A discourse of military discipline devided into three boockes, declaringe the partes and sufficiencie ordained in a private souldier, and in each officer; servinge in the infantery, till the election and office of the captaine generall; and the laste booke treatinge of fire-wourckes of rare executiones by sea and lande, as alsoe of firtifasions [sic]. Composed by Captaine Gerat Barry Irish.
Barry, Gerat.
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MILITARIE DISCIPLINE COMPOSED BY CAPTAINE GERAT BARRY. Dedicated To the right honorable Dauid BARRI EARIE of Barri Moar, Ʋiconte of Buteuant, Baron of Ibaune, Lorde of barri Courte, and Castelliones. 1634.


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A DISCOURSE OF MILITARY DISCIPLINE, DEVIDED INTO THREE BOOCKES, DECLARINGE The partes and sufficiencie ordained in a pri∣vate Souldier, and in each Officer; Servinge in the Infantery, till the election and office of the Captaine generall; AND THE LASTE BOOKE TREATINGE OF Fire ourckes of rare executiones by sea and lande, as alsoe of firtifasions.

Composed by Captaine GERAT BARRY Irish.

AT BRUXELLS, By the VVidovve of Jhon Mommart. M. DC. XXXIV.

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Havinge tried my fortune in foraigne nationes, thies thirty three yeares in this my presente profession of armes, in his Catho∣like Majesties service a monghste the Spaniard, Italian, and Irish, meaninge the firste foure yea∣res Page  [unnumbered] in the Real Army of the ocean sea, and the o∣ther 29. yeares in the vvarres, and brave exploi∣tes of the lovve countries, and Germany, as a Souldior, Princioner, Aventajado, Alferis, Ajudā∣te, and Captaine. Novve beinge moved by certai∣ne frendes, as alsoe by the greate affection i all∣vvayes had to this my presente profession of ar∣mes; Havinge intered so far into the blouddy boundes of mars. Duringe vvhiche time i have imployed my selfe in gatheringe, notinge, and learninge oute of many brave Auctors, as alsoe vvhate i have seene my selfe and otheres practi∣sed in vvarr, in many brave exploytes and rare incounters; all vvhiche it oughte fitt to set dovv∣ne in vvrithinge to inlighten my beloved coun∣trimen. Suche as are not skillful in vvarres, and are desirouse to inter into the noble profession of Armes; so that therby they may gather some instructiones, and vvith greater auctority and estimation acomplishe theyre obligationes, (vvherefore I make boulde to dedicate the same un to youre honour,) vvhiche I vvoulde it vvere handled by a more perfecte Souldier then my selfe; soe that it may by the more agreable to youre incorrupted vertues, and noble inclina∣tion, acordinge to the obligation and love, vvhe∣runto iam bounde, as a true and natural ser∣vante Page  [unnumbered] of youre honours, and specially for bein∣ge decended from youre house, as alsoe for the general utility of youre honour and those of my nation, vvhich are inclined to this honorable ex∣ercise; I have taken the paines to vvrite this vo∣lume entituled Military Discipline, in vvhich is contayned the observationes and obligationes of eache one servinge in the Infantery; biginenge vvith a private Souldier to a Captaine generall.

Hopinge youre honour vvill accepte this my vvillinge indevor under youre honours prote∣ction, vvith as vvillinge a mynde as i offer the sa∣me. Beseechinge the Almightie to bless yove vvithe longe life, and increase of vertue, that yo∣ve may follovve the true steppes, and undeniable prudence, hapines, brave conduction and cesar-like determinationes of youre predecessores, in beinge no inferior to them, but rather revive theyre honour and parpetuall fame, as required and hoped of youre honorable birth and Nobi∣litie, accordinge the greate exspectationes of youre frendes, and vvell vvisheres, to increase the honour of youre house.

In leavinge a perpetuall memory to all poste∣rity of youre honoures happie proceedinges, as i youre homble servante, and many more of youre frendes vvisheth both to see and heere.

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Dated at the Courte of Bruxells the firste of May. 1634.


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GEntle Reader, be diligente in a plienge youre selfe in the noble profession of armes, that you∣re proceedinges may the better prosper, and commaunde with prudence and auctority, and i will in devoure to inlighten yove withe more particularities of this arte; Soe that yove may the sooner conceive the difficulties and obscurity of many deepe secretes of this noble profession: And consider that there is no∣thinge soe difficill but that continuall use and exercice facilitateth the same. It is true that many who have spente the moste parte of theyre time in the profession of armes; Not with standinge they are ingnorante, and unable in accomplishinge withe theyre obliga∣tiones with prudence and auctority, and that is resultinge of theyre idle life, and litle desire in well employenge there time, and for to hide theyr rude ingnorance, and litle skill in warr they are wonte to floute, and mocke at those of approved partes and sufficiency.

Suche fellowes moste comonly in occasiones and incounteres with the enemy, (are puseled and amased) and all moste oute of theyre wittes, and that resultinge of theyre rude ingnorance, and litle perfection in warr. Not soe with the prudente and experimented Souldier, who in time of moste neede withe a setled mynde maketh notoriouse his resolute determinationes and perfection. Suche bra∣ve conductores of vertues and prudente cariadge are to by imi∣tated, for that to all posterity they leave a memory of theyre re∣noumed Page  [unnumbered] actes; Soe this fruite of my laboure and longe practice in warr, togither with the desire and affection i allwayes had to in∣lighten my belooved contrimen, and others who are inclined to this arte.

I doe protecte under the defence of those of renoumed actes, pru∣dente cariadge and perfection in warr. And not to those inclined to murmur, and full of burninge flames of Diabolicall malice; sheo∣winge a milde and amiable countenance, and in theyre deedes in∣fected with pestrificall, ambition, and emulation. The heavens are grived, and hell rejoyseth for theyre wicked poysoned rancor. They leave to all posterity a memorie of theyre bad and odiouse iuclinationes, they are hated by those of verteouse life, goode ap∣plicationes, and prudente cariadge, and moste comonly they finish theyre lives with a tormented and miserable ende.

Qualis vita, finis ita.
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THE FIRSTE CHAP. Declaringe the partes and sufficiency required in aprivat Souldior.

HE which intereth into the noble profession of ar∣mes firste and principally oughte to by agoode Christian, fearefull of God and devoute, that therby his proceedinges may the better prevai∣le, and finish with ahappy ende. Secondly to buylde his valerouse determinationes with a constante and uncorrupted zeale in servinge his prince with geeat love and punctuality. Alsoe to by obediente to his Officeres from the loweste to the higheste in degree. If otherwise he by inclined he erreth much, yea and harelly all the goode parts in him can prosper. Litle or no a peerance can by of his furtherance or goode success, hardly any body can truste in him, or hope of any goo∣de Page  2 proceedinges of his, hee is to by litle esteemed in referinge to his chardge any office or comaunde; No man of qualitie and goode par∣tes can truste in him, or keepe him Company.

Hee which intered into this noble profession of armes oughte to shun eschewe and forsake all basenes imagined and thought of manes mynde. And he oughte diligently to applee him self to learne the ar∣te of warr, from whence proceedeth all nobilitie, and wherby, many men of lowe degrees and base linadge haue attayned into high de∣grees dingnitie and fame, as CAIUS MARIUS decended of poore and vile parentes in a Viladge of the Arpines, came to by a Romaine Emperor; and trough his vertue. VALINCIAN a po••e man is son of Cibaly in Hongari came into the licke dingnitie, and alsoe MAXI∣MINO borne in a poure Castel in Thrasia, Nicolas Pichino a boucheres son by his vertue and valor, came to by Captaine generall of Philipp Viconte Ducke of Milan is army and of all the Potentates of Italie.

The Senoria of Venecia was governed by Francisco Carmanola a poure man is son, and that trough his prudence and valor. Many mo∣re borne of loe degre, and base linadge, came into the licke and sem∣blable dingnity, and creditt, and raised unto honorable degrees and reputation, of perpetuall memory. So let none by ingnorante, that vertue valeur prudente and braue conduction is the true. Way of proceedinge in the noble profession of Armes.

Let him alwayes with a pure and senseare harte aboue all thinges by Carefull to serue God, for although all professions are therunto bounde, yet none more deeply then the braue Souldior, whose actio∣nes are day and nighte in danger of death, (more then anny other) and douptles he that soe doth a complish, fighteth with a more reso∣lute determination, and suche men moste comonly are a fisted by the divine power: fighting in a iuste cause, and with a cleere conscience; Wher of there have beene to many examples, which i have read in antciēte Auctores, and noted my self the same in many incounteres.

He is alwayes bounde to by carefull, and vigilante in acomplishing his obligationes, and principally to by obediente. For mishinge this pointe, the other goode partes whiche in him do ocurr are of litle or noe estimation. Aboue all thinges lett him alwayes liue in the feare of God, and let him by no blasphemer, for in this worlde it is moste o diouse, and can not escape withoute severe punishmente of his Divi∣ne majestie. Wherof theyr have beene many examples and we see that such blasphemers in the warres are shot in the mouth, or receive other Page  3 impedimentes in the same, and comonly dee a moste miserable death, for theyr wicked a customed inclination to that diabolicall vice.

Lett him by carefull to chuse to his comarades and fellowes oulde Souldiers if posible, and men well acquainted, and of good conditiō, and to by yerie carefull that they bee no factioners nor mutineres, whose Company are more dangerouse then the divell, he is to by quiet and frindly, and rather seveare then licentiouse in spiches, for such like persones moste comonly doe loose there estimation togither with theyr owne quietnes, and are wonte to have many un happiecrosses in this worlde, and to be litle reputed, and hardly can prosper as wee dayly see.

In his diet let him not by to couriouse nor inclined to delicate mea∣tes, rather to distribute, well his meanes and contente him selfe with such provitiones, as the campe or place shall affourde, for those that are given to there belly, and to the unsatiable vice of drunknes are ap∣te for nothing, and moste comonlie are subject to many disgraces, wherof theyr are many examples. Prisco Captaine of Maurish, Em∣peror of Constantinopla, a prehended and defeated the Kinge of Mo∣saquio de Salabia, and his army, who beinge blinde drunk with drin∣king to muche wine in the Selebratinge of a certaine sacrifice don for the soule of a brouther of Mosaquio. Which bienge killed the evenin∣ge before in a certaine skirmish, and the victorious Soulders havinge ended theyr, figt they fell to eatinge and drinkinge, and for that vice, and there litle care, and beeinge found unprovided and forgetfull in a complishinge there obligation were defeated, as many more unsa∣tiable drunkardes and gluttons have beene. There contraries suppo∣singe afterwardes to finde theyre enemy in the like trap, with the like forgetfulnes wherin they were founde. Thinkinge and consideringe that they were a smale distance of. They determined to turne, and fall uppon them, and revenge them selfes, and release theyre kinge or die in his recoveringe, which they agried uppon with a resolute de∣termination: soe that Prisco nor none of his shoulde escape, and had itt not beene for a Captaine of horse named Gencono who beeinge hoth prudente and experiment in warr. Comaunded that those under his chardge shoulde in no manner take anny liberty in not acomplishin∣ge, with theyre military obligationes. Wherof hee and his officers tooke a spetiall care; so that at the arivinge of his enemy, and deter∣mined to fall on with greate fury, he fell on them with greate courad∣ge, and constrayned them ro retire, and turne theyre backes. And Page  4 with the like or semblable fortune Tomires queene of the Scithians did overcom kinge Ciro, and his three hondereth thousande Persians in theyre Slugish, and beastely drunknes, who came to revenge the death of Sargapiso hir son, who beeinge before slaine by Ciro, and the selfe same succes happened Achab kinge of Iraell againste kinge Be∣nado of Ciria, so that trough the inclination which som have to this vice causeth greate disorders, destruction of the coon wealth, and rebelliones, wherof theyre are many exāples, Not contentinge them selues with the ability of theyre poore hoste, wher by greate scandles do offten tymes arise, causinge townes citties, and provences to revol∣te from theyr prinses, by resultinge of thies unsatiable drunckardes, which un ruly disorderes and filthy examples are to by well looked unto, and severely punished; the Tirantinos for this vice drived a way the Romaines, and theyre Captaine Cajo Lucio, and rendered them to Haniball his enemye. Abidio Casio did soe seaverely punishe his Souldie∣res for theyre disorders and insolences, that in five dayes space he co∣comaunded to hange al moste the one hause of his army, for theyr robberies, and unruly factes comited a gainste the contry people: Whiche severitie caused the enemy townes to yealed unto him, and with willinge myndes provided his army vvith vituales, and all other necessaries Pesenio niger for takinge a cocke per force from theyre hos∣ste condemned to death a vvhole comarade of Souldieres, Marques de Pescaro comaunded to cutt of the eares of a Souldier of his for leavin∣ge his order in marchinge, and for his intente to make spoyle in a vil∣ladge, (vvhere he vvas aprehēded) the Souldier repleeinge to the Mar∣ques that he vvoulde rather suffer death then receive such an offron∣te, to vvhiche the Marques condecended presently, and commaunded to hange him in the firste tree; Greate Tamberlan punished soe severlie one of his Souldieres for the like or semblable offence, that the rigor therof did soe corecte and feare his vvhole army, that vvhere his campe did continue three dayes to gither, a tree full loaded vvhith fruite at there departeture remayned vvhole and untouched (a mer∣vayllouse example to all Souldiores to imitate this vertue) and ab∣staine from all disordered apetites, and patiently with greate cou∣radge to indure hunger and misery, when extreame necessitie, soe re∣quireth, as did the army of Cesar in the seedge of Abarico in France, vvho seeinge the Emperor, takinge greate greefe and compassion of theyre hunger, for vvhich cause he vvas determined to retire his cam∣pe; vvhereunto they vvoulde by no meanes condecend, re pleeinge Page  5 that firste they shoulde finish theyre lives by chance of cruell fortu∣ne or hunger, rather then give overtheyre interprice. And vvith the like constancie valerouse and noble determination they tooke in Du∣raco, eatinge earbes and rootes: In the honorable regaininge of Breda by Spinola many examples may by given of the necessitie of theyre Souldiores, and greate constancie, vvhere ihave seene many brave Souldiores compelled to extreame and intolerable necessitie, and ne∣verthelesh vvoed that they shoulde rather die in that honorable acte then spott theyre honor by runninge a vvay in suche a famouse oca∣tion of perpetuall memorie.

Marques de Pescora vvith his ovvne handes kiled tvvo Souldieres findinge them forceinge a gentle vvooman decended of noble linad∣ge in the sacke or tacking of Genoua. Let him bee carefull to by vvell armed if posible beeing both honorable and profitable, and that be∣sides it licketh much his superiores; Alsoe let him bee carefull in vvell a parelinge him selfe, a cordinge to his a bilitie and pay, and in no ca∣se let him hy not overloaden vvith muche bgadge vvhiche is agreate empedimente in o cationes of marchinge, and specially in tyme of service. For wee dayly see that trough to much bagadge the whole ar∣my is often tymes troubled, and of the same resulteth many disgra∣ces, and somtimes is wholy loste. It importeth much an honorable Souldier to goe as lighte as may bee posible, without anny impedi∣mente that shoulde cause him to bee absente from his coulors. Much bagadge in o cationes of march causeth much trouble and care, and specially when it is loste as often times happened.

He is to be carefull and vigilante in keepinge his culores or watch with greate puntualitie, and beeinge imployed in centery or rounde let him by verie warie in a complishinge his obligaciones, and special∣ly not to fall a sleepe for beeinge soe founde it lieth in the disgression of the Officer to use him a cordinge his desert, as did Phirates in Corin∣to going in the rounde of that Cittie, and findinge a Souldier a leepe killed him, when other wise the leaste affronte he coulde have, was to bee in publike punished, and that for example to the reste, that are not wourdie to carie armes for ther carelesh mindes and litle honor.

Let him looke well not to refuse his Officieres beinge comaunded in o cationes of his Majesties service, and be no meanes let him not by absente from his garde beinge on the watch withoute licence of his officer, though he thinketh the place to bee peasable, and of no sus∣picion. If he thincketh to goe forwarde, or to bee prefered in this ar∣te Page  6 he profesheth, he is to a complish with greate care and punctua∣litie his obligationes, that bee his care and diligence he may dayly hope of better prefermente. Let him consider that oure predecesso∣res were not Captaines nor Master de campes, nor that they were borne vvith thies offices but rather vvith goode partes, dilgence and goode service optained the same honorablie.

Let him not marry if he hopeth to a complish vvell his obligatio∣nes, or to bee prefered, for in o cationes of march if shee goe a longe vvith him hardlie can he vvell a complish with his obligationes, if his meanes be litle and beinge chardged vvith many children, consider vvhate and how many crosses shall happen, and he muste of force ne∣glecte in a complishinge the obligationes of an honorable Souldior in the righte performance of the kinges service, or forgoe his wife and children, for he hath inough in a complishinge vvell vvith the one, and give over the other.

In the corpes de garde he is to behave him selfe sober and honeste, and looke vvell that he fall not unto any quareles, for theyre he gi∣veth bad example, as alsoe sheoweth litle respecte to his Majesties ser∣vice, and seemeth that he neyther feareth nor respected his Officeres. Wherfore the Officer is to punish him, for suche as are given to qua∣reles in suche places are moste comonly accounted for couardes, for it is knowen that suche places is not for quareles, nor fightinge, nor by no meanes can be permited, and so suche as are given to quareles in suche or semblabel places, are a compted for couardes, and for men of litle expectation of theyer valor before theyre enemy, and ought not to escape vvithoute severe punishmente.

He is to be earneste to imitate the goode partes, and verteuse ca∣riadge of those vvhich raise unto degrees by theyre prudente gover∣mente, and to marke those that are daylie declininge ttough theyr bad and unruly factes; litle fearinge God or man. Of such persones litle expectation can be of theyre furtherance, or happie success, but rather hated and envied by God and the vvorlde; so let him allwayes imitate te beste.

In all places in townes, Citties, or Villadges where he is lodged, let him by kinde and amiable vvith his hoste, and let him demaunde for no delicate meates nor regalose, as som are incliued unto, but rather conforme him selfe with his hoste: For all thinges don vvith amitie in thies ocationes is far better, and more laudable then rigor, and dis∣orderes. Wherof often times resulteth greate scandeles, disgraces, and Page  7 revoltes. If it shoulde chance, as som times happened that his patro or hoste shoulde be aman of unreasonable conditiones, let the Soul∣dier then repayre to his Officer that he might by changed into ano∣ther place, or els see his cause remedied better. If it be his chance to happen in the expuungnation of any Cittie towne or forte, let him not be avaritions but rather folowe and Persue the victorie untill such time as his contrarie be wholy yealded, and licēce granted to the spoy∣le and sacke. Wherin he shall sheowe him selfe neyther covetouse nor cruell, (as many gacelesh Souldiores doe) who vvithoute feare or respecte of God or man doe spare no kinde of crueltie uncomitted) with bestiall ravismente both of maydes and vvoomen, vvholie givin to theyre bruthis inclination withoute concience, reason, or conside∣ration: like vvicked and blinde men, robbinge, of chnges and mona∣steries built for divine sacrifice. Wholy given to theyre disordered fil∣thy a petites, and murtheringe of poore people, and inootes yeal∣ded, which rather to the contrarie they shoulde sheowe them selves fearefull of God, and mercifull to the homble vanquised, and ra••er defende them then offēde them, and in particular the honce of woo∣men, as did Don Pedro Conde de Feria in the expanguation of Du••, brought all the woomen to the church of that towne, and defended them from the furie of the Emperores people, vvho at that time re∣resolved to put all to the sowrde.

If in batteries, assaultes, or in counteres be shall happen to overco∣me his enemy. Let him be of a generouse determination and set all his care in executinge the victorie, and in no vvife to attende the spoyle, nor leaue his order as doe many nowe adayes, like 〈◊〉 and base factioneres to the greate dishonor of the action and losh of ••ly••li∣ves, and of litle regarde of theyre owne honor and reputation.

He is to serve and fighte in his prince his cause and degnes with afection and constancie, and he is not to 〈◊〉 vvhether the poe by juste or unjuste, soe that it by not againste Godes true Religion. But in such o cation he is to looke vvell to his conscience, and to be vvel advised, for Godes cause is to be loocked unto aboue all thinges.

In all ocationes that shall happen or falle oute in the courses of vvarr, and specially in travailes and adversities, he is perihly to in∣dure and suffer them. That therby his vertue may 〈◊〉, and 〈◊〉 knowen the uncorrupted affection he beareth to his prince, in acom∣plishinge his obligationes, vvith a generouse minde and 〈◊〉 constancie, not murmuringe of his sloe paymente 〈◊〉e com∣pelled Page  8 to stande in greate nede therof. And specially let him be mo∣ste carefull not to yealde, or by any meanes give eare to Mutenies or Rebelliones, whiche sometimes resulte of suche cases, and vvhose ende moste comonly is Sheamefull death, vvher of there have beene toe many examples.

He whiche intereth in to this noble profession of vvarr oughte sen∣ce the day of his asentasion to serve his prince with greate loue and loyaltie, and obey his Officeres and willinglie fighte for a juste cause, for suche vertues seeme to be a similitude of a generouse minde, and true religion. As Platon saieth that loue and obedience are signes of a high; and generouse minde, and he that wanted the vertue of obe∣dience is un wourdie of this name, for cause that trough disobedience resulteth the greatheste disgrace than can happen to an Army.

Let him be careful bin not murmuringe nor speaking ill of any Of∣ficer of his nor of any that serveth his prince, for it seemeth a bad cu∣stome; resultinge of litle prudence and respecte, to speake ill of him whome he is bounde to defende, and by whome he is to by governed, and comounded, but rather honor and respecte him: though his ver∣tue and goode partes are not agreeable to his obligationes, never∣thelesh for beinge a minister to his prince he is thereunto bounde.

Let him by no meanes trough his comarades wife, nor for any thin∣ge that shoulde give him lawfull occation of discontentemente, be∣cause that of suche like inconueniences and disordered apetites resul∣teth many quareles and scandeles amonghste Souldieres, and oftener kill one another trough the same; then for any other o cation. Ney∣ther is he to receive the boy of another withoute licence, so that the∣reby he may the better acomplish his Masteres service.

In all ocationes of marchinge, skirmish incounteres, or assaultes with the enemy by force of armes, all Officieres are to by obeyed and respected for it belongeth to them or any of them to see all thinges well ordered; and specially where theyre devitiones fall. Not onelie those of his Company, or Regimente, but whosoever of the army, (be∣inge so comodiouse for the Kinges service.) In such semblable occa∣tiones let him not stande uppon termes, not disputes as some doe, in sayinge do not knowe youe for my Officer▪ Let him not by ingno∣rante therin, because that the Officer may lawfully punish him, for if otherwise it falleth oute, and that the Officer doth complaine of him to the higher Superiores, he shall by reprehended for his ingnoran∣ce, for because that at all times and occationes his owne Officieres Page  9 can not be presente, wherfore he is to obey all Officeres.

Let him exercise him selfe in all sorte of Weapones, and of them let him choose the armes whereunto he is moste a fected, and findeth more fit for his purpose, the pike and coselett a mongste foote men is of moste estimation, for beinge the moste firmeste to defende and mantaine a place beinge vvell ordered and sett; and specially again∣ste the furie of horse. Of manual firie weapons the Musket is of grea∣teste execution, nexte to the same the caliver, both which are to in viron, and line the Pikes in theyre due devitiones, a cordinge as time place and occation shall require.

Let him practice him selfe in eache sorte of Weapon, to imitate as neere as posible the Ianisaros Turcos, who were moste experte in ar∣mes trough theyre continuall exercice; And let him frequente the sworde and target, and specially i woulde vvish oure Irish to frequen∣te the same for beinge more inclined to this sorte of weapō more then a ny other Nation, and besides that of all Nationes none are more fitt for the same, nor more resolute. This vveapon is of greate im∣portance in many occationes, and specially when men close togither, or to vive or recnoledge a ny narowe or straighte pasadge or place as trenches, fortes, batteries, assaultes, encamisada, and for other pur∣poses in warr; and specially a boute the cullores or to defende or of∣fende in a ny narow place.

Let him alwayes a plie him selfe vvith affection to vvarlike exerci∣ces, because that vertue exeleth fortune, and it avayleth him, much to reade histories, and to be experte in Aritmeticke, for it doth both revive and perfectionate manes vvitt. There be shall he understande the cariadge, prudence, and valor of braue men, and base inclina∣tion of bad persones, the alteration or decayinge of Kingdomes, and comon vvealthes, the braue and prudente conduction and stra∣tagemes of battelles, both vvon and loste, the vertue and valcor of the renoomed, the shame and infamie of the vile, the maner and use of ancient and moderne vvarres vvith the stratagemes used both for the one and the other.

If he happen to be at the siedge or takinge of any stronge place or fortress, he is diligentlie to vive, the scituation the orderes and in∣dustrie used for the defence therof; and the stratagemes used for the vvininge of the same; consideringe thiese aforesaide and many more used in vvarres, and that vvhich toucheth everie Officer in particular, even from a Corporal to a Captaine generall, to the ende he may be Page  10 perfecte in the arte he profeseth, that by his vertue he may be ad∣vaunced into greater dingnitie; sith that this arte he profesheth is the moother and true fundation of nobilitie. Therfore reason it is that it be perfectly understoode of the Professores and followeres therof, seinge that the practice of mecanicall artes do folowe the same order and course to come to the cunninge of theyre crafte. And that besi∣des that no man can reduce into perfection those thinges wherof he is ingnorante, and knoweth not the arte, vvithoute much practice, and specially in this soe noble and couriouse arte, who for the execu∣tiones therof, vvith prudence and auctoritie is required both longe and diligent practice and theorike. It importeth him muche to be a goode swimer which is one of the foure qualities required in a Soul∣dier, to be rebuste or stronge of boddy, nemble and skillfull in armes, and obediente, thies are the foure qualities a foresaide required in a Souldier. Thus yove see who manny goode and honorable partes are vvished to be in a perfecte Souldier, not learned be heersay nor gai∣ned withe ease and vaine glorie, but rather in a plienge him selfe well vvith affection, care, diligence, valor, and practice, and specially per∣fected with learninge and longe exercice in vvarr.

THE SECONDE CHAP. Treatinge of the election and office of a Corporal in a Companie of Infanterie.

THE office of a Corporal is verie antciente for in times paste in the electiones made of Captaines of Infante∣rie in theyre reall patentes, no Officeres were elected with them but Corporales, and afterwardes were ele∣cted the offices of Alferifes, and Sardgentes; in the ele∣ction of the a foresaied Officeres the Captaine oughte to doe it with great consideracion, and to choose those of greatest vertue and expe∣riēce, to the ende he mighte be the more beloved and respeed: geevin∣ge them goode exāples, and instructiones, procuring to pacifie they∣re quarelles, that they may still live in unitie and love licke bretherin.

He is to procure that his squadron be devided into comarades and live togither in theyr lodginges and all other places vvithe greate Page  11 conformitie and love: and if a ny contraversies shoulde happen or a rise betwext them, he is to be verie earneste to see it pacified vvithou∣te delay, and if in case a ny disorderes shoulde fall oute that he can not remedy: Let him vvithoute delay repaire to his Sardgent, Alferis, or Captaine vvhich of them firste he can finde, soe that the quarell may be a comotaded in due time.

Let him be carefull to see that theyre armor be neate and servisa∣ble, vvithoute a ny empediment or let, that he may be readie vvith the same all times and occationes. Let him not truste onelie to the rowle of his squadron, but rather learne everie Souldieres name in memo∣rie, and where each one lodgedh. Let him teach and instructe the bi∣sones and rawe men who to handle theyre armes, and by experte in the same to a compilsh vvith theyre Kinge, and alsoe for theyre one honor, utilitie, and defence. He is alsoe to by carefull to knowe the qualitie and condicion of eache one of his squadron, for beinge em∣ployed in convoy or a ny other separated service, vvherof he is to gi∣ve a compte. If in his squadron theyre be a ny disordered fellowes; and it is alsoe necessary that he knoweth such as are soe inclined to prevente remedie a ganiste theyre unruly disordered apetites.

A Corporall or cavo de esquadra beinge employed vvith his squa∣dron in convoyes or a ny seperated vvatch let none be ingnorante that he is to oversee and correcte all disorderes comitted, beinge in o cationes of his Majesties service; or for any other kinde of disorder committed, for he is the person that muste yealde accompte to his Superior of all that is refered to his chardge: Wherfore he is to co¦maunde resolutely such as are comitted to his care and chardge, who∣me they are to obey and observe his orderes in all that he comaun∣deth touchinge his Majeties service, and vvhosoever shoulde not o∣bey his directiones as a foresaied of those under his chardge, if be fai∣re meanes he doeth not a complish. Let him severelie punish him with the sworde, but in no case maine the Souldier as some raish and unconsiderate Officeres doeth: But let him alwayes see vvho he co∣maunded, and a complished the contentes of the order given him a cordinge as discression time and the occation shall require (and not otherwise. Trouh much libertie wee dayly see resulte many disorde∣res, wherefore obedience muste be observed, and seaveritie minstred, but that vvith greate concideration and equitie, rather then vvith raishnes and litle prudence. For som times some Officeres trough theyre auctoritie blinde and sinister, understandinge doe comit faul∣tes, Page  12 but the Souldier alwayes is bounde in obedience to his Superio∣res, but nothinge the furder in optaininge Iustic.

All vituales and amunitiones that shall be delivered by the Sard∣gentor furiell to the Corporal, he shall with equalitie devide and di∣stribute the same betwexte the Souldieres of his squadron, vvithoute any fraude or parcialitie, and procure that they a comodate them selves in all places vvith amitie like true companiones, and let him selfe in vvourde and deede be carefull and lovinge towardes them, so shall he by the better reputed both by his Superiores and Inferiores.

Those that are bisones or rawe men, he is to be carefull in instru∣ctinge them, in handelinge theyre armes, and who to serve whith the same because he is to instructe him to stande in his centerie, and who to a complishe his obligationes, to have his peece ready chardged and primmed, and to cock his burninge matche, and soe to presente his peece and who: And beinge a pickemam to terciar or chardge his picke. When the rounde comes let him demaunde for the wour∣de▪ and vvith soe lowe a voice in receivinge or givenge the same, that they may understande one a nother and no higher.

THE THIRDE CHAP. Treatinge of the Office of Asardgente of a Companie of Infanterie.

IN the election of a Sardgente it is verie requisite for his Majesties service that the Captaine choose one of goode partes, and approoved suficiencie, consistinge in him the moste parte of the observationes of Militarie discipline. For it is his Office to execute the orderes gi∣ven be his Superiores; Wherfore it importeth he be not chosen, by fa∣vor nor affection, hut rather trough his valor and longe experience in warr: Beinge soe chosen it is a greate repose to his Captaine and Alferis, and all other executiones shall have the better success.

It importeth much that he doe reade and vvrite for many respe∣ctes, otherwise hardlie can he vvell performe his office: it importeth alsoe that he be skilfull in martiall matteres, yea and of soe greate im∣portance, that more tollerable it were that all the other Officieres of Page  13 the company were it the Captaine him selfe to be rawe men, and of litle experiencie, but the Sardgente not soe, who of necessitie oughte to be of approved partes greate care and punctualitie in executinge the orderes given hy his Superiores, consistinge in the suficiencie and care in him required.

It belongeth to him the devitiones of the squadrones of his Com∣pany, and see that each Souldier do serve with his complet armes as∣sented on him in the Kinges liste, he is to oversee whith care and dili∣gence all disorderes comitted in his Company, and reprehende fa∣ctioneres, and not dismeasure him selfe in the same: but rather with moderation to redresh and a comodate all disorderes, and eavell oca∣tiones which shall occurr. In ranckinge and orderinge each sorte of weapon, there are sundrie maner of, wayes for theyre devitiones, but allwayes let him put eache sorte of weapō by it self. Touchinge they∣re devitiones, and who they shall be ordered, (shall by at lardge de∣clared in the office of the Sardgent Mayor.) Let him be alwayes care∣full in the devition of his pickes, in puttinge or plasinge in the van∣garde, retegarde, and two flankes theyr beste armed corseletes, and the ensigne or culores in the center. But in offeringe of occation, of framinge of a squadron he shall observe the order given be the Sard∣gent Mayor: Sheowinge him selfe with grea diligence, and care in a complishinge whate is refered to his chardge, in soe doenge he me∣rite the honor and reputation, and doinge the contrarie, dishonor and shame, wherof resulteth disorderes and loosinge of muche time, and cause of greate discontentemente for not acomplishinge and observinge the orderes given. When ocacation offereth he is to figh∣te as vvel as the reste, choysinge a convenient place that he may re∣turne to his office, for it is verie necessarie that he accomplish the ob∣ligation, of a prudente carefull, and vigilant Souldier. He shall goe galantlie withe a faire millan hedpeece, and an extraordinarie good collet, and a halbart or geneton. But be reason of his overmuch tra∣vell and paines his armes by no meanes oughte to by heavie, for if they be soe, hardlye can he well execute his office.

With care and diligence he shall execute in due time the orderes given by his Superiores, not missinge any pointe therin, and if at one time two or three severall Officeres give him order, let him followe the order given be the higher Officer, if it be not recauled; or that he seethe the occation to be of importance to his Majesties service. He is to have alwayes aboute him a liste of all the Souldieres of his Com∣pany Page  14 squadron by squadron, alsoe he is to be carefull to knowe whe∣re every one lodgeth, and whate comarades are togither in eache lodginge, and that for many respectes.

He shall and oughte diligentlie to reprehende and procure to dri∣ve oute of the Company all factioneres if they doe not a mindd, as theeves, dronkardes, quarleres, and revolteres for they are moste discomodiouse for his Majesties service; besides they doe noe goode, butt are rather dangerouse. For they are meanes to learne others theyr office, and moste odious kinde of life; and drawe them to imita∣te there base factes. He is to be verie carefull in all ocationes of mar∣chinge and imbattellinge, to instructe his Souldieres to punctually keepe theyre ranckes observe distance and file, to handell well and serve with theyre armes, and to be verie varie to instructe suche as are ingnorante: Whiche for the moste parte resulteth of the litle suffi∣ciencie and care of some Sardgentes chosen be favor or affection. For wee see that some Souldieres of longe time have served, and knovved not who to handell theyre armes, nor serve with the same in time of neede, which resulte of the litle regarde suche persones have of they∣re honor, and litle hope to by advaunced troughe theyre goode par∣tes: But in thies occationes and in many more the Sardgente beinge one that knowethe who to complie well with his dutie and office, can redress thies greate faultes. Butt oherwise he beinge unable, yo∣ve shall finde under his chardge some Souldieres that in cominge be∣fore ther enemy, when occation offer; they neyther knowe howe to handell theyre armes, nor serve with the same as before spoken. To prevente thies and many more faultes, the Captaine beinge vigilan∣te and prudente, ought to by in formed of everie thinge in particu∣lar, of his inferior Officeres, and he beinge carefull he can prevente eache particular, and see them redreste in due time. Soe shall he be the more respected and beloved be the honorable Souldieres of his Companie, and shall with the more resolutiō fall on his enemy when occation is offered, and alsoe shall manifeste his care and affection in his Majesties service.

If he shall of his owne motive a prehende any Souldier and ac∣quaintinge his Captanie there with, or any other Superior; Let him in no case, put him at libertie, but afterwardes it apertaineth to him to procure his libertie, by faire meanes.

Let him by no meanes displace any Souldier from his lodginge to put an o ther in his place, for it lieth not in his power withoute li∣cence Page  15 of his Captaine for he hath no auctoritie to drive one oute, and to accommodate an other in his place, besides it is an ocation of greate discontentemente, excepte he put him oute for disorderes co∣mited betwexte him, and his hoste or comarades; for that lodginge is given him by the Prince, and if he be driven oute for an unjuste cause and makinge his complainte to the Master de campe or Colo∣nell he shall give him licence to chāge his place into an o ther Com∣pany for the wronge don unto him, and his Captaine may by juste∣ly reprehended for not ministringe justice. He shall permit noe Soul∣dier to put of his armes enteringe into the watch till the Alferis firste be disarmed. In garison the wourde is not to be given, till the gates be shutt, nor in campana til the houre apointed be the Sardgent mayor to sett the sinteries, and that to be verie late. Till this houre all ough∣te to be in armes. In givinge the wourde in all places of importance. It is moste required that itt be given with greate silence for many re∣spectes. In receivinge the wourde from his superior Officere▪ let him be carefull not to forget the same, besides that it is discomdiouse for his Majesties service, and it shall by toughte that suche a aulte shall resulte of the litle care in him.

Interinge into a cittie towne or place where he shall inter with his Company, he oughte to visite and knowe where the inteies shall be placed, and the course of the roundes, as shall be a pointed and or dayned be the Sardgent mayor, alsoe he shall with greate punctuali∣tie and care procure to a complish and execute in due time all the orderes given be the Sardgent mayor, that therby he may by the mo∣re honored and affected, besides that it is his obligation.

