Batman vppon Bartholome his booke De proprietatibus rerum, newly corrected, enlarged and amended: with such additions as are requisite, vnto euery seuerall booke: taken foorth of the most approued authors, the like heretofore not translated in English. Profitable for all estates, as well for the benefite of the mind as the bodie. 1582.
Bartholomaeus, Anglicus, 13th cent., Trevisa, John, d. 1402., Batman, Stephen, d. 1584.

¶Of the Eares. Chap. 12.

THe Eare is the Instrument of hea∣ring, and hath this name Auris, of Haurio, to take and catch, and for because he taketh and catcheth ye voyce & sound, or because Greekes cal a voyce, Auden∣siden: and so the eares be called as it were Audes, hearers: for the voyce smi∣ting and comming to the windings of the eares, maketh sound and noyse: by which the eares take perfection of hea∣ring.

The ouer most part of the Eare, is called Pinnula in Latine: Did men call it Pinnum, sharpe. Haec Isidorus. The substaunce of the very eare is griftly for two causes that are néedfull to defende the same, that nothing hurtfull fall into the hearing, as the eye lyddes defende them: and also to helpe the hearing. For when the voyce of the ayer smi∣ting, commeth to the gristle bone, there it is greatly holpe and then it entreth into the holes that be the proper instru∣ments of hearing.

Page  [unnumbered]Those holes be set in a stonie bone, in yt which sinewes be fastened that come frō the braine, and bringeth to the eares fée∣lyng and mouing, and bringeth lykenes of the voyce that is receiued in the holes to the iudgement of the soule. And these holes be wreathed and wound as a spin∣dle of a presse or vice: and that is, that colde aire should not enter too swiftlye, to grieue the inward celles or ye sinews, and to kéep that nothing hurtful fall in, to let the instrument or lymine of hea∣ring, as it is sayd in Pantegni. lib. 4. ca. 16. The eare is grieued in many man∣ners. For sometime by a postume, that is therein,* and so commeth Quitter out of the eare. Also by wormes that créepe into the holes of the eares, & by w••ms bred therein of corrupt humours and rotted: the token whereof, is itching within the cares and tickelyng, and the mouing of such wormes is felte. Also, the eare is grieued by a Wormes, lyke Malshaue, and by superfluitie of flesh, when euill humours be gathered therin, Also it is grieued by euill disposition of the sinewe that commeth and entereth into the eares, as it fareth of sounding, ringing, and such things that fall and come of wind in the skins of the brain, and be closed in part of the sinew Auri∣cularis. Also it is grieued by thicke hu∣mours that moue therein, and then the head is grieued with sound and noyse in the eares. Also the hering faileth, for de∣falt of vertue of hering, or by riueling & shrinking of ye sinew of feelyng, as it fa∣reth in old men. Also somtime hapneth deafenesse, when the childe is bred in the mothers wombe, when kinde is want∣ing and not sufficient to pearce an hoale in the lymme of hearing: and that is for default of it selfe, or els for that the matter is not aunswerable to kinde. Al∣so it is grieued by sharpe sicknesse, when cholaricke humours going vp to the braine, letteth the hearing. It helpeth such, if Cholera be purged by digestion. Wherefore it is sayd in Aphorism. If Cholera be wasted in deafe men, deafe∣nesse is taken away. Huc vs{que} Constā∣tinus. Also lib. 11. Aristotle sayeth. The lymme of hearing is full of the kindly spirite. For lyke as the kindlye spirite maketh the mouing of the pulse in the veynes, so it maketh in the eare the ver∣tue of hearing. And for that all thinges bée learned by the power of hea∣ring. And it is sayd there, that the making of the eares is an open kno∣wen web and containeth things, and is slender, and that for the subtiltie of the selfe hearing. Also the hearing is feebled in time of moyst complection: & name∣ly in them, that ofte serue Venus. And that through the disturbaunce of the spi∣rites, yt maketh the hearing perfect. For as Aristotle sayth, too oft seruice of Ve∣nus grieueth the body and the hart: Ha∣ly saith the same. Aristotle saith lib. 12. in a man the eares be kindlye set in the middle of the round head: for the eare heareth not onely straight one wayes, but rather all about on euery side. In foure footed beasts that haue ye head han∣ging downward to the earth, and body not reared vpright: the eares be in the ouerpart of the head, as it fareth in Or∣en, Asses, and Horses: and the eares of such beasts moue greatly, & that for the high place. And for yt they moue much toward diuers places, they take sownd & noise by much reboūding. Also Ari. saith there, that no beast that layeth egs, hath cares growing vpright without: But yet such beasts haue some priuy wayes. And also birds & fowles, which fly, haue none eares outward: neuerthelesse they haue a meane hole, and an open way, by the which they heare perfectly. Also* a∣mong all these beastes a mans eares moue least, and also be shortest in dimen∣tion of seituation and place: but to heare they be most: able and liuely: as it is sayd lib. pri, and that is through good∣nesse of complection. Wherefore if there be great excesse in the greatnesse of the eares of a man, with other signes and tokens agreeing thereto: it is a token of dulnesse, and of slow wit and vnder∣standing, as Aristotle saith.