Batman vppon Bartholome his booke De proprietatibus rerum, newly corrected, enlarged and amended: with such additions as are requisite, vnto euery seuerall booke: taken foorth of the most approued authors, the like heretofore not translated in English. Profitable for all estates, as well for the benefite of the mind as the bodie. 1582.
Bartholomaeus, Anglicus, 13th cent., Trevisa, John, d. 1402., Batman, Stephen, d. 1584.

¶Of the beard. Cap. 15.

COnstantine saith, that the beard is* the seemlines and ornament of mans face: and so appearing and couering the cheekes, in one part it beautifieth, and in another it helpeth: for by the hairinesse thereof, it defendeth the sinewes of the chéekes from colde aire. And therefore the beard is a needfull feature for the cheekes, and the beard is a token of ver∣tue and strength of kindly heate. And this is ye cause why a man hath a beard, and not a woman: for a man is kindly more hot then a woman. And therefore in a man the smoake, that is matter of haire, increaseth more than in a woman: and for that kinde sufficeth not to wast that smoke, it putteth and driueth it out by two places, in the head and in the beard. And therefore sometime women hot & moyst of complection haue heards, and in the wise men of colde and drye complection, haue lyttle beards, and ther∣fore on men that be gelded, growe no beards: for they haue lost the hot mem∣bers that should bréed the hot humour & smoake, the matter of hayre. And so it followeth, that thicknesse of the beard is signe and token of heate and of substan∣tiall humour, and of strength, and a cer∣taine assay to know difference betwéene men and women. In children grow no beards, though they be hot and moyst: for the superfluitie of the sumositie, that is, the matter of hayre, pas∣seth and turneth into the waxing and fée∣ding of children. Huc vsque Constant. And Aristotle sayth li. 19. that ye haires of the bearde, lyke as the haires of the head, in the disposition thereof, presenteth and sheweth the qualytie of the vapour or fat humour, of the which they be gen∣dred: for if the humour be smokie, hot, and drye, the haire as well of the beard as of the head, shall be crispe and curled. And that falleth, because they passe by two contrarye wayes: For the earthie parts moue toward the neather partes, and the heate moueth toward the neather parts: and so the haire is curled and crispie for feeblenesse thereof. And that happeneth through scarcitie of moysture, and multitude and plentie of the earthy part, and so by great heate they be cris∣pie and curled. But if the vapour be ful moyst, the hayre shall be softe and long: for the humour runneth making slippe∣rie till it come to the haire. And there∣fore the haire of the head & of the beard of them that dwell in Thracia,* be softe and smoothe: For their complection is moyst, and the arye that they dwell in is moyst. And contrariwise it hapneth in men that haue drye brayne, and dwel in hot regions and countreyes, for the dry∣nesse of the ayre that they dwell in. And he saith, That the coulour of the hayre of the bearde, chaungeth by chaun∣ging of age: and therefore in age the beard wereth hore, for féeblenesse of heat and plentie of colde. And sometime the hayre of the beard falleth away, through withdrawing of heate and of moysture, as it f••eth in men that be gelded, and sometime through corrupt humours, as it fareth in lepers. For as Aristotle sayth, The fallyng of haire,* is lyke to the fallyng of leaues of trees, and the cause heereof is, withdrawing of hot hu∣mours and fat: and therefore the leaues of trées in which is fat humour fall not. Huc vsque Arist. lib. 19.