Let him beware not to be cruell nor inviouse to his Souldieres which is a token of a bad inclination and nature, and of Officeres of litle vertue. If by chance he shoulde by angrie with any Souldier of his, (in turninge his backe he is to forget that furie) and afterwardes sheowe him selfe amiable and lovinge, and soe they cominge to the knoledge of his homoures, they shall have the more eare not to an∣ger him; and if other wise he sheowe him selfe rigorouse, and inclined to be revenged, tbey will run away, and he shall fall into disgrace, and shall be hated by his Captaine.

Let him be no meanes presume to slashe or cutt Souldieres with his swourde, exepte uppon juste occationes in his Majesties service, and specially in disputes of plea, or any other particular quarell of his owne. In suche and semblable ocationes let him looke wel to him Page  16 self, for the Souldier in such a particular oweth him but litle respecte or none at all beinge therunto constrained, for a Souldier is to defen∣de his life and honor for whiche none can blame him beinge of force thereunto constrayned.

THE FOURTHE CHAP. Treatinge of the election and Office of an Alferish of a Companie of Infanterie.

THE chardge and office of an Alferis or Ansign bearer of a Companie of Infanterie is to be reputed as a Cap∣taines leftenant in whose choysinge, his Captaine is to have many and greate considerationes. For not onelie suche a one oughte to by agoo de Souldier, and of boul∣de and valerouse determinationes, but to by his equal if it may be; both in vertue and discresion) because that oftentimes in his absence the govermente of the Company dothe belonge to this Officer; And for as much as the ansigne is the true fundation of the Company, and that in the same consisteth the honor both of his and of his Souldie∣res reputasion. It is necessarie that he, unto whome this office is co∣mitted have in him the a proved partes wissed in a brave Souldier. For the greate truste in him reputed, and that in his Captaines absence he ruleth, and governeth the Companie, and from him the Sardgente and Corporales are to receive the orderes; as they doe from theyre Captaine but the Alferis is not to set at libertie any prisoner withoute consente or licence of his Captaine, or other superior Officeres, ney∣ther is he to give licence to any Souldier to leave the Company. It is necessary to whome this so honorable a chardge is recomended never to a banden it as many brave fellowes have don to theyre perpetuall fame and glorie.

He oughte to goe galante and well armed for many respectes, as in day of battell, or in giveng an assaulte, or in marchinge before his Kinge or Cptaine generall. In ocationes of fightinge withe his ene∣my, he is to sheow him selfe dreadfull and terrible, with his sowrde in the righte hande, and his culores in the lefte, bravely displaying the same; sheowinge him selfe valiante, and givenge goode examples Page  17 to the Souldieres, and animatinge them, he is to live and die in de∣fence of the same, with a resolute mynde and brave determination, as did the Alferis of Oloa in the battell given be Conde Don Gomes, and Don Pedro de Lara, for the queene Uraca of Castilla againste Don A∣lonso Kinge of Aragon hir husband, in whiche they were overcome, and the Conde slayne cutinge of the two handes of this Gentleman to quite him of his culores untill which time he never yealded, after which cruell woundes he embrased his culores betwext his armes, and as did an Alferis Tudesco in the incounter which Kinge Don Fernando de Napoles had with the Frence and Dutch, with his righte hande cutt of, and the leifte sore wounded; and findinge that he coulde doe no more, greepte the culores with his teeth, and toucke houlde at the same till he was slaine. In garison the day that he is to enter unto the watch with his Company; that morninge he is to putt or displaye his culores in his windowe, that it mighte be seene by the Souldieres of his Company, for a true token that that nighte he shall inter the watch, and in settinge the watch he oughte not to disarme him selfe till the gates be shutt, nor in Campan̄a till the wourde be given, and all thinges provided. His Souldieres oughte to imitate him beinge therunto bounde, he givinge them allwayes goode examples and in∣structiones.

He oughte to honor and respecte his Captaine, and a complish his orderes with love and punctualitie, beinge therunto bounde, for the honor don unto him, which his father beinge Captaine coulde doe no more, for no greater honor coulde he give then referinge to his chardge the Kinges culores. Wherfore the Alferis is to forbeare with his Captaine in many disputes which happen, rather then sheowe him selfe ungratefull, as some unconsiderate fellowes doe. The verie same woulde he wish to him self if he came to that dingnitie and chardge, he is to make muche of the drummeres, and fifes because he may by sure to finde them when ocation is offered, and that he and the Captaine shall see them contented for feare they run a way, con∣cideringe the greate neede he hath of them.

He is to garde his culores well in all places, and tacke a speciall ca∣re of the same. Let it be before theyre eyes that they may see itt, for the watch is not a pointed for his person, but for the securitie of his culores▪ hardly can they give a compte of the same exepte they see itt, neyther doth the Souldier vvell a complish his obligation excepte itt be soe. It is necessary that he by a man of goode partes, verteuse, of Page  18 goode govermente and examples; for thies are required in him, for in the absence of the Captaine the govermente of the Company a per∣teineth to him. For he is to give the orderes, and directiones to the Sardgent, Corporalles, and Souldieres of his Company; for one to dishardge well this office it cā be with the greater facilitie and aucto∣ritie, havinge exercised himselfe in the manadgeinge, practice, and executinge of other offices and degrees; and douptles it doth further and helpe him in his executiones, that he findeth greater ease in redu∣cinge unto perfection whatesoever shall be recomēded to his chard∣ge; though he can not sometimes but file the smarte of his overmu∣che travaile, care, and punctualitie. Yett is he vvel pleased and con∣tented, seeinge that his chardge is vvell governed and a complished.

The office of an Alferis or Ansigne bearer is an honorable chardge, and in the muster he is not to empatch him self in the same nor sitt, neyther take, chardge of listinge or vvritinge, excepte urgente ne∣cessitie constraine him thereunto. For itt a pertaineth to the furiell, he is still to be armed with his vanable in hande duringe the time his Company passeth muster; allwayes lookinge to his coloures, and or∣daine to garde the same vvith the firste Souldieres of his Company, that shall pass muster, and soe succescivelie shall be releeved by those that folowe one after an other, and the Sardgent is to procure that the Company pass in order, and vvith speede as they are called by the Comessary, for beinge therunto bounde; and eache one shall attend in a complishinge his obligation, that thinges may be the better orde∣red and dulie finished as it is required.

It is necessarie knoweth the houses vvhere his Company, doth lodge, and the comarades of each lodginge, and nowe and then to vi∣site them, and informe vvho they live; that thereby he may the better knowe the qualitie goode and badd conditiones of each; that thereby each one mighte be honored and prefered a cordinge as he deser∣veth. He is alsoe bound to qualifie bee faire meanes some disputes vvhich happen betwexte them, and the Sardgente; for vvhiche dispu∣tes sometimes when it comes to the Captaines eares, he is alsoe offen∣ded vvith them. To prevēte the one and the other the Alferis ough∣te to visite them and to by a mediator to pascify all; and specially to satisfie and contente the Souldieres, so that they may have no ocation to run a vvay. For if every Officer fall uppon them and none take theyre parte they muste of force by grived; and perhapes run a way. Wherfore it is necessary and untill that the Alferis be carefull as a me∣diator Page  19 to a peace thies contraversies. It is verie necessarie he be a Cō∣panied still with goode comarades, men chosen of goode behavioure valerouse, and of brave and resolute determinationes, for none is mo∣re bounde to have suche comarades then he; for in offeringe of oca∣tiones of inconuteres a saultes or battell with the enemy they are to assiste and keepe him with a more willenge minde, in the assaulte or winninge of a any towne or forte of emportance, he is not to putt his colours in any place till the furie of the enemy be wholie vanquised▪ orderlie and prudentlie a comodated and prevented, and when all the furie is paste and dulie prevented, he shall putt in his coloures in∣to his lodginge, and display the same in the windowe nexte unto the streete, that the Captaine, Officereres, and Souldieres may note, and marcke where the coloures are; to repaire unto with speede when o catiō offereth. And alwayes let him be verie carefull to ordaine a good garde for the same, and that he him selfe shall looke well thereunto. Let him take a special care that covetousenes nor disordered a petites doe ouerkome or master him. When all is setled and pasified quarte∣res shal be devided and a pointed for each Regimente whiche shall be sente in due time be the Sardgent mayor, or his a judante.

In o cation of framinge of squadrones incounteres or assaultes with the enemy, he is to cary his coloures displayed, and passinge be the Captaine generall, he is to advance it bowinge the pointe some wha∣te downe wardes, but if he pass by the Kinge or Prince he is to bowe almoste to the grounde one of his knees a difference from the gene∣rall, and in passinge by the blessed Sacramente he is to kneele on be the his knees, and with the coloures to the grounde sheowinge greate reverence unto the same, and all his Company in like manner, and theyre armes laied on the grounde till the blessed Sacramente pass, vvithoute stirenge till they see theyre Alferis rise upp, and that when the Sacramente is vvholie paste, duringe whiche time they are to kee∣pe silence.

Page  20

THE FIFTH CHAP. Treatinge of the election and office of a Captaine of a Companie of Infanterie.

THE electione of Captaines of Infanterie in Spainie is made be the Counsell of State, and warr, vvhen theyre is any leavie or raisinge of men, and vvhen theese pla∣ces are voide eyther in campe or garison, other Captai∣nes are elected in theyre place be the Captaine gene∣ralles or Visroyes in theyre govermentes. The electiones made by su∣che personadges shoulde by all lickhood seeme to be goode and sure; notwithstanding it faulethe oute offten times that boath Generales and Viseroyes, and alsoe counseleres have missed in the consideration therof, bestowenge those honorable chardges uppon theyr owne fol∣loweres, frendes▪ or uppon, greate courtieres, and favorites; vvherby often times many scandeles and domadges do resulte to the prince, and to the action. For by the meanes, of thies inconciderate electio∣nes, many valiante, brave, and skilfull Souldieres do remaine wi∣thoute chardge, litle concideringe uppon those of longe seruice, pru∣dente and brave cariadge, yea and who have shed theyre bloode with greate valeor, sheowinge them selves in many brave incounteres a gainste the enemy. O cruell unhappie, and sinister electiones of smale expectaciones, when the verteouse, prudente, and valerouse Souldier is not thoughte uppon▪ trough vvhose meanes many scandeles doe a rise, and many brave o cationes are loste, vvithe greate dishonor and discomoditie to the prince. And the prudente and brave Souldier re∣maineth almoste oute of all hope, and almoste os no desire to atemp∣pte a ny hanorable enterprice, seeinge that they are neyther honored nor rewarded, and seeinge that Bisones and men of litle skill are prefe∣red before them.

To prevente many sinister electiones vvhich often times happene∣the, and are more necessarie to be remedied. I woulde wish that in all electiones of those vvho shoulde pretende to be prefered by meanes of favor, or afection as many are, it vvere necessarie they shoulde be comanded to serve; as oftentimes i have seene be prudente and brave Page  21 Comaunderes, yea and theyre sones and neereste frendes for exam∣ple to otheres, and for the ob servation of true discipline. To preven∣te thies sinister electiones, vvherof resulteth greate shame and loshe both to the prince and contrie. The Kinge of Sprine acketh a goo∣de cource vvhen o cation is presented to rayse a ny neowe levies, he sendes to his Viseroyes and Generalles of severall States and Provin∣ces, that they shoulde choyse and sende relation of the ancienteste Alferises and beste a proved Souldieres in the vvarres, both in vertue, valeor, and suficiencie, that suche persones be elected for Captaines, and that alsoe a relation shoulde by sente of the anciēteste reformed Sardgentes to be elected for Alferises, and of Corporalles, Sardgen∣tes, and of brave Souidieres Corporalles. The Visroyes and General∣les of righte shoulde looke vvell to see thies orderes yustly a complis∣hed, concideringe the emportance therof to his Majesties service, soe shall the brave Souldier of longe service prudente and resolute deter∣minationes be prefered, and advaunsed; and otheres imitate theyre a prooved vertue and goode a plicationes, that there by eache one may with diligence, care, practie, and learne this noble arte of vvarr; seeinge that eache one is prefered, by theyr vertue desertes and goode partes, but o ther vvise vvhen thies electiones are made by favor and affection to bisones of litle sufficiencie causeth greate dispeationes, and unwillinge myndes to attempte honorable enterprises, and bra∣ve incounteres, seeinge be experience that they are neyther honored nor prefered for the same. Whiche causeth Military discipline dayly to fall into greate decay; wherof resulteth many disgraces and the losh of many brave ocationes, ruine of the comon wealth, and of the hap∣pie success of Military discipline. He which of righte shoulde be cho∣sen for this office shoulde by a goode Cristian, prudente, and of vertu∣se cariadge, to live with greate temperance and measure in his affaires, and to by perfecte in Military discipline, that therby he may with the greater auctoritie comaunde, and be the more respected and feared. Hardelie can a ny coddy reduce unto perfectiō this honorable chard∣ge, exepte he be learned and perfecte in thesame.

It emporteth much for the prudente govermente, brave condu∣ction and executions of his Majesties service, as alsoe for ministringe justice, and redressinge many disorderes, that he knowe and take a spe∣ciall care in the electinge of his Officeres: that therebe his prudence and valeor may by the better understoode; electinge them as neere equall to him selfe as may be possible, rather then sellinge the same Page  20〈1 page duplicate〉Page  21〈1 page duplicate〉Page  22 after choysinge his Officeres as a foresaied, before he marches vvithe the same, he is firste to cause, the culores, to be bleste, and afterwar∣des deliver the same to the Alferis, giving him to understande the ho∣nor recomended to his chardge, and that he is allwayes to take a spe∣ciall care of the same, and to die in defence therof as before decla∣red. Then he is to devide them into squadrones, electinge and namin∣ge one squadron for him selfe of those of beste qualities and conditio∣nes, for beinge soe necessary and of emportance. For of them moste comonly he is to choise his Officeres, and consulte with them. In o ca∣tiones of fighte and enconteres with the enemy moste comonlie they are nexte his owne person, respectinge and honoringe them as his owne person, and sometimes they are employed for cavose or Co∣maunderes of some brave exploytes. It emporteth alsoe that in the o ther squadrones ther by some particular Souildieres and a ventaja∣dos. He is to procure that all by goode Cristianes, and of a goode and verteuse life, to heere mass and often confes for beinge the true fun∣dasion of happiness; he is to a comodate all disorderes, quarelles, and disputes, that shall happen amongste them, and reprehende those of bad exāples, and dishoneste behavior, and if by faire meanes they doe not a minde to drive them a vvay. For factioneres and infamouse fel∣lowes are not to be permitted to a Company the Kinges culores, nor to equal them selves vvith the observeres of the noble arte of vvarr. In o cationes of marchinge with his Company let him procure not to be troubled with much bagadge, and specially to use suche moderation in not permitenge that his Souldieres be overloaden with lugadge, or traishes (as some times happened) butt rather to goe as lighte as may by possible, vvith onelie theyre armor and o ther litle inescusall necessaries, that therby they may vvith the lesser empedimente ma∣nadge theyre armes, and fighte with the more resolution in offering o cation.

In each Company of Infantery it were necessarie theyr shoulde be a feowe horses permited to some Officeres and particular perso∣nes, but not many. Thies horses doe serve for many purposes, and spe∣cially to recnoledge passadges, and places vvhere the enemy may be suspected to be in ambuscado; which for suche o cationes are verie re∣quisit, as alsoe to sende vvarninge of sodaine o cationes of importan∣ce. He is not to a tempte o cationes of litle a peerāee, faringe it shoul∣de fall oute unhappilie, excepte he be constrayned therunto of ne∣cessitie, for such as do not prevente and forecaste theyre successes in Page  23 time, are wonte when the o cation offereth to by muche troubled, yea and some times oute of theyre vvittes, he is to by carefull in a com∣plishinge and observinge the orderes givē him by the Officers mayo∣res, vvhen manifeste o cation, doth not offer that the a complishin∣ge of suche orderes shoulde be hurtefull.

It is verie necessarie he knoweth eache souldier of his Company by his name, and in o cationes of marchinge that he procure and see that they still observe theyre order and rankes, and not to permit them to stragle hire and there for beinge verie necessarie for many o cationes, because that greate scādeles doe arise trough the over much liberty of stragleres in spoyling gardines, orchardes, and the houses of the inhabitāce or contrye where they march; wherof resulte grea∣te discorde and discontentmente to the inhabitantes for the loshes they receive of some unrulie campaniones. In the redresinge vvherof the Captaine is to be verie carefull, and not to permit them to by ri∣gerouse with theyre hoste for theyre meales, butt rather contente them vvhith vvhate he can give; and see those that do not observe thies orderes severelie punished. For beinge the obligation of a goo∣de Cristian, and vertuese Souldier.

If o ther wise he doe, hardly can he escape scandales and bad repu∣tasion, and besides if it come to the Generall is eares. He and his Of∣ficeres are in danger of reprehension, yea and often times see theyre Souldiers hanged before theyre faces, for theyre spoyles don uppon the poore innocente people. Wherfore theyre have beene many pu∣nishmentes executed for such and semblable disorderes.

Julius Caesar passinge from Cicilia to Africa againste Cipio and Kinge Juda de Numidia havinge lefte in that Ilande the minthe and tenth le∣gion, and afterwardes when he sente for them, beinge informed of the Captaines and o ther Officeres in permitinge theyre Souldieres to spoyle the contry vvithoute ministringe any goode discipline, co∣manded that they shoulde by broughte in presence of the vvhole ar∣my reprehended theyre bad goverment, presently comaunded them to by banished oute of the army, and yvithoute any delay to embarck oute of all Africa. The licke punishmentes did Ducke de Alva in the vvarres of Portugal, reforminge soe many Captaines for theyres and theyre Souldiers disorderes: They vvere banished for example to the reste of the Captaines, and Officers of the army; and soe many Soul∣dieres vvere executed to death for robberies and stelth that in theyre reconinge vvas founde, that more Souldiers vvere executed to death Page  24 by justice for theyr disorderes then killed or dead o ther vvise in that vvarr.

Disorderlie shall he governe in vvarr vviche never was practised in the arte; Wherfore it vvere verie necessary that men chosen for this office shoulde wourdily passe trough all the degries before spoken of, or at leaste parte of them, to the ende he may the better knowe howe to governe and comaunde, and particularlie that he be alwais mind∣full to feare God, and to be verteouse and experimented in martiall affaires, in many can thies goode partes be had, and many more, and in suche as they cannot be wholie founde, let theyre choyse be made of those of vvhome the moste are to by founde, because that itt im∣porteth muche the Kinges service, for all observation of military dis∣cipline.

If he be comaunded vvith his Company and o ther troupes ioy∣ned to them as often times do happen to the garde or defence, of a ny place. Let him vvith greate care, vigilance, and valeor animate his Souldieres, and consulthe vvith his Officeres, and beste experimented Souldieres, and beinge resolved let him with all care and speede for∣tifie and intrince him selfe, as many brave and valiante Captaines have don, sheowinge them selves vvith prudence, valeor, and brave conduction, presentinge them selves in all actiones of the firste, with a brave and resolute determination, but let him by verie varie that he a tempte nothinge inconsiderate, and raish as often times happened to ingnorant men of litle experience to theyre owne and Companies confusion. To a voide such enconveniences and hasardes let him be verie carefull to a complish and observe the orderes and instructio∣nes given by the higher Comaunderes. If o cation do nott offer wher∣of greater domadge may insue, or a goode o cation to by loste, in whi∣che Captaines are some times of force to prudently prevente the be∣ste. Let him never deney a ny honorable interprice beinge comaun∣ded thereunto be the Generall or Governor, though he finde it a jor∣ney of greate danger. But he is to presente his reasones if he finde o cation necessarie, and soe fall on vvith a valerouse determination.

He shall vvith a generouse mynde and goode vvourkes procure to vvin the good vvill of his Souldieres, a continge them as his sones, and children and that by suche faire meanes, in not sheowing him sel∣fe over coveteouse, and greedy, but rather liberall; still secoringe his Souldieres to his abilitie in theyre necessities and vvantes, and not to basely wronge them in robbinge or deceivinge them of theyre payes, Page  25 as some Captaines are wonte to doe; with litle honestie or feare of God; makinge a comon practice therof, trough whiche they win bad fame, and toughte and reputed by theyre higher Comaunderes un∣wourdie of the name of a Captaine, and often times are severely pu∣nished for the same, and deprived of theyre Companies vvith a juste sentence.

He is to be verie carefull to visite the centeries and corpes de Gar∣de under his chardge, sheowinge greate diligence, care, and punctua∣litie in his owne persone, that the Officeres and Souldieres doe imita∣te him, and precisely a complish vvith theyre obligationes, a cordin∣ge the orderes given by the highe Superiores, and be him.

Let him be carefull that his Souldieres be not given to vice and to much libertie trough there owne negligence, and bad a plicationes, all fin fallinge into bad customes, for in permittenge thies unruly fa∣ctes vvithoute necessarie redress, he offendeth God and his Kinge, for they beinge under his chardge as his familie, he is to cause everie one of them to confess at leaste once in ayeare, and specially in all times and o cationes of danger of death as befiteth a goode Cristian to doe.

It is verie necessarie to haue a goode furiell a ble in Aritmeticke, as also in readinge and vvritinge, and to be one of truste and vvell ac∣quainted, for the lifte and reconinges of the Company moste comon∣ly is refered to his chardge, as vvell to pass muster of his Company, as in distributing munitiones, armes, and a parell vvhich are given be the Kinge to the Souldieres; of vvhich he is to yealde a compte when it is sought for by the Prince is ministeres, to vvhose chardge the same a pertayneth, to thies furielles or clearkes dothe a pertaine to receive the orderes for the makinge of quarteres, in townes Viladges and campana from the furiell mayor as shall be ordained and a pointed by him, and moste comonly the distributinge and devidinge of the quarteres are refered to the chardge of the Sardgente. It hapēeth so∣me times that the furiell doth marche with his Company a lone, from one place to a nother, may be of reasonable distance, carienge vvith him his patente or order for the same, goinge for the moste parte be∣fore the Companie to cause the quarter to be made att theyre a riven∣ge. In suche o cationes the Captaine is to be verie carefull, that thies persones do not comit greate faultes, as some times happen trough the covetousenes of such persones, resultinge often times troubles to his Captaine, for robbinge and stealinge not onelie in the vvay butt Page  26 alsoe in the Villadge vvhere they doe lodge, spoylinge the same and givinge o cation to the inbitanes to run avvay. Whiche disorderes soe comitted doe often times come to the highe Comaunderes eares, and chardinge all uppon the Captaine is honeor and reputasion, and the factioneres run avvay for feare of punishmente, and sometimes thies furielles or Clearckes in meetinge a goode fellowe doe fall a drinckinge and makinge goode cheere, and his chardge not finised, nor findinge him, nor knowen vvhere to be founde, yea and often times for a pee∣ce of money leaves the Company, trustinge to smale comoditie, and it may by in o cationes of moste necessitie; beinge vveary and vvett to the skin, thinckinge to stopp theyre mouthes vvith envented fables and lyes, for which disorders the Captaine as a father of his Souldie∣res is to see him severely punished, beinge thereunto bounde for the dischardge of his conicience and reputation.

It is verie necessary for the Captaine and Company to have a goo∣de Chapleyn reasonable learned, and specially verteouse, and of goo∣de life and examples; But not a frier excepte it be vvith licence of his Superiores. Aboue all o ther prpfessiones the arte of vvarr is of moste danger, soe the Souldier is to be verie earneste to be devote, and of cleere conscience, for he is more neerer dangeres of death then any o ther sorte of men; and it is necessarie that he allwayes haue a prieste not far of, for the soules health: To whome he may cōfess at all times and o cationes, a cordinge as time and necessitie shall require. In the choisinge and keepinge of thies priestes the Captaines in conscience are bounde to procure that they be verteouse and of goode life, if o therwise, itt were far better not to have any at all.

He is of necessitie to have a barber in his Company, and if it be pos∣sible of goode skill in this arte, for beinge a verie necessarie instrumē∣te in warr; for when a Souldier is hurte the greateste comforte he can have is a goode barber, that shall cure him vvell, and with speede, for if he depende to be cured by another which at all times is not to be had, excepte he sende for him may by a far of; hardlie can he be well cured; and besides he is in danger of deathe. If the wounde or hurte be dangerouse, he is both in danger and trouble: This beinge such a necessarie instrumente in warr and because that Souldieres are men of libertie they fall often times into many disgraces, excepte theyre Officeres have a speciall care to prevente the necessarie remedies. For whiche and for many more dangeres they incurr, it is uerie necessarie they have a goode barber as before spoken. And if his pay be not able Page  27 to intertaine him with instrumentes and o ther necessaries, the Offi∣ceres and Souldieres are to further and asiste him, that he may the better, and with a more willinge minde serve them, and a complish with the more punctualitie his obligationes.

In o cationes of marchinge with his Company, the Captaine, and other Officeres are to by verie earneste that theyre Souldieres doe not dismaunde oute of theyr order, and rankes, (as many unruly fa∣ctioneres doe) litle regardinge theyre Captaines honeor nor theyre owne reputation, as before declared; and at his departinge oute of a∣ny towne or viladge where he shall lodge (though it were but for one nighte.) He is to see all disorderes comitted redressed, not opresinge nor a beedinge injuries don to the poore innocente inhabitantes, but rather stay after the Companie till they be cleere oute of the towne or Villadge, givinge order to the Alferis to march to the a pointed place or distance where he is a pointed to mak alto or stande, and alsoe gi∣vinge order to the Sardgente to chardge the bagadge with speede; ha∣vinge soe don he him selfe is to visite over the quarter and see if there bee any complaintes, and to see them remedied before the Company doe departe. Havinge finised well with his obligation, and desire he∣rein.

It is necessarie he carie withe him in writinge from the Comaunde∣res of that towne or Villadge that they are satisfied with the goode govermente ministred bee the Captaine in not permitinge injuries nor disorderes withoute redress and satisfaction: Havinge acomplis∣hed with thies he is to repaire to his Company, callinge the Corpo∣ralles that he may knowe, and be well a sured if any boddy wantes or no, and then he gives order that the bagadge doe marche in theyre due place, as time and o cation shall require, and the same still acom∣panied with a garde.

If the countrie be peaceable and of no feare of the enemy, he may vvell comaunde the bagadge to marche in the vangarde, and if o ther¦wise let them march in the rergarde or battel, acordinge as he shall suspecte of feare both in the vangarde and reregarde, commandinge the Alferis to leade the Companie, and the Captaine to stay in the re∣regarde, and the Sardgent to and froe all a longste the flanke of the Company, soe shall they orderlie marche, keepinge theyre ranckes and doinge litle spoyle and disorderes.

Let him cause that they marche still in goode order, givinge ware∣ninge to the Sardgente to be verie varie, and vigilante in 〈…〉Page  28 the same, soe shall he instructe and perswade his Souldieres to be ap∣te, and readie to goode actiones, and dissaude from unrulie and bad factiones, reprehende faultes and disorderes, and commend valor, vertue, and obedience, that therbey they may be readie and apte to all incounteres and o cationes, which shall or may happen, and indu∣re them by faire meanes. To indure patiently all toyles, discomodi∣ties, and wantes, soe that they arise not into mutenies trough there impatience bad inclination and govermente which some times hap∣pen for vvante of goode govermente, and litle care of some Captai∣nes, in givinge goode instructiones and examples.

Let him be carefull that no Souldier of his Company play nor pa∣ne his armes nor aparell, for he which is givē to such vice seemed to be of litle shame and of less honor. Wherfore suche unrulie fellowes oughte to be severely punished for there villeny and bad examples. Some times it hapened a Captaine with his Companie to be employed in secrett services of importance, or may by with parte of his Cōpany; And some Souildieres that are given to learne hire and theyre of neo∣wes, doe burste with desire to knowe where he shoulde goe. In suche o cationes the Captaine oughte to by severe, and not to permit any Souldier to treate or demaunde where he is bounde. For it is a dange∣rouse wourde resultinge of litel prudence, and besides he offendeth muche, for in thies and semblable exploictes there are greate miste∣ries; wherefore the Captaine is to sheow him self rigorouse to vvhoso¦ever shall presume to intermiddell in any such fulish and dangerouse demaundes, and pardon none that shall intermiddell in the same, for example to the reste: Happie are those that are considerate scilente and obediente, and do nott intermiddell in thinges oute of sence, and not apertaining to them; for comonlie of such Souldieres are greate expectationes in time of neede, hopinge all goode corespondance of theyr goode life examples and cariadge. Wherefore suche are still fir∣ste prefered, and of moste estimation, vvhiche by all reason oughte soe to by: If a Captaine be carefull that his Officeres doe well acomplis- theyre dutie and obligationes, he is to procure that they be persones that can reade and vvrite for beinge moste necessarie, for o ther wise they beinge unable, he can hardely truste to write to them, and special∣ly any thinge of emportance, touchinge his Majesties service, for of force such o cationes muste pass trough the handes and understan∣dinge of o theres, vvhere hardlie he can truste unto, noe sorte of men or professiones are more boūde or more in neede in knowinge to rea∣de Page  29 and vvrite then the Officeres and Comaunderes of the Souldieres; for often times matteres of greate qualitie secrett and importance to theyre Kinge are recomended to ther care and chardge, vvho requi∣reth more secrecie, then advertissementes or affaires ot marchantes, or any other tradesmen vvhatesoeuer; soe that this Officer may be re∣puteth unable to fully acomplish his obligationes, and he may vvell say that he oweth butt litle to his father for not instructinge or lear∣ninge him, beinge soe greate a faulte, and specially in this profession.

THE SIXTHE CHAP. Treatinge of the election and office of a Sardgent mayor ente∣ringe withe his Regimente to Garison.

THE election of the Sardgente mayor of a Regimente is to be choysen and elected of suche as the Master de campe, or Coronel do name or putt in election to the Generall, in this election greate consideration oughte to be taken, and be no meanes the Generall is to give way or intrance to favor nor affection; but rather to vertue, valor, and sufficiēcie; for cause that this office is of suche emportance to his Ma∣jesties service, and beinge a Generall minister of a whole Regimente of many Companies, and Superientendente of all the Sardgentes of the same be whose prudence and industrie, the Master de campe or Co∣ronel doth give convenient orderes for the due govermente of his Regimente, in o cationes of marchinge, fightinge or imbattelinge, and in o ther matteres concerninge the same, whereby may be gathe∣red the aproved partes, valor, experience, care, and diligence wished in suche a person.

Who beinge chosen to this degree and office of such importance; we reade that in times paste the generales of the Romaines, and of o ther nationes trusted the execution of this office to none, but the Ge∣neralles them selves administred the same, concideringe that in day of battell the beautie and force therof consisteth in the well orderin∣ge and framinge of the same (be vvhich the victorie moste comonlie is vvon) for undeniable it is that those that are beste ordered and ex∣ercised in vvarr are masteres of the victorie, though they be lesser in Page  30 number: Where of theyre have beene to many examples of anciente and brave Auctores, and all a firminge the same, as did a peere in the laste and famouse jorney in vvhiche Haniball Carthagenense vvas overkome by Scipio Africano. Not vvith standinge Haniball havinge to his judgemente prevented and ordered all thinges as necessarie and fitt; neverthe less the sagacitie and prudence of Scipio vvas at that day soe greate, that it vvas inough to putt them all to flighte, vvith his singular and extraordinarie military prudence. Amongste the Frence and Dutche this office is more estimed then in o ther places, wherfore it shoulde be alwayes comended to the chardge of the mo∣re prudente experimented Captaine that can be had in the Regimen∣te, and togither with this office they have Companies; soe that they have the name of a Captaine and Sardgente mayor, and profitt togi∣ther, and in absence of theyre Coroneles or Master de campes to them by righte belongeth the govermente of the Regimente.

This election of all reason and justice shoulde be provided in one as before spoken, and the counsell of State and vvarr shoulde alwayes have a speciall care to see thies electiones soe prefered, and specially the Generall, rather then chosen by favor, frindsihip, and affection, as some times it falleth oute, recomended to unable bisones, of litle service, and less sufficiencie, Wherof resulteth to many inconvenien∣ces, and because that in them doth not o curr the aproved and pru∣dente partes and auctoritie required for executinge well this office, Captaines of the Regimente doe give them some times but litle re∣specte or creditt: For this election be all equitie and justice, and for many considerationes of importance, oughte to be earnestly soughte a Souldier of the beste o pinion and sufficiencie, that amongste the vvhole Regimente can be had, and that he be verie perfecte in Arith∣metick, for beinge the moste necessarie pointe for the executiones of this office, after havinge exercised much in the vvarr. And not elected be no meanes by favor, for beinge an office whoe requireth much abi∣litie.

Verie many can be founde who have spente theyre time in the war∣res who are not fitt for this chardge, rather by triall and examination made of his a proved sufficiencie, as with Doctores in winenge theyre chaire of dingnitie be triall of theyr a proved partes and sufficiencie. And he who in his examin representeth him with auctoritie, in givin∣ge the beste reasones, is firste prefered.

For by thies meanes douptless Souldieres shoulde be the more wil∣linge Page  31 to study to by perfecte for the optaininge of this soe honorable a chardge by triall of theyre vvoordie deserte. But vvee se it dayly given to persones vvho a plied them selves but litle, neyther in the Theorick or Practice of this arte, and whoe have seene verie feowe o cationes of importance, that by theyre goode and diligente aplica∣tiones they may be the sooner preferred and honored.

This office beinge o ther wise given, the Kinge and o cation is of∣fended; for some to dischardge them selves in this office doe truste to the dialoge of valdese or to the table or numerato of catanae novarae of the State of Venecia, who made a table from 100. to 2000. men to forme squadrones which table they vvere vvonte to carie in they∣re poketes, and if the numerato or table be loste, he remaines in darcknes; that besides it dothe not serve in yerie many o cationes nor for many sortes of squadrones. Soe none is to truste to itt, but rather leaarne diligently to shifer and thereinto to exercice him selfe, which is the true vvay for beinge once perfecte it can not be loste, and he shall with the greater auctoritie and respecte acomplish his obliga∣tiones.

He is to acomplish with the orderes of his Master de campe as a Superior head Governor and Conductor, and justice of his Regimen∣te, but the executiones a pertaineth to the Sardgent mayor, for bein∣ge the principall minister of the same in all ocationes, as well in cam∣pan̄a, as in garison, soe that in the profession of vvarr, it may of all righte by reputed fot an honorable office, and of greate preminiences and truste, and of righte he oughte to by of extraordinarie care at all times.

When o casion offereth he is to by freely permiited to come to speake to his generall, yea and to the verie Kinge beinge in the o ca∣tion, noe doore or intrie oughte to hinder or lett him from freelie co∣menge and goinge at all times, for it is soe required for the execution of his office, as well in receivinge orderes from the Generall, as in de∣liveringe tha same unto his Master de campe or Coronell, and alsoe in a complishinge and executinge his office. This office is of righte wourthie honeor, and reputation, but til the yeare 1500. amongste the Spanardes they had but smale payes, meaning twentie five crow∣nes a month, buth in the same yeare his Majestie encreased theyre pay with fifeine crownes, which in all is forthy, and togither with pa∣tentes of Captaines and Sardgente mayores, soe that they were equal in meanes with Captaines, and afterwardes they vvere augmented Page  32 with 25. crownes more vvhich in all is 65. crownes vvholie paied, soe that they pass Captaines in meanes and degree at this presente; and the o cation of murmuringe and equalitie betwexte them and the Captaines is set a side: Which of right oughte soe to by; and by them the order of the Generall and Master de campe is given to the Cap∣taines, and there executipnes acordingly acomplished.

For to a complish vvell with the extraordinarie care and travaile of this office, it vvere verie necessary that he be provided with two or three goode nages stronge and well proportioned, and that can indu∣re greate travaile, and it is verie necessary that they goe with a faire pace for his more ease: Somtimes oceasiones doe offer that he weareth oute three or foure horses a day for the well acomplishinge of his office. For the vvell executinge of this office it is verie necessarie to have two ajudantes vvhich are to be chosen of men of longe exercice in vvarr, and of a prooved partes and sufficiencie, presentinge them selves with auctoritie, prudencie, and brave cariadge, and specially to be verie experte in Arithmeticke, many goode partes are required in thies persones; for some times it hapeneth that the Sardgent mayor is hurte or sicke. In the meane time his a judante may execute his offi∣ce; It is verie necessary they have goode meanes to intertaine them selves, and theyre horses; for it faleth oute moste comonly that he tra∣veleth and taketh greater paines then the Sardgent mayor. Wherefo∣re and o curinge in him thies befitinge partes, he is to by much estee∣med and furthered by the superior Officeres.

To acomplish vvell withe his office he muste bee moste vigilante and carefull, he oughte to knowe in memorie the names of all the Of∣ficeres of his Regimente, yea and besides of many Souldieres, and to knowe all the Ensignes by theyre coloures. He is alsoe to knowe the Officeres reformed and particular persones; As the Sardgente mayor is the principall minister in executinge the Master de campe is orde∣res, soe is he to by resolved in executinge the orderes given him by the Sardgente mayor, and that with moderation and love, he is to be verie carefull to acomplish in due time the orderes given by the Ma∣ster de campe, or Sardgente mayor; And by the entercession of none to omitt any faulte withoute reprehension or necessarie redress.

