not bée, but if this Cata∣racta waye bée closed. For if the waye of the throate bée open, the voyce maye in no wise bée: for the ayre passeth out little and little. And therefore the ware of the throate is needfull to with-holde and ose in the breath. And for that the throat is somtime grieued by humours, that come downe from the head, thereof commeth hearsnesse of ye throat & cough, & sometime it happeneth by drawing of corrupt and drie aire. And sometime it chaunceth by entering in of dust. There∣fore the throate hath nerues and gristels to withstande and let the dust, & other such grieuous thinges, that they enter not to the lungs: and that is needfull to make the voice fayre, strong, and rea∣die. And it releeueth the aire that com∣meth in, and tempereth the coldenesse thereof. Therefore some men die when that the tongue of the throate is cut: for then too much ayre entereth and cooleth the throat and the lungs, then the throat is a needfull instrument to make & shape the voyce, and to bring in meate and dislike to the first place of digestion. that is the stomacke: And is long and round to drawe in and put out much aire: the more easily to coole the heate of the heart, and it is more hollowe in ey∣ther end, and straight in the middle to shape the voyce the better. And it is made and composed of diuers gristells, that couer themselues in a cup, to bee the stronger, and to bend it selfe the easilier, to varie the voyce by tendernesse of the gristell. inde ordeineth wisely aboute the throate, double o••ce, néedfull to a beast, and double hollownesse of waye. It hath a pipe waye to drawe the ayre and breath. And it hath an open way to take meate and drinke. And this double waye is departed in two, by a couering that is called Epiglotum: and is in the vttermost part of the throate, as it were cloth or héeling to couer the two holes of the throate. And when kinde desireth meate, the hole of the breath is closed, & the hole of the receiuing of the meate, openeth it selfe. And in likewise when kinde desireth breath, the other hole of the throat closeth, and stoppeth it selfe at ful. Also the throat is oft greeued by com∣passion without, and by many griefes, and sometime by vnwise and vnware taking of meate and drinke. For if the meate some in at the way, by ye which breath is drawen. ye waye of the spirite and breath is lightly closed and stopped,* and the beast is choked & stifed. Some∣time Page  [unnumbered] by gathering of humours & ruine. The humours come from the head the pipes of the throate, and they maketh there a postume: and if the matter bée cholarike and coniealed, it stifleth & ouer-commeth the body spéedely. For as Con∣stantine saith, It straighteth the breath, so that the sicke man may scarcely take meate and drinke, and is full of griefe and sorrowe. And if the matter bée of bloud, the sicke man séemeth full of cor∣ruption in the bodie,* red in the face, the vaines be full, and the pulses: the swel∣ling is hot and swéet by plentie of bloud. And if the matter be of redde Colera,* then the forehead aketh, and hath great anguish Then is great heat with great thirst, and bitternesse in tast. And if the matter be of Flegma.* then the tongue not onely aketh but swelleth, and is softe. And if it be of falt steame, all that com∣meth in the roote seemeth salt: & the voice is made like as it were the voyce of young whelpes. For by drinesse of the salt steame, the arterie Trachea is made straight, as sayth Constantine. And it happeneth, that this matter is sometime all gréeued within the skinne, that de∣parteth the way of the breath, that is cal∣led Trachea arteria,* from the way of the meate and drinke, that is called Isopha∣gus, and brédeth Squinanci, that slayeth in one daie: For by pressing and thru∣sling togethers the waie of the breath: the frée passage of the ayre that shoulde come to the heart, is forbid and let, and by wringing and pressing of Isophagi, the way of meate and drinke is forbid & let. And sometime this matter is gathe∣red within, and sometime without, and then againe it is called quinanci and is not so perillous as the other. And sometime all the matter is without, and is called Sinancia, and is lesse perillous. In all these is strong ach of the throate, and namely in the first with stifling of the voice, and straightnesse of breath: and so full the sinewes be of Squinantia, and the chéekes haue so the crampe, that vnneth the téeth may be opened with an hammer. And the tongue is so shortned that it is vnneth drawen out or neuer. In all these euills that grieue the throat, swift breathing is a good token: for: then the waye of the breath is not ouer pres∣sed. Therfore it is not in daunger of stif∣fling. Nothing is more to dread in this euill then loosing of breath: For a beast may not be without breath the. 27.* part of an houre, without great perill. These euills and many other the throate inf∣fereth, as Constantine saith, as with whelks, pushes, & swellings, immoderate thirst, hoarsenesse of voice, that commeth of so much moisture shedde in the way of the pipe of the throate, and letteth the voice: and sometime taketh it away, and roughnesse of voice that commeth of dri∣nesse of aire, either of the bodie, of the meate and of drinke, either of dust that maketh the instrument of the voyce rough. This that is said of the voice suf∣ficeth at this time.