Batman vppon Bartholome his booke De proprietatibus rerum, newly corrected, enlarged and amended: with such additions as are requisite, vnto euery seuerall booke: taken foorth of the most approued authors, the like heretofore not translated in English. Profitable for all estates, as well for the benefite of the mind as the bodie. 1582.
Bartholomaeus, Anglicus, 13th cent., Trevisa, John, d. 1402., Batman, Stephen, d. 1584.

¶Of the taast. Cap. 20.

THe taast is properlye a vertue of knowing sauours.* The which taast sensibly to make perfect these causales, are necessarie, effectiue, materiall, and in∣formatiue, the which are spoken of in other senses of perseueraunce in nature. For the vertue that is called, Animalis, is cause efficient doing and making: The cause materiall and instrumentall is properly the tongue, with his arteries: and that maketh the vertue of tast per∣fect. The tongue, touching the complec∣tion of the substaunce thereof is hollow, moyst, and vnsauourie. It is hollow, to receyue in the hollownesse thereof the humors that come of the thing that shall be tasted, it is full of holes, to the in∣tent that that is thicke or subtill of the thing, that must be tasted, maye enter fréely to the sinewes of the tongue: and that the vertue that draweth should bée more strong to make the dooing per∣fect.

Page  [unnumbered]It is moyst, that it maye helpe to the dissolution of things receiued. As if a∣ny things that are put too the tongue, either to the roofe of the mouth, be hard or drye, by the moysture of the tongue, they shall be the easilier tempered, to be ate and couenable to all manner dige∣stion and resolution. The tongue also is sauourlesse, that it maye the bet∣ter take all manner sauour of things, as the water, the which if it had a de∣termined sauour, it might not take the sauour of another thing. Last is made in this manner: Two sinewes be pla∣ced in the middle of the tongue, yt which are spread into manye boughes called Radices, and braunches to the vttermost sides and parts of the tongue: and by these sinewes the spirite that is called, Animalis, is brought into the tongue. Therefore when the thing that must be tasted, entereth into the tongue, either into poores & holes of the sinewes, ye spi∣rite that is named Animalis, that is therein, taketh a lykenesse of the proper∣ties thereof, the which afterwarde it presenteth to the high perseueraunce of the soule. The taast is more boystous & thicke than the smell, as much as sumo∣sitie is more subtill than water. For the smell, of kinde is smoakie: but the fée∣lyng of taast, is a moyst waternesse, as sayth Constantine. This sense is néed∣full to saue the body and the lyfe of a beast. For if the tast be corrupt or faile: the vertue of féeding fayleth. And so the substaunce of the beast fayleth by lyttle and lyttle. The taast is corrupt, when his instrumentes are hurt and grieued, or when corrupt humours haue mastrie in them, and that is, when it féeleth not the sauour of things, either when it fée∣leth not that sauour as it is. And that falleth, if a singular humour hath maste∣rie in the substaunce of the tongue. As by example: If red cholar haue maste∣rie, all séemeth bitter: & if salt fleme hath masterie, all thing séemeth salt: and so of other. As it fareth of them that haue the feauers, in whom the masterie of a cor∣rupt humour, corrupteth and destroyeth the taast. Also it is chaunged, and hurte by the mallyce of the thing that is ta∣sted: as it fareth in the taast of an Aloe, and other things that be passing bitter, for by the force or vnsauerinesse there∣of, the taast is very much grieued. The taast hath lyking in swéete things, for that lykenesse that it hath with swéete∣nesse. For that swéetnesse that standeth in hot and moyst, is like to all the mem∣bers yt be most specially fed with swéete foode. For swéete foode nourisheth much, and is lyghtly lykened to the members and lims, as saith Isaac. in Det.