It is the Sardgente mayor is parte to diligently procure and sollici∣te with the Prince and Generall, and other superior Officeres for the providinge of armor munitiones, and all o ther necessaries for the Companies of his Regimente, as pouder, led, match, vituales, &c.

Page  33The which he shall cause to be vvell distributed betwexte the Sard∣gentes, and by them to be delivered to the Corporalles who are to di∣stribute the same betwexte the Souldieres withoute any fraude. He is alsoe to be an universall procurer of all thinges fit and necessarie for the Souldieres soules healthe, in severelie punishinge and banishin∣ge publicke and uglie crimes oute of the Companies of his Regiment as theeves, disordered persones of no feare nor shame, as dronckardes and all such as live enfamously, oute of hope of a mendemente; and specially blasphemeres, vvho like base and blinde factioneres withou∣te feare and conscience, doe highlie offende his Divine Majestie.

Suche as have a speciall care to see thies haynouse faultes and disor∣deres redressed, and justly punished, oughte and are moste comon∣lie to be reputed, fauored, and highlie recommended, and specially by his Divine Majestie for theyre affection and care in acomplishinge his vvill.

He is to be earneste that the Master de campe doe choyse the drom mayor of his Regiment of one that he knoweth to by able in well exe∣cutinge his office, and that he by noe meanes by elected by favor, but rather for one vvho knoweth to instructe all the dromeres of his Re∣gimente, for beinge one chosen for that effecte: He can assiste in ma∣ny occasiones in carienge and bringenge of orderes, as shall by more at lardge declared in his election and office. When he shall inter into any towne or place of defence, he is to use greate consideration in the devition of the gardes, and watch therof, and specially if it be a fron∣tier, or place where the enemy is to be muche feared. He shall in no case devide unto every Company the parte or place of the vvall whe∣re they ordinarilie shall assiste or keepe, for by cause townes and pla∣ces of importance have often times beene betrayed, and taken by treason.

The principall cause vvherof hath bene that the Officer and Soul∣dier which selleth that place knoweth the parte and quarter where; ordinarilie he is to watch. Wherefore the Sardgent mayor is to pru∣dently prevente thies haynous plottes and that no boddy may kno∣we vvhere he is to garde or vvatch: Som doe cause them to caste the deece otheres to drawe lottes or billettes, and otheres doe ordaine thies devitiones oute of theyre owne heades. And to observe such dis∣cipline and order that no Company may fore knowe theyre quarter nor any o ther boddy eyther litle or greate may knowe the parte of the wall which shall a pertaine unto him, untill the verie time that Page  34 the watche by set or a litle before. When occasion shall offer that he shall inter vvith his Regiment to lodge in any towne, he or his a ju∣dante is to revewe the place or market, to knowe vvhere he may fin∣de a comodiouse and fitt place to frame a squadron of his Regimen∣te, and presently after this, he is to revewe all the rampar and circui∣de of the towne, carienge a longe vvith him one of his ajudantes, and alsoe he is to revewe the gates and corpes de gardes, and a pointe the convenient place for the postes and roundes, and see that vvithin and vvithoute the circuide of the towne that he prevente in due time all thinges necessarie.

He is alsoe to revewe the Master de campe is lodginge, the store houses or magasenes and prison, and to a pointe the necessary gardes. After all he is to relate unto his Master de campe of all the difficulties he findes in; as vvell on the rampar, gardes, and circuide of the same, and vvithoute delay to prevente and redress eache particular vvith speede, and to consulte vvith his Master de campe to see vvho many Companies shall by required or necessarie to inter the vvatch each nighte, and then make his devitiones, and deliver the orderes to his a judante, that he may deliver them to the Sardgentes, and sheovve them the places a pointed for the centeries, and the corpes de garde, and at vvhate howre they are to sett the cinteries.

He is alsoe to a pointe the places conveniente, and fitt for the co∣loures, and give the Alferises necessarie instructiones. After that he causes the Drum mayor to joyne all the Dromes, and proclaime the orderes delivered by the Sardgente mayor, then naminge the Com∣panies that are to be that nighte on the watche, and soe shall he brea∣ke the squdron, leavinge the coloures that are on the vvatch, givinge order to the reste to retire to theyre quarteres; Then shall the a ju∣dante directe eache Company to theyre a pointed place, and shall make the divitiones of the gardes as ordained by the Sardgent ma∣yor, deliveringe them the orderes they shall observe, he shall a poin∣te and provide the garde of the Master de campe, and of the magase∣nes, or store houses, and alsoe the place of armes vvhere all the Com∣panies and coloures shall repaire unto when a larme or occasion shall be offered.

Havinge made the devitiones of the vvatch, and gardes as before spoken, he is to revewe all the circuide on the outewarde parte, and see if theyre by any fitt place for ambuscadose for the enemy, of hed∣ges vvoodes or gardines, and prevent itt vvith all diligence, and Page  35 all necessarie endustrie, so that the enemie may not prevaile in takin∣ge any advantadge, as often times itt faleth oute in the morninge at the openinge of the gates. To prevente this he is at the openinge of the gates to comaund foure or five lighte arcabuseros to revewe the campe withoute the gates for the better security, and the reaste of the garde in the meane time vvith theyre armes in theyre handes, and not to vvholy open the gates till thies returne, givinge them order to visit and revewe well all the circuid on the outerwarde side, some 300. pa∣ces more or less till he see that theyre is no suspicion. And if they spee∣the enemy they are all to shoote, and the cinterie above the gates shall presentlie advertice the garde or vvatch, and vvhen otherwise he seeth that they do not spee the enemy the gates may by opened by or∣der of the Officer, that theyre comaundes, and then shall he cause the centeries to be set on the gates and bridged as ocasion may be suspe∣cted, not failinge to be verie varie, and carefull in previntinge wha∣te might insue or mishappen, and specially to be carefull that the Souldieres doe not absent them selves from theyre vvatch, and for feare of stratagemes of treason, it is verie necessary that in each por∣te or gate vvhere any suspition may be feared, that theyre by two lon∣ge sharpe yrones like spittes, vvhich shall serve to pass trough from side to side vvagones of hay and strawe, for feare that any men may by secretlie hiden in them. And to lett no men armed pass into the towne, vvithoute order, and specially if it by a frontier or place to by feared much of the enemy. At the shutinge of the gates the Officer and Souldieres there a pointed to garde, shall by all in armes till the same be shutt, and the Officer of the vvatch shall looke vvell that the gates be vvell shutt: All beinge soe acomplished, the Officer shall sende the Souldieres he thinketh fitt to convoy the keayes to the Go∣vernor or cheefe Comaunderes lodginge.

The bagadge of the vvhole Regimente, interinge to garison is to march in the rergarde vvith a Companie of Souldieres guardinge the same, and the Sardgent mayor and a judante are to goe still a horse∣bake till all thinges by vvell ordered and provided, until suche time they see that all by lodged. For in the biginēge of such partisiones mo∣ste comonlie are many questiones and disputes vvhich ought vvith all care and haste to by redreste: In vvhich occasiones the Sardgent ma∣yor is to comaunde vvith resolute auctoritie, in ordaininge all thin∣gss to by pacified and redreste, ministringe justice and equitie, not ad∣mitenge any disorder vvithoute due redress; causinge his orderes wi∣thoute Page  36 repleee to be executed with obedience.

If otherwise it by not acomplished as he firste ordayned, his exe∣cutiones can not vvell prosper, but let him before hande looke that his orderes by prudently given, soe that with this resolution he shall vvell a complish all: And shal be reputed and respected for a man who knoweth vvho to governe and comaunde vvith prudence and auctoritie, and shall be both respected and feared by the Souldieres: When any vando or proclamation is to be given he is to procure with the Master de campe that it be put in vvritenge uppon the corpe de garde that the orderes may be observed and the better understoode be all.

After the proclamation is made, and that none may by ingnoran∣te in understandinge the penalties in the same mentioned, and the executiones acordinglie made, (for if otherwise not executed) it were far better not to sett it fourth, but in thies executiones consideration is to by used acordinge as the occasion shall require, after true infor∣macion by taken of the case.

All Officeres in vvarr are broughte into goode perfection vvith prudence, care, and templance, rather then sheowinge him selfe ri∣gourouse and licenciouse in speeches vvith a furiouse contenance, beinge not therunto constrayned, for the Souldier feeleth no punis∣mente almoste soe grivouse as this, vvhich seemeth to him to resulte trough ingnorance and envie, and of al the reste of the Officeres this bad custome is more odiouse in the Sardgent mayor, beinge the ma∣ster of vvhome they shoulde by righte learne good examples and in∣structiones, and in vvhome by reason the befittinge partes therunto necessary shoulde acurr; beinge a minister to see faultes redreste.

Such Officeres as doe sheowe them selves, vvith a furiouse and o∣diouse contenance doe opress theyre condition, vvhich doth not re∣sulte of a generouse minde, and moste comonlie they are hated. But suche as sheowe them selves with a prudent cariadge and amiable be∣haveure are muche esteemed, obeyed, honored, and respected, by the Souldieres, and doe binde them in obligatione and repose of minde: But for one contrarie another contrary, that if in case the Soul∣dier doe not acomplish his obligationes, as he is bounde to doe. And in doinge the contrarie in comitinge disorderes it is necessarie to pu∣nish him severely, yea and soe far that it may sticken into his harte if by faire meanes he dothe not a minde.

Some Officeres of prudente cariadge, and amiable behavior doe one∣lie Page  37 with a groomely contenance and goode reasones cause theyre Souldieres to tremble, and feare them vvithoute any o ther rigoure, and the Souldieres knowinge of ther Officers goode inclination, doe both obey love and feare them, findinge by experience that he love∣the them and assisteth in time of moste necessity and neede, sheowinge thē goode examples, and giuinge them goode instructiones, and kno∣winge that he hath noe rancor, envy, nor revenge in his harte, but ra∣ther to couradge them in al necessities, and equallinge him selfe with thē in all dangeres and travailes, and to be inclined to redress theyre wantes; in this case they both love and feare him, and indure all dan∣geres and necessities with him, and doe followe him in all perilles with a vvillinge mynde; soe that nothinge doth more contente an hono∣rable Souldier then a lovinge Officer, havinge in him the partes and qualities before declared.

The Sardgente mayor is to give order that if the rounde doe heere any rumor or stirr in the towne or any other place, that he with spee∣de advertice the nexte a dioyninge garde, and that he by no meanes give over his rounde, but continually with care and vigilance visite till his time by expired; And the corpe de garde or vvatche to vvho∣me he gave intelligence are bounde with greate speede to repayre to a comodate the occasion, as alsoe to give intelligence to the superior Of∣ficeres if the occasion be of suche importance.

He is alsoe to give order to the Officeres of his Regimente, that they have a speciall care, that theyre Souldieres doe not lende armes one to a nother for to inter the garde, for it is a bad custome, of which resulte noe goode, for often times a Musquetier lendeth his musket to one that shoulde carie a pike and if in that night doe offer ocasion of an a larme both are discomodiouselie provided. And besides when the Musketier is restored of his musket, and interinge with the same into the watche, not remembringe that he lente it, shooteth it freely thinckinge that theyre is no bullet, (as he chardged the same) and the other to whome it was lente leaveth a bullet in it, he shooteth thinc∣kinge no ill and killeth one of those before him (which often time ha∣pened) yea and sometimes beinge on the watch, often times the one caries the muskett or caliver of his fellowe, and puteth a bullet into the same, the other thinckinge of noe suche matter frily shooteth, and alsoe killeth another.

This bad sinister and dangerouse custom oughte to by prevented, and to severelie punish the Souldier that did lende his armes, for a re∣medie Page  38 of thies ingnorante careless and inconsiderate faultes: All pru∣dente and skilfull Souldieres oughte to be verie varie to prevente and dischardge thies dāgerouse chardges before they inter into the watch: Some base companiones and covardes dayes of feastes doe chardge theyre peeces vvith bullet and killeth vvith envie and revenge vvho pleaseth them; Wherfore a straighte order oughte to by given to all, that they shoulde be verie varie and in paine of death no Souldier shoulde be founde in suche an acte. Moste necessary it is for a Sard∣gent mayor to be carefull to exercice his Souldieres in manadginge of theyre armes, and in knowinge howe to serve vvith the same, as alsoe howe to observe theyre order in march and squadron, and fall withou∣te confusiō into theyre juste place in battell a ray. All vvhich the Sard∣gente mayor is bounde to instructe, for beinge the master vvho is to learne and leade them; for it belongeth to his chardge and office, and besides it importeth him muche that they be vvell instructed and exer∣cised in martial affaires, for soe vvith greate facilitie shal he execute his affaires, as did the Thesarios to vvhose chardge be the Romanies was re∣comended this office, as vvell in filde as in garison.

They instructed theyre Souldieres in the scoole they, exercised the Tirones which were the Bisones, or newe Souldieres two times a day, and the Veteranos vvhiche vvas theyre oulde Souldiers once a day: Soe they vvere very experte as vvell in knovvinge howe to manadge theyre ar∣mes, as to serve with the same, as alsoe in punctualy knowinge to ob∣serve order in march and squadron, as alsoe induringe greate travailes.

They alsoe vvere exercised in runinge, leapinge, shevvminge, and all other exercicee and vertues necessarie and fitenge for warr: They were constrained to march with theyre complet armor both foote, and those that wente a horssbake two dais in a month carienge alsoe with them on theyre backes al necessary foode for that jurney, fightinge as it vvere vvith the enemy, givenge and receivinge the chardge as if it vvere in a bloody vvarr, for the space of ten thousand pases in theyre vvhole yurney, cominge and goinge, and vvith this as customed ex∣ercice they were apte and nemble whensoever occasion of service or employmente did offer; Soe that vvith two thousande of these, grea∣ter exploytes and executiones vvere made, then with thirtie thousan∣de bisones or rawe mē, for vvhich cause they vvere victoriouse coun∣coringe with greate renoome till they vvere vvholie given to vice idelnes and regalitie.

Trough which meanes they begon to fall into decay; and of they∣re Page  39 longe repose and idel life, did resulte a bad and sorowfull ende, for beinge vvholie given to woomen, delicate meates, sleeepe, and ease, and of no care to exercice them selves in armes. They became to for∣get all vertue, to by covardes and fall into decay: Now see a plaine ex∣ample vvhich happened to one of the moste famouseste Captaines of the vvorlde vvhich was Anibal Cartagenes son to Amilcar beinge nine yeares oulde vvas broughte to the vvarres and vvas caused to swere to be enemy to the Romaines duringe life, and cominge to the adge to governe an army he marched from Spaine trough France into Italie, vvhere in passinge the river Rodane. The Romaines a tendinge him, where he had a moste sore incounter in pasinge the river; But Aniball with prudence and greate valeure with tables tember and greate tries made a bridge trough with dificultie and greate hasarde, that at lēgh∣te he paste his army over the river by force of armes, and vvith no lesh endustrie did he pass the hugie montaines of the Alpes, breakinge downe greate rokes and makinge them plaine, where he made a way that his army coulde pass; which contained 120000. of foote and hor∣se, and theyre bagadge on Elefantes and brute beastes, and pased to piamonte vvher he rejoysed of his safe a rivall trough such a trou∣ble some and dangerouse vvay, comfortinge and givinge his to under∣stande that they vvere oute of danger and trouble, and arived into a fertill countrie abondante of all necessaries befittinge.

Ther havinge reposed his army he touke his jurney towardes the river of Trevia in Plasintin, and met vvith the Romaines where he op∣tained the victorie, and from thence he touke his jurney, and paste by Perusa til he came to Trasimeno vvhere he gave an other overtrow to the Romaines, and kilth of them three and twenty thousande. And after this he paste with his army to Pulla in Canas which nowe is Bar∣leta, vvhere he alsoe foughte vvith the Romaines, and had the victo∣rie of them vvith the slaughter of fortie thousande of them, as Plinius and Francisco Petrarca Tuscano declareth. Soe that he had the bri∣dell vvith Italie sixtime yeares; poseste vvith that brave and prudente conductor skilfull and valerouse army: After this he came to Capua a pleasante country of vveomen, and other comodities, and theyre gave him self and his army to repose in garisones a longe time, vvhere he and they became idel and forgetfull of all military exercice, as thoughe they never had managed armes. Which vvas cause of the rui∣ne and perdition of all his army, as they say that Capua vvas a greater perdition to Anibal then to the Romaines the losh of Canas, and after Page  40 beinge constrained to pass unto Africa to soucour Cartago his coun∣trie, beinge informed that Cipio (that famouse Captaine) vvente thiter vvith his Romaine army be vvhome Aniball vvas overcome; so that his vice longe repose and neglectinge of armes vvas cause of his destru∣ction, as alsoe hapened to many other brave vvarrieres. But this of Aniball is a sufficiente example for those that followe the profession of armes, to alwayes houlde and keepe theyre Souldieres in exercice of armes, and that vvith greate care, for feare of destruction. Soe this is a goode and sufficiente example for a Sardgent mayor, to alwayes keepe his Souldieres in the exercice of armes, and to imitate still the Romai∣nes in theyre continuall practice; And in case that the moste parte of the Companies of his Regimente are not togither vvhere he is resi∣dente.

Let him advertice theyre Captaines that they be carefull to exerci∣ce theyre Souldieres, and it vvere not amiss that he in the ende of eve∣rie three or foure montes shoulde visite them all over, and vvith care exercice them in the ocasiones of marchinge and imbatelinge; Wher∣by he shall finde them apte and ready to his will not needinge over∣much paines nor disputes as alwayes muste by with rawe men litle ex∣erciced in armes.

In nothinge is he to be more curiouse then in learninge and instru∣ctinge them who to observe orderes of marchinge, and in framing with them all sortes of squadrones, and to cause them skirmish sundrie manner of wayes, and cause them to toss the pike, and to by apte in handelinge the same, beinge queene of armes and moste noble of all the reste. This office of a Sardgent mayor vvas in times paste cauled thesariouse or Master who is to instructe military discipline, he which is apte and skilfull in vvell a complishinge the aproved partes ordai∣ned for the execution of this office, is fitt for any other office in vvarr, to the verie office of a Master de campe generall, which of all the reste requireth greatesth care and sufficiencie.

Wheresoever the Sardgente mayor shall happen to by with his Re∣gimente or vvith parte of the same, (eyther in campana or garison) when the Companies of the same shall inter the watch he is to by pre∣sente and take care that the Captaines be vvell armed with faire and complet corseletes, and all peeces therunto a pertaininge, and vvith a faire peeke of sixtine or seventine foote longe, the Musquetier with a complet goode muskett, and that by no meanes it by permitted to cutt any peece of the barell, (as some doe) to lighten it, and such as are Page  41 founde gilthie in this soe greate a faulte oughte to by severlie puni∣shed.

They are to be provided vvith goode flaskes, and flaskillos▪ vvith faire and stronge cordes, and hurquillos of six foote vvith theyre yro∣nes on both endes as behooveth, and the Arcabuseros are to be pro∣vided with goode caliveres of a stronge and sure barrell fitt to recei∣ve a bullet of an once or verie litle less, and a faire frask fraskillo and cordones, the measure of the pouder all by at leaste a haulfe once or rather more, he is never to wante a bagg of leader with twentie fi∣ve bullettes, and an yron to strike fyre at all times vvhen occasion shall require, for oftentimes beinge in centery and other places his match is quite gon oute, and then if he can get no fire his pouder is to no purpose at that instante if occasion often: Some are wonte to ca∣rie heade peeces which in many occasiones are goode, but that they are to much trouble some in longe marchinges.

Both the Musketieres and Arcabuseres shoulde knowe howe to make match, for sometimes it hapeneth that theyre is no munition, and then is it verie necessarie that the Souldier knoweth to make matche, for hardelie can he ever faile to get flax, but otherwise the Souldier beinge un expert, and knowinge not to shifte, and alsoe fai∣lenge amunition they incurr greate dangers; soe that the Souldier ought allwayes to procure with greate care to by couriouse and ex∣perte in all thinges that apartaineth to his obligation, for it may well fall oute that he shoulde march in a countrie ingnorante in vvarres, where no match nor amunition is made; Wherefore the brave and carefull Souldier is to thincke alwayes before hande to prevente wha∣te mighte in sue after: Soe shall he be not fluted at, but rather much recomended for knowinge vvho with care and prudence to acom∣plish his obligation; vvhich shall give greate contentmente to his Captaine and reste Officceres.

Fiery weapons vvithoute theyre full necessaries are of no service, vvherfore the prudent, carefull, and honorable Souldier oughte to prevente in due time whate he is bounde unto, in as much as may by possible) soe shall he be highlie esteemed by his Captaine and Of∣ficeres. If the Kinge or Prince woulde faine take a veowe of the who∣le army Regimente be Regimente, and alsoe the Standartes of horse one after an other to pass before him, as did the Spanish army before Kinge Philip the II. and the queene Don̄a Anna in the plaine of Can∣tillana neere to badajoes where the whole army did pass before them, Page  42 and soe neere that they plainelie vived the visadge of everie one of them as they paste by, as well of the horse vvhich did firste pass, and afterwardes the Infanterie.

The firste that did pass was the Regiment of Lombardie, vvhich Don Pedro de Sotemayor did leade, a rivenge righte againste the pla∣ce where his Majestie stoode did vvith grace and speede arbolare his pike turninge his face righte o his Majestie, and made greate reve∣rence as to such a place of so ••gh dingnitie a pertaineth, and having acomplished his dutie and obligation withoute stiringe did shoul∣der his pike, and marched in his jurney, in the verie same place the firste rancke of pikes that did arive observed the self same order, and in the selfe same manner did all the other rankes of pikes pass. With him at this time vvas Duke de Alva present, and the prior Don Fer∣nando.

Necessarie it is for a Sardgent mayor to cary still aboute him a table booke or booke of memories, for hardly can be conceive and houlde all thinhes in memorie, and vvhate he vvritheth is sure, of o nely the Captaine generall Master de campe generall is he to recei∣ve the vvourde of Governores and other persones the ajudantes are wonte to receive the watch wourde, and other orderes, or the Sard∣gente that is on the vvatche in absence of the ajudantes, which at all times they can not be presenre, and specially in garison.

The Sardgente mayor as a generall procurer of his Regimente, ought to solicite and procure that the corpes de garde Garites or cen∣terie houses be well provided, and the corpes de garde withe a place made of tables or plankes wheron the Souldieres may sleepe, and this to be a foote and haulfe above grounde, and to see tat theyre by a conveniente place where the fyrie armes be sett, and alsoe for the pikes. He is to procure withe the townes men that they acomodate the way of the rounde, and that the Garitas be well acomodated that the Souldier may keepe him self and armes drie: That be no mea∣nes he be gridy inconsiderate or covetouse, neyther permit or give care to any but that the gardes by vvell provided of fire and lighte, for som Provinces are extraordinary and excessive coulde, vvher vve see many Souldieres not vvell a parreled that after acomplishinge theyre dutie, and standinge theyre poste som thre or foure houres (more or lesh) they come bake frissd full of snowe, and vvhen they∣re is no fire to comforte them they die. In conclusion there Officeres, and specially the Sardgente mayor is to by werie earneste in solici∣tenge Page  43 this particular for in wantinge this comoditie of fire and of ca∣potes vvhiche some times the Prince, and some times theyre Captai∣nes do provide them, if ohterwise, it is impossible for the Souldier to escape to frise, for vve see those well a parelled perish for coulde: This and many more occasiones of importance can prudente and brave Captaines remedy to theyre greate renoome, and that besides they sheowe theyre affection to his Majesties service; if theyre procure∣mente can not prosper in this, nor theyre abilitie reache in reme∣dienge the same they discharde theyr conscience and honor, vvhen they in devor vvith care and diligence to pittie theyre Souldieres in earnestly procuringe for them, vvherunto they are bounde.

If in garison occasion require as moste comonly it doth, to provide a rounde to visit all over, (if posible it vvere necessary) that an Officer or person of respecte by apointed for cavo of the same, and that Of∣ficer or cavo onely doe cary the watch wourde, for beinge necessary if accasion shoulde by offered that they shoulde be constrayned to co∣me to the wall to learne what the occasion was, or to pass trough the postes that is betwext them and the walles, or to pass by the postes of the corpes de garde, if occasion shoulde presente: It is necessary that the outeward centeries whiche are not under defence nor sure securi∣tie that the vvatch vvourde be not given them, and if by change suche postes shoulde be ingnorance or negligence permit to pass in vvar∣des any man; Let him not come to the courte de garde vvithoute an Officer firste to receive him, and informe of his cause.

Thies roundes are to goe very silente and secrett, vvithoute any rumor, and that they enter in no conversation nor other place, butt rather with greate care and vigilance acomplish theyre order, and still goe forwarde in visitēge the magasenes or store houses, churches, and church yardes, emptie greate houses, or any other place wher suspition mighte be feared (of joyninges and mutenies.) And he hee∣ringe or understandinge of any rumor or joyning, and beinge therof vvell informed and assured, he is to aquainte vvith greate speede the Sardgent mayor, with one or two as the Officer cavo shall thinke fit, and he shall continue in that place till the Sardgent mayor sende him order, or come him selfe in person in the meane time the rounde is to by verie vigilante and silente. Thies roundes moste comonly ha∣ve one thirde parte of Musketes and Arcabuseros, and if theyre be any suspicion they are rather to goe stronge then vveake to prevente the empetue of the enemy.

Page  44In vvarrlike affaires and exercices, all Comaunderes ought conti∣nually to be vigilante, varie, carefull, and fearefull in nott trustinge to manny, for vve see that in many places that townes and citties doe revolte, when lesh suspicion is of them; Soe that often times in truste is treason. Therefore the Professores of the noble arte of vvarr are bounde in all places to be varie and vigilante, and continually feare of sodaine improvided disgraces. Continuall exercice and practice in warr is of greate importance, vvherfore the Sardgent mayor beinge in garison or els where is never to permitt the Companies under his chardge betwexte vvatch and vvatch to sleepe at home above thre nightes, for soe the Souldieres shall by the more apte to indure when occasion shall presente, for douptles continuall use and exercise hel∣peth much to compass, and ease difficulte matteres. Whosoever shall be inclined to comitt disorderes, and give bad examples in the corpes de gardes ought to by severelie punished, for suche places are to be respected for reall houses, and he vvho vvithout honor, discipline, and shame doth comit disorderes in a place of such greate respecte, ough∣te not to escape vvithoute due punishmente.

The Sardgent mayor is to advertice the Captaines of his Regimen∣te not to give licence to anny of theyre Souldieres to pass unto an o∣ther Regimente, nor oute of the country by no meanes, because that it dothe not lie in his auctority, neyther to give him leave withoute beinge firmed of the Master de campe, or Governor that shall co∣maunde. Who shall apointe the dayes fitt to a complishe his jurney, and affaires, and in the Vedoria generall noe Souldieres place oughte to be changed unto another Company, vvithoute licence of his Captaine, or Master de campe, for som unrulie factioneres are desi∣rouse to have liberty to run the contry to comitt disorderes, and ne∣glecte theyre dutie and obligationes; Spoylinge the country, decea∣vinge the Kinge, and dishonoringe theyre nation, and dayly provoo∣kinge otheres to that base kinde of life, of no honor feare nor shame. Whosoever shall a sente his place amonghste the Infanterie, and vvho entreth in rancke with the observeres of true discipline, oughte not to be tollerated to lay hande in anny mecanicall trade, for it is not fitt that suche a one shoulde equall him self vvith honorable Soul∣dieres of noble and vertuese life.

Dayes of solme feastes kermishes or fayeres, the Sardgent mayor is to reforce the gardes or vvatches, for in suche time greate congrega∣tion of people of other places are wonte to joyne; And at suche times Page  45 may happen tumoltes and revoltes; findinge the men of armes unwa∣rie and unvigilante theyre enemyes may fall uppon them and optai∣ne theyre desire, vvherof both notable disgrace and loss may resulte, as by experience hath beene tried in diverses Provinces and places of importance.

When the Sardgent mayor seteth the vvatche he or one of his a ju∣dantes are to ride a horsbake▪ and visite all the gardes and rampar, to see if each garde be provided vvith the men apointed, for some times trough the litle care or forgethfulnes of some Sardgentes, and Cor∣porales they err in the orderes. Wherfore in such occasiones by righ∣te they shoulde by severelie reprehende, that they may be the more ca∣refull and vigilante, beinge refered to theyre care and truste the repo∣se, and safetie of all the reste.

If need require he is to advertice the Captaines of his Regimente, that in suche places where they are with the Master de campe they can give no order to sound the Drom, excepte it by for extreame necessi∣tie, or in time of the watche withoute order of the Master de campe: When occasion shall offer that armes, or any sorte of amunitiones shall be received from the Kinge it apertaines the Furiell mayor to re∣ceive the same, and to yealde a compte to the Kinges ministeres (when it shall besought for) thies amunitiones are to be devided be∣twext the Companies by the Sardgent mayor, causinge to deliver ea∣che Sardgente whate belongeth to his Company, as he shall thincke conveniente, and fitt for his Majesties service. He is earnestelie to procure to see severelie punished such as are inclined to vices and bad examples, and alsoe to advertice the Captaines of his Regimente, that they a siste in whate toucheth theyre Companies, touchinge this particular for beinge therunto bounde; Soe that all factioneres of ba¦se life, as theeves quarleres, mutineres, dronkardes, and suche as are vvholie given to vice may by driven a way, soe that those of good life may live at reste; Beinge in garison with his Regimente, or with parte therof he is to apointe, and ordaine where shall eache Company re∣paire when occation of alarme doth represente to frame his squa∣dron, and he is alsoe to apointe each Company of those on the vvatch whate place of the rampar they are to defende, and alsoe he is to give chardge to his ajudante, where they shall asiste that they may acom∣plish with care, diligence, and perfection, vvhate is refered to theyre chardge, and those orderes beinge once given eache one with greate speede and care shall repaire to acomplish his obligation; soe that du∣ringe Page  46 the time he is framinge his squadron the reste doe repaire to theyre apointed places, that of a sodaine all thinges may be preven∣ted in due time, advertisinge that he is to choise the moste convenien∣test and fiteste place for the framinge of his squadron, and of less em∣pedimentes of casteles, towres, or offencive places nexte adjoyninge.

The Company or Companies that are of the vvatch he is not to permit them to departe the same till firste other Companies doe reli∣ve them, and take possession of the place, but stande in array till the other Companies doe inter, and take posession, and then they are to marche towardes theyre quarter, in this manner shall he perceiue tho∣se that intred the garde, and those that doe departe from it.

He is not to give the wourde till the gates are shutt, he is to be care∣full to see all thinges well ordered and acomplished, and see that the Corporalles them selves in person doe acompany the Souldieres till he leave them in theyre centeries, where he is to give them the vvourde, bringinge backe along vvith him those that were relived to the cor∣pe de garde, where he is to keepe them that nighte for respecte of the watche wourde, sometimes it happeneth that Corporales of litle disci∣pline and honor, do give the vvourde to those that goeth to relive the postes, vvhich resulte of pure ingnorance, and for theyre ovvne ease, not thincking of the sore reprehension they may have of theyre supe∣rior Officeres for that badd and sinister custome: Thies disorderes in no case are to by permitted, for beinge verie dangerouse. In this par∣ticular the high dutch is to be comended (for at nighte they cause the Drom to by beaten againste every relife,) and the Corporalles doe a company the Souldieres til they leave them in theyre postes, and brin∣ge those that are relived a longe with them to the corpe de garde; but in garison and other places nowe a dayes they use it diferente withou∣te the sounde of Drom, not failenge in the reste, and the Corporall yealdeth goode a compte of all that a pertaineth to his chardge, and trusteth the care therof to none but to him selfe, to by the more asu∣red.

Greate and speciall care ought to by taken dayes of the watch that no Souldier of the same doe absente him selfe excepte it by to eate, and the Officer therin oughte to take a goode course in licencinge them orderly by comarades, one after another, givinge thē straigh∣te comaunde to returne vvith all speede. And if they be founde lon∣ge absent eyther, drinckinge, pleainge, or pasinge a way the time idell, to severelie see them punished, and to repeehende the Sardgen∣te Page  47 or Corporall that shall licence them beinge in seperated gardes, and specially dayes of greate feastes and fayres.

Let no Souldier absente him selfe from his vvatch, you if it vvere but to change a shurte or bande, beinge bounde such dayes to o cu∣pie him selfe in nothinge but in a tendinge his vvatch: Some times gamesteres who beinge therunto much inclined not findinge pleain∣ge in theyre ovvne garde do goe unto other vvatches to play, vvho oughte to by severely punished, for the redresinge of thies faultes, and many more, the a judantes oughte nowe and then to visitt the courte de gardes, rampares, and centeries, to see many faultes redre∣sed.

When occasion is offered in pasinge of muster it hapeneth, that some times the Veedor generall, or Contador is sente to see that mu∣ster by order of the Generall, In which occasiones the Sardgent ma∣yor is to asiste, in sheowinge and instructinge the more conveniente∣ste places for the same. As alsoe of all other necessaries therunto aper∣taininge, and he is to repaire and comunicate with his Master de cam∣pe, and receive the necessary orderes for the same, and at the faulinge of the nighte to camaunde the Drom mayor, and all the Dromeres to joyne in the place or principall corpe de garde, givinge order to the Drom mayor to beate a vando of the muster, not advertisinge the a pointed place for the same, for sertaine respectes, but rather pasinge the same in severall places that none may knowe where till the verie instant they marche, givinge order to the Drom mayor that he pro∣claime thatt all Companies be readdy, at the breake of the day to pass muster, and to be carefull to observe the instructiones of the Vee∣dor generall touchinge the muster, for duringe that time he hase ful auctority for ministringe vvell his office, or vvhosoever is apointed by him for that purpose, givinge firste order to the Company of the Master de campe to marche and after the same if theyre be Compa∣nies of Arcabuseros, and after thos vvhiche he thinketh beste, and in pasenge muster they are to be cauled in the self fame maner, one after another as they did formerly enter, advertisinge that the Company or Companies that are on the watch shall marche laste to muster, and the firste that shall pass muster.

The ajudante at this time shall cause the gates of the towne to be shutt; And presentlie after at leaste one of the Companies of the watche shall pass muster, and then the Company of the Master de campe, and after the reste Companies that are ••inter the watche, Page  48 and the reste shall pass muster as they have intered, the muster bein∣ge paste, and the listes confronted, the Sardgent mayor is to get a re∣lation of the number of Souldieres that shall be conteined in each Company, and bringe the same to the Master de campe to knovve the full number of the muster of the Companies of his Regimente. Wherof the Sardgent mayor is to have a copie for many respectes: A Sardgente mayor who woulde with prudence and auctoritie have his office vvell executed, it is verie necessarie that he knoweth the quali∣ties and conditiones of eache Captaine of his Regimente, that he may employ eache one with discretion, as time and occasion shall re∣quire, consideringe the partes and suficiencie of eache one, that the∣reby he may employ each one acordinge to the partes that in him doth o curr: When his Captaine generall, or Master de campe gene∣rall, or ordinary Master de campe giveth order for any execution of emportance. Some are goode for all executiones vvhiche are estee∣med for perfecte Souldieres, some to fighte with a valerouse determi∣nation, others thoughe valiante of unhappie proceedinges, and that resultinge for the moste parte of theyre litle prudence, som otheres doe o bey and carefully acomplish with whate they are comaunded by theyre Superiores; of whiche often times happie proceedinges doe resulte; otheres with prudence, valor, auctoritie, and brave con∣duction.

It is moste necessarie that the Sardgente mayor doe knowe the o∣ne, and the other that he may vvith the more securitie employ each one acordinge as the emportance requireth of eache execution; he is alsoe to knowe the qualitie and condition of the inferior Office∣res, vvho are to assiste and who are to by employed acordinge to the partes and sufficiencie in them: He is to presente him selfe with aucto∣ritie and brave resolution, reprehendiges faultes and disorderes with discretion, vvhiche shall oblidge them to obey and acomplish they∣re obligationes vvith love, he is to instructe them and sheowe them goode examples, as vvell in the exercice of theyr armes, as in acom∣plishinge theyre obligationes with punctualitie, he is to comaunde vvithe prudence and greate resolution for beinge soe moste required for the executiones of his office, but with prudente consideration, for vvhich it is required that he be of a sober and gentle mynde for o therwise hardely can he bringe to pass his obligation in this, and specially in vvinenge the love of the Souldiers. The Sardgente ma∣yor is to visite novve and then the postes or centeries, instructinge Page  49 them who to handel theyre armes and comaundinge them to let no∣ne pass by nighte tyme, nor permit none come nere him, withoute fir∣ste givinge the wourde, though it were his Captaine or Master de campe, and the Souldier that otherwise permitethe any to pass is to be reprehended, for ocation may be invented at nighte of greate em∣portance, and soe it is verie necessary that none be permitted to come neere the centerie, withoute firste givinge the vvourde, and that for many respectes. Yea and if it were his Officer presuminge that he kno∣vveth him, and intreating and repleeinge to lett him pass, he is to answer, vvith aresolute determination, and say i knovve none but he that giveth the vvourde for soe doth he vvell acomplish his obliga∣tion. In garison he shall comaunde the maner and vvho the roun∣des shall be distributed, whiche is the moste and sureste securitie of the place, and whē he him selfe shall rounde by night tyme to discover re∣dress and reprehende the faultes and negligences of the roundes and cinteries; he is to hid him selfe and aproache verie secretlie to perceive the care and punctualitie of the rounde, and if otherwise he finde him still, or vvith rumor in theyre jurney not attendinge the outewarde as the inwarde side of the vvall, he is to severely reprehēde them. For the more securitie of a place dependeth on the care and prudence of the rounde: Alsoe if he findes the centeries negligente and careles in not acomplishinge theyr obligation, let him see them severelie punished, that therby it may be an exemple both for them and otheres to com∣plish vvith greate vigilance and care theyre obligationes: Some Sard∣gent mayores for theyre better securitie doe carie at nighte a target, because that often tymes unruly factioneres doe pass at nighte and comittt many disgraces; Soe it is not amiss he goeth vvell provided to prevente theyre unruly tached inclinasiones, he is to use greate dis∣cressiō, and moderatiō vvith the cinteries in goenge the rounde. The ajudante is to rounde alsoe novve and then to seconde the Sardgente mayor in differente nightes as ordained by the Sardgent mayor, imi∣tatenge the steppes and order of his Master, and he is to informe of the cinteries if they hearde any rumor or ocation eyther vvithoute or vvithin, givinge the cinteries goode instructiones, as alsoe in the corrpes de garde or vvatches, and sheowe him selfe amiable to the Souldieres, and reprehindinge theyre faultes vvith prudente reaso∣nes. Soe shall he by both feared and beloved.

