Batman vppon Bartholome his booke De proprietatibus rerum, newly corrected, enlarged and amended: with such additions as are requisite, vnto euery seuerall booke: taken foorth of the most approued authors, the like heretofore not translated in English. Profitable for all estates, as well for the benefite of the mind as the bodie. 1582.
Bartholomaeus, Anglicus, 13th cent., Trevisa, John, d. 1402., Batman, Stephen, d. 1584.

¶Of the soule reasonable. Chap. 13.

THe soule reasonable, or the vertue of vnderstanding that is called In∣tellectus in Latine, is separated by two chiefe workinges, in one manner it is called Intellectus speculatiuus, and in a∣nother manner it is called Intellectus practicus. In that it vseth contemplation it is called Speculatiuus. In that it wor∣keth it is called Practicus. And by this roote mans lyfe is separated a sunder, that one is called Vita actiua, life of working, and that other is called Vita contemplatiua, lyfe of contemplation. Then the reasonable soule is euerla∣sting, incorruptible, and may not die, Wherefore his principall act and déede, that is Intelligere, to vnderstand, is not dependaunt of the bodie. And it liueth perfectlye, and vnderstandeth when it is departed from the bodye, yea, and the more it drowneth it selfe into the bodie, the more slowly and the lesse per∣fectly it vnderstandeth. And the more it withdraweth from the bonds and liking of the flesh, the more easilye and cleere∣ly it vnderstandeth. Heere I call drow∣ning, either by imagination of fantasie, or by liking of the flesh, or by loue of worldly alluring. Wherefore Grego∣rye saith. As a man is made in the middle betweene Angelles and beasts to be lower then Angelles, and higher then other beastes: so hée hath some∣what that accordeth with the highest, and somewhat that agréeth with the lowest. With Angell the spirt hath, that he maye not die: and with other beastes he hath a bodie, that must dye. And therefore if the soule by reason tur∣neth toward God, it is adorned, illumi∣nate, and amended, and made perfect. But if it tourne by affections towarde creatures, it is made darke, corrupte, and debased. Though the soule in it selfe be euerlasting, and not deadlye, yet it is passible and must suffer through the bonde of the bodie, that it is ioyned to. Therefore in liber de Anima & spiri∣tu, Austen sayth, that soules that liue in bodies, by loue of sensible things they loue bodyly lykenesse and formes: and when they passe out of the body, in the same bodilye liknesse, they suffer as it were bodily paines And therefore there they may be holde in bodily paines: for that they were not héere cleansed of the corruption of the bodie. Héereby it is knowne, that though the soule be cleane and pure in his owne kinde, it taketh vncleannesse of the flesh, sish it is origi∣nally infected. As wine and other licour taketh infection of a vessel that is sustie. And therefore when it is departed from the bodie, it beareth with it selfe the bo∣dies filths. Declaring that after this life there is no redemption, for in this lyfe all the penitent are cleansed and newly reuined vnto God by grace.

Page  16Then gather thou héereof, that among all creatures, the reasonable soule pre∣senteth most openly, the lykenesse of the Image of God: and that because it hath thrée manner of mights and vertues, though it be one and simple in kinde. Al∣so it containeth in it selfe the lykenes of all things: and therefore the soule is named the lykenesse of all things, as Austen saith. Also the soule being once made shall endure euermore in bodie or out of bodie. For as Cass. saith, It shuld neuer be sayde, it was made to the I∣mage of God, if it wor closed within the bond of death. Also it is the perfection of a kindly body with lims: and there∣fore the mor verelye it maye make all the bodie perfect in euery part. Also by his owne kinde it maye kindlye deter∣mine a lyking to good and euill, truth or lyes. Also by diuers vertues it maye knowe lykenesse and shapes of diuers things both present and absent. For it knoweth things materiall, present & ab∣sent, by hir owne natural shapes: and he knoweth vnmaterial things, by hir own presence, as Austen saith. Also by the re∣flection of it self aboue it self, she know∣eth it selfe, as the Philosopher saith. For séeing & vnderstanding she knoweth hir selfe. Also as a Table she taketh kindly illuminations and impressions of diuers things, and for that it coueteth kindlye to be incorporated, & to be ioyned there∣to, it desireth kindly the felowship we the body. And kindly it desireth good & fly∣eth euill, though it choose euill other while for want of aduisement: but by kinde it forsaketh euill, and grdgeth there a∣gainst, as Saint Austen saith. So the soule vegetatiue desireth to be,* the sen∣sible desireth to be wel,* and the resona∣ble soule desireth to be best:* and there∣fore it resteth neuer, till it be ioyned with the best. For the place of the rea∣sonable soule is God, to whom warde it is moued, that it may rest in him. And this mouing is not by changing of place but rather by loue and desire. These pro∣perties of the soule that be rehearsed be∣fore, shall suffice.