The Officeres of the vvatches are alsoe to asiste in visitenge the cin∣teries as ordayned by the Sardgent mayor, and that with scilence and Page  50 Vigilance demaundinge the cinteries if they have hearde any thinge, soe that remedy mighte be prevented in due time if ocation requi∣re.

And specially the Corporall, in givinge eache Souldier to understā∣de who he shall handel or manadge his armes, and who he is to take the wourde, and to be alerto, let him not be given nor muche credible to uncertayne shadowes, as many bisones and rawe men doe, givenge many alarmes withoute o cation; And when the round a procheth the cintery is to terciar his pike and demaund quin Viene alla and if he houldeth his peace, let him turne againe in demaundinge with much severitie with an angrie and furiouse contenance, if he answere amigo which is to say afrende, then let him demaunde the vvatche vvourde, preparinge and makinge ready him selfe for that purpose; And if it were soe that he Shoulde suspecte of the rounde that it were an enemy, thoughe they give the vvourde let them not pass, aleadginge that they have not the righte vvourde: but otherwise knowinge the rounde and givinge the vvourde he is to lett them freely pass.

The cinteries are alvvayes to by moste carefull and Vigilante, for some tymes it may happen that the enemy shoulde steale the wourde, and fall of a sodaine on the cinterie and kill him, vvherefore he is al∣vvayes to by alerto and verie varie, and if he suspecte the rounde to be an enemy as before spoken let him be no meanes come neere to Master his armes, and specially if they replee let him cause them to retire, if not, presently he is to caule alarme vvith great furie and high voice that he may by vvell hearde, and if neede require lett him by a litle and litle retire, defendinge him selfe the beste he may beinge therunto constrayned but not otherwise, vvheresoever the Sardgent mayor shall asiste vvith his Regimente or parte therof he shall comaunde the co∣mon table ordained for gamesteres to be putt on the principall courte de garde, and the barata of thies gamesteres he shall a pointe one to oversee the same, vvhiche barata shall be to sheovve his horses. He is not to permitt to putt this table in other places nor permitt any joyin∣ge of gamesteres oute of that a pointed place, for many respectes, and specially to avoyde quareles disputes joyninges and rumores of some that are given to thies vicees, but rather in the corpe de garde as a pla∣ce of respecte and vvhere each one shall not presume so muche to co∣mitt disorderes, for knovvinge of the severe punishmente for suche as comit errores, and loose respecte to a place of soe greate priviledge.

Page  51

THE SEAVENTE CHAP. Treatinge of the election and office of a Sardgente mayor, marchinge in campaina.

THE election of the Sardgent mayor moste comonlie is made by the Generall of such as the Coronelles or Masteres de campe doe name or give in relation, his of∣fice is to by a generall minister of a vvhole Regimente of sundrie Companies; And a Superintendente of all the Sardgentes of the same. By vvhouse, prudence, and brave condu∣ction the Coronell or Master de campe doth give him the orderes ne∣cessarie for the due govermente of his Regimente, in marchinge, or∣deringe, and embattellinge of the same, and of suche materes hereūto a pertayninge, be vvhose a proved goode partes may be gathered the brave conduction, valor, and prudence, required in a perfecte Soul∣dier, beinge chosen as a man who hathe the be fittinge partes required for this office of suche greate emportāce. Whiche in time of the Gree∣kes and Romaines vvas trusted to none, but the Generalles executed the same in there one persones for many rare respectes of importan∣ce. The firste thinge that he is to doe before he begines to march, is to consulte withe his Master de campe of all necessarie thinges for his jurney, and see such thinges befitinge prevented, and provided in due time; advertisinge all the Captaines of his Regimente to put them selves in order to marche, vvith as litle bagadge as may be possible, and within so many dayes to have all thinges in areadines, and given∣ge order to the Captaine de campana to prepare him selfe, and his sutleres, as alsoe to the Auditor, Furiell mayor, Surdgent mayor, Drom mayor, and that he be carefull that Dromes and Phifes by vvell pro∣vided in each Company.

The office of a Sardgent mayor is of higher degree then any or∣dinarie Captaine, for the Captaines doe receive the orderes from him, and follow this directiones, and the Sardgente mayor, from the Coronel, Master de campe, or Generall, or from the Kinge or Em∣peror him selfe if he be in the fielde, for he is barred no entrie gate nor other place but freelie sufered to pass into rhe Kinge or Empe∣ror Page  52 is chamber, for beinge a person of greate respecte and fidelitie: Wherefore theyre ought greate concideration and regarde to be ta∣ken in the election of this Officer. Which otherwise beinge chosen by favor, frindship, or affection of one of litle sufficiencie, resulteth ma∣ny enconveniences: It alsoe faleth oute often times that such perso∣nes so chosen, vvantinge the prudence, auctoritie, perfection, and brave conduction in him required, looseth often times his due respe∣cte, and reverence of the Captaines and other Officeres: Wherefore it vvere farr better for him to remaine a Captaine rather then inter∣middell in a matter vvhich requireth suche greate capacitie and per∣fecte experience in vvarr.

In occasiones of marchinge he is to consider the qualities and con∣ditiones of the countrie, if fertill or scante, if hilly or plaine, and not to permit to mounte a horsebacke but as feowe as can possible; Alsoe to consider the quantitie of bagadge, and provision, youe are to ca∣ry, and that to by as litle as may be possible as before spoken, rather onelie so much as neede shall require, and that the wantes therof can not be excused.

After that all thinges necessarie for youre marche are treated and consulteth of (and put in order) yove shall comaunde that all the Companies of youre Regimente shall joyne where voure Master de campe shall ordaine, and thincke moste fitt: Then bigen to make youre devitiones to marche as youre Superior shall comaunde. But if onelie one Regimente doe march by it selfe, the Sardgent mayor is to consulte with his Master de campe, never failenge if they marche in any place or countrie where yove shoulde chance, or feare to en∣counter your enemy to provide youre selfe vvith sertaine barreles of pouder, match, and bullettes, that alwayes yove carie of thies rather more then lesh; some pikes fearinge to wante, a quantitie of shoules bills, hatchetes, which is necessarie if neede or occasion require to make a way with trees boughes, and earth, in places where vvith dif∣ficultie the Infantery, and bagadge may pass, or to cutt tries to shutt up a pasadge of o sodaine, or to make even places when otherwise but with greate difficultie youe can pass them, thies are necessary per∣trechos, for not knowinge when occasion may offer to have neede of them, and speciallie pasinge troughe a foraine country.

In occasiones of marchinge the Sardgente mayor is to make the devitiones, and ordaine where each Captaine shall leade, and in such maner that each Captaine shall take his turne, meaninge that the Page  53 Captaine or Captaines that did leade this day the Musketteria shall to morowe leade the Arcabuseros, that did followe and another day the pikes, and another day the Arcabuseros of the rergarde, and soe fall a neowe and be his turne take possession of the vantegarde and reregarde as his turne shall fall: And it is inogh to ordaine this on∣ce, and let each one unconfusedlie be his turne take place of the van∣gard, rergard, and battell.

Pasinge trough any cittie or place where any danger mighte by su∣spected▪ In the devitiones of the shott and pikes greate industrie and consideration is to by used, youre shott are to marche in goode or∣der, and not confusedly, and be noe meanes to let none miss his ranc∣ke, givinge order to all the shott to lighte theyr matches, and to by redy of a sodaine if neede require, and otherwise where theyre is no∣thinge suspected, one or two matches in every ranck may serve, it vvere not amiss to have no more bagadge then neede shoulde re∣quire, and not to permitt the Souldieres to putt theyre musketes in vvagones as often times they doe, and in ofringe occasion to serve with them, it hapened that trough this bad custome many are of no service vvith the barreles, and lokes of theyr musketes brocken, soe that in time of moste neede they wante.

It is moste necessarie that the Sardgente mayor and Captaines by curiouse to see many faultes redresed, and that the Souldieres be well provided of all necessaries, in as muche as can by posible and speci∣ally the shott to by well furnished with bulletes, at least twenti five, and in no case to faile in this: The Captaines and Alferises, are to goe bravelie armed with complet corseletes, and let no Captaine not Alferis monte a horsebacke till all the devitiones of shot and pikes are well ordered, and when all the bagadge is readie, and that the Ma∣ster de campe doe pass to the Vangarde.

Then havinge all thinges in order; in amile distance from the quarter the Sardgente mayor shall step into the vangarde, and give order to the Captaines to goe a horsebake and not before, as alsoe the Alferises and other particular persones, the Alferises recomendinge theyre culoures to theyre a vanderadose, and the Captaine or Cap∣taines that are of the vangarde shall permitt noe Souldieres to pass but such as have order in vvritinge for the same from the Generall or Master de campe generall or ordinary Master de campe, and the Cap∣taine that goeth in the rerergarde shall take a speciall care to permitt none to tarie behende, but rather cause them to stepe forwarde to Page  54 theyre rankes. That alsoe no boyes nor sutleres by permitted to stay behinde for some of purpose doe stay to no goode entende, but to stea∣le robb and spoyle the poure enhabitantes goodes, vvhiche is a thin∣ge not to by permitted: And such sutleres and other unrulie factione∣res as are given to this base and odiouse acte, are to be severelie puni∣shed in publicke. Wherof speciall care oughte to be taken for many respectes.

Before youe marche the Captaine de campana and all the sutleres and amunition vagones are all to by drawen oute of the quarter, or∣dayninge those that shall garde them. And then consideration is to be taken of the maner who to march with the amunition and bagad∣ge vvhich is, that if it by knowen that the enemy is to by feared in the vangarde, on the way vvhere yove are to pass, let the bagadge by pla∣ced in the rerewarde, and if contratie yove have intelligence to feare the enemy in the rerewarde yove are to pass the bagadge to the van∣garde. And if on the righte side, to conducte it to the leefte, and if on the leifte side transporte it to the righte; And in this maner the army beinge smale or greate it shall be a vvall and defence to the a muni∣tion and bagadge. And this don by alwayes provided and ordered in due time, for otherwise it vvere a greate miss if sodaine occasion shoulde represente, and that the enemy of a sodaine shoulde fall up∣pon, and chardge on yove; Douptless it vvere a greate let and dan∣ger if yove were not provided and well ordered: To prevente the su∣daine incursiones and stratagemes of the enemy theyre oughte to by sente certaine lighte horse to scoute, and revewe before a certaine distance: soe beinge advertised before the enemy a proache, all thin∣ges necessarie may by prevented in due time.

The Furiell mayor or Quarter-master with the reste Furielles are to marche all at once and not otherwise, for to make the quarter in due time. For If otherwise they goe they may use fraude and villany in spoylinge the Villadges and poure enhabitantes, to whome all equi∣tie, justice, and goode examples are to be ministred, for many goo∣de respectes. Some Souldieres of litle honor and reputation some times in theyre marche to ease them selves doe breake theyre pikes or leave the same behinde, of suche base fellowes the Sardgent mayor is to take a speciall care to see them severelie punished in publike, ex∣cepte it be one that is sicke or hurte, of vvhich persones he is present∣lie to give enteligence to theyr Captaines, and see that order be tac∣ken to save them.

Page  55In ocasiones of marchinge, the Sardgent mayor is to order, and make his devitiones when he thincketh that all the Souldieres of his Regimente are gathered; and comenge to a conveniente place to fra∣me a squadron of them, of whate forme he thincketh beste. And when he cometh within a mile to the quarter vvhere he is to lodge with his Regimente, he is to step forwarde to see whiche is the fiteste place to frame a battell; As alsoe to revewe the sallies and entries of the quar∣ter.

The Quarter-master is to receive him, and sheowe howe and whe∣re the Regimente shall be lodged, As alsoe the fiteste place for the embattellinge of his Regimente, and after the squadron is framed, he is to a pointe the Companies that shall be on the watch that nigh∣te, if on the generall a munitiones, or Master de campe, or elsh whe∣re, let him see that ther by no empedimente in the place vvhere he choiseth to be more fit for the framinge of his squadron; Alsoe he is to be verie carefull and diligent in ordaininge the necessarie places for the watches, and he shall a pointe gardes a goode distance from the quarter; Soe that the enemy of a sodaine doe not fall uppon him, of which for many respectes greate consideration oughte to by taken and prudenrly prevented.

He is to procure with the Master de campe to cause avando or proclamatiō to by beaten for the observationes in passinge the wour∣de in march, battel, or eilsh where, and such as do not observe this van∣do to see them severelie punished for this beinge amatter of greate emportance, and wherof greate disorderes and inconvenienses doe resulte often times for not observinge the same: The wourde is to by given be foure persones, that is the Master de campe, Sardgent mayor, and from the Captaine that leadeth the Vangarde, and from him that leadeth the rergarde: And greate speede oughte to by tac∣ken from whence it came and the cause.

For it may be that the enemy shoulde of a suddaine chance to fall on the rergarde, or that some other ocation of emportance may offer; for whiche respectes and many more considerationes this order is to be inviollabbly observed: And let itt with greate speede pass from rancke to rancke in youre march or order.

It is moste necessarie nowe and then to make some altos, or standes to ease the Souldiores, and refresh them with suche sorte of vituales as they cary a longe with them, and specially where theyre is como∣ditie of water, and take a speciall care that some unruly fellowes by Page  56 not permitted to goe oute of the order, and fall aspoylinge the con∣try, neyther there boyes.

The Sardgent mayor is to oversee and informe of all thinges that paseth in his Regimente and give order to the Captaine de campan̄a or borachell to see that his sutleres by well provided with vituales and other necessaries therunto a pertaininge, and to take a speciall care that noe wronge by don unto them. But rather to see severelie punished suche as vvoulde presume to doe them wronge. That ther by they may vvithe amore willinge minde a complish theyre obliga∣tiones in furnishinge them selves with vituales and other comodities, and alsoe the Sardgente mayor is to see that they be well paied for otherwise beinge ill paied and seeinge that there is no justice mine∣stred they will run avvay and give a bad reporte, soe that noe other sutleres shall dare to come, and soe provicion will be vvantinge to the greate discomoditie of the Officeres and Souldiores.

The Captaine de campan̄a is to use discression and concience in seeinge that the sutleres doe fell there vituales with suche concidera∣tion that they may gaine and not overpress the poure Souldior trou∣ghe coveteousnes and griddie deceite, as often times they doe. In thies and many more ocationes if the Sardgente mayor be courious and carefull in a complisinge with his obligationes, hardlie can any thinge pass vvithoute discoverie and redress in due time, for he is a∣principall minister to oversee redresh and remedie many faultes, dis∣orderes and fraudes, and he is in conscience bounde to procure the goode of the poure Souldior, that noe fraude be permitted in decei∣vinge him of his poure meanes.

If the Sardgente mayor be in the filde with his Regimente alitle before the fallinge of the nighte he is to relive the watches soe that the enemy may not discover them cominge nor goinge: but in gari∣son the watches is to be sooner set. In campan̄a aspecial care oughte to be takē that the enemy for cause of oure negligence litle care and pru∣dence do not of asodain fall on us beinge un provided, for to preven∣te such soddaine ocationes it is necessarie that a corpe de garde volan∣te be ordained acertaine distāce towardes the enemy where yove mo∣ste suspecte theyre cominge, which is a greate securitie for that quar∣ter of the campe, but this muste be set at the fallinge of the nighte, and theyre can hardlie any fire be made that the enemy may not dis∣cover yove, they oughte to be verie readie varie and vigilante vvith there armes at hande to fall on the enemy if of asoddaine they be the∣runto Page  57 constrayned, and see if they can finde any conveniente shado∣woe to shelter them; And if perhapes the enemies spies doe knovve or discover vvho oure vvatches are set, and not knovvinge of this vvatch set soe late and soe secrett, it may fall oute that the enemy may fall into theyre handes, for not beinge advertised by there spies of the prevention taken; And fall of a sodaine on them, and give the a larme to the vvhole campe, soe that they may be ready in due time to pre∣vente the enemy his incursiones, and purpose, and at lenghte cause them to retire, in executinge nothinge of theyre designe or desire. For this purpose muste by chosen a Captaine vvho is vvell knovven to by prudente, vigilante, and valerouse, and of a brave and resolute de∣termination: And findinge the enemy brocken, let him in no cse fol∣lovve them any greate distance, for they may prevente him vvith a se∣crett ambuscado, and findinge them pass the ambuscado fall on them on bothe sides, before and behinde, and defeate him: Often times it happened that ravve Souldieres and men of litle consideration doe give a larme vvithoute any occasione, wherfore they are to by adver∣tised not to give any such till they by informed, and vvell assured that it is the enemy, for such as otherwise doe, they are estimed of litle con∣sideration and of a vveake spiritt findinge them selves presentlie a ma∣sed, trustinge to theyre inconsiderate imaginatiō of noe firme groun∣de nor reason figuringe in theyre imagination to have seene this, and that, and of no purpose nor firmenes; Advertisinge that if an alarme be given where occasion doth presente, it is not to pass all the campe in soundinge dromes and trumpetes, but rather verie secretly, and withoute any rumor nor voice and vvith greate silence, joyne, and speedilie put them selves in order; Which orderes the Master de cam∣pe, Generall, or the person that comaundeth shall comaunde to be observed all over: Soe that all thinges by preventeth with better or∣der, and with amore setled minde; and if otherwise the a larme be gi∣ven every vvhere it is harde to knowe in due time, vvhere the occa∣sion is.

The centerie oughte to by verie firme, and seeinge one come let him not stirr, but rather prepare him selfe till he be well informed, and knowinge that it is an enemy then in a prochinge neere and assured, to shoote at him, and to be assured in as muche as may possi∣ble not to miss; And beinge a pikeman he is to let him com under the puiesh of the pike, and then give the a larme, sheowinge him selfe with a valerouse determination, and kill the enemy, or take him, Page  58 and to learne the designe of the enemy, and to whate purpose he was emploied, and then to retire to the nexte adjoyninge cinterie, and from thence to the seconde, and soe from hande to hande till he be sente to the firste garde, and from thence presentlie to advertice the Sardgent mayor, advertisenge that everie cintery shall remaine in his a pointed place, and to be verie varie and vigilante fearinge that othe∣res shoulde followe, and inter of a soddaine findinge conveniente op∣portunitie for theyre purpose: Another thinge is to be considered that some times it doth happen that a spie favorable to us doth come from the enemyes campe to give us inteligence of whate occurreth, which spies are to be received and causinge him to stande or make al∣to till the Officer of the garde by advertised, who is to receive him and presentlie carrie him to the Sardgent mayor, who shall advertice his Master de campe, and withoute delay conducte him to the Superior to inform and sheow him the cause of his cominge.

If be chance the enemy shoulde fall on the pikeman standinge in cinterie, and seeinge that they are of such force, that he can not resi∣ste, let him retire to the nexte cintery shot that he may shoote at them, and give the alarme, and soe by litle and litell retire, and the pikeman shall with all speede goe to the firste watche and give inteligence of the occasion, that they may be readdie in time.

And this order oughte the Sardgente mayor to give that all thin∣ges may be don in order and in due time, givinge alsoe order to the watches and culoures, where they shall 'oyne, and whate they shall doe; soe that withoute delay they shall be founde to be putt in order to fighte as the situation of the place and occasion shall requi∣re.

In all places on the frontier of the enemy where greate suspicion may be feared of soddaine exploites and embuscados of the enemy. In such places, and occasiones, the Sardgente mayor is to give order in the morninge, that noe cintery doe retire till all places of suspicion by visited; and then the cinterie perdue shall retire a litle further in∣wardes: And he is to by examined to see if he did a complish the vigi∣lance, care, and truste referred to the exspectationes of his fidelitie; And findinge his reasones and proofes goode in a complishinge his obligationes, he is wourdie of thankes, and if the contrie be founde, and he beinge founde hiden in some sure place of no danger, nor servi∣ce to rewarde him a cordinge his merit with a publicke reprehension, for not a complishinge his obligation in a place of suche importance; Page  59 and soe shall he be rewarded and imputed be all brave Souldiores which doe hire of his doinges, and pusilanimitie. When inteligen¦ce is had that the enemy are readdie to fall on you, or that any suspicion or a peerance may by of the same, eaverie one oughte to be readdie with theyre armes in hande with a setled minde and brave determination, soe that with the firste alarme they may have no kinde of lett, but presentlie followe theyre leader withoute bea∣tinge Drom or phife or makinge any kinde of rumor, but rather with greate scilence fall in to theyre order.

And concideringe that this is not onelie for the obligationes they owe unto theyre kinge or Prince but alsoe for the safegard honor and securitie of theyre owne persones,

For thies and suche ocationes all honorable Souldiores oughte to by well prepared and specially the shot withe theyre peeces all in areadines with as muche pouder as theyre flaskes can houlde, and twentie five bulletes, soe that in offereinge ocation he shall not caule for pouder and led as some careles and covardlie fello∣wes are vvonte to doe, not beinge vvell provided before hande; litle regardinge the kinges service and theyre owne reputasion; to prevente thies, and suche faultes theyre Officeres ought all∣wayes to see all thinges prevented in due time. Soe that theyre be no escuse.

And suche as woulde not a complish the same in preparinge all necessaries befitinge as ordained for that purpose, to see them re∣prehended, and in case the souldier hase not wherwith to buy thies and other inescusable wantes the Captaine is to helpe him therun∣to, for beinge conveniente for his Majesties service, that the soul∣deres alwayes be well provided and suche as do not obey thies inescu∣sable wantes to give them publike afronte like, covardlie and disobe∣diente fellowes; such Souldieres as are of prudēte cariadge and have a speciall care in acomplishinge with punctualitie theyre obigationes, and in givinge goode examples to otheres to imitate them, unwourdie is the Captaine and Officeres that will not honor futher and assiste thē.

For in thies ocationes we see many brave and honorable Souldio∣res whiche, are wonte ordinarily to carri apice of extraordinary goo∣de match in there pocketes withe the two endes of the same in area∣dines, and rubbed in pouder, that without delay it may kindel fire, and alsoe with a fleaskillo in his pocket with fine and drie pouder for touch pouder, whiche if it were wett and afterwardes dried in aqua vite or in Page  60 gineper oyle or in bothe togither it were verie goode, which beinge well dried, can not miss; And suche Souldieres as are knowen to be cu∣riouse, and punctual in this and many more occasiones.

Theyre Captaines and Officers ought to have a speciall care to ho∣nor, and prefer them a cordinge to the trial of ther valor, care, pun∣ctualitie, and prudence, in givinge goode examples, and sheowinge them selves in all occasiones, and incounteres, vvith a brave and re∣solute determination, vvhiche is a vvonderfull cōforte to theyre Cap∣taine, and puteth him in greate hope of the victorie, and goode suc∣cess, unhappie is the Captaine, and unwourdie of the name that vvill not make knowen to his brave Souldieres his inclined affection towatdes them, and specially in time of moste neede.

In ordaininge the conveniente places for the cinteries both in the fielde and garison. The Sardgente mayor is to use greate discrestion, in oversienge all the circuide and entries of moste importance and danger, (and after viwenge all) he is to a pointe a conveniente place where eache cintery shall by placed a luenge twentie five or fortie pa∣ces betwexte every cintery, some times more, and some times less, as occasion shall require: But in the fielde is there to be a pointed a cin∣terie perdue, or rather call it the contrary (the securitie of the campe) this Cintinel is to be put doble meaninge a pike and a caliver, in a di∣stance of, som o honderth paces litle more or less towardes the ene∣my, and withoute all the other cinteries, in the place or places wher there is moste suspision of the enemy to come. Some houlde an opi∣nion, that this cinterie is not to get the wourde (not soe (for if they see or hire any rumor, or a peerance of the enemy cominge, the pikeman shall repaire vvith speede and tel the nexte cintery vvhate he hath ey∣ther seene or hearde, and if he have not the wourde or contrasena he shall not let him come neere, and this cinterie with speede is to let this pass to the nexte, and soe from hande to hande verie secret and scilent till it come to the nexte adioyninge vvatche or garde, that they may be prevented in time.

Thies cinteries of righte is to be caulled the securitie, of the campe rather then centerie perdue: They are to by chosen of valerouse and setled Souldieres, of goode judgemente and brave determinationes; And when the advise cometh vvith goode securitie to the watch, that the enemy are in armes, or approchinge neere, presentlie the Master de campe, and Sardgente mayor is to be advertised. And they are with speede to advertise the Master de campe generall, in findinge as Page  61 before true relation of the occasion to by suspected of any emportan∣ce. Thies outewarde cinteries are never to retire, but when urgente and assured accasion doe constraine them therunto, in seeinge the enemy a prochinge, (and not before) and untill they reviwe if it be foote or horse. Or if they come in order of squadron or marchinge in single file: After well reviwenge them, let them retire to the nexte cintery, and let the wourde pass very secretly from hande to hand til it come to the next watch, or let the pikeman goe forwarde with neo∣wes and the other stay vvith the firste cintinell til they be constrained to retire to the nexte, and soe retire be litle and a litle, observinge still the enemy, and with whate order they doe marche, and soe fall into theyre owne people, and informe of all of whate they have bothe see∣ne and hearde: And seeinge them come disordered, thinckinge to fall uppon oures of asoddaine beinge a sleepe or in provided. Then oures to turne uppon them with full resolution with the short Dro∣mes and Phises which douptlesse if as before they come, they shall finde them selves pusseled and amased: Thies exploites require pru∣dence, valeor, silence, and brave resolution.

It is necessarie that the Sardgent mayor give order that uppon pai∣ne of deathe none doe presume to give a false alarme vvithoute occa∣sion, excepte it be vvith order of the Superior. And in occasiones of encounteres, skirmises, or assaultes vvith the enemy let the Sardgent mayor give order that none call for pouder but verie silente; for it is a thinge moste odiouse and of litle discretion, that the enemy shoulde knowe of oure vvantes in such occasiones: If neede require the pikes and raperes vvill serve in goode steede, if the Souldiores vvithe brave resolution and determination doe a complish theyre obligationes, for vvhich extremities is required a prudent and brave conductor of a va∣lerouse and resolute determination.

In all occasiones in the filde where the enemy, is to be feared and suspected, the Sardgent mayor is to give order that the outewarde cinteries of oures nexte unto the enemy doe take a speciall care that none doe pass unto the enemy from oure campe; Which is rather to be suspected then if one of the enemy came into oures, for such as run unto the enemy they may be suspected, that they goe with some ad∣vise or secrett intelligence, if such persones can not be killed or tac∣ken, let theyre warninge by presently given to his Captaine, and then presently to the Sardgent mayor who at that instant shall comaund that noe Souldier of the watches who hath the wourde shall be per∣mitted Page  62 to leave the same that night wiche orderes he shall deliver the Sardgentes to deliver theyre Captaines to see the same executed; And in such occasiones the watche wourde is to by changed, and if any bod∣dy by founde absente, of those of the watch let theyre warninge, presēt∣lie be given to the Captaine, for it may be a villaine of a base minde, and that he did goe with some advise to the enemy, and within foure or five dayes after come into oure campe, and give faluse excuses, ho∣pinge to be pardoned, and comitt more villany: In thies occasiones goode heede oughte to be taken.

A verie necessarie thinge it is in a Sardgent mayor to by carefull in seeinge that all the Souldieres of his Regimente be well armed, and that there may be noe escuse in a complishinge theyre obligationes, in escusinge that theyr armes are brocken or a mindinge. All thies and many more may theyre Captaines, and Officeres prevente in time, wi∣thoute troublinge the Sardgente mayor theyrwithall, for he hathe to many other employmentes of greater momente, and as isay thies may be well prevented be theyre Officeres, beinge coriouse and care∣full.

When occasion shall require that the Sardgent mayor woulde have oute of certaine Companies of his Regimente a quantitie of Souldie∣res to be employed, this he is to demaunde of the Capitaines, who is to apointe and ordaine the number demaunded, and not to inter∣midle in takinge them otherwise, for the Captaine is he which is to gi∣ve a compte and reason of the Souldieres of his Company, and the Sardgentr mayor in noe case is to intermidel in takinge them but tho∣se which the Captaine shall apointe, for the Sardgente mayor hath no auctoritie to take them otherwise; Excepte they be on the watch, and that urgente occasion shoulde be offered which requireth greate spee∣de. And in such occasiones the Officer beinge not presente he may take them; and such Souldieres as the Sardgente mayor shall demaun∣de the Captaine is to make no acceptiones, of all such occasiones as a∣re necessarie for his Majesties service: But he is not to intermidle in takinge from any Officer any priviledge a pertaininge to the executi∣ones of his office, which if otherwise he shoulde presume itt is a sini∣ster and odiouse thinge in warr.

Some times it hapened that Pincioneres Gentelmen of the Artille∣rie, and other particular persones are emploied be the Master decā∣pe generall, and by the Generall of the Artillerie, and be otheres, whi∣che are to be permited to pass to deliver theyr mesadge in due time, Page  63 and none ought to trouble or moleste them in there voyadge, excep∣te they be suspected.

The Sardgent mayor is to take care that if his Regimēte in occasi∣ones which mighte happen they breake uppon the enemy, and follo∣we on the victorie, let none in paine of death fall a robbinge the hur∣temen, nor none of the slaughter, which if any Officer finde them in that base acte in such occasiones, may execute this sentence, beinge moste base and odiouse, but rather persue the victorie, and keepe his order as behooveth an honorable Souldier of resolute and noble minde to doe.

In like maner in occasiones to inter per force of armes into any towne citti or stronge place, the Sardgent mayor is to by verie, vigi∣lante, and carefull, that noe Souldier of whatesoever qualitie or con∣dition: be permitted to inter into any house, eyther ro robb or steale till such time as the enemy be wholie vanquised, that no danger nor execution of theyres might be feared, and that till all there furie be paste, and that uppon paine of death, for otherwise they incurr greate danger, some leavinge theyre armes hire and theyre in divers places; of vvhich if the enemy take pocession they may easilie Master them; Of suche blinde ingnorance and covetouse desire of gaine, greate di∣grace may resulte. If the enemy doe secretlie joyne in some secret pla∣ce, and fall unavare in masteringe theyre armes and murder them, which may well fall oute if prevencion be not used as before decla∣red, in suche sorte that the enemy may not come in possession of the honeor gained vvith the lives and losse of soe many brave Soul∣diores.

For the executiones of rare exploites and brave interprises in warr is required prudente and brave conduction, and specially that the Sardgent mayor be moste earneste to exercice the Officeres and Soul∣diores of his Regimente; whiche beinge soe practised in warr, greate expectationes mighte be hoped of them: Beinge exersised in well ma∣nadgeinge theyre armes, observinge theyr order and not stiringe oute of the same when they marche, in knowinge who to fall into squa∣dron, and observe the proclamationes given, and ordained be the Generall, nothinge soe dificill but that contuall use and exercice ma∣keth easie.

Who soever woulde faine be couriouse in the framinge of many sor∣tes of batteles, it is necessarie that he be exercised both in the theoric∣ke and pratike of this arte, and specially to be able in Aritmetick: Soe Page  64 shall he in time bringe his purpose to perfection with greate ease. And let him be carefull in knowinge who to give the orderes to each Officer of whate shall be comended to his chardge, and cause all thingss to be a complished as they were ordained withoute replie, he shall not recall any order given, excepte it be trough goode concide∣ration, neyther shall none be discomodated to put another in his place by favor or affection: Greate consideration oughte to be ta∣ken in choysinge one of befitinge partes for the well executinge of this office, and that be no meanes it be given be favor or affection for many considerationes of emportance. After those of perfection in this arte we loocke dayly and finde feowe, but those of imperfection in multitude.

Some houlde an opinion that in orderes of marchinge and framin∣ge of squadrones the number par, is beste, true it is that this number is good, but in the divitiones to fall oute of youvre march into squa∣dron, let none be ingnorante that they are to marche acordinge as the devition fauleth oute. And for beinge of number par or impar it importeth nothinge, and for the contrariethere is no rule, buth rather conforme vvith the divitiones as they shall fall oute, (which is the true way) for we finde no other reason to the contrarie, neyther had pirho. Kinge of the Epirotes the firste enventor of squadrons, neyther the Romaines, Greeckes, nor Macedonios nor any other na∣tion:

A Sardgent mayor ought not to by ingnorante in framinge and gi∣vinge reasones of all sortes of squadrones, at leaste all suche as ocatiō and situation shall require, of which the Sardgent mayor oughte to be curiouse, and not to err in any thinge that belongeth to his office, and specially in the devitiones and framinge of sundrie sortes of squa∣drones, though many do imagine and supose it needlesse (more then onelie the foure formes.) They are far deceived, for occasiones and situtationes shall offer where neyther of the foure formes will serve: In framinge of batteles the Sardgent mayor is to sheowe him selfe with a setled prudent and brave resolution, and by no meanes permitt any crosinge or confusion in the orderes be him apointed, nor wronge none to take him oute of his rancke for him that came late, soe hittin∣ge uppō the juste devitiones of his shot and pikes, he shal place an Of∣ficer or two as he thincketh beste in the head of each devitiō, and that the Sardgentes doe a complish theyre obligationes in letinge none to stragel, nor fall oute of theyre ranckes; Soe the Sardgent mayor shall Page  61 with ease and brevitie frame his squadron, and without any crossinge or confusion beinge so conveniente.

For each Companie of pikes shall take theyre turne on the watch and soe needeth no contraversie nor confusion. The Master de cam∣pe as a Superior of his Regimente is to choise to march where he pleaseth, and if ther by two Companies of Acabuseos the one is to march in the vangarde, and the other in the rergarde, it is inough that the Sardgente mayor giveth once thies orderes that each one be his turne shall come do optaine his right in occasiones of marchinge, withoute troublinge him any more. But if theyre be more then one Regimente eache of them shall take theyre torne acordinge as they have the vvatche, marchinge firste uppon the righte hande, and soe goe by turne, and shall alsoe be lodged firste, and the reste of the Companies withoute any crossinge or confusion as they come, yea if it were to frame a battell of the whole exercito.

Many goode partes are required in a Sardgent mayor and princi∣pally to be experte in well executinge his office, to observe goode or∣der in march, to prudently finish with expedition his affaires, to re∣prehende and redress disorderes in due time, with prudence and auctoritie, soe shall he be beloved and respected, and moste comon∣lie have goode successes. In the greatest dangeres he is ohcowe him selfe with asetled minde and brave couradge, animatinge the Souldie∣res, sheowinge him selfe with them in all dangeres and extremities, comfortinge, and givinge them goode instructiones and examples, and in the greateste dangeres that shall happen to presence him self with them with a brave and valerouse determination; soe douptles shall he by beloved, feared, and respected by thē. Let him by no mea∣nes be overcomed by disordered a petites but rather be moderate mylde, and faire condisioned, a beitinge o person of soe greate comaunde.

Treatinge of severall sortes of Squadrones.

BIgininge with the rule who to finde oute the square roote of any number, the table pitagorique, a table •• by put in memorie for the framinge of squadrones, for suche as are not experte in Arithmeticke, the table of the proportiones of unequall numberes, and who to frame severall sortes of squadrones, of severall sortes of weapones, and the industrie used for theyre due orderinge and de∣vidinge Page  62 in proportion, acordinge as time, occasion, and situation shall require and permitt.

A square roote is a digit or number whiche beinge multiplied in it self bringethe fourth a square number, as 2 beinge multiplied in it self make the 4. in sayinge two times two make the 4. and so from the number 1. to the number 9. yove shall understande in the table Pita∣gorique, the raise of 1. can not be but, 1. the rayes of 4. is 2. the raise of 9. is 3. the raies of 16. is 4. that of 25. is 5. and soe consequently as in the table folowinge yove may perceive.

To finde oute the square roote of any number be it 〈 math 〉 square or not square, yove muste wourke thus, firste ha∣vinge set downe the number propounded whiche at the leaste muste consiste of 3. figures. Set a prick under the firste digitt of the saied number on the righte hande, that donpricke every other digit or number therof towardes the leiftehande; Havinge alwayes one voyde space or chifer betwext every 2. prickes, as yove see heere don in the number folowinge 946. to finde oute the square roote of this propounded number, yove are to pricke the saied number 〈 math 〉 as before taughte, havinge so don seeke oute one of the 3. digites, whiche beinge multiplied in it self may take a way the chifer 9. that is on the lefte hande, or as muche therof as may by, in sayinge 3. times 3. maketh 9. soe that 3. is the rays of 9. firste chifer of youre propounded number, and restethe nothinge, whiche yove shall put right a bove the 9. soe that yove have wholy don withe the 9. that liethe on the le∣fte hande that don, doble the quotient whiche is 3. and it makethe 6. and set the same in the voide place righte under the figure 4. and seeke oute a digit or number, whiche beinge multiplied in it self may take a way the 4. and say how many times 6. can yove finde in 4. nullo; soe set downe 0. in the quotient right under the 6. that stand the on the righte hande, and say that in plasinge nullo in the quotient yove have don and there restethe 46. that remaineth, soe say that 30. is the square roote of 946. and there remainethe 46. that 〈 math 〉 is not comprehended in the square roote in sayinge mul∣tiply 30. the square roote of 946. by 30. and it will make 900. to whiche 900. a 46. that remaineth, and itt shall a monte the full some of youre propounded number of 946. as by the proofe yove plainely see. In all suche numberes to Page  67 knowe whether yove have dō well or no, multipliy the square roote by it self, to the producte of which multiplication yove are to ad if the∣re by any remainder, and if yove finde the summe therof to be like to youre firste propounded number, yove have don well, and if it be not like yove have errede.

But if suche number doe consiste of many numberes or figures in workēge wherof yove muste doble the quotiēt once, twece, or three∣ce, acordinge as the number dothe require, whiche yove shall more plainly perceive by this example followinge: Presupose that 37424 is the number wherof yove woulde knowe the square roote; to doe the whiche wourke as before taughte, firste prick the 4. that 〈 math 〉 standethe on the righte hande, then fall to pricke the other 4. towardes to lefte hande, and havinge so don pricke the digit 3. that standethe on the lefte hande of all, nowe seeke oute som digit or number, whiche beinge multiplied in it self, takethe a way the laste chifer on the lefte hande, whi∣che is 3. or the moste therof that can be, whiche yove shall finde to by 1. and havinge set downe the saied 1. in the quo∣tiēt say one time one is 1. whiche beinge substracted oute of 3. restethe 2. whiche is to be placed right over the 3. and conzeale the saied 3. that don, double the quotient 1. and it makethe 2. whiche yove are to place righte under the 7 of youre propounded numberin the seconde place towardes the lefte hande, that don say who many times 2 in 27. yove shall finde it to be 9. in sayinge 9 times 2. is 18. oute of 27 restethe 9. whiche yove shall place righte over, and above the 7. in the seconde place on the lefte hande, and in the quotient right under the pricke of the chifer 4 in the 3 place towardes the lefte hande yove shall place 9. havinge soe don, say 9. times 9. is 81. beinge substracted oute of 94. restethe 13. nowe double the 18 in the quotient, and it will be 38. whiche yove shall place under the 9. in the quotient towardes the righte hande, havinge soe don say how many times 38. in 132. that standethe right above it, yove shall finde it to be 3. whiche yove shall place in the quotient under the firste prike on the right hande under the chifer 4. that don say 3. times 3. maketh 9 oute of 13. 〈 math 〉 resteth 4. then say 3. times 8. makethe 24 oute of 42. re∣stethe 18 that don fall to the 3. in the quotiēt and multiply it in it self and it makethe 9. whiche yove shall substracte oute of the producte of youre laste division whiche was 184. and there shall remaine 175. soe that 193. is the square roote Page  68 of the firste number given whiche was 37424 whiche square beinge multiplied in it self is 37249. and the remainder is 175. whiche two partitiones beinge putt togither makethe the firste number of 37424. yove are alsoe to understande that if yove finde any number oute of whiche youre quotiēt beinge doubled and can not be substra∣cted, yove muste set downe a chifer in the quotiēt as yove do in divisiō.

Moste necessary it is for a Sardgent mayor, or who soever doth pretende to be curiouse in the profession of armes, that he be expert in Aritmeticke, and in knowinge who to finde oute the square roo∣te of any number, that he may withe the more facility order devide, and ranke his Souldieres, eyther of greate or smale numberes; yea and of whate soever forme a Sardgent mayor, oughte not to be ignorante, for some times occasion and situation offerethe that neyther of the 4. for∣mes of squadrones are to be used; Wherfore i will set downe the rules, firste for the framinge of the foure formes of squadrones moste a cu∣stomed and moste in use, as alsoe the rules to frame squadrones acor∣dinge to the situation and disposition of the place, and occasiones to fighte, as well of equalities as of inequalities. The 4. formes of squa∣drones moste acustomed and moste in use, is the square of men the square of grounde, bastarde square, and broade square, whiche the Spaniarde caule quadra de gente; quadra de tereno, prolongado, y gran frente.

Gentell Reader, understande that the firste thinge to by understoo∣de in framinge of squadrones, is that the principall boddies of thē are to be framed of pikes, to the whiche are required a certaine quantity of shot, which are to be devided as time situation and occasion shal-require, touchinge whiche divisiones greate consideration and indu∣stry is required in many occurantes of warlike affaires, and it is of grea∣te importance for who so ever takethe this chardge in hande to be per∣fecte in Aritmeticke to facilitate many rare occurrantes of this arte, and specially in the office of a Sardgent mayoyr.

It is to be understoode that the rule whiche is observed in setinge in order or array Souldieres, is that from the shoulder of the one to the shoulder of the other, is required 3. foote or at the moste three and haulf, and from ranke to ranke 7. foote, meaninge from the breaste of the one to the backe of the other. But when occasion shall offer to fighte 3. foote or 3 ½. is i noghe from ranke to ranke meaninge frō the breste of the owne to the backe of the other, and one for his one statiō, soe that he ocupies before and behinde, and for his person 7. foote.

Page  69To forme a squadron square of men, yove shall wourke, as before taughte in findinge oute the square roote which shall serve for fronte and flanke, as by the example folowinge yove shall more plainely un∣derstande, Suppose that yove are to frame a squadron square of men of 464. pikes, to finde oute the square roote of this nūber firste pric∣ke the laste chifer 4. towardes the righte hande, that don, pricke the o∣ther 4. towardes the lefte hande, so that the figure 6. standethe in the midel, nowe fall to the 4. that standethe on the lefte hande, and say the raise of 4. is 2. in sayinge two times two makethe 4. whiche 4 yove are to substracte oute of the 4 that standethe on the lefte hande then conzeale the 4. and plase azero above it, nowe fall to 2. that is in the quotient, and say two times two makethe 4. whiche yove shall place right under the 6. whiche liethe in the mideste of the number given, and say how many times 4 in 6. whiche can be but one, in sayinge 4. times 1. makethe 4. oute of 6. restethe but 2. which 2. yove shall place a bove the 6. and cāzeale the 6. that don fall to 1. that liethe in the quo∣tient under the chifer 4. on the righte hande, and say one time one is 1. oute of 4 that layethe on the righte hande there shall reste 3. whi∣che shall be plased righte over the 4. towardaes the righte hāde, then canzeale the 4. and there shall remaine 23. soe that 21. is youre fronte and flanke, and 23. remaininge whiche shall serve to guarnish the cu∣loures, to se if yove have don well, multiply 21. the square roote in it self, and the producte will by 441. to whiche producte ad 23. pikes, that did remaine, and the som therof wilbe like unto the firste number given which was 464. as by the figure folowinge yove may see.

A battel square of men of 464. pikes whose fronte and flancke is 21.

〈 math 〉

Page  70

Square roote.
11 502500
24 512600
39 522704
416 532809
525 542916
636 553025
749 563136
864 573249
981 583364
10100 603600
11121 613721
12144 623844
13169 633969
14196 644096
15225 654225
16256 664356
17289 674489
18324 684628
19361 694761
20400 704900
21441 715041
22484 725184
23529 735329
24576 745476
25625 755625
26676 765776
27729 775929
28784 786084
29841 796241
30900 806400
31961 816561
321024 826724
331089 836889
341156 847056
351225 857225
361296 867396
371369 877569
381444 887744
391521 897921
401600 918281
411681 928464
421764 938649
431849 948836
441936 959025
452025 969216
462116 979409
472209 989604
482304 999801
492401 10010000

Page  71For suche as are not expert in Aritmeticke i have set downe the a fore saied Table to finde the square roote of any nūber to then thou∣sande, whiche shall healpe muche suche as are not able in Aritmeti∣ke, but suche as are inclined to be perfecte in this noble arte of warr: i woulde wishe them not to wholy truste to this rule for the reasones be∣fore declared; but rather learne to be perfecte in Arithmetike, which is the sureste way.

A Squadron square of men of 361. Souldiers of the whiche 144. are pikes, and 217. musketes.

Fronte of the battel. Square of men.

〈 math 〉
  • 144 Pikes.
  • 48 Musk.
  • 36 Musk.
  • 76 Musk.
  • 57 Musk.
  • 361

Page  72Supose that yove are to frame a squadron square of men of 361. Souldiers of the whiche 144. are pikes and 217. are musketes and that yove woulde have the squadron proportionally lined, every way withe the shott. To wourke the whiche firste take the square roo∣te of the 144. pikes whiche yove shal finde to be 12. and say that 12. is the fronte and flanke of the squadron of pikes, that don take the who∣le number of shott and pikes whiche is 361. oute of the whiche alsoe take the square roote, whiche yove shall finde to be 19. oute of this 19 substracte 12. the square roote of the pikes, and there shall remai∣ne 7. and so yove finde the number that yove demaunde for the girdlinge shott, nowe devide the 7. into two partes and say that yove finde 4 in one parte and 3. in the other, and say that by youre devision yove finde that the firste maniple of musketes is to marche withe 12. rankes of 4. musketes in eache ranke, whiche is for the linenge shot of the right flanke of youre squadron. That don say that also by, youre laste devision yove finde 12. rankes of 3. musketes in eache ranke to guarinshe the liefte flanke of youre squadron, and say that the two flankes of youre squadron are linede, withe shott, meaninge 4. in eache ranke of the linenge of the righte flanke, and 3. in eache ran∣ke of the linenge of the liefte flanke; so the two flankes are lined.

That don, say that 12. the fronte of youre pikes adinge therunto 7. musketes of the linenges of the two flakes makethe 19 and say that in youre laste devision yove finde that 19. rankes of 4. musquetes in ea∣che ranke are to marche for the linenge shott of the vangarde, and al∣soe 19. rankes of 3. musketes are to marche in the laste devision of shott for the linenge of the rergarde of youre battell, as by the figure before and in the devisiones of the same yove see plainely declared, and so youre squadron of pikes is proportionally lined every way in as mu∣che as the devision and number can affourde.

Page  73
A squadron square of men of 576. Souldiers of the whiche 256. are pikes, and 320. musketes devided proportionally as by the figure folowinge yove see.

Fronte of the Battel.

〈 math 〉
  • 256 Pikes.
  • 64 Musq.
  • 64 Musq.
  • 96 Musq.
  • 96 Musq.
  • 576.

For the framinge of all suche squadrones eyther of greate or smale numberes, whiche yove woulde have to be proportionally lined withe shott yove shall wourke in this maner folowinge: Firste take the num∣ber Page  74 of pikes whiche is 256. oute of the whiche take the square roote, whiche is 16. and say that so many pikes shall the fronte and flanke of youre battell containe, and that it is of equall strenghte every way as well, to offende as to defende, and when yove woulde drawe them into squadron, for the more breuity yove may devide the fronte ther∣of into two maniples eache one contayninge 16. rankes of 8. pikes in eache ranke, nowe to proportionally guarnish the same withe the shot take youre full number of pikes, and shot whiche is 576. oute of whiche nūber take the square roote whiche yove shall finde to by 24. that don, substracte 16. the square roote of the pikes oute of 24. the square of the full number of pikes and shot, and there shall remaine 8. this digit devide into two equal partes, whiche is foure in eache par∣te, and say that the squadron of pikes is to be lined every way withe 4. shott as by the devision of the same yove see, meaninge that youre fir∣ste division of shott is to marche withe 16. rankes of 4. musketes in eache ranke, whiche is to line the righte flanke of youre squadron of pikes, and so many more rankes shall marche to line the lefte flanke of the squadron of pikes, meaninge 16. rankes of 4. musketes in every ranke, so the two flankes of youre squadron are lined. That don say that the fronte of youre squadron is 16. and therunto ad 8 the linen∣ge shott of the two flankes, and it wil a monte to 24. To line the fron∣te of youre battell, say that yove are to marche withe 24. rankes of 4. musketes in eache ranke, and so many more for the linenge of the rer∣warde of youre battell as the figure and divisiones shewethe, and soe shall yove finde youre squadron proportionally lined every way; whi∣che by the rule forme, and divisiones of the same yove may plainly un∣derstande This rule will serve to frame all suche sortes of squadrones eyther of greate or smale numberes, whiche yove woulde have to be proportionally lined withe shott, as plainely the figure and divisiones before sheowethe.

In many countries hardly can youe finde the one haulf of there pi∣kes armed withe complett corseletes, soe that this rule will sheowe yo∣ve how to guarnish the unarmed pikes, withe the complett corseletes proportionally every way, advertisinge that the culoures is to marche in the center.

A cross battell of 1416. Souldieres of the whiche 512. are pikes, and 904. musketes, whiche are to be divided into 4 batteles, and li∣ned proportionally on the two flankes, as by the figure and divisiones followinge are reasoned. Page  75 To wourke the whiche, firste take the number of pi∣kes, 〈 math 〉 for eache squadron of the 4. required for youre cross battell. Nowe to youre purpose take the square roote of 128. pikes of youre firste squadron, whiche will be 11. and 7. pikes remaininge, and say that 11. pikes is the fronte and flanke of youre firste battell of pikes, as alsoe of the other 3. batteles, and 7. pikes re∣maininge in eache battell, whiche shall serve to gua∣rinsh the culoures; soe that 11· is the fronte and flanke of eache one of youre 4. batteles of pikes, and 7. pikes remayninge for the linenge of the culoures of eache battell of the 4.

Nowe for the division of youre propounded num∣ber of shott. Double the one flanke of eache one of the 4. batteles of pikes, whiche double will by 88. this 88. the double flanke of the 4. batteles of pikes divide by 904. youre propounded number of musketes, and the number in the quotient will by 10. and 24 musketes remayninge, and say that the two flankes of eache of youre 4. batteles of pikes are to by lined withe 11. ran∣kes of ten musketes in eache ranke as by the figure, and deutiones folowenge yove may playnely see, and wi∣the the observation of this rule withe any other num∣ber eyther greate or smale yove shall withe facility kno∣we how to proportionably divide yovre shott for to guarinsh the two flankes of yovre squadron of pikes.

Thiese cross batteles are esteemed to be wonder∣full stronge consideringe well the framinge therof. It is also of wonderfull safegarde, for the security of the ba∣gadge amunitiones and hurte men, and if the enemy shoulde chance to charge the firste battel, or any of the other 3. whiche beinge a lone are but of litle force. Wherfore consideration oughte to be taken of the stratagemes of the enemy, and withe what order they do marche, and then yove may double or tribele yovre fronte acordinge as occasion shall require and the situation shall per∣mitt. And if the enemy are stronge on horse, regarde oughte to be ta∣ken in due time of the bagadge that it goe deposito, or be twexte the two laste batteles, and for theyr better security in suche ocationes, I woulde cut two rankes of eache of the two laste batteles and therwi∣the Page  76 guarnishe the fronte and regard of the bagadge and also withe shott under the shelter of this guarnison of pikes so that they may be shadowed and defended every way and give a triple fronte to the two laste batteles.

Cross Battell.

〈 math 〉

Severall sortes of armes are manadged in all coutries and in many places hardly can yove finde the one haulf of there pikes armed wi∣the complett corseletes. Wherfore i tought fitt to set downe the rules for the due orderinge in proportion of thiese severall sortes of armes, for beinge moste necessary in many occasiones in warrlike affaires: Put in case yove have 1112. souldieres, of the whiche 260. are unar∣med pikes 316. armed withe complett corseletes, 114. officeres refor∣med and particular persones who are armed withe gilted corseletes, Page  77 and for the linenge shott 422. musketes. Of the whiche number the campe master general, woulde have a squadron square of men to be framed, puttenge the unarmed pikes in the center, proportional∣ly lined every way withe the armed corseltes, and the armed pikes proportionally lined withe the gilted corseletes and officeres refor∣med, as also that the 4. sides of the full battell of pikes to be propor∣tionally guarinshed withe the 422. musketes.

To wourke the whiche firste take 260. whiche is the unarmed pikes oute of whiche take the square roote whiche is 16 and. 4 pikes re∣mayninge, and say that 16 pikes is the fronte and flanke of yovre cen∣ter of unarmed pikes. That don take the full number of unarmed and armed pikes whiche is 576. oute of whiche also take the square roote which will be 24. nowe deducte of this 24.16 the raise or square roote of the unarmed pikes, and there shall remaine 8. this 8. devide into two partes, and it is 4. in eache parte, and say that 16. rankes of 4. cor∣seletes in eche ranke is to guarnish the right flanke of yovre center of unarmed pikes, and so many more for the guarnision of the leifte flanke of the center of the unarmed pikes.

Nowe to proportionally line the fronte of the center say that to 16 the fronte of the center is to be aded 8 of the 2. lininges whiche make the 24. so say that the fronte is to be guarinshed withe 24. ran∣kes of 4. armed pikes in eache ranke, and so is the fronte of yovre cen∣ter and unarmed pikes lined, and the rerwarde is to be guarinshed withe the self same order, imeane 24. rankes of armed pikes of 4. pi∣kes in eache ranke, so the center of the unarmed pikes is proportio∣nally lined every way withe the complet corseletes.

Nowe to line the armed pikes withe the 114. gilted 〈 math 〉 corseletes take the full number of pikes as well armed as unarmed whiche is 690. oute of whiche take the square roote whiche is 26. oute of this 26. the laste rays deducte 24. the square roote of yovre armed and unarmed pikes and there shall reste 2. this 2. devide in∣to two partes whiche will be one, and say that the righ∣te flanke of the armed pikes are to be guarinshed wi∣the onely 24. gilted pikes which iuste ocupies place of one in eache ranke of the flāke and iuste so many more for to guarinshe the leifte flāke of the armed pikes, and say that the two flankes are guarinshed: Nowe youre fronte is 26. and iuste so many gilted pikes are to gua∣rinsh the outewarde side of the armed corseletes, and iuste so many Page  78 for the linenge of the rerwarde so youre squadron is proportionally guarinshed every way, imeane the center withe the armed pikes, and the armed pikes withe the gilted corseletes.

Nowe to devide youre 422. musketes, youe are to take the square roote of the propounded and full number of pikes and shott whiche is 1112. whiche square roote will. be 33. oute of this square deducte 26. the square roote that was of the full number of pikes and there shall remaine 7, this 7. devide into two partes, the one will be 4. and the other 3. and say that by youre devition youe finde that the right flanke of youre squadron of pikes is to be lined, withe 26. rankes of 4. musketes in eache ranke, (that don) say that for the linenge shot of the leifte flanke youre devition yealdethe 26. rankes of 3. musketes in ea∣che ranke so are youre two flankes of the squadron of pikes lined wi∣the shott, nowe withe the two linenges of shott youe finde the fronte to conteyne 33. and say that 33. rankes of 4. musketes is to line the full fronte of the battell of pikes and 33. rankes of 3. musketes in ea∣che ranke is to guarnish the full fronte of the rerewarde, for by the rule of divition and proportion it can not be other wise, so youre unarmed pikes are in the center, proportionally lined withe the cor∣seletes, and the corseletes withe the gilted armor, and the squadron of pikes proportionally lined every way withe the 422. musketes as youe shall see by the figure and devisiones folowinge, advertisinge that in youre devisiones there do remaine 4. unarmed pikes and 14. of the gilted corseletes and five musketes as in the devisiones folo winge youe may see, all whiche are comprehended in the 23. the re∣mainder of youre laste devision, as here folowth declared.

Page  79

A Squadron square of men.

  • 256 Pikes.
  • 64 Cors.
  • 64 Cors.
  • 96 Cors.
  • 96 Cors.
  • 24 Gilt. C.
  • 24 Gilt. C.
  • 26 Gilt. C.
  • 26 Gilt. C.
  • 104 Mus.
  • 78 Mus.
  • 132 Mus.
  • 99 Mus.
  • 4 Pik.
  • 14 Gilt.
  • 5 Mus.
  • 1112.
  • 16 Ran. 16
  • 16 Rank. 4
  • 16 Rank. 4
  • 24 Ran. 4
  • 24 Rank. 4
  • 24 Rank. 1
  • 24 Rank. 1
  • 26 Rank. 1
  • 26 Rank. 1
  • 26 Rank. 4
  • 26 Rank. 3
  • 33 Rank. 4
  • 33 Rank. 3

〈 math 〉

  • 260 Unarmed Pik.
  • 316 Armed Pik.
  • 114 Gilted Corsel.
  • 422 Musketes.
  • 1112
Page  80
Consideringe that many are ingnorante in knowinge the proportion of many sortes of squadrones and unequall numberes toughte necessary to put hire the tabel and rules for the same as hire foloweth.

I Woulde wishe allsuche as do pretende to step forwarde in the no∣ble profeshion of armes, troughe there prudēt cariadge, and goo∣de applicationes, to consider that many goode partes are requi∣red in them, amongste the which we finde it moste necessary that he be expert in aritmeticke, for otherwise hardly can he bringe unto per∣fection the rare curiosities required to the severall executions of the arte of warr. And especially the sundry devisiones of the severall sor∣tes of squadrones, which by dayly triall, and experience, we see that many who are not curiouse nor expert in aritmeticke do err in uerie many ocasiones, and can not compass, nor bringe to iuste perfection withe grace, many rare occurantes in warrlike affaires; and that for the moste parte resultinge of there litle aplicationes in imitatenge the vertouse prudent and approoved souldier; and also troughe the blynde consideration of som, who consideringe that nowe in oure la∣ter warres for the moste parte all electiones goes by favor frindship or affection: yea and uery many by meanes of enteres, so that very ma∣ny do not take the paines in aplieinge them selves in learninge the se∣verall rare curiosities of this arte but rather mocke, and floute at those of rare and curiouse iudgementes by cause that their skill and capa∣citie can not reache in resolvinge the rare and deepe secretes of this arte, after those of perfection in this arte we looke, for those of im∣perfection we finde on every foote: so none oughte to reprehende in absence wherof in presence he is ingnorante.

Proportiones of inequalities is that the battell may be more broade then longe or more in fronte then in flanke.

THiefe proportiones of inequalities is as 2. to 1. that is to say the battel to be two tymes more broade then longe, or more in fronte then in flanke, as is one to thre or 1. to 4. ett. or the bat∣tell to be three times or 4. tymes more broade then longe, or more in fronte then in flanke, or to be 2⅓. or 3¼. more broade then longe or any other suche like proportiones, to whiche effect i put this table and the rules thereunte apertaininge.

Page  81

is as—2to3
1 2/446
1 2/668
1 2/779
1 2/8810
1 2/911
2 2/4410
2 1/7715
2 2/6614
2 3/7717
is as —2to7
3 2/6620
3 1/7722
3 1/8825
3 2/9929
3 3/930
4 1/7729
4 1/9937
4 2/9938
is as —2to11
5 /6631
5 1/7736
5 2/7737
5 2/841
5 1/9946
6 2/6637
6 2/7743
6 2/7744
6 1/9955

To reduce theese fractiones into whole numberes, and to knowe theyr proportion youe are to wourke in this maner folowinge. Firste multiply the whole number by the fractiones denominator, and ad therunto the numerator of the saied fraction, and the proportion is founde, as for example to have the battell to containe so muche and the one haulf more in front then in flanke whiche the 〈 math 〉 Spaniard call tanto i medio; seeke in the table 1½ wher of the whole number is. 1. and the fraction is ½ nowe multiply the whole number 1. by the fraction is De∣nominator 2. and it makethe 2. wherunto youe shallad the saied fractiones numerator which is 1. whiche two adisiones dothe amount 3. and the fractiones denominator is 2. so say it is in proportiō as is 2. to 3. and so muste yove wourke withe all suche num∣beres to knowe the proportion therof, or say that youe will have the battell to be 3 3/3. more in fronte then in flanke, and to 〈 math 〉 finde the proportion say it is as 3. to 10. as in the table yove shall see, and that yove may better understand it wourke as before taughte, firste in multiplienge the vvhole number 3. by 3. the fractiones denominator and it vvill be 9 to this 9. ad 1. vvhiche is the fractiones numerator and it vvill be 10 and say that it is in proportion as 3. to 10. and vvithe Page  82 this observation and rule youe shall knovve in vvhat proportion shall by anny number.

To frame a Battell of 819. Souldieres, whiche shall containe so muche and the one haulf more in fronte then in flanke, whiche the Spaniarde and Italian call de tanto y medio.

〈 math 〉

THe advantadge of grounde goode order, and Military discipli∣ne are suche that troughe the conduction of prudente and bra∣ve Comaūderes smale numberes offten times repulse far grea∣ter numberes, and some times the situatiō and disposition of ground-so faulethe oute, that neyther of the 4. formes of Squadrones can ser∣ve; Wherfore a Sardgent mayor▪ or whosoever undertakethe to by cu∣rious or perfect in this arte, ought to be expert in framinge all sortes of batteles, as well of equall and inequall numberes whatesoever, wherfore i tought fitt to set downe the rules for the framinge of suche batteles

Bigininge with a battell of so muche and one haulf more in front then in flanke, which the Italian calle tanto y metcho; which i supose to by framed of 507. armed pikes, and that the fronte therof containe so muche and the one haulf more in front 〈 math 〉 then in the flanke, to wourke the which put downe the number propounded whiche is 507. pikes, unto which number ad the one haulf of the self number, whiche will be 253 /2. that don, ad bothe numberes and it will a monthe to 760 2/1. oute of whiche take the square roote, which will by 27. and 21. remaininge, and say that 27. is the front of the battell.

To finde oute the flanke take 507. the number of pikes, and divide it by 27. the front, the quotient ther∣of wilbe 18. and 21. pikes remaininge, and say that 18. is the flanke; and the 21. pikes which did remaine oute of youre laste division will serve to guarnishe the culoures, soe that 27. is the front, and 18. the flanke, whiche comethe to the juste propor∣tion of the forme and number propounded, to see if yove have don, well multiply 27. the front by 18. the flanke the product of which Page  83 multiplication, and the 21. which did remaine in youre la∣ste 〈 math 〉 diuision, and if it agrie with the number of pikes pro∣pounded yove have don well, if not yove err, advertisinge that the proportion of the front and flanke muste be ob∣served, the forme wherof yove shall see here followinge, and lined proportionally every way withe the 312. muske∣tes, as yove more plainely may perceive by the figure fol∣lowenge, and by the divisiones of the same.

〈 math 〉

A Squadron of so muche and the one haulfe more in fronte then in flanke.

〈 math 〉
Pikes contained in the boddy of the battell.486 p.
Pikes remaininge to guarnish the culoures.021 p.
The lineng shott of the righte flanke.057 m.
The lininge shott of the leifte flanke.057 m.
The lininge shot of the full fronte.099 m.
The lininge shot of the front of the reere.099 m.
 819 m.

Page  84
A Squadron of so muche and one thirde parte more in fronte then in flanke.

〈 math 〉
  • 208 pikes.
  • 2 pikes.
  • 42 musk.
  • 42 musk.
  • 88 musk.
  • 66 musk.
  • 12 musk, remaininge.
  • 1 1/ 460.

SOme times occasion and situation may offer to frame a squadron of so muche and one thirde parte more in front then in flanke, whiche the Spaniarde Caule tanto y un tercio, whiche i supose to be of 460. Souldieres of the whiche 210. are pikes and 250 musketes, and consideringe that asargent mayor or any perfect souldier oughte not to be ingnorant in the framinge of all sortes of squadrones as tyme occasion and situation shall require, wherfor i tought Page  85 fitt to set downe the rules for the framinge of any suche or semblable sortes of batteles, nowe biginenge withe the aboue nūber. To wourke the whiche firste take the propounded number of 210. pikes, that don devide it by 3. the quotiente wherof will by 70. this 70. the 3 parte of the propounded number, ad to it the propounde nūber of pikes and it wilbe 280. oute of whiche take the square roote whiche wilbe 16. and 24. remainenge and say that 16. is the fronte of youre battell; that don, to finde oute the flanke devide 210. the propounded number of pi∣kes by 16. the fronte, the quotiente wherof will be 13. and two pikes remainenge, and say that 13. is the flanke and 16 the fronte and two pikes remayninge, to see of youe have don well, multiply the fronte by, the flanke addinge to the producte of youre multiplicatiō the remain∣der, and if it agrie withe youre propounded number of pikes it goes well.

Nowe for the devition of youre propounded number of short whi∣che is 250. musketes take the whole number of short and 〈 math 〉 pikes, whiche is 460. and divide the same by 3. whiche quo∣tient youe shall finde to by 153. and one remaininge, nowe thiese 153. the quotiente of youre laste devision of the pro∣pounded number of 460. the producte of whiche 2. adi∣tiones wil by 613. that don take the square roote of 613. which will by 24. the fronte of the number, nowe to finde oute the flanke, take youre principall number of pikes and shott whiche is 460. whiche youe are to devide by 24. the square roote of 613. and the number in the quotiente will be 19 and 4. remayninge and say that 24. is the fronte and 9. the flanke, that don deducte 13. the flanke of youre squadron of pikes oute of 19 the laste flanke and there shall remaine 6. this 6. divide into two partes and yove shall fin∣de 3. in eache parte, and say that the firste division of shott is 14. ran∣kes of 3. musketes in eache ranke comprehended one ranke of 3. musketes for the lininge of the culoures of the righte flanke of youre squadron of pikes, and say that the leifte flanke or side of youre bat∣tell of pikes are to be lined withe the self same order i meane 14. ran∣kes of 3. musketes in eache ranke; soe is the two flankes of youre bat∣tell of pikes proportionally lined withe musketes. Nowe to finde oute the shot that will line the fronte and rerwarde of youre battell of pi∣kes deducte 84. musketes the lininge shott of the two flankes oute of 250. the full number of shott, and there will remaine 166. muske∣tes theese 166. divide by 22. the full fronte of youre pikes of the two Page  86 linges the quotient of whiche wilbe 7. this 7. divide into two partes the one will be 4. and the other of 3. and say that the guarnison of mus∣ketes that is to line the fronte is 22. rankes of 4 musketes in eache ranke, and 22 rankes of 3. musketes for the linenge of the rerwarde, so is youre battell proportionally guarnished or lined every way, ad. vertisinge that 12. musketes remainethe oute of youre division vvhi∣che vvill serve for to guarinsh the culoures, so vvithe this observation and rule youe may divide youre shott of any other suche semblable battelles.

Advertisinge that tvvo pikes, vvhiche dothe guarnish the culou∣res are above the number the devision of the battell yealdeth, vvhi∣che at leaste are to be taken oute of some ranke for that inescusable purpose to guarinsh the culoures, as also to be rekoned but once in theire firste division; so that in all squadrones when in the divisiones of theire pikes and shott, shall not reste the conueniente number re∣quired for the due lininge of the culoures, then of force must that number be taken oute of some parte of the battell, advertisinge that this number so taken is not to be rekened but once, and that is vvhe∣re theire first division sheovveth, as declared in the tabell of the bat∣tell, vvhich is the true observation, and explication of the divisiones bothe of the pikes and shott. So is it to by vnderstoode that the num∣ber takē oute of thies divisiones for the culours the battell shall con∣taine so many above the number alued in theire firste division, and so for not to err, the divisiones of the table are to be observed for bien∣ge infallible, and for cause that moste comonly of force order and ar∣ray muste be broken to orderly place the culors in the center as also to guarnish them vvithe the conveniente pikes and shott.

Page  87
A Squadron of two times more in fronte then in flanke.

〈 math 〉

TO finde oute the fronte and flanke of any number of pikes, whi∣che yove woulde have to be two times more broade then longe or more in fronte then in flanke, whiche i supose at this instant to be 1008. of the vvhiche 520. are pikes and 488. muske∣tes, 〈 math 〉 firste take the propounded number of pikes whiche is 520· and multiply the same by 2. the producte will by 1040. nowe oute of this producte take the square roote, whiche wilbe 32, and 16. remaininge, and say that 32. is the fronte of youre battell of pikes, nowe to finde oute the flanke, take the propounded number of pikes, whiche is 520. This 520. divide by 32. the fronte, and the number in the quotient will be 16. and 8. pikes remaininge so yove founde oute the fronte and flanke, meaninge that 32. is the fronte, and 16 the flanke, and 8. pikes remaininge, in youre laste division, whiche will serve to guarnish the culoures, withe the observation of this rule, yove may frame a bat∣tell of pikes eyther of smale or greate numberes, and of whate forme yove will have the same to conteine of 3. times 4. times or 5. times more in fronte then in flanke in multi∣plyinge the propounded number of pikes by the propor∣tion therof, if yove woulde have it containe 3. times more in fronte then in flanke multiply youre propounded number of pikes by 3. if yove woulde have it to containe 4. times more in fronte then in flan∣ke multiply it by 4. and in wourkinge as before taughte yove shall fin∣de oute the fronte and flanke, and there juste proportion; for the im∣palinge shott i have spoken of in other forme of squadrones, but for suche as woulde be curiouse and experte, is required greate considera∣tion to be had for the severall sortes of divisiones of shott, as time oc∣casion and situation shall require, and it is moste necessary for him that undertakethe this chardge in hāde to by expert in Arithmeticke, and so withe continuall practice shall he withe greate facility bringe to juste perfection all the divisiones befitenge for this purpose, and let none be ingnorante but that for the severall and rare curiosities of the divisiones of shott is required muche practice, and specially in Page  88 Aritmeticke, whiche is the principall fundament in reducenge thees devisiones into there iuste perfection, alwayes consideringe of tyme occasion and situation, as also of afore caste prevention againste the stratageames and orderes of youre enemy.

A Squadron square of men of 3024. Souldieres of 〈 math 〉 the whiche 1764. are pikes, and 1260. musketes divided into severall maniples, and troupes to marche that they may fall into battell presently when occasion is offered as by the figure and divisiones folowinge set dow∣ne, and for suche as have not intered into the deepe judgement and practice of this arte. I will here set downe the order of there divisio∣nes, firste take the propounded number of pikes, whiche is 1764. oute of the whiche take the square roote, whiche will by 42. the whiche is the fronte and flanke of youre pikes. That don take the full number of youre shott, whiche is 1260 and divide this by 42. the flanke of the propounded number of pikes, and the number in the quotient will by 30. That don divide 30 the quotient into two equall partes, and youe shall finde the haulfe therof to be 15 so say that 15. shot comes under the shelter of eache pike of youre flanke for the guarnison of the same, I meane to eache of the two flankes, for triall wherof multi∣ply 42. the flanke of the pikes by the quotient of youre laste devition whiche was 30. and the producte will by the iuste number of shott propounded, And that youe may the more easy perceive thiese devi∣siones I will set them downe in breefe as heere folowinge youe may see.

The firste division is 42. rankes of five musketes in eache ranke whiche shall marche in the vangarde of the divisiones of youre marchinge whiche mōted.210 musketes.
The seconde division of youre squadron is 42. ran∣kes of 7. pikes whiche folowes the firste division of mus∣ketes and monteth.294 pikes.
The thirde diuision that folowes the seconde shall marche withe 42 rankes of 7. pikes in eache ranke whi∣che monteth.294 pikes.
The fourthe division shall by of 42. rākes of mus∣ketes of 5. in eache ranke monteth.210 pikes.
The fifthe division shall marche withe 42. rankes of pikes of 7. pikes in eache ranke whiche monteth.294 pikes.
The sixte division is 42. rankes of musketes of 5. Page  89 musketes in eache ranke whiche is the laste division of shott of the vangarde and linenge shott of the right flanke of the squadron of pikes whiche monteth.210 musketes.

So are the pikes and shott of the vangarde divided and the reste of youre shott and pikes are divided as folowethe.

The firste division of the rergarde is divided into 42. rankes of 5. musketes in eache ranke whiche shall marche in fronte of the linēge shott of the liefte flan∣ke of youre battell whiche monted.210 musketes.
The seconde division of the reregarde is 42. rankes of 7. pikes in eache ranke whiche monted.294 pikes.
Vhe thirde division of the rergarde is divided into so many more rankes.294 pikes.
The fourthe division of the reregarde is 42. rankes of 5. musketes in eache ranke the firstwinge of shot of the lefte flanke of the battell of pikes.210 musketes.
The fifthe division is 42. rankes of 7. pikes in eache ranke monteth.294 pikes.
The sixte division of the rergarde is divided into 42. rankes of five musketes in eache ranke for the se∣conde winge of shott of the liefte flanke.210 musketes.

If youe woulde have the one haulf of youre shot to marche by them selfes in the vangarde of the pikes as comonly many do, youe may withe ease and breuety in observinge the same divisiones and withoute breakinge of any rāke, in onely co∣mandinge that the firste 3. divisiones of shott do marche in the vant∣garde, and then cause all the divisiones of pikes to folowe, observen∣ge there order as before set downe, plasinge the culores in the cen∣ter, and after them in therergarde to marche the other 3. divisiones of shott which is for the lininge of the liefte flanke and observinge their order as before spoken of.

Page  90

  • 1764 pikes.
  • 1260 musk.
  • 3024. men.

〈 math 〉

Page  91
By the figure followinge youe see the saide divisiones fall oute of theire marche in to battell, and proporsionally lined on the two flankes with the 1260. mus∣ketes, as by the divisiones of the same, and the figure followinge youe may see as the table of the divisiones of the battell hire folowinge sheoweth.

YOue shall understande that in the division of the pikes there did remaine nothinge, and for bienge inescusable to guarinsh the culoures withe pikes and shott, i cutt of the fronte of the battell one ranke which containes 42. pikes and 30. musketes, of thies pikes 20. shall guarnishe the two flankes of the culoures and the other 22 pikes shall by imploied for other purposes, and the 30. mus∣ketes with other 30. that are to be taken oute of the battell shall gua∣rinsh the culoures, so for suche as for curiositie woulde confronte this rekoninge it is necessary they knowe the diference is that 60. mueketes are to by taken oute of the battell to guaruish the culoures as before declared. Which are to be rekoned but once for otherwise there shall by 30. musketes diference.

The pikes contained in the boddy of the battel.1722. p.
The pikes that doth guarinsh the culours.20. p.
Pikes employed in ocasiones of service.22. p.
 1764. p.

  • 1764 pikes.
  • 1260 musketes.
  • 3024 men.
    Table of the battell.
  • 210 musketes.
  • 294 pikes.
  • 294 pikes.
  • 210 musketes.
  • 294 pikes.
  • 210 musketes.
  • 210 musketes.
  • 294 pikes.
  • 294 pikes.
  • 210 musketes.
  • 294 pikes.
  • 210 musketes.
  • 3024 men.

Page  92


  • 1764 pikes.
  • 1260 musk.
  • 3024.
Page  93
A battell square of men whiche ocupies place of 694. men in which battell goes avoide center which ocupies oume of 49. men apointed for the safe∣tie of hurte men and amunitiones, or for vnarmed men and bagadge.

The emptie center.49 men.
Unarmed pikes.121 pik.
Armed pikes or Corseletes.172 Cors.
Musketes.352 mus.

THe emptie center for hurtemen amunition and bagadge ocu∣pies plase of 49. in fronte and allsoe in flancke whose fronte and flanke is 7.

The firste division of unarmed pikes that lines the right flanke of the uoide center shall be devided into 7. rankes of 3. unarmed pikes in each ranke.21 pikes.
The seconde division of the unarmed pikes shall al∣soe marche withe 7. rankes of 3. pikes in each, to guar∣nish the left flanke of the voide center.21 pikes.
The thirde maniple of unarmed pikes that shall line the front of the center shall be divided into 13. rankes of 3. pikes in eache39 pikes.
The fourthe maniple of the unarmed pikes that shall march to line the rergarde of the center divided into 13 rankes of 3. pikes in eache ranke.39 pikes.
The first division of armed pikes shall be divided in∣to 13. rankes of 3. corseletes to line the right flanke of the unarmed pikes.39 corselet.
The second division of corseletes that doe line the left flanke of the unarmed pikes is divided into 13. ran∣kes of 2. corseletes in each.26 corselet.
The thirde division of corseletes that shall line the front of the vnarmed pikes shall be divided into 18. rankes of 3. corseletes in eache.54 corselet.
The fourthe division or maniple of corseltes that shall line the rergarde of the unarmed pikes shall be di∣vided Page  94 into 18. rankes of 2. corseletes in eache ranke.36 cors.
In the divisiō of the armed and unarmed pikes there did remaine 18. pikes of the whiche 17. are corseletes.18

THe division of the 352 musketes of the siyed squadron to line the battell proportionally everie way shall be divided in this maner folowinge, the rules bothe for this division, as also for the divisiones of the drie pikes and corseletes. I will set downe af ter this.

The firste division of shott of the saide squadron shall march in the vangarde withe 18. rankes of 4. mus∣ketes in each ranke for the lininge of the right flanke of the battell of pikes monteth.72 mus.
The seconde division of the uangarde shall marche withe 18. rankes of 4. musketes in each ranke for the linenge shott of the lieft flanke of the squadron.72 mus.
The first division of shott of the rergarde shall be di∣vided into 26. rankes of 4. musketes in each ranke for to line the front of the battell.104 mus.
The second division of shott of the rergard shall be divided into 26. rankes of 4. musketes in each ranke which shall line the rergarde of the battell.104 mus.
 352 mus.

Table of the Battell.

〈 math 〉

Page  95I Do not doubpte but many who have not longe pra∣ctised 〈 math 〉 in the framinge of squadrones, and that are not skilfull in the severall divisiones of the same, and in particular suche as are not able in Arithmetike, will in the begining finde greate difficulte in well orderinge and dividinge in proportion thiese batteles withe centeres, and lined every way pro∣porsionally withe sundrie sortes of weapones. Wherfore i tought fit to set downe in writinge the maner of theyre severall divisiones. To wourke the whiche yove muste bigin withe the center; Then withe the divisiones of youre unarmed and armed pikes, and then withe the divisiones of youre shott to see how they fall to line the squadron of pikes in proportion as hire folowethe.

To wourke the whiche, firste bigin with 49. youre propounded number for the voide center, and demaunde for the square roote of 49. whiche is 7. so youe finde that 7. is the front and flanke of the void center, that don say that youre voide place or center ocupies 21. foote in front and 49. in flanke, then place downe 49. the center and 121. the unarmed pikes whiche two adisiones, will amont to 170. oute of whiche take the square roote which is 13. and say that 13. is the front of the vnarmed pikes withe the voide center, that 〈 math 〉 don substract 7. the front of the center oute of 13. the front of the center and unarmed, and youe shall finde that 6. remaniethe, this 6 divide by 2! and the quotient will be 3. so say that by youre division youe finde that 3. unarmed pi∣kes comes to the linenge of the center everie way, beginenge firste wi∣the the right flanke of the center which is 7. and say the linenge of pikes of that flanke is 7. rankes of 3 pikes in eache ranke, and iuste so many more rankes for the linenge of the leift flanke of the center, conteinenge 21. pikes in each linenge, so by youre division youe fouu∣de the 2. linenges of pikes of the 2. flankes of the center. Nowe say 7. the front of the center and 6 the 2. linenges of the same maketh. 13. the front of the center and 2. lininges, nowe say that the thirde mani∣ple of unarmed pikes that shall line the front of the center and the 2. linenges of the same, shall marche witth 13. rankes of 3. drie pikes in each ranke, so the 2. flankes and front of the center are linde: that don say that the 4. maniples of unarmed pikes are to be divided into 13. rankes of 3. pikes in each ranke for to line the rergarde of the Page  96 void center, and say that the center is proportionally lined everie way withe the unarmed pikes, and that one unarmed pike did remaine in youre laste division.

Nowe to divide the armed pikes, to line the unarmed proportio∣nally every way, take the full number of the center, of the unarmed, and armed pikes propounded, which 3. partisiones dothe amonthe 342. that don take the square roote of this number which wilbe 18. and resteth 18. of the which 17. are armed pikes and 1. 〈 math 〉 unarmed, nowe substract the square roote 13. oute of the square roote 18. and there shall reste 5. this 5. divide and say that 3 comes to line one way, and 2. armed pikes the other side of youre unarmed pikes; then say that the firste division of armed pikes that shall line the right flanke of the unarmed, muste march withe 13. rankes of 3. armed pikes in each ranke which dothe amonth to 39. so say that the right flanke of the unarmed is lined with corseletes, nowe in the seconde division of corseletes shall march 13. rankes of 2. armed pikes or cor∣seletes in each rancke to line the leifte flanke of the unarmed as by youre division so fallethe oute, nowe say that the 2 flankes of the unarmed pikes are lined with the corseletes. Then in the third division of the corseletes shall march 18. rankes of 3. corseletes in each ranke for the linenge of the full front of the unarmed pikes, and cēter. That don cause the fourth division or maniple of corseletes to marche wi∣the 18. rankes of 2. corseletes in each ranke for the linenge of the rer∣garde of the battell so say that the voide center is proportionally lined withe the unarmed pikes, and the unarmed withe the corseletes, and that there did reste 18. pikes whiche shall serve to guarinsh the cou∣lors in the center, advertisinge that 17. are corseletes and 1. unarmed pike all which diuisiones youe se ordered as by the figure followinge apeereth; nowe to divide youre propounded number of shott which was 352 musketes take the full number of the center of the armed and unarmed pikes, as also of the musketes whiche will amonte 694 oute of whiche take the square roote whiche will by 26. oute of whiche substracte 18 the square of the center of the armed and unarmed pikes, and there shall reste 8. this 8 divide into two par∣tes and eache parte will by 4 and say that to guarinshe the righte flan∣ke of the squadron of pikes youe are to marche withe 18. rankes of 4. musketes in eache ranke, and withe iuste so many more shall youe guarnishe or line the leifte flanke of the full number of pikes, nowe to Page  97 finde oute the lininge shott of the frōte and rerwarde, say that adinge to 18. the fronte of the pikes 8 of the two linenges of the two flan∣kes it makethe 26. and then say that to guarinshe the full fronte youe are to marche withe 26. rankes of 4 musketes in eache ranke, whiche is the lininge shott of the fronte, and iuste so many more rankes shall guarnishe the rerwarde of the battell of pikes meaninge 26. rankes of 4. musketes in eache ranke and so is youre battell proportionally lined every way as the figure and divisiones folowinge sheowethe.

Page  98

A Squadron square of men withe a voide center.

Front of the Battell.

Table of the Battell.

〈 math 〉

Page  99


A battel square of men framed of six nationes, and who they shall un confused∣lie fall into battell withe grace and brevitie, dividinge to each nasion his par∣te of the vangarde, acordinge the number of men they give in relasion, as by the figure folowinge are orderly divided, to fall into battell of a soddaine withoute any crossinge or cōfusion, with the ensignes of each nation in the center of their pikes.

THe enemy aproachinge and understandinge that they are resol∣ved to give battell, the campe Master generall knowinge of the prudent brave conduction, and resolute determination of the Spaniard, Italian, Irishe, Englishe, Borgonones, and Valones, comaun∣deth that there shoulde be chosen oute of thiese nationes to the num∣ber of 10000. of chosen men of tried valor and full resolution givenge order that a battell square of mē shoulde be framed of the saied 10000. men, and for feare of confusion or contrauersie in tyme of fallinge in∣to squadron, he give the order that the Italianes shoulde folowe the Spaniardes, the Irishe to folowe the Italianes, the Englishe to folo∣we the Irishe, the Borgonones after the Inglishe and the Valones to folowe, the Burgonones, and that eache natiō shoulde folowe one ano∣ther as before declared withe the fronte and flanke that toucheth eache nation acordinge to the number of men they give in ralation, that withe grace and brevity and withoute any crossinge or confusion eache nation may fall into squadron of a sodaine, and that eache na∣tion may have his parte of the vangarde acordinge to the number of men he givethe in relation. To wourke the whiche i tought fit to set downe the rules for the divisiones of theese nationes, as here foloweth.

Page  100Firste take the full number of pikes given in relation by the saide six Nationes, which is 5500. oute of whiche take the square roote, whiche is 74. the fronte and flanke of the battell, and 24. pikes remaininge, whiche shall serve to guarnishe the culoures. That done bigin to guarnishe or line the two flankes of the battell of pikes withe short aleowinge five shot under the shelter or defence of eache pike, whiche is the moste that can conveniently be defended under the same. To finde oute the linenge shott of the righte flanke of the battell of pi∣kes, as before ordained, multiply 74. the flanke by 5. and the produ∣cte will by 370. and say that the linenge shott of the right flanke is 74. rankes of 5 musketes in eache ranke, and say that the righte flanke of the battell of pikes is lined withe shott. To guarnishe or line the leifte flanke of the battell of pikes, also say that it is 74. rankes of 5. muske∣tes in eache ranke whiche makethe 370. musketes, and say that youre two flankes of the battell of pikes are lined, nowe to knowe the short that shal guarnishe the full fronte of the pikes, and of the two lininges of the 2. flankes, ad 10. the musketes of the 2. lininges to 74. the fronte of the pikes, and it makethe 84. the full fronte, then say that the divi∣sion of shott that shall line or guarnishe the full fronte is to mar∣che withe 84. rankes of five musketes in eache ranke, and 〈 math 〉 iuste so many more rankes shall marche in the fourte divi∣sion of shot that shall guarnish the full fronte of the rere∣warde, advertisinge that eache division of the two last that lines the fronte and rerwarde conteines 420. musketes in eache, so that the full number of shott of the afore saied 4. divisiones that shall line the two flankes fronte and rer∣warde dothe a mounte to 1590. musketes, comprehen∣ded 10. musketes for to guarnish the coloures, thiese 1590. musketes deducte oute of the propounded and full number of musketes whiche is 4500. and there shall re∣maine 2910. musketes whiche i divide into 30. troupes whiche comethe to 97. musketes in eache troupe, the whi∣che 30. troupes is divided in the 4. angles and two flankes of the battel as by the figure and divisiones folowinge youe may better perceive, where all is ordered and set downe, and withe as greate facility as the divisiones can affourde, that there by suche as are not experte in arit∣meticke nor in the theorike and practike of this arte may the sooner conceive the same.

Page  101


〈 math 〉

THe full number of shott of the saied six nationes monted. —

Oute of whiche is to be de∣ducted the divisiones of the 4. linenges.

So that after deductinge the linenge shott of the 4. frontes of the battell of pikes resteth 2910. m. Whiche is divided into 30. troupes at 97 m. in eache troupe, whiche are divided in the 4 angles and two flankes of the battell of pikes as by the fi∣gure and divisiones folowinge ordered and proportionally di∣vided. Advertisinge that oute of one of the troupes of mus∣ketes of the angles youe are to take 10. musketes to guarnishe the culores.

Page  102
The divisiones of the pikes and the order wherewithe each nation shall marche to fall into battell withe grace and brevety.

BY the divisiones of the pikes before spoken of in dividinge 74. the flanke of youre squadron of pikes be 1040. the number of pikes the Spa∣niardes gave, yove shall finde the number in the quo∣tiente to by 14. and 4. remayninge and say that the Spaniardes are to marche withe 74. rankes of 14. pi∣kes in eache ranke whiche is the order they are to ob∣serve when occasion offerethe to fall into squadron withe there coloures in the center of there pikes, ad∣vertisinge that there restethe 4. pikes oute of there division.14 front.- 4.
The Italianes who gave relation of 888. pikes is divided by the self same rule into 74. rankes of 12 pi∣kes in eache ranke, and in offeringe occasion withou∣te any crossing or confusion shall fall into battell wi∣the this order, and close uppon the leifte hande of the Spaniardes withe the culoures in the center, and con∣forme them selves with the Spaniardes in fronte and flanke.12 front.
The Irish who gave relation of 946. pikes, shall be divided into 74. rankes of 12. pikes in eache ranke withe theyr culoures in the center of theyr pikes, and restethe 58. pikes oute of there division, and they shal fall into battell withe this order, and close uppon the lefte hande of the Italianes.12 front. - 58.
The Englishe who gave relation of 847. pikes is divided into 74. rankes of aleaven pikes in eache ran∣ke withe there culoures in the center, and restethe 26. pikes.11 front. - 26.
The Borgonones who gave relation of 841. pikes are divided into 74. rankes of 11. pikes in eache ran∣ke, and 33. pikes remaininge, and withe there culou∣res in the center shall close uppon the lefte hande of the English, when occasion offereth.11 front. - 33.
The Valones who gave relation of 939. pikes is di∣vided Page  103 into 74. rankes of 12 pikes in eache ranke, and 51. pikes remaininge, and in offeringe occasion to fall into squadron shall observe this order, and ioyne up∣pon the leifte hande of the Borgonones withe there coulores in the center.12 front. - 51.
Advertisinge that of the 172. pikes that did remaine in the divisiones of the Spaniardes, Irishe, English, Borgonones, and Valones. They shall by divided into 74. rankes of two pikes in eache ranke and shall close upp on the leifte hande of the Valones when occa∣sion shall offer to fall into battell, and there shall reste 24 pikes.2 front. - 24.
 74 front. - 24.

The firste division of shott that shall guarnishe or line the righte flanke of the squadron of pikes is divi∣ded into 74 rankes of five musketes in eache ranke, consideringe that a pike can hardely defende under the shelter or defence of the same above five shott at the moste.370 musk.
The seconde division of shott that shall guarnishe the leifte flanke of the battell of pikes is divided into 74. rankes of five musketes in eache ranke.370 musk.
The thirde division of shott that is to guarnishe the full fronte of the battell of pikes, and the two li∣nenges of the same is divided into 84. rankes of five musketes in each rank.420 m.
The fourthe division of shott that is for to guar∣nishe the rerewarde of the battell of pikes, and the two linenge shott of the two flankes is divided into 84. rankes of five musketes in eache ranke.420 m.
In the division of the full number of shott there did remaine oute of the division 10. musketes that is to guarnishe the coulores as in the divisiones of the shott is set downe.10 m.
 1590 musk.

After lininge youre squadron of pikes proportio∣nally every way as before declared, the 4. guarnitio∣nes 〈 math 〉 of shott montes 1590. musketes whiche are to be substracted oute of the principall some or number of musketes whiche is 4500. there shall remaine 2910. musketes, this remainder divide into 30. troupes and Page  104 youe shall finde by youre division eache troupe to 〈 math 〉 containe 97. musketes ordered and divided in the foure angles and two flankes of the battell of pikes to skirmishe acordinge as tyme occasion, and situation shall require as by the figure folowinge youe may see who all thiefe divisiones do fall oute of there marche into aperfect squadron in the forme and maner as be∣fore declared and sett downe. Advertisinge that oute of the laste troupe of musketes on the liefte angle of the battell muste by taken 10. musketes for the linin∣ge shot of the culoures, so that troupe of musketes containes but 87. musketes and all the reste 97. so that 10. muskeths difereth.

Advertisinge that the culoures of eache division of pikes shall mar∣che in the center of the same, so that when occasion shall offer they may with grace and brevity fall into battell array, and withoute any crossinge or confusion nor cuttinge of rankes nor order as many do, but unconfusedly with grace, and brevetie fall into battell, as by the figure followinge youe may see, the 10. musketes youe take oute of one of the troupes of the angles for to guarnish the culoures are to by reckoned in theire due place as the divisiones of shott sheoweth, and youe are not to reken them in the battell by reason they were borowed oute of one of the troupes of musketes.

And let none by ignorante that when the conveniente number of pikes and shott do not remaine oute of the divisiones to guarnish the culoures, then of force order and array muste be broken, in cutin∣ge the shott and pikes necessary to guarnish them, and so for not to err in the rekeninge the divisiones of the table of the battell are to by observed (for beinge infalible) and for bienge the producte: of the generall rule of all the divisiones of the battell, so is it to be under stoode that theire is no better surer nor brifer rule for this purpose.

By the figure folowinge and by the table and divisiones of the same you may see who eache nation doth march with the fronte and flan∣ke acordinge the number of men they gave in relasion, advertisinge that the culoures of each nation are to march in the cinter of theire division of pikes, and the 74 rankes of pikes of 2 pikes in ranke that did remaine oute of the divisiones of the saide 6 nationes shall close upp on the leifte flanke of the battell of pikes as be the figure and di∣visiones followinge youe may plainely see who orderly oute of there march they fall unto battell with grace and brevity.

Page  105〈1 page duplicate〉

Page  105


Page  [unnumbered]TABLE OF THE BATTEL.
THe Spaniardes are divided into 74. rankes of 14 pikes in each ranke monted.1036 pikes.
The Italianes into 74. rankes of 12. pikes.0888 pikes.
The Irish into 74. rankes of 12. pikes.0888 pikes.
The English into 74. rankes of 11. pikes.0814 pikes.
The Borgonones 74. rankes of 11. pikes.0814 pikes.
The Valones into 74. rankes of 12. pikes.0888 pikes.
The remainder of pikes of the six nasiones di∣vided into 74. rākes of 2. pik. in each.0148 pikes.
Pikes remaininge oute of the divisiones.24 pikes.
 5500 pikes.
The lininge shott of the righte flanke of the battell of pikes.0370 musk.
The lininge shot of the leifte flanke.370 musk.
The guarnision shot of the fronte monted.420 musk.
The guarnision of the reregarde.420 musk.
Shot remaininge oute of the divisiones.020 musk.
2900. musketes divided into 30. troupes.2900 musk.
 4500 musk.

Advertisinge that oute of one of the troupes of musketes are to be taken 10. musketes with the other 10. that did re∣maine to guarnish the culoures; still observinge the divisio∣nes of the table for beinge infalible.

Page  [unnumbered]Page  105
The greate battell of 10000. men before spoken of, is nowe divi∣ded into three battelles square of men as by the figure folowing appeereth.

OF the then thousande men (before spoken of, and of whiche were framed abattell square of men, and all redused into one boddy as before set downe, and the forme of there divisiones. Nowe supose that the Campe-master generall woulde have the self same nūber of 10000. men to be divided into three batteles square of men and to observe suche goode order in there divisiones that withe grace, and brevity and withoute any crossinge or confusion they may fall oute of there marche into battell, as by the divisiones, and figure folowinge youe may see. Advertisinge that of the Spaniardes and Italianes there shall by framed one squadron, and of the Irishe and English another, and of the Borgonones and Valones an other.


Spaniardes and Italianes.192816203548.
Irish and English.178615003286.
Burgonones and Valones.178613803176.

NOwe to oure pupose take the full number of pikes of the Spa∣niardes and Italianes whiche is 1928. pikes oute of whiche ta∣ke the square roote whiche will by 43. and 79. pikes remainen∣ge, consideringe that 79. pikes are muche to remayne oute of the Page  106 squadron divide 79 by 43. the square roote, and the number in the quotiente will by one, and 36. pikes yet remayninge, this one youe founde oute of 79. ad it to 43. and it will by 44. and 36. pikes remai∣ninge, and say that 44. is the fronte of the battell of pikes, and 43 the flanke, nowe consider that hardly aboue 4. shott can by, conveniently defended under the shelter and defence of the pike. And say that youe will line youre battell of pikes proportionally by 4. musketes every way. This resolution taken multiply 43. the flanke of the 〈 math 〉 battell of pikes by 4. musketes the linenge shott, the pro∣ducte wherof will by 172. musketes for the lininge shott of the righte flanke of youre battell of pikes, and iuste so ma∣ny more for the lininge shott of the leifte flanke of the bat∣tel of pikes. That don ad 8. the linenge shott of the two flankes to 44 the fronte of the battell of pikes whiche two aditiones makethe 52. the full fronte of the pikes and 2. linenges of the two 〈 math 〉 flankes, nowe to guarnishe the fronte of the battell of pi∣kes multiply 52. by 4. the producte wherof will by 208. musketes whiche is the number of shott that shall guar∣nishe the fronte of the battell, meaninge 52. rankes of 4. musketes in eache ranke. That done say that the two flankes and fronte of the battell are lined withe shott. Nowe to guarnishe the re∣rewarde of the battell, observe the self same order, and number whe∣re withe youe did guarnishe the fronte of the battell whiche was 52. rankes of 4. musketes in eache ranke, and withe so many shall youe guarnishe the re rewarde of the battell, and say that youre battell is proportionally lined every way withe shott.

Nowe for the division of the reste of youre shott take 〈 math 〉 1620. musketes the full number of shott propounded, oute of whiche deducte 760. musketes the girdelinge shott of the 4. frontes of youre battell, and there shall remaine 860. musketes. Whiche i divide into 14. troupes of 60. muske∣tes in each troupe, of the which one troupe shall conteine 74. mus∣ketes by reason the division so fallethe oute, and divided on the two flankes of the battell as by the divisiones, and figure followinge apere∣the, whiche is the firste battell of the three, and on the righte hande; advertisinge that in the laste division of shott there did remaine 6. musketes where withe youe may guarnish the coulores withe them, and withe the 36. pikes that did remaine oute of the division of youre pikes, so youre propounded number of pikes and shott are divided. Page  107 Advertisinge that the fronte of this battell is 44. and the flanke 43. multiplienge the one by the other and adinge there vnto 36 pikes that doe guarnishe the coulores makethe the propounded number of pikes, whiche was 1928. as by the divisiones followinge apeerethe, advertising that youe are to cut ten musketes that wantes for the guarnision of the culoures, oute of one of the troupes, which youe shall finde to muche in the battell, be reason they are borowed of one of the troupes so folowe the divisiones as they are set downe in the table which is the righte way, and infalible.

Table of the firste battell.

〈 math 〉

Page  108



NOwe that yove have done withe the number of pikes and shott the Spaniardes and Italianes gave. Take the 3286 men whiche is given in relation be the Irishe and Englishe, of the whiche 1786 are pikes, and 1500. musketes. To reduce them into a perfecte squadron square of men, and to be proportionally lined and guar∣nished every way withe shott. To wourke the whiche, firste take the number of pikes whiche is 1786. oute of whiche take the square roote whiche will by 42 and there shall remaine 22. pikes whiche may be imployed to guarnishe the coullores, that don say that 42 is the fronte and flanke of the battell of pikes and 22. pikes remaininge. And supose, that occasion offerethe that youe finde necessary the lininge shott not to pass 3. in ranke under the shelter, and defence of apike. Nowe to finde oute the lininge shott of the righte flanke of youre battell of pikes multiply 42. the flanke of the pikes by 3. muske∣tes that is aleowed for the linenge shott, the producte wherof will by 126. or 42. rankes of 3. musketes in eache ranke, then say the righte flanke of the pikes are lined withe shott, and iuste so many more ran∣kes of shot shall serve for the lininge of the leifte flanke of the battel of pikes, observinge the self same number and order as did the linenge shott of the right flanke of the battell of pikes whiche is 〈 math 〉 42. rankes of 3. musketes in eache ranke whiche monteth to 126. musketes, nowe to guarnish the fronte of the bat∣tel of pikes whiche is 42. ad therunto the two lininges whiche 3. aditiones will by 48. the full fronte of the pikes, and of the two lininges whiche youe shall multiply by 3. the producte wherof will by 144. musketes or 48. rankes of 3. musketes in eache ranke, so the two flankes and fron∣te of the battell of pikes are proportionably lined.

Nowe to guarnish the reregarde of the battell of pikes withe shott, observe the self same order before set downe Page  109 for the lininge of the fronte of the pikes. That is to say 48. ran∣kes of 3. musketes in eache ranke, so youre battell of pikes is proportionally lined every way. That don substracte the 540. musketes the linenge shott of the two flankes fronte 〈 math 〉 and rerwarde oute of the principall number of shott whi∣che is 1500 and there shall reste 960. musketes whiche yo∣ue shall divide by 12. or into 12 troupes and the quo∣tiente of youre division alowethe 80. musketes in eache troupe, whiche yove may double when occasion require (that don) say that the reste of youre shott is divided into 12. trovpes of 80. mus∣ketes in eache troupe to be divided on the two flankes of the battell of pikes to squirmish in single or double siele as occasion and situation shall require, so al youre pikes and shot are divided, advertisinge that the 22. pikes that did remaine oute of the division of the pikes are to guarnish the coulores, as by the divisiones folowinge youe may see. Advertisenge that by reason no musketes did remaine oute of the di∣visiones, youe are to cutt of one of the troupes 12. musketes to guarnish the coulores whiche are not to be rekoned in the boddy of the battell (but for borowed) but where the divisiones fauleth and sheoweth whiche is the righte way as here under youe see in the ta∣ble which is unfalible.

Table of the seconde battell.

〈 math 〉

Page  110



NOwe to frame the thirde Battell of the 3166. men the Borgo∣nones and Valones gave in relation meaninge 1786. pikes, and 1380. musketes, firste take the propounded number of pikes, whiche is 1786. oute of whiche take the square roote, whiche yove shall finde to be 42. soe that 42. is the fronte and flanke of the battell, and 22. pikes, remaininge whiche shall serve to guarnishe the culou∣res.

Put in case that occasion requirethe that youre linenge shott is to be no more then 3. musketes in ranke, and say that 42. rankes of 3. musketes in eache ranke shall guarnishe the righte flanke of the bat∣tell of pikes, and juste so many more for the linenge of the leifte flan∣ke, whiche two linenges makethe 252. musketes, that don take 42. the fronte of the pikes, and ad therunto 6. the linenge shott of the two flankes, whiche two aditiones will make 48. To guarnishe the fronte of youre battell of pikes, say that the thirde division of shott is 48. ran∣kes of 3. musketes in eache ranke, and juste so many more rankes for the linenge shott of the rerewarde of the battell of pikes, observinge the self same order as dothe the thirde division of shott, meaninge 148. rankes, of 3. musketes in eache ranke, whiche two divisiones for the linenge shott of the fronte and rerewarde makethe 288 musketes, and soe the 4. sides of youre battell of pikes are proportionally lined every way, the foure linenges importheth 540. musketes.

That don substracte 540. musketes oute of the full number of shot whiche is 1380. and there shall remaine 840. musketes, whiche yove shall divide as time occasion or situation shall require: whiche nowe i suppose conveniente to be divided into twenty troupes to be divided on the two flankes of the battell of pikes to skirmishe where occasion shall require in single or double fiele, as the situation shall permitt, and the occasion shall require, at 42. musketes in eache troupe, soe Page  111 all youre shott and pikas are divided, as before declared; Advertisinge that the culoures shall marche in the center guarnished withe the 22 pikes, that did remaine in the division of the pikes, and by reason no shott did remaine oute of the divisiones of youre shott yove may take 12. shott oute of the laste division of shott to guarnishe the culou∣res, soe youre three battelles are framed, and by the figure folowinge youe see howe oute of there divisiones they fall into battell. Greate consideration and curiosity is to by vnderstoode for the severall divi∣siones of shott, as tyme and occasion shall require, alwayes conside∣ringe the situation and disposition of the grounde, as also of the seve∣rall occasiones and advantadges in skirnmishenge withe greate or smale troupes withe single or double file and in whate distance (when, the enemy dothe abounde on horse, and when nott) and also in pre∣ventinge in due time the orderes and stratageames of the enemy.

Let none by ingnorante that when in the divisiones of pikes and shott theire resteth not inough to guarnish the culoures, of force the necessary shott and pikes required for that purpose are to be cutt of the winges or troupes of the flankes, and are to be rekoned where theire firste divisiones did fall, as declared in the table of the battelles for if youe reken them in the battell and where their firste division did fall, it can not confronte with the divisiones, so observe still the rule of the divisiones as set downe and declared in breefe in the table of the battelles, which is the righte way and generall rule. This table is neowlie invented for that purpose, where presentlie withoute any paines or trouble youe shall finde the reasones, and proportion of all the divisiones of the batteles in breefe (as well of the shott as of the pikes) as also whate remaineth oute of the divisiones, whiche table is of rare importance for the breefe explicatinge and orderinge of all the divisiones of battelles. And besides for cause that many auctores do leaue the same in obscuritie to avoide prolixity, as also to disperte the ingeniouse understandinge of those of perfection in this arte.

Page  112Table of the thirde battell.
Pikes contained in the boddy of the battell.1764 pikes.
Pikes remaininge to guarnish the culors.022 pikes.
Lininge shott of the righte flanke.126 musketes.
Lininge shott of the leifte flanck.126 musketes.
Lininge shott of the fronte of the battell144 musketes.
Lininge shott of the fronte of the rergarde144 musketes.
Musketes divided into 20. troupes on the flankes of the battell.828 musketes.
Musketes deducted to guarnish the culours.012 musketes.
 3166 men.

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Fronte of the seconde Battell.

Fronte of the firste Battell.

Page  [unnumbered]Fronte of the thirde Battell.

Page  [unnumbered]

Page  113〈 math 〉

A Squadron square of grounde of 1116. souldieres of 〈 math 〉 the whiche 576. are pikes, and 540. musketes, to re∣duce them into aperfecte squadron square of grounde firste take the propounded number of pikes whi∣che is 576. whiche youe shall multiply by 3. the producte wherof will be 1728 this producte divide by 7. and the number in the quotient will by 246. oute of this 246. take the square roote whiche will by 15. and say that youe foun∣de oute the flanke of the battell of pikes, nowe to finde oute the fronte of the battell, take the propounded num∣ber of pikes whiche was 576. whiche youe shall divide by 15. the flanke, the quotiente wherof will by 38. whiche is the fronte of the battell of pikes and there restethe 6. pi∣kes whiche shall serve to guarnish the coulores, so that 38. is the fronte and 15. the flanke. Nowe for the division of youre 540. musketes firste say that for the girdelinge shott of the righte flanke of the battell of pikes muste marche 16. rankes of 5. musketes in eache ranke comprehended the ranke of the culors, so the firste division of shott of the van garde is divided into 16. rankes of five musketes in ea∣cheranke. And the seconde division of shott of the van∣garde and firste winge of the right flanke of the battell of pikes is divided into 19. rankes of 5. musketes in eache ran∣ke. The thirde division or winge of the vāgarde is also divi∣ded into 19. rankes of 5. musketes in eache ranke whiche shall serve for the seconde winge of shott of the vangarde and righte flanke of the battell of pikes, so that 270. mus∣ketes, the iuste haulf of the propounded number of shott, are comprehended in the saied 3. divisiones of shott of the vangarde and righte flanke of the battel of pikes.

And for the girdelinge shott and two winges of the leifte flanke of the battell of pikes are also lefte iuste so many more. Whiche shall observe the self same order in linenge the leifte flanke of the pikes. Page  114 Imeane 16. rankes of five musketes in eache for the girdelinge shott of the leifte flanke of the battell of pikes and 2. slives, of 19. rankes of 5. musketes in eache ranke, in whiche 6. divisiones are comprehended the full number of shott whiche was 540. musketes advertisinge that the firste three divisiones of shott shall marche before the pikes, and the other three divisiones of the rergarde and leifte flanke shall mar∣che after the pikes, as by the divisiones folowinge set downe in brife and shall be better understoode by suche as are not experte in this ar∣te: so that they may the sooner cōceiue and come to understande thee∣se divisiones, and howe oute of there marche they fall into battell wi∣the grace and brevity withoute any crossinge confusion or breakinge of rankes as many do, whiche are not expert in aritmetike nor in the severall sortes of divisiones of firy weapone.

The firste division of shott and firste winge of the vangarde is divided into 19. rankes of five musketes in eache ranke whiche conteines.95 musk.
The seconde winge and division of the vangarde is divided into 19 rankes of five musketes in eache ranke.95 musk.
The thirde division of shott of the vangarde for the girdelinge shott of the righte flanke of the battell of pi∣kes is divided into 16. rankes of five musketes in eache ranke comprehended the ranke of the coulores.80 musk.
After theabove 3. divisiones of shott of the vangarde shall marche the firste division of pikes of 15. rankes of 10. pikes in eache ranke.150 pikes.
The seconde division of pikes is also divided into 15. rankes of 10. pikes in eache.150 pikes.
The thirde division of pikes Idem.150 pikes.
The fourthe division of pikes is divided into 15. ran∣kes of 8. pikes in eache ranke whiche dothe cōtaine.120 pikes.
Or the coulores did remaine.006 pikes.
The firste division of shott of the rergarded that fol∣lowes the pikes and that shall line the leifte flanke is di∣vided into 16. rankes of 5. musketes in eache ranke monted.080 musk.
The seconde division and firste winge of mus∣ketes of the reregarde is divided into 19. rankes of 5. musketes in eache ranke whiche followes the girdlinge shott of the leifte flanke and conteines.95 musk.
Page  115The thirde division of shott of the rergarde is divided into another slive of 19. rankes of five musketes in eache ranke.95 mus.

The saied 1116. souldieres are divided into ten divi∣siones as before declared and who oute of there marche they shall fall in battell eyther in singell or double fiele as occasion shall require, and the situation and disposition of the grounde shall permit, advertisinge that there did remaine 6. pikes for to guarnishe the coulores, and that in the divisiones of the lininge shott and ranke of the coulores is comprehended 2. rankes of shott and that eache one of the 4. winges dothe conteine 3. rankes more then the divisiones of the girdelinge shott, and that for cause that ordinaryly the winges are augmented with 3.4. or 5. rankes more then the girdelinge shott.

〈 math 〉

Fronte of the Battell.

Table of the Battell.
570 p.Boddy of the battell of pikes.
6 p.Remainder of pikes.
95 m.Firste wing of musketes.
95 m.Seconde winge of musketes.
80 m.Lininge of the righte flanke.
80 m.Lininge shott of the leifte flanke.
95 m.Firste winge of musket. leifte flanke.
95 m.Seconde winge of mus. leifte flanke.

Page  116〈 math 〉

TO frame a Squadron square of grounde of 2782. 〈 math 〉 Souldieres of the whiche number 1050. are pikes, and 1732. musketes, to reduce this number into a Squadron square of grounde, whiche the Spanniarde caulle Quadro de terreno, firste take the propounded num∣ber of pikes whiche is 1050. and multiply it by 3. the pro∣ducte, wherof will by 3150. this producte divide by 7. and the number in the quotient will be 450. oute of this quotiente take the square roote whiche youe shall finde to be 21. and 9. remayninge, and say that 21. is the flan∣ke of the propounded number of pikes. Nowe to finde the fronte of the battell take the full number of pikes, whiche is 1050. whiche yove shall divide by 21. the flan∣ke, and the quotient will be 50. and remainethe nothin∣ge, and say that 50. is the fronte of the battell of pikes, and 21 the flanke.

Nowe for the division of youre shott suppose that yo∣ve woulde have the lininge shott not to contayne more then 4. in ranke, and that yove woulde have the battell of pikes, to be proportionally lined every way withe shot. To wourke the whiche, take 21. the flanke of the battell of pikes, and multiply it by 4. the producte wherof will by 84. and say that the firste division of shott is 84. mus∣kete▪ or 21. rankes of 4. musketes in eache ranke, whiche is the linenge shott of the righte flanke of the battell of pikes, and the seconde division of shott for the linenge of the leifte flanke shall containe juste so many more, no∣we to finde oute the nūber of shott that shall be in pro∣portion to guarnish the full fronte of the battell of pikes and of the two linenges, ad to 50. the fronte of the pro∣pounded number of pikes 8 the number of shott of the two linges whiche two aditiones will make 58. and say that 58 rankes of 4. mus∣ketes in eache ranke shall be the guarnison, or linenge shott of the fronte of the battell of pikes, and of the 2 linenges, and juste so ma∣ny Page  117 more for the guarnison of the rerewarde of the bat∣tell 〈 math 〉 of pikes, meaninge as before declared 58. rankes of 4. musketes in eache ranke, so the two flankes fronte and rerewarde of the battell of pikes is proportionally lined every way withe 640. musketes, and restethe 1092. musketes whiche i divide into 22. troupes or maniples, ordered and divided in the fronte, rergarde, and 4. angles of the battell of pikes, to skirmishe eyther in single or double fiele as tyme occasion and situation shall requi∣re, and permitt; all whiche divisiones youe may see by the figure folowinge, for the divisiones of shot let none be ingnoran∣te but that there are many considerationes, and curiosities to be had as time and occasion shall require, and especially if the enemy be su∣perior on horse.

Hire folowethe who the full number of pikes and shott is divided into 31. divisio∣nes and who oute of theyre marche they fall into battell.

THe firste division of shott that lines the righte flanke of the battell of pikes is 21. rankes of 4. mus∣ketes in eache ranke.84 musk.
The seconde division of shott for the linenge shott of the leifte flanke of the battell of pikes iuste so many mo∣re 21. rankes of 4 muskets.84 musk.
The thirde division of shot that guarnisheth the full fronte of the battell and 2. lininges is 58. rākes of 4. mus∣ketes in eache ranke.232 musk.
The fourthe divisiō of shott that dothe guarnishe the rerewarde of the battell of pikes and 2. lininges is 58. ran∣kes of 4. musketes in eache ranke.232 musk.
22. maniples of 50. musketes in eache, devided on the fronte rergarde, and 4. angles of the battell make∣the.1100 mus.
 1732 mus.

Advertisinge that of one of the troupes of musketes on the angles of the battell are to by taken 8. musketes which wantes to guarnish the culoures be reason no mus∣ketes did remaine in theire laste division, also be reason no pikes did reste in the division of the pikes y cut 21. pikes of the flanke to guarnishe the culoures so the fronte of the battel of pikes Page  118 shall by but 49. pikes. And by reason the divisiones are before shut upp thies 8 musketes difereth in the rekoninge, so that when acon∣v eniente number of pikes and shott doe not remaine oute of the di∣visiones suficiente to guarnish the culoures the above observation mu ste be kepte as ordered in the Table of the battell, so to confronte the divisiones with the propounded number yove are to by informed by the table for bienge infallible.

Page  119〈 math 〉

A Battell of 2025. Souldieres divided into five battelles square of grounde, of the whiche number 945. are pikes, and 1080 mus∣ketes whiche are equally divided into five batteles, and propor∣tionally lined withe the propounded number of shott whiche is 1080. musketes as the divisiones and figure folowinge sheowethe.

To wourke the whiche firste take the propounded 〈 math 〉 number of pikes whiche is 945 and divide it into five par∣tes or by five, and the number in the quotiente will by 189. whiche is the iuste number of pikes youre division yealdethe for eache battell of the five, nowe to finde ou∣te the fronte, and flanke of eache battell take 189. pikes whiche youre division alowethe for eache battell of pikes, and multiply the same by 3. the producte wherof will by 567. this producte divide by 7. and the number in the quotient will by 81. oute of this 81. the quotiente take the square roote whiche will by 9. and say that 9. is the flanke of eache one of the five batteles of pikes, nowe to finde the fronte take the propounded number of pikes whiche youre division did alowe to eache battell of pikes whiche was 189. this 189 pikes divide by 9 the flanke, the quo∣tiente wherof will by 21. and nothinge remayninge, and say that 21. pikes is the fronte, and 9. the flanke of eache battell of pi∣kes before spoken of and when yove will have them fall into squadron lett them marche in 3. maniples of 9. rankes of 7. pikes in eache ran∣ke withe the coulors in the center of the midel maniple, and so shall they fall withe grace and brevity into battell, and withoute any cro∣singe or confushion. To guarnishe the coulors yove may cutt nine pikes of the flanke of eache battell, and so shall the fronte conteine but 20. pikes; nowe for the division of the propounded number of shott whiche was 1080. musketes supose that yove woulde have eache battell of pikes to be proportionally lined alowinge 3. musketes under the shelter or defence of the pike, firste say that the firste division of shott that shall girdel the right flanke of the firste battell of pikes shall conteine 9. rankes of 3. musketes in eache ranke, and iuste so ma∣ny more for the girdelinge shott of the leifte flanke, so is the 2. flan∣kes of the battell of pikes guarnished: Nowe to guarnishe the fronte Page  120 of the battell of pikes withe shott say that 21. is the frōte of the battell of pikes, and adinge thereūto the two lininges it makethe 27. and say that the third division of shott is to marche withe 27. rankes of 3. mus∣ketes in eache ranke, whiche shall guarnishe the full fronte of the bat∣tell of pikes, and two lininges; Nowe the two flākes and fronte of the battell of pikes are guarnished, and guarnish the rerwarde of the bat∣tell of pikes observe the self same order as yove did in guarnishinge the fronte of the battell of pikes whiche was 27. rankes of 3. musketes in eache ranke, so youre battell of pikes is proportionally lined every way as before declared. The selfe same order shall by observed for the linenge, and girdelinge shott of the other foure batteles of pikes as more plainely shall a peere by the divisiones and figure folowinge

The firste division of shott that dothe guarnishe the righte flanke of the battell of pikes is divided into nine rankes of 3. musketes in eache ranke.27 musk.
The seconde division of shott that guarnisheth the leifte flanke of the battell of pikes shall observe the self same order.27 musk.
The thirde division of shott that shall guarnishe the full fronte of the battell of pikes, and of the two linen∣ges is divided into 27. rankes of 3. musketes in eache ranke monted.81 musk.
The fourthe division that dothe guarnishe the rer∣warde of the battell of pikes shall observe the self same order Imeane 27. rankes of 3. musketes in eache ranke.81 musk.
 216 musk.

By the above mentioned foure divisiones yove see 〈 math 〉 who the firste battell of pikes is proporsionally guar∣nished withe shott, whiche 4. divisiones makethe 216. musketes, and the self same order shall be observed to guarnishe eache one of the other foure battelles of pikes whiche makethe up 1080 musketes the propounded number for the five batteles, as youe may plainely see by the figure folowinge howe they fall oute of there marche, and divisiones into battell as be∣fore declared, advertisinge that in the divisiones of the pikes and shott there did remaine nothinge.

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Page  121〈 math 〉

Fronte of the seconde Battell.
Fronte of the firste Battell.
Fronte of the thirde Battell.
Fronte of the fifthe Battell.
Fronte of the fourthe Battell.
Table of the five Batteles.
Divisiones of the firste Battell: Firste division is 9. r. of 7. pikes.63 pikes. 
Seconde division. Idem.63 pikes. 
The thirde division. Alsoe.63 pikes. 
 189 pikes. 
Multiplied by five.5. 
Pikes of the five Batteles.945 pikes. 
Lininge shott of the righte flanke of the firste battell of pikes, 9. rankes of musketes in eache ranke.27 musk. 
Lininge shot of the lieft flank 9. r. of 3. musketes.27 musk.945 musk.
Liningh shot of the front 28. r. of 3. m. in each ranke.81 musk.1080 pikes.
Guarnision of shot of the reregarde 28. r. of 3. musketes.81 musk.2025 men.
 216 musk. 
Multiplied by5. 
Lininge shott of the 5. battelles.1080. 

Advertisinge that no pikes nor shot did remaine oute of the divisiones to guarnishe the culoures, so that one ranke of pikes and shott may by cutt all a longeste, the fronte or flanke of each battell to guarnish the culoures.

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Page  121〈 math 〉

COnsideringe that crosse batteles are of wonderful force as well aganiste horse as foote as also for the safegarde of bagage amu∣nitiones, and hurtemē: i toughte necessary to put downe the ru∣le for the framinge of suche forte of batteles, put in case that youe have 2032. souldieres of the whiche 1000. are pikes and 1032. are musketes and that youe wouled have this number divided into foure battelles of broade fronte proporsionally lined every way withe the propounded number of shott. To wourke the whiche firste take the number of pikes whiche is 1000. and divide the same 〈 math 〉 by 4. or into foure partes and the quotiente will by 250. whiche is the number of pikes that youre division yeal∣deth for eache of the 4. batteles of pikes, nowe to frame the firste battell take 250. pikes, and divide the same by 3. the quotient will by 83. of whiche 83. take the square roote which is 9. and say that 9. is the flanke of the bat∣tell, nowe to finde oute the fronte take 250. the number of pikes and divide the same by 9. the flanke, the quo∣tient will by 27. and 7. pikes remayninge, and say that 27. is the fronte and 9. the flanke, and 7. pikes remayninge: so yove finde oute the fronte and flanke of eache battell of the 4. and 7. pikes remaininge in eache battell whiche shall serve to guarnishe the coulores, nowe for the di∣vision of youre shott take the propounded number of shott whiche is 1032 musketes, and divide the same by 4. or into 4. partes and the number in the quotiente will by 258. whiche is the iuste number of shott youre divi∣sion yealdethe for eache battell of the 4. of pikes: that done take the number of pikes, and shot that eache battell dothe conteine, whiche is 508. this full number, divide by 3. the quotient wherof wilbe 169. oute of whi∣che take the square roote which will by 13. the flanke: nowe to finde the fronte of the full number of pikes and shott take 508. and divide it by 13. the flanke, and the quotiente will be 39. and 1. remaininge nowe take 10. Page  122 the flanke of the pikes comprehendinge the linenge of 〈 math 〉 the culors, and substracte it oute of 13. the laste flanke of the full number of pikes and shott and there shall re∣maine 3. and say that the firste division of shott shall marche withe 10. rankes of 3. musketes in eache ranke whiche shall serve for the girdelinge shott of the right flanke of the firste battell of pikes, and iuste so many more for the linenge shott of the leifte flanke, so the two flankes of the battell of pikes are lined, nowe to guar∣nishe the fronte of the battell of pikes, ad 6 the 2. li∣nenges to 27. the fronte of the pikes whiche two aditio∣nes makethe 33. and say that the thirde division of shot 〈 math 〉 shall marche withe 33. rankes of 3. musketes in eache ranke, and iuste so many more rankes of musketes shall marche to guarnish the rerewarde of the battell of pi∣kes, and two linenges, so the foure sides of the battell of pikes are proportionally lined every way, and the selfe same order shall be observed for the divisiones of eache battell of the other three as the figure and divisiones followinge sheowethe, theese cross batte∣les are esteemed to be of wonderfull force, consideringe well the fra∣minge of them, and they are also of wonderfull safegarde for the ba∣gage, amunitiones and hurtemē, and if the enemy do come to charge on the firste battell or on any of the other outewarde batteles, whiche beinge alone are but of litle force, but the two outewarde batteles marchinge uppon bothe sides of the firste, then it is of triple force, and if the enemy doe charge on the rerewarde of the two alone bat∣teles they close to gither, and are of double force, and if the enemy be stronge on horse, and shoulde charge at once on the fronte and re∣rewarde then the bagage and hurtemen are to marche betwexte the two double batteles, of the uangarde and rerwarde and cut so many pikes as shall guarnish the same on bothe sides to kepe of the fury of the horse, so it is guarished every way as the divisiones and figure fo∣lowinge sheowethe, by reason the culoures are doble lined and that yove muste cut 6. musketes for eache battell in the rekoninge shall di∣fer so many, it importeth nothinge be reason yove are to observe the generall rule of the table whiche is infallible.

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Page  123

Fronte of the first Battell.
Fronte of the thirde Battell.
Fronte of the seconde Battell.
Fronte of the fourthe Battell.
〈 math 〉
Page  [unnumbered]BY reason that by the divisiones the conveniente number of shott did not reste for the lininge of the culoures, the 6. shott that wantes for that purpose in each of the foure battelles, are to by taken oute of some of the divi∣siones; soe that thies 6. musketes borowed shall difer But for not to err in the rekeninge alwayes observe the 〈…〉 of the diisiones as set downe in the Table, for beinge infalible) and that moste comonly to muche or to litle pikes, and shott are wonte to remaine for the lininge of the culoures, soe that the firste divisiones ordered in the Table, is the righte way, for otherwise suche as are not curiouse and of rare judgement can not chuse but err in the rekeninge, and so for to prevente remedy of this confusion, and obscure rekeninge, allwayes observe the divivisiones of the Table, for beinge infalible, by reason that the convenient number of pikes, and shott did not re∣maine oute of the divisiones youe may cut one ranke alongste the flanke or fronte to guarnish the culoures▪
Table of the cross Battell.
〈 math 〉

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Page  123SEverall orderes are used for the repartinge and prudente orderin∣ge of an army into sundry battalones, as the occasiones and judi∣ciouse intendimente of the prudente and brave Comaunder shall finde conveniente, in devidinge them into or 16 battalo∣nes, whiche with facilitie are ordered by the prudente and experi∣mented Sardgente mayor.

An army of 19200. divided into 16. battalones of broade fronte, bienge di∣vided by 16. eache battell shall contai∣ne 1200. whos fronte is 60. and flanke 20. as by the figures folowinge yove see ordered.

The army divided into 16 batteles of broade fronte.

The selfe same army of 19200. is divided into 12. battalones of broade frōte: yove shall by youre division finde each battalon to con∣taine 1600. whos fronte is 69. and flanke 23. as the fi∣gures folowinge sheoweth.

The army divided into 12 bat∣teles of broade fronte.

Page  124
Three thousande men divided into six battelles of broade fronte ordered to figh∣te, as by the figure followinge yove see, the fronte of each battell is 41. and flanke 12. and 8. remaininge in the divisions of each battallon.


SEverall opiniones are for the divisiones and orderinge of the firy weapon, some use winges of 200. some 300. shott, but in my opi∣nion it were far better to divide them into smale troupes of 50.60.70. and so till a 100. for by experience i knowe the same to by of for greater execusion in ocasiones of service, and more ready eyther in plaine straighte or narowe places, for the more troupes of shott yove have beinge prudently ordered and conducted, the more shall the enemy by a plied, the one orderly secondinge the other, which questionless theire execution shall by far greater then if they were divided into greate troupes. When yove shall come to any narowe or straighte pasadges, consider whether the straighte by suche as will suffice that yove may pass trough the same with the order yove march, if not conforme the order with the pasadge, and let the order not by so broade in fronte but that it may convenientely marche wit∣houte breakinge order or array, nor lesher then the thirde parte of the fronte of the battell of pikes, if the situation so permit; for cau∣se Page  125 thatt all prevensiones posible to be had for the breefe framinge of battelles are to by more esteemed, rather then fall abreakinge often times order and array, as very many unable Sardgente mayores co∣monly do, but rather prudently with grace and brevitie, and withou∣te any crossinge or confusion or breakinge of any ranke fall into bat∣tell, thies and many more dificulties are with facilitie reduced into theire iuste perfection by prudente and brave conductores, and with grace and brevitie.

The rule to frame triangle battelles is to bigin withe one man in the firste ranke, 3. in the seconde, 5. in the thirde, seaven in the four∣the, and so consequenty augmentinge 2 in every ranke untill youe fi∣nish youre battell, this unused proporsion i put downe to contente those whiche woulde faine knowe the forme of suche battelles, and bisides that à Sardgente mayor oughte not to by ingnorante in any maner of forme or proporsiones of squadrones, and that withe facili∣tie and speede he may change the forme and proporsion, as time oca∣sion and situasion shall require, and that bisides ocasion may offer that situasion shoulde presente fit for suche formes, so that a Sargen∣te mayor oughte not to by ingnorante in no forme of squadrones.


Page  126〈 math 〉

A Battell of broade square of 6000. men of the whi∣che 〈 math 〉 1930. are complet corseletes and 4070. musketiers, ordered and divided as folowethe: firste take the propounded number of pikes whiche is 1930. this number divide be 3 the quotiente wherof will by 643. oute of this quotiente take the square roote whi∣che will by 25. whiche is the flanke of the battell of pi∣kes. That don to finde oute the fronte of the battell take the propounded number of pikes, and divide the same by 25 the flanke; whiche quotient wil by 76. and 30. pikes remaininge, and say that 76. is the fronte and 25. the flanke of the battell of pikes, and that the 30. pi∣kes shall be to guarnishe the coulores, nowe for the divi∣sion of the 4070. musketes put in case that yove woulde have the battell to be proporsionally lined every way wi∣the shott, consideringe that five shott is the moste that can be conueniently defended under the shelter or de∣fence of the pike, and say that yove will have the battell to by guarnished withe five musketes in ranke, to wour∣ke the whiche take 27. the flanke comprehended: the two rankes of the coulores and say that the firste divi∣sion of shott is 27. rankes of five musketes in eache ran∣ke whiche is the girdelinge shott of the righte flanke and iuste so many for the linenge of the liefte flanke, no∣we to finde oute the shott that shall guarnishe the full fronte of the battell of pikes and the two linenges, take 10. the linenges of the two flankes, and ad it to 76. the fronte whiche two aditiones makethe 86. and say that the guarnision of shott of the fronte of the battell of pi∣kes, and two linenges shall marche withe 86. rankes of five musketes in eache ranke; nowe for the linenge shott of the rerewarde of the battell of pikes observe the self sa∣me order meaninge 86. rankes of five musketes in eache ranke, so the two flankes, fronte, and rerwarde of the bat∣tell Page  127 of pikes is proportionally lined whiche 4. divisiones 〈 math 〉 of shott makethe 1130 musketes nowe for the division of the reste of the shott substracte 1130. the 4 lininges oute of 4070. musketes the principall some, and there shall reste 2940. musketes whiche can not come under the shelter nor defence of the pikes, whiche i divide into 40. maniples of 74. musketes in eache maniple, exepte one troupe that conteines but 54. musketes whiche i divide on the flankes of the battell of pikes to skirmishe in singell or double fiele as tyme, ocasion, and disposi∣tion of the grounde shall permit, so all youre shott are divided as before set downe, and as by the divisiones, and figure folowinge ordered, and howe oute of there marche they fall into squadron advertisinge that the coulores shall marche in the center and midele mani∣ple of pikes, and the 30. pikes that remainethe for to guarnishe the coulors shall also marche in the same maniple all whiche divisiones are plainly ordered as by the figure folowinge yove may see, who oute of there marche they fall into battell withe grace and brevity, in observinge the divisiones ordai∣ned when of a sodaine yove woulde have the pikes oute of there mar∣che to fall withe grace and brevity into battell, cause the firste divi∣sion of pikes to marche withe 25. rankes of 16. pikes in eache ranke, then another maniple of 25. rankes of 15 pikes in eache ranke then another maniple withe the self same order withe the coulores in the center guarnished withe the 30. pikes that did remaine, after the ma∣niple of the coulors shall marche two other maniples of 15. rankes of 5. pikes in eache ranke as hire folowēge yove shall see.

The firste division of pikes is divided into 25. rankes of 16. pikes in eache ranke maketh.400 pikes.
The seconde division of pikes is divided into 25. ran∣kes of 15. pikes in eache ranke whiche shall folowe the firste monted.375 pikes.
The thirde division in whiche center the coulores are to marche is divided into 25. rankes of 15. pikes in eache ranke and dothe conteine in all the some of.375 pikes.
The fourthe division and maniple of pikes is divi∣ded into 25. rankes of 15. pikes in eache ranke whiche dothe conteine.375 pikes.
Page  128The fifthe and laste division also.375 pikes.
And 30. pikes that did remaine for the coloures.30 pikes.
 1930 pikes.

FOr the framinge of batteles bastarde square whi∣che 〈 math 〉 the Spaniarde and Italian call prolongado, that is to say longe in flanke, the rule whiche is used for the framinge of theese sortes of batteles is the self same of the broade square, and the diference is, that the fron∣te of the one is flanke of the other, as for example supo∣se yove woulde have abattell bastarde square to be fra∣med of 700. pikes. To wourke the whiche, do as yove did in framinge the batteles of broade fronte, in divi∣dinge the saied number of 700. pikes by 3 the quotien∣te wherof will be 233. oute of whiche quotiente take the square roote whiche will by 15. whiche is the fronte of the bastarde square, nowe to finde the flanke take 700. the propounded number of pikes, and divide the same by 15. the fronte, the quotient wherof will by 46. the flanke of the bastarde square, and restethe 10. pikes. And if of this self same number of 700. pikes yove woul∣de frame asquadron of broade square the flanke of the bastarde square will by the fronte of the broade square, so that the rule whiche is used for the one will serve for the other. The diference is that the fronte of the one wil serve for the flanke of the other.

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〈 math 〉

Table of the Battell.

25 rankes of 16 pikes.400 pikes.
25 rankes of 15 pikes.375 pikes.
25 rankes of 15 pikes.375 pikes.
25 rankes of 15 pikes.375 pikes.
25 rankes of 15 pikes.375 pikes.
Pikes remaininge30 pikes.
 1930 pik.

27 rankes of 5 musketes.135 musketes.
27 rankes of 5 musketes.135 musketes.
86 rankes of 5. musketes.430 musketes.
86 rankes of 5 musketes.430 musetes.
50 troupes conteininge2940 musketes.
 4070 musk.

Advertisinge that the 20 musketes for the lininge shott of the culoures are comprehended in the divisiones of the lininge shot of the two flankes; which 20 muskees were cut of the laste troupe on the liefte flanke, whiche troupe remaines with 54 musketes, and all the reste 74 musketes.

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Page  129No souldier (i hope) oughte to be ingnorante but that the squa∣dron of pikes being framed, it is to be empaled and girdeled withe shott as many rankes of shott as pikes. But the righte and naturall girdelinge shott indeede oughte to be no more shott in ranke, then that the pike may well cover and defende, espesially where the ene∣my are stronge of horse, and so under the favor of the pike, there can nott conveniently be defended but one ranke of three or foure shott at the moste, and so many in my opinion shoule the girdelinge shott containe and knelinge upon one knee under the coverte of the cou∣ched pikes, shoulde at the charginge of the horsemen discharge there voley in there face, and bosome; whiche woulde be no smale gallinge unto them, butt when this danger of horse is not to by feared, then the impalement may be made of more shot in a ranke, acordinge to the quantity of shott, and the reste of the shott into smale slives or trou∣pes to troupe rounde aboute the battell in reasonable distance from the same, the whiche divisiones of smale troupes, i esteeme to be far better then the greate inproportionate winges, whiche many do use, containinge far greater numberes, and are muche more ready to be broughte to skirmishe eyther in single or double fiele, and every seve∣rall troupe to be led by a Sargente or Corporall, and some Captaines to oversee the whole, and at every angle of the battell it were not a misse to a pointe certaine troupes of shott, whiche woulde flanker itt every way even as the Cavallero or Travessos do the curtine of a for∣te.

Let none be ingnorante but that for the severall divisiones of pikes and shott is required greate considerationes, as time, occasion, and si∣tuation shall require; continuall application in the theoricke and pra∣cticke of warr togither withe perfection in arithmeticke makethe easy many difficulties of deepe judgemente, and rare importance in warlike affaires, all whiche cōtinuall use and exercice make the easy, for the se∣verall divisiones of shott many considerationes are to be had acordin∣ge as occasion shall require, and the situation and disposition of groū∣de shall permitt, for the girdelinge shott some use three some 4. and five is the moste that can conveniently be defended under the shelter or defence of the pike, and specially when the enemy are stronge on horse, so that for the righte guarnision of shott oughte not to be mo∣re then the pike can defende, but in suche occasiones as the enemy is not to be feared on horse the divisiones of shot can be ordered of grea∣ter numberes to skirmishe, acordinge to the judgemente of the Sard∣gente Page  130 mayor, dividinge them in wings or maniples, as he shall thinc∣ke moste conveniente, observinge theyr juste proportion in theyre di∣visiones, some use greate wings of shott, whiche are not comendable in occasiones of fighte, for the smale troupes are more apte and easieste to by governed, and of a sodaine youe can skirmishe withe them ey∣ther in single or double fiele, and that bisides they bringe more men to fighte at once, but when the enemy are superior on horse, and wee feo∣we or none it is goode to gett the 4. frontes of the battell of equal re∣sistance bothe to offende and defende, so that the enemy may not take advantage of one place more then of the other. The wings or mani∣ples of shotte are not to go any greate distāce from the battell of pi∣kes; and specially when the enemy are stronge on horse, but rather un∣der the shelter, and defence of the pikes, that therby the squadron may by the stronger and more safe in receiuynge any domage when theyr force is united in one boddy as happened to don Alvaro de Sandy in the journey of caruan in barbery when the exercito of Ciderfa Kin∣ge of the moores charged on him, one of his Captaines named Luis Bravo de Laguna seinge a winge of shott a goode distāce from the squa∣drō cried on don Alvaro wishinge him withe spede to tourne and recei∣ue that winge for freare that for loosinge the same he shoulde incur danger to loose the body, by dayly experience we see that smale num∣beres doe repulse far greater, and that the army whiche is beste orde∣red, and disciplined moste comonly is master of the victory, wherof there are verie many examples in writinge of famouse and antiente au∣ctores, so that theese happy proceedinges resulte of the goode order, prudence, and approoved experience of the chefe and brave Comaun∣deres and of the resolute valor of the Souldieres, as Vegetio de re militari give the reason how the antiente Romaines came to Master all other Nationes, sayinge that they were not so greate as the Germaines, nor so greate in number as the Frence, nor so prudente as the Greeckes, nor so many in nūber as the Spanardes nor so subtill as the Africanes, nor so fu∣riouse as the Britanes, butt by theyre continuall practice and experi∣ence in warr they overcomed al theese difficulties, by onely mantayin∣ge there people wel exercised in armes and practice of warr, when a re∣gimente dothe marche some times greate disorderes are comited, the Souldieres runinge away from there culoures, robinge and spoylinge the country, and poore inhabitantes litle regardinge in not acompli∣shinge there obligationes, in beinge absent from there culoures; litle respectinge or fearninge there Officeres, and no respecte to milita∣ry Page  131 discipline, wherof resulteth greate ruines and revoltes in many countries, some superiore and inferiore Officeres, are culpable in thiese intolerable disorderes offencive to the lawes of god and comon wealth in not procuringe, sollicitinge and dayly instructinge theyre Souldieres as a father is bounde to doe for his children, and that as farr as his ability and power can reach, and not to be inclined to steale or wronge the poore Souldier, in keepinge any thinge wronge∣fully from him, but rather sheowinge him self very, lovinge and kinde to them.

In equalinge him self in all dangeres and travayles withe them, in cōtinually, givinge them goode instructiones, and comfortinge them in all necessities, yea and in assistinge them to his ability, in ministrin∣ge equitie and goode justice a mongste them, in honoringe and pre∣ferenge those of brave cariage, and goode examples, that otheres may imitate thē, in redresinge in due time disorderes, in seinge severely pu∣nished factioneres wholy given to vice and bad examples; whiche are more dangerouse then the divell, so shall he bothe by beloved and fea∣red by the Souldieres, in knowinge that he is carefull in ministringe and procuringe justice to eache one acordinge his deserte, and spe∣cially to se base factioneres banished, and severly punished, when there is no hope of there amendmente.

In occasiones of marchinge the Sardgent mayor is to take a speciall care to procure all thinges to be in a readines to bigin his jurney verie early that the Souldieres may come in goode time to theyr quarter for many considerationes to theyr comodity and ease, and in theyre mar∣che not to opress them, but keepe an ordinary pace, for otherwise verie many shall stay behinde: To make al to nowe, and then where he shall hit uppon good water, and he ought to have aregarde in pasinge naro∣we pasadges, and make alto a distance of till they all have paste and fal into there former divisiones and rankes, a Sardgente oughte to be leif∣te in eache division of the Regimente, that he may yealde acompte of them at all times, and observe the order as it was ordained by the Sar∣gente mayor, withe so many rankes and the self number, so that withe facility oute of there marche they may fall into squadron, when occa∣sion shall require, and suche a Sardgente or Sardgentes as troughe ne∣gligence shall not acomplish his obligation, to reprehende him in pu∣blike. In time of the Romaines suche as were inclined to disobedience in not acomplishinge there order and obligation, they were so severly punished, that no Souldier durste by absente from his ranke, and the Page  132 Sardgentes and Officeres of eache division of theyre marchinges had suche care in acomplishinge whate was referred to there charge withe suche punctuality, that full satisfaction was yealded.

In extraordinary heate weather in somer when the Sardgente ma∣yor marchethe withe his Regimente greate consideration oughte to be taken as before spoken of, by cause of the extraordinary heate, and heavy burden of the Souldier, some times they are chockte, and bur∣ned with heate, and for shame, and regarde of there honor they ra∣ther try danger of deathe then stay behinde there culoures.

When the Sardgente mayor shall marche withe his Regimente in any place or contry where the enemy is to be feared the divisiones ought not to by greater then that they may comodiously marche, nor lesse thē the thirde parte of the squadrō of pikes, some times withe the one haulfe, and some times in battell, allwayes takeng regarde ofthe situation and occasion.

The Master de campe in marchinge withe his Regimente as chee∣fe of the same is to marche in the vangarde nexte to whose person is to assiste the Sardgente mayor as a principall minister to whome he deliveres the orderes of his Regimente, but if the enemy shoulde chance to charge on the reregarde he as a cheefe conductor of his Regimente is to assiste in the place moste to be feared of the enemy, to comaunde and execute in due time whate is moste fitt.

The Sardgente mayor beinge in campiana, and beinge informed that his Regimente is to marche the nexte morow, he is to repaire to the Captaine generall of whome he is to demaunde order where his Regimente shall marche in the vangarde battell of reregarde, and he is to advertice, and give order to the Captaine de campania to gett all the bagadge charged uppon the a poincted houre ordained, and not to faile in acomplshinge the same, and if the vangarde belonges to him he is to comaunde the Captaine de campania to get all thinges in a redineshe at the breake of day, and to give order that the culoures and companies of his Regimēte, withe speede drawe oute of the quar∣ter, and to marche on to the place of armes, and there to frame his squadron, givinge order to eache Captaine, where he shall marche that day, and divide the Sargentes and sheowe each one his division, and givinge thē straighte charge that they acomplishe there obligatiō withe care and punctuality, and that no Souldier doe misse his ranke, nor breake the order given, if the narownes of the pasadge do not constraine him, and let no Souldier pass to spoyle the poore inhabi∣tantes, Page  133 and if he wante any Souldier of those of his division, or if any come unto them more then the order given to adverice the Sardgent mayor, and for recompence of his punctualitie and care in acompli∣shinge his obligation he shall gaine the benevolence of his Master de campe and Sardgent mayor, and in reason they oughte to have a me∣mory of his punctuall care, and to prefer him into a greater office for his obedience and punctuallitie a monghste other Sardgentes, and not once nor twice but still makinge knowen his aproved partes, care and diligence in acomplishinge the orderes of his Superiores, soe can he not by forgotten by the superior officers till he by advāced for his undeniable care and obedience.

Moste necessary it is for a Sargent mayor to be couriouse and ex∣perte in executinge well his office, for in tyme of framinge of squa∣drones the Judges of his errores are many, in time of framinge of squadrones, some Sardgēts mayores do fall into many errores, by rea∣son of there litle exercice, and specially for not appliēge them selves withe care and diligence bothe in the theorike and practike of this ar∣te, and specially to by skilfull in Arithmeticke, whiche withe practice makethe easy many rare occurrantes in warrlike affaires, and suche as are not curiouse in well appleinge them selves in learninge the rare and deepe curiosities of this arte do some times finde them selves pu∣sled and amased before there enemy in time of moste neede: A mo∣ste unfitinge thinge it is for one to be ingnorante and unhabele in his office, soe i supose that suche as do not diligently apply them selves, can hardly reduce into perfection that, wherof he is ingnoran∣te and knowethe not the arte, by dayly experience, we see that favor▪ frendshipp, enteres, and affection, hinderethe muche prosperity and goode successes, and specially in this noble arte of warr.

Many opiniones there are for the divisiones of shott, and specially when the enemy are stronge on horse, and that youe have two thirde partes of shott, unto one of pikes, youre battell beinge empaled and girdeled proportionally withe shott, there will yett remayne goode store of shott. The question is how they shall be bestowed to be safe from the fury of the horse, the sureste and beste way is to put them into the center of the battell of pikes, where they are more safe, and if any shott be killed or hurte youe can take at all times oute of the center as many as youe shall neede of.

For the framinge of thiese battelles withe centeres i have already declared howe they oughte to be framed, and proporsionolly lined, Page  134 and if the enemy horse shoulde chance of a sodaine to chardge on yove, and that youe have no tyme to place the overplusse of youre shott in the center divide them betwixte the rankes of pikes all alon∣gste from the fronte to the reare warde, so they shall by safe and yove can use them at any tyme when ocasion shall require, but havinge in∣teligence that the enemy are stronge in horse, and we feowe or none in suche ocasiones i woule firste bigin in framinge the cener of the overplusse of the shott, havinge oportunity for the same, and also lea∣ve place for hurtemen in the cēter and divide them into so many ma∣niples that they may of a sodaine fall into squadron square of men in the center, withoute any crossinge aluēge there iuste fronte and flanke and then divide the pikes into maniples to proportionally guarnishe the center on every side or fronte of the same, and then divide in pro∣portion the girdlinge shott that is lefte to guarnish the 4 frontes of the battell of pikes, and center, this is the perfecte and right way, but when urgent necessity requireth the overplusse of shott may be pla∣sed and divided betwexte the rankes of pikes as before sett downe, ad∣vertisinge that the coulores is to goe in the center.

As the battell dothe marche on towardes the enemy and cominge once within reache of the musket then the firste rankes of the win∣ges of musketes are to marche in this maner; the firste rankes step∣pinge some two or three paces, forwarde havinge in the meane ty∣me made them selves ready, and cocked there matches, then with rea∣dines and expedition all those of the firste rankes (there musketes byenge uppon there restes or forkes) to discharge at once, permiten∣ge other rankes to proceede, then presently those of the seconde ranke to stepe upp before the firste ranke, as the battell or batallon do marche, and so to discharge as theyre former followes had don before, and then the thirde ranke before the seconde, and the four. the before the thirde, and soe all the other rankes consequently wi∣the this kinde of double marche and at the traine of the laste ranke those of the firste to folowe upp a gaine, and so consequently the re∣ste. But if chance that the squadron of pikes be distresed, or con∣strained to retire, they are to discharge at the enemy, retiring bac∣ke uppon a counter marche eache feele or ranke, consequently, and withe expedition one after a nother, and withe speede fall bake into there ranke, to give place to the nexte rankes, that no time be idell, employed.

Sundry opiniones there are of comparisones betwext the Infan∣tery, Page  135 and Cavallery, whiche of them is moste utill in the warres, the one and the other are moste necessary in occurantes of warlicke affai∣res, but in my opinion the Infantery is to be preferred firste beinge well disciplined in the arte of war, never the lesse the cavalleria bein∣ge well monted and armed and beinge experimente, souldieres, beinge conducted by prudent and brave conductores douptlesse theyr executiones and resolutiō is to be feared, but they are not com∣parable to deale, withe resolute foote, excepte uppon manifeste and greate advantages and in place or grounde of greate favor for them. For beinge well knowen that a resolute stande of pikes well ordered, and girdeled withe shott, will give them sore stoppes, and retournes as plainely apeered when Marques de Pescara withe 800 short aptay∣ned the victory of Charles de noy then Visroy of Napoles, withe his Cavallery at the battell of Pavia, a nother example wee have of the Conte Francisco Carmognolla, beinge Captaine generall of Filip Viconte Duke of Millanes army, goinge withe 6000. horse a gainste the Swishe∣res army, was by them repulsed by the valeure, and lenghte of there pikes, who havinge regathered this disordered troupes, consideringe from whence there disadvantage greowe, turned head againe uppon the enemy: and he him self and his companies disamounted on foo∣te, and withe there lances in hande framed afoote squadron, and charged the enemy afresh, and brake and overthrewe them in num∣ber above fifteene thousande when by force of horse coulde not by removed, imitatinge herin Marcus, Valerius, Cornelius, who beinge consull and Captaine againste the samnites in the firste punny war∣res, and in theyr laste battell not able to enter uppon them by reason of there lōge pikes where withe they defended them selves, comaun∣ded his horsemen to disamounte, and on foote they arived as they were withe there lances, to fighte withe there enemy, and over threwe them and putt them to flighte optaininge the victory, and remay∣ninge withe there baggadge, and in the battell given by Constantine Roxianus Captaine generall to Sigismund Kinge of Polonia withe Basilius the greate Duke of Moscovia by the river Brisva, who surmoun∣ted him on horse backe, three thousande foote men; onely, he had in his army, won him that day the honor and victory, also as did apee∣re by the memorable batteles of the Inglishe againste the provde cavallery of the frence at agincourte fielde and other places, many more examples mighte be recited bothe antient and moderne, re∣membringe that amonge the antiente Romaines there foote was al∣wayes Page  136 of more estimation then there horse, allwayes houldinge a true opinion, that the Infanterie well disciplined is the right sinue of the warr, the walles of the citty and fortress of the realme.

I have hearde say that in thies warres of the netherlande after that the grand Comendador died that Don Alvaro de Vergas, who at that time comaunded the Spanish Cavallerie, did greate exploictes in en∣counteres, he had withe the states foote and horse, but it muste by considered that those were oulde and experimented Souldiers, resten∣ge uppon a resolute and valerouse determination.

The otheres for the moste patre Bisones, and rawe people raised up∣pon a sodaine conceipte, in whiche actiones is marvelouse to be mar∣ked the diference betwene men of experience, and rawe Bisones the prudent cariadge, resolute valor and goode conduction of the one, and litle practice, and experience of the otheres, as did apeere in the reincounter at tilmonte, and at the souckeringe of monts-dog beinge Taken by them of Mastricke, and moste notable in the sacke of An∣twerpe where lesse then withe the number of 5000. Spaniards inclo∣sed within the sitadel gave the overthrowe and foile unto 16000 of the Anturpianes. Bravely armed and incamped within theyre owne towne. In like sorte at the overthrowe of Gibleo where not above 600. horse, of don Iohn de Austria his troopes defeated above 15000 of the states, (moste strange and wonderfull) onely for wante of goo∣de conductores and the enemy spyinge theese advantages resultin∣ge of there simple conduction founde them selves amased.

And for as muche as i have spoken muche of this office, i will con∣clude in sayenge that he oughte nowe and then to visite and revisite at diveres and differente houres all thinges by him provided and a pointed, and see that they be prudently ordered and performed, re∣prehendinge whate he shall finde wourdie of punishmente, but that to be don prudently and in curtouse sorte, and presentinge good rea∣sones withe amiable and gentle wourdes, with gravitie and naturall grace, and not with puffinge inconciderate pride and bad examples, so shall he by obeyd in such sorte that when he woulde determine to execute his designes and orderes of his superior comaunderes, all of∣ficeres and souldieres mighte beare him that due respecte and obe∣dience, whiche shoulde by required to bringe his purpose to effecte, and let not griddy couetousnes overcome him in wronginge or per∣mitinge to by wronged the poure souldieres of theire righte, and spe∣cially in tyme of extreame necessitie, but rather make knowen his Page  137 gentle inclinationes and true love, soe shall he by beloved feared and respected.

Let him not by inclined to any odiouse rancor nor malice in wai∣tinge oportunitie of revenge of some wourdes or disputes, whiche ha∣pened betwexte him, and some Officeres or Souldieres of his Regi∣mente for defindinge theyre honour and righte, and findinge that he be so inclined is signe of aloe unconsiderate and base minde. All Officeres and Souldieres of his Regimense oughte to have a speciall care in not loosinge him his due respecte, and suche as do not a complish with theire obligationes hirein are righte wourthy of re∣prehension, soe all thinges don with moderation and justice is lauda∣ble.

Page  138An army of 11200. men divided into five batteles Squa∣re 〈 math 〉 of grounde ordered to fighte, as by the figures folowinge youe see. The fronte of eache battell is 72 and 31. the flan∣ke, and 8. remaininge oute of the division of eache battell; eache battell containes 2240.

The army divided into five battelles.

SQUARE OF GROVNDE, by the rule of proportion.

The saiede army of 11200. divided into seaven battelles. Square of grounde, eache bat∣tell shall conteine 1600. and the fronte of eache battell is 61. and flanke 26. and 14. pikes remaininge oute of eache battell to guarnish the culoures, the which 7. battelles are ordered as by the figure folowinge youe see. — 1600. men in each battell.

〈 math 〉

The army divided into 7. battelles.

SQVARE OF GROVNDE, By the rule of proportion.

Page  139A Battell square of men, withe a center of Arcabuseros, which can not by defended under the shelter of the couched pike, when the ene∣my doe a bounde on horse, and wee feowe or none, in suche ocasiones the sureste way for the overpluse of shot is to by putt into the center, and proportionally guarnised with the pikes and musketes, as by the fi∣gure folowinge youe see, and howe they are diuided by the rule of pro∣portion.

  • 276 Arcabuses.
  • 360 Pikes.
  • 364 musketes.
  • 1000.


〈 math 〉

Table of the battell and center of Arcabuseros deposito.
BY the division of the center of Arcabuseros the square route of the same num∣ber yealdeth 16. Arcabuses in fronte and flanke of the center, and 20. remai∣ninge oute of the division, monteth256 arcab.
The firste division of pikes that guarnisheth the righte flanke of the center, divided into 16. rankes of 5. pikes in each, monteth80 pikes.
The secōde division of p. that guarnisheth the liefte flāke of the center divided into 16. r. of 4. p. in each.64 pikes.
The thirde division that guarnisheth the full fronte, and the two linenges of the center is divided into 25. rankes of 5. pikes in each ranke, monteth125 pikes.
The fourthe division of pikes that guarnisheth the full fronte of the rewarde is divided into 25. ran∣ke of 4. pikes in each ranke, monteth100 pikes.
The lining of musk. that guarnisheth the right flank of the pikes is divided into 25. r. of 3. m. in each.75 musk.
The seconde lining of mus. that guarnisheth the liefte flank of the p. divided into 25. r. of 3. m. in each.75 musk.
The thirde division of musketse that guarnisheth the full fronte of the pikes and center, is divided into 31. rankes of 3. musketes in each ranke.53 musk.
The fourthe division of musketes that guarnisheth the rewarde of the pikes and center is divided into 31. rankes of 3. musketes in each ranke, monteth93 musk.
The remainder of musketes, that do guarnish the culoures.8 musk.
Of the 20. arcabuseres, that did remaine goes to guarnish the culoures.4 arcab.
The 11. pikes that did remaine oute of the division of pikes are employed to guarnish the culours.11 pikes.
Of the remainder of arcabuseros their remaineth oute of the battell.16 arcab.

Page  140

The election and office of a Master de Campe of a Regi∣mente of Infanterie.

THe office of the Master de campe of a Regimente of Infanterie is an office of greate reputation, which by all reason oughte to be recomended to one of greate prudence, brave conduction, and skillfull in martiall affaires, for beinge the heade, leader, and or∣dinarie justice af all the Companies a pointed under his chardge.

He be all reason oughte to by one of greate consideration, because that by him are all the orderes, and necessarie prevensiones for the generall goode and utilititie of his regiment delivered to the Sargen∣te mayor, alsoe to the Captaines, Souldieres, and other Officeres of his Regimente, as alsoe to all sorte of people, whiche do followe and depende on the same: To him apertaineth the ministringe of justice, and reprehendinge of faultes, and unrulie factes comitted in his Re∣gimente, in suche places, as his Master de campe, Generall, or Cap∣taine generall, are not in presence, to whome he is to presente many matteres whiche doe ocurr, Whiche by right in suche places as they are presente muste governe all.

But as an ordinarie justice the Master de campe is to by comuni∣cated withall, in all matteres whiche ocurr in his Regimente; the exa∣minationes of thies causes are to be taken, and examined by his Au∣tor, and if occasiones of appellation shoulde represente they are to be remitted to the campe master generall.

This election of a Master de campe, or Coronell is made by the Prince, with the advice of his Counsell of state and warr; And in this election greate consideration oughte to be taken. For beinge suche an honorable chardge of highe degree; as chieftaine or head above all the Captaines, and other Officeres of his Regimente, havinge do∣minion and jurisdiction over them all: By whiche may by perceived the highe dingnitie and degree of suche a person, and the a proved partes brave conduction, valeoure, and goode examples, whiche of him is to be expected, (to the ende that the Captaines may imitate his prudente perfection and brave govermente.) In suche places whe∣re the Captaines of his Regimente do assiste with him, of all occurran∣ces and occasiones of warr they are to advertice theyre Master de cā∣pe, Page  141 and if any Officer or Souldier by a prehended, for faultes comit∣ted, they can not by put at libertie, withoute the Master de campes order, beinge in his jurisdiction.

In time of the Romaines Polybe writeth that this name we call Co∣lonell or Master de campe was then cauled Tribunus, and they cauled Legion, of that whiche we call a Regimente, theyr legion was of 4200 foote men, whiche they divided into 10. partes, as if it were betwex∣te 10. Captaines, eache division they cauled Cohortes, which we call a Companie, each legion had 300. horse, theyre Captaines Cintu∣riones, some of 150. and some of 200. Otheres were Centenarios, whi∣che had but 100. men. For the ministringe of equitie and justice, and reprehendinge of faultes and disorderes, and that military discipline may by duely, observed with infalible punctualitie; he is to choyse an Auditor of a man well learned and of goode judgemente, withe his Clearke and Augusill, whiche are used a monghste the Spanish and Italian Regimentes, to take informationes of suche injuries, and dis∣orderes as are comitted, this Auditor is to give the sentence, but no auctoritie to execute the same, withoute consultinge firste with the Master de campe, and getinge his firme to the sentence, for other wise he hath no auctoritie to execute nor dispatche the same, the A∣gusill serves to assiste the executiones of the Auditores a faires, and alsoe to by imployed, and sollicite many other thinges, that doe pass trough the Auditor is handes.

For makinge or dividinge of quarteres marchinge in campaina or garison, he is to get a skillfull Quarter-master able in readinge and writinge, and specially perfecte in Arithmeticke, for to him apertai∣neth, the receavinge of all sortes of amunitiones and armes given, and delivered by the Prince, but the distributinge of the same belongeth to the Sargēt mayor, to see that all thinges by duly and equally distri∣buted. Of al sortes of amunitiones received of the Kinge, the furiell mayor is to yealde a cōpte, when it is soughte for, for bienge his office and dutie. The furielles of the Companies are to assiste him in all oc∣casiones in marchinge, and to receive theyre orderes from the furiell mayor, and he from the Quarter-master generall; and the from the general. Greate care oughte to be taken in seinge that the Sutleres be well provided with all necessaries, and to see that they by well paiede; A speciall care oughte to by taken that they do not deceive the Soul∣dieres with faulce weighte and measure, nor nothinge above the pri∣ce ordained by the Master de campe.

Page  142It is necessarie that the Sutleres and Marchantes, whiche doe fol∣lowe the Regimente, that they be well garded, that theyr vituales and wares may depende uppon goode securitie, for thies affaires the Ca∣ptaine de campaina and his Leuetenante oughte with care to assiste in executinge his dutie and office.

In occasiones of marchinge he and his teniente and men are to by verie vigilante and carefull, in not permitenge the Sutleres nor they∣re boyes to stragle, or fall a spoylinge the countrie and povre inhabi∣tances, nor to take perforce any thinge that cometh to by soulde in the campe, as alsoe to have a speciall care to lett no Souldieres pass, causinge them to fall into theyre rankes, rather then to be permited to run straglinge and spoylinge the countrie; And suche as are found gilthi in breakinge the proclamation to see them presentlie executed. Soe beinge earneste and carefull in thies affaires shall he oblidge all suche Souldieres as are inclined to minester goode justice and exam∣ples, and esteemed for a true father and brave conductor. A necessa∣rie thinge it is alsoe to have a goode Doctor of Physicke well learned and of longe practice, as alsoe a Surdgente mayor one well knowen to have had longe practice in handelinge of woundes and other dis∣ceaces, suche a one chosen by favor or affection (and not havinge the partes befitinge) causeth the death of many Souldieres trough his lit∣le skill, to the disgrace of him that made choyse of suche a one.

Verie necessarie it were that in his Regimente doe assiste a Chaplen mayor, and preacher to over see all the Chaplenes, that all thinges touchinge there obligationes, may by observed and ministred in due time, givinge goode examples, and still assistinge with gravitie and vertueuse cariadge, alsoe to be carefull that the Captaines of his Re∣gimente give goode examples for it importeth for many respectes.

In the election of a Drom mayor he is to by verie well informed that he be one of goode fufficiencie, for beinge an instrumente very necessarie in warr, who is to instructe, and give goode examples to all the Dromes of the Regimente, whiche beinge chosen of one who hath the goode partes and sufficiencie in him required, is an instru∣mente of greate importance in a Regimente, and specially to the Sardgente mayor, in carieng orderes, and beatinge of the proclama∣tiones, he is to by skillfull in beating the drom, or at leaste in under∣standing all sorte of marchinges, to beate an a larme, a call, a retire, a disafie, a battell, to knowe who to carie him selfe verie discret in ca∣rienge any mesadge to a campe, towne, cittie, or castell, and knowe Page  143 howe discretly to deliver his mesadge, and answer many demaundes, as alsoe in understandinge, and well relatinge his answer, and to in∣forme him selfe in as muche as he may posible of whate occurreth, if he be permited in takinge a viewe of the walles ditches, and if the dit∣ches be dry or with water, and who deepe, and whate place or places of the walles or fosses may by won with moreease, as also of the necessi∣tie or plintie of vituales, if by faire meanes he may spie the same oute it is necessarie that he speakes many languadges, to beate afuriouse a larme, and battell when ocasion shall require, as alsoe a presumed reti∣re. A necessarie thinge not to be permited (but rather defended) that no officer nor souldior by given to winchinge, and that for many goo∣de respectes, but som publicke woomen are wonte to be permited in eache company, some three or foure for a 100 men, which are to be in a separated quarter, and specially if in garison lett them be in as se∣cret and as hidden a place as can by posible, for by reason it impor∣teth to honeste men and negboures, and the cause why this is permi∣ted and tolerated, is to shun greater danger: In the oulde lawes or statutes six or eighte woomen were a lued for everie 100, men, to thies is wonte to be given lodginges and service as to the souldieres, all whiche is thoughte profitable to the negboures, that the lesh sus∣pision and ocasion of scandall may by of theire shisteres wifes and children, and for many respectes it oughte not to by permited that a ny souldier doe sleepe withe thies woomen oute of his quarter uppon paine of severe punishmente, alsoe suche weemen as doe nott obser∣ve thies constitusiones to punish hir in the purse, whiche will grive hir moste, for this busines is wonte one to by a pointed to ouersee if thies lawes by observed or no. For it importeth muche the souldiores health, wher fore the barber mayor is wonte to uisitt nowe and then. The Captaine de campana is to tak aspeciall care to see that thies or∣deres by dulie observed.

The Master de campe is to be earneste in informinge him selfe well of his regimente, as well of secret as of publike matteres, that he may prevente and remedy in due tyme all, and cause to be severely pu∣nished such as doe breake the proclamationes by him comaunded, and suche as are inclined to base factes, as theives, quarleres, disho∣neste dronkardes and base mutineres, of litle pascience and lesh ho∣noure, of no discression, feare, nor love, nyther of god nor of theire prince, suche base fellowes are to by severelie punished in publick, and to by driven a way like men tatched with uglie crimes, unwour∣die Page  144 to equall themselves withe brave souldiores, of honeste life, ful of pacience, obedience, feare and goode examples; of which perso∣nes, the master de campe Sardgente mayor, and Captaines, are to ta∣ke notice, and have a speciall care in honoringe and preferinge them, sheowinge them a faire and lovinge countenance, and givinge them greate hope of avancemente, and let triall of time and ocasiones ve∣rifie the same with deedes, whiche shall by a greate comforte to suche as are inclined to uertue, and greate greefe to those given to vices and unrulie factes and bad exemples, whiche oughte to a mende theire li∣ves, and imitate the steppes of those of honeste life, prudente and ver∣tuse cariadge, full of love, feare and obedience, given to continuall goode applicationes, shuninge idelnes and bad company, which of righte oughte, by there Superiores to by highlie estimed, (whereunto they are bounde in conscience) For the securitie of ocasiones in mar∣chinge and in preventinge of sodaine and unprovided incursiones, ambuscados, and stratagemes of the enemy: A necessarie thinge it were to imitate the Romaines, in a luenge fiftine horses to everie 100 foote, so that in many plases in marchinge where theyre may by any suspicion of the enemy, the Master de campe, then shoulde a pointe a conductor to leade and governe thies horsemen, and in offeringe time or occasion, to divide them into as many partes, as the occasion shall require, (apointinge a leader for each division) and for the inter∣tainemente of thies horsemen they shoulde inioy so much meanes as other horsemen; so that in ocasiones of marchinge, the Infanterie may goe with far greater securitie, beinge divided into thre or foure par∣tes, to recnoledge the places of moste suspicion of ambuish, and other secret stratagemes of the enemy, whiche beinge recnoledged and dis∣covered, necessarie prevention may by taken in due time, thies men may serve bothe for horse and foote acordinge as ocasion shall requi∣re: Of eache division or parte of thies horse it is necessarie to name a Comaunder or leader, who shall take care to governe them, forbidin∣ge and comaundinge that by no meanes they lende thies horses, but get them alwaies readie to by imploied, when or where occasion shall require. Thies horses may serve for many goode purposes, in pasinge the Infanterie over riveres, in recnoledginge pasadges, as alsoe in co∣minge in possession of pasadges, whiche beinge feared that the enemy shoulde come to posess the same before oures.

The Ende of the firste Booke.
Page  145

TO lche is to say the measuringe of the grounde required for to lodge a com foote and 8. foote for the streete betwext every 2. feiles and plasinge the doores fronte of his company, vvhiche is 24. foote broade, and the deepnes he shall beste ••r persones as do provide the company vvithe victualles, and other ne∣cessaries, of some souldiores. The lodginge of the Master de Campe in the rergar∣de of his oote broade and 15. foote deepe or in the flanke, and if it chance that the foote and 〈…〉


Page  145O lodge acompany of Infantery in campain̄a, and the measuringe of the due distance, and place required and observed by the Romaine Castrametasio, whiche is to say the measuringe of the grounde required for to lodge a company of foote conteyninge 100. men, Is ordayned 2. feiles of barackes, and in eache feile 200. stepes deepe, and broade inthe fronte of eache feile 8. foote and 8. foote for the streete betwext every 2. feiles and plasinge oores of the barakes towardes the streete. The Captaines lodginge in the hed of his quarter in quadrangell maner, occupienge so muche grounde as the full fronte of his company, vvhiche is 24. foote broade, and the deepnes he 〈◊〉 beste thincke, and a distance of 10 or 20. foote betvvexte him and his company, and in the rergarde, and behinde all is to lodge the sutleres and suche other persones as do provide the company vvithe victualles, and other ne∣ries, vvhere also the soildores are to kooke theire vituales for feare of firinge the quarter as some times it happeneth troughe litle care feare, and discipline of some souldiores. The lodginge of the Master de Campe in the rergar∣his 〈◊〉 his quarter by the greate streete. The horse also if theire shoulde chance be any. Eache company is to be devided into tvvo feiles, alovvinge eache feile 12. foote broade and 15. foote deepe or in the flanke, and if it chance that the 〈◊〉 and horse do lodge in one place the Infantery are to be placed and ranked on bothe flankes or sides and the horse betvvext them. FRONTE OF THE QUARTER.


BY the figure and plat above ordered for the encampinge of an army both of horse and foote, youe see the quantitie of grounde required for eache, with the due measuringe required both for foote and horse, with theire due pla∣ces and streetes. (And in the moste comodiouse place aboute the middiste of the grounde litle more or lesh, where youe meane to encampe the army, (marcke asquare plat of grounde of 60. or 70. paces square, for the go∣als pavilion and place.) And then shal by lined two straight streetes, which shall come to cross one another, righte againste the generals place, which are caled the principal streetes, and at the heade of every one shall be apoin a garde or watche towardes the enemy. And on the oute warde partes of all shal by apoincted gardes of horse, to by prevented againste the soddaine exploites and stratagemes of the enemy. And at every streetes ende a garde. alsoe other pasadges, and entries where the enemy are to by suspected are to by fortified and shutt as behoveth, and with vigilante watches for oure better securitie, and to by prevented againste sodaine exploites of the enemy, soe for the better repose and securitie of oures: So that all thinges by prudentlie prevented in due time, in as muche as military prudence, care, and vigilance requireth. Some houlde opinion that for many respect•• that the lod∣ges of the Captaines shoulde by plased in the rere of theire companies and the Alferishes in the fronte.

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Page  [unnumbered]Page  147

THE FIRSTE CHAP. Bigininge with the election and office of a Campe-master generall.

THIS Office troughe greate consideration is to by comended and bestowed uppon a personad∣ge of greate gravitie, prudence, and valeour, and of tried experience and exercice in warr, that therby he may comaunde with greate auctoritie, and by estimed acordinge his qualitie and truste; Whiche ought to by reputed in a personadge of so many a proved and goode partes. This office is of such greate importance, that the securitie and goode success of the whole army dependes for the moste parte on him, as a cheefe∣taine and head over the whole army, and all the orderes of the Kin∣ge are by him given, and by his comaunde observed. But when the Captaine generall is in presence, (all muste depende on him) beinge a Superior, and nexte under him the Camp-master generall, as Lugar∣teniente, and in his absence doth comaunde the whole army.

This office with the Romaines was of greate and high estimation; which they cauled Metador, he is to be of suche extraordinarie pru∣dence and care, that not withstandinge he givethe the necessarie or∣deres, he him selfe muste visite, and see who all thinges are ordered, for which he is to have nexte his person a rare Inginier for many effe∣ctes, and for the dividinge of the campe betwexte the Regimentes, Cavalleria and Artillerie, the necessarie grounde, distance, and cir∣cuide for the same, in dividinge the juste proportion of grounde due to severall sortes of nationes, in whiche greate consideration oughte to by used, for whiche purpose he hafe a Quarter-master generall, whiche oughte to by curiouse in thies.

Firste shall be a pointed the fitteste place for the Generall, and if theyre by any reall personadge consideration also is to be taken: This place is to by chosen for the moste a sureste and beste, placinge the Cavallerie on the outewarde side, and the Infanterie on the other si∣de, he beinge shutt and inviorened betwexte both. The quarter of Page  148 the Artillerie, and of his courte and traine is to be ordained in a sure place, and well garded rounde a boute on every side; Theyre traine of Officeres gastadores wourkmen pertrechos of sundrie sortes of munitiones, ocupies greate roome: The Cavalleres and pinsioneres nexte the generall is person, Auditor generall, Provoste generall, a Tambor mayor generall, and many more folowinge the Generall, are to be placed not farr from the Generall, and the Provedor generall is also to be placed not farr distance if a conveniente place can be foun∣de for his purpose, for he alsoe requireth muche roome for his amu∣nitiones and wagones. The Infanterie shall invieron the whole cam∣pe, the Ingineres are alsoe to visite all over the campe, and findinge that water is not plintifull to open pittes in the beste and convenien∣teste places for the same.

In the ocasiones and repartitiones that shall offer in imployenge the foote and horse in convoyes to scoute and recnowledge doupte∣full places and oecasiones, and to featche foradge, it oughte to goe by turne, soe that eache one shall take his share of the paines and troubles, excepte onelie in time of hote and extraordinarie service, for in suche ocasiones greate considerationes oughte to by had, in choysinge those that are more fitt for the purpose, which shall by im∣ployed as it shall by more fitt. Greate care oughte to by taken in due time to by well provided of all sortes of amunitiones, as alsoe of all sortes of vituales, and take a speciall care, that all thinges be preven∣ted in due time, that the enemy doe not let or hinder youre convoyes, nor the pasadges, where they come with all sorte of provision for the campe, and to by prevented a gainste all stratagemes they can pre∣vente: When the army shall marche, and that theyre shall by many regimentes of severall nationes, in theyre divisiones, and in the obser∣vinge of goode order greate care and industrie is required, givinge order that eache nation by theyre turne shall marche in the vangar∣de, battell, and rergarde, for beinge so conveniente for his Majesties service: If youe chance to marche troughe an enemy countrie, or nee∣re unto theyre frontieres greate vigilance, and goode order needeth to by observeth, it importeth alsoe to get goode and faithfull guides, and diferente spies of truste, for feare of fraude, as alsoe for to have goode inteligence of the enemies designes in due time.

In suche ocasiones nedeth muche to sende before some horse in a certaine distance to discover, and learne the plottes and stratagemes of the enemy to hinder oure journey. Havinge had inteligence, and Page  149 beinge well informed that the enemy are waitinge for to hinder yo∣ue; Cause the Artilleie to marche with theyre garde, and drawe upp the Infanterie in goode order on the other side of the Artillerie be∣twexte them and the enemy, and the horse alsoe on the outewarde si∣de of the Infanterie, (and in a goode distance of.)

It is necessarie to by prevented of the enemies designes, and con∣sider the situation where youe marche, soe that youre divisiones may acordinglie be ordered, as the situation shall permit and require; In narowe and straighte pasadges, goode order is to by observed, and specially where the enemy is to be suspected, and that the Sardgentes be verie carefull in acomplishinge theyre obligationes, soe that they∣re be no crossinge nor confusion, and suche as shall not keepe theyre rankes to severelie punish them in publick, in as muche that they and the behoulderes may take notice of the same, soe that in oferinge o∣casion with grace and brevitie they may of a sodaine fall into battell. If inteligenee be had that the enemy be stronge on horse in the van∣garde or way where wee intende to pass, and that the pasadge where wee march be soe narowe that oure horse beinge in the vangarde, and beinge chardged and broken by the enemyes horse, and that the na∣rownes of the pasadge doe not permit that they may pass on eyther of the two flankes of the Infantery, and beinge brocken they fall on oure order, and wee incurr greate danger if the enemy doe followe with a brave resolution, if theyre be no remedie that they may pass on eyther of the two sides, of force way is to be made for them, and the shott are to come all on one side of the pasadge, and make way, and the pikes are to be opened on bothe sides of the way, in thies oca∣siones and many more occurrantes in warr greate danger may ocurr, excepte prevension be prudentlie taken in due time.

In suche ocasiones a troupe of musketes and arcabuseros are neces∣sarie to by sente in the vangarde, and then five or six rankes of pikes, which with theyre fronte shall ocupie the pasadge, which shall reviwe recnoledge, and advertice if theyre by any danger or ambuscado.

After thies the reste shall march in goode order as before declared in the office of the Sardgent mayor; In the rergarde shall the Cavalle∣rie marche with a garde of short and pikes, after which shall marche the Cavallerie in order, and if inteligence be had that in the vangar∣de, theyre by any impedimente, or lett that oure Artillerie can nott pass or any parte of the army, lett theyre marche a Company of ga∣stadores, with theyre Captaine to acomodate thies impedimentes, Page  150 and in case the enemy by suspected, to conducte them for theyre bet∣ter securitie with a troupe of lighte horse, (togither with an Inginier) with thies gastadores beinge in quantitie, unespected and dificulte matteres are broughte to pass, and sometimes riveres are taken from theire moother, and conducted to other places, as did Ciro Kinge of Percia goinge to beleager Babilonia he divided the river Gange into 360. partes for the revenge of the drowninge of a Gentleman a deere frinde of his, soe that this mightie river was lefte of no force? Kinge Ciro seinge it so fe oble saied thove haste not respected nor feared my, but nowe all thy forces for a revenge, are seperated that a wooman with a childe may pass thy over withoute feare or danger: So the Ge∣nerall of an army is allwayes to consider, that it is of greate importan∣ce to have many gastadores, for by theyre meanes matteres of greate dificulte are broughte to effecte with facilitie, for many handes ma∣keth lighte wourke.

Greate industrie and many aprooved goode partes are required for the rare executiones of this office of a Master de campe generall, of whose prudence and brave conduction greate exspectationes are to by hoped: When he aprocheth neere the place where he thinketh to pitch his campe uppon, he is to goe forwarde with a suficiente garde of horse to viwe all the circuide, and he is to be a companied with one or two Ingineres, to ordaine and divide the quarteres; And when, the army shall inter into the campe or place where they intende to pitch theyre quarter' the Generall of the horse shall remaine in the fielde, he and all his troupes mounted, till all the Infantery be in camped, and then to inter orderlie with his troupes, and repaire to theyre quarter, leavinge his scoutes in the fielde till the Trumpetes sound, and the watch by set, and the cinteries placed in theyre postes, at which time, and when the watches of foote and horse are set in theyre due places, they shall retire, and not before, for the better securitie of the cam∣pe, and that nothinge may happen withoute preventinge in due time the necessarie remedies, or as neere as can by posible.

Page  151

THE SECONDE CHAP. The election of the Captaine generall of the Artillerie.

THe office of the generall of the Artillerie, troughe greate con∣siderationes of his aprooved goode partes and suficiencie, is chosen and apointed by the Prince, consideringe his longe and tried experience in warr, his gravitie, prudente and brave condu∣ction, and valerouse actes.

This honorable office of so highe dingnitie and truste, in choysin∣ge of his Officeres and Gentlemen of the Artillerie, it importeth that he by well informed that they by men of many goode partes, skillfull and curiouse in many ingines, and to by verie carefull, and vigilante; For this office of manadginge of pouder in sundry maner of wayes is of wounderfull danger, excepte it by prudently carefullie, and with greate vigilance handled, as well simple as artificiall; which be seve∣rall triales i caused to be tried by severall persones, (and often times) and hardlie coulde i finde any of suche care and vigilance for the ma∣nadginge, and keepinge of the same as required, for beinge the mo∣ste dangerouse thinge that is, or can by handled in warr. An enemy who giveth no time nor respecte, his treasones are most terrible, spee∣dy, and of unmercifull executiones, and moste comonlie do fall on such as doe moste truste in it, in his exeeutiones there is no appella∣tion, nor grace to by expected.

This Office requireth many Officeres; Firste his Leutenante, Ma∣yor Domo, Contador, Pagador, his ministeres for the examinatio∣nes and executiones of justice, Amunitioneres, Gentelmen of the Artillerie, his Ingineres, Masteres of severall sortes of ingines of fire∣wourkes▪ Canonieres, Masteres of the mine, or Minadores, Gastado∣res, or Wourkmen, with theyre Captaines, a Furiell, Smittes, Tem∣bermen. A greate store of tentes is required for the saftie of thies va∣riable sortes of amunitiones and pertrechos, as pouder of all sortes, led, match, and all sortes of bulletes, and in quantitie for greate and smale ordenance, it is alsoe necessarie he be a compained with a cu∣riouse Inginer curiouse in all sortes of fire-wourkes, necessarie for ve∣rie Page  152 many exeeutiones, if one of such aprooved partes can by hit up∣pon, he is also to have Masteres who hase goode skill in makinge and refininge of pouder: When ocasion shall offer to plante his greate or∣denance to beleager or batter a towne, cittie or Castell, his Leutenan∣te, Ingineres, Mine-masteres, and Pouder keeperes, and Gentelmen of the Artillerie, are all to by in a readines to dispose of the Artillerie and amunitiones, when occasion shall offer, that it muste by planted, or sente from one place to a nother, and his Leutenante is to gett a relatiō, who many cannones shall by apointed in each place; and con∣sider suche as are fit for one execution, and for a nother, but thies re∣solutiones muste com from the Captaine generall, or Master de cam∣pe generall, which of them doth comaunde in the fielde, but the exe∣cution belongeth to the Generall of the Artillerie, and to such under him to whose chardge they are recomended, the Leutenante of the Generall of the Artillerie is to see that theyre by horses and wagones inoughe, and to be verie, vigilante, and carefull to visite often times the store houses, where the pouder led or math doe lye; Of which do∣ble cinteries oughte allwayes to be putt uppon, for many goode re∣spectes, and specially for feare of spies to use industrie to give the sa∣me fire, wherfore prudente Generalles of the Artillery are wonte to divide thies munitiones, in sundrie and secure places, (fearinge of a sodaine disgrace.) Alsoe he is to see that his Canonieres or gunneres doe lye every nighte by theyre canonnes, that they may in a readines uppon the firste advice, and it were necessary that each Canonnier shoulde have a boy to assiste him.

The Leutenante is to by verie curiouse and vigilante to see that the greate ordenance by still well provided with all necessarie instru∣mentes, and rather more then less, fearinge of urgente necessitie, and that theyre wante no kinde of munition, nor instrument fitt for theyr sundrie executiones. It is necessarie that theire be a certaine quantitie of goode refined saltpiter three times refined, camphora, vinager, sal armoniak, sal gema, rosen, colofonia, stronge brandevin, a store of o kom, linsat-oyle, gineper-oyle, all which are required for severall executiones of fire-wourkes, when occasion shall offer, but for the curiouse orderinge of thies compositiones, for there severall and rare executiones, wee finde but verie feowe:) It is necessarie that he be a companied with good carpinteres.

He oughte to by curiouse and carefull in seinge that all sorte of mu∣nitiones be boughte before he shall have neede, for offten times we Page  153 see that in times of moste neede. Verie litle can be had, and someti∣mes all moste none at all, and specially pouder and matche, for often times oure enemy secretlie under hande buyes all that can be had; soe the Generall knowinge this matter to be of suche importance to his Majesties service, is to see it prevented before hande; Greate conside∣ration oughte to by taken in knowinge where beste to plante the or∣denance, and to fortifie and intrinche with speede, as time and oca∣sion shall require, and to keepe good watch, and to by a companied with good Controulers, for to provide all sortes of provisiones.

He is to knowe who to a proach, and who with prudence and good watch and vigilance to secure him selfe and Artillerie, and in many o∣casiones not to truste to many, butt rather in person, and with spee∣de to see thies thinges putt in execution as the importance of the oc∣casion shall require, (and to be well garded on every side,) He is to see that his Artillerie doe orderly marche, and such as do not obey the orderes by him given, to see them severelie punished; he is to kno∣we at nighte who his ordenance shall by planted for the execution he shall exspecte, and by day see the same ordered, in takinge the heighte and line for his purpose, eyther a farr of or neere, if it by into a cittie towne, or forte, or in the fronte of the enemy, or if by chance they shoulde come to defeate him to by prevented.

When occasion shall offer to pass an army over deepe riveres, it is necessarie to by well provided of boathes of two yardes and haulfe deepe, wheruppon bridges are to by framed, which are to be made of stronge tember, and plankes to pass the Artillery, and the whole ar∣my, as did that famouse and prudente Conductor Marques SPINOLA in takinge of Reinbarke, and the scounse over the Rhine, and in ta∣kinge Vesell, and in the honorable regaininge of Breda.

They are wonte to carie for thies bridges sometimes 30. boathes sometimes more: Firste consideringe the greatnes of the river, where they meane to pass over. To which purpose is required a Captaine for every fiftine boathes, and to each boath foure Marineres, some, times more, and sometimes less, acordinge as the Generall shal thinc∣ke fitt and as many Carpinteres as shall by toughte necessarie, also-Smittes to sheowe horses, and for many other purposes, a store of anc¦cores, cables, graplinges, while wrightt with such necessaries; Befit∣tinge his purpose, and allwayes muste not faile whiles to spare, for the cannon, and greate ordenance, fearinge least any while shoulde breake, that presently prevension may by had.

Page  154


THe Artillerie whiche is to by conducted with an army, is to by comaunded by the Captaine generall, conside∣ringe the executiones he doethe pretende, and the greatnes of his army, and the circuide they may ocupie, they carie 30. or 35. canonnes of greate cice for batte∣rie some more, sometimes lesh, acordinge the execution, some shoote a bullet of pounde, from 7. to 8. inches in heighte.

  • 15. Haulfe cannonnes from 25. pounde bullet to 30.
  • 16. Culverines from 16. to 20. pounde bullet.
  • 26. Demy Culverines.
  • 25. Falcones and falconetes.
  • 82.

Greate store of cannon-pouder, and alsoe a goode quantitie of pouder, for smale shott, a store of leader bagges to carie pouder be∣hinde men a horsebake, when any sodaine occasion soe requireth, hi∣des to cover the pouder in the cariadge of the same, pices of chaines and broken yron, cartages full of musket bulletes to shoote oute of greate ordenance in the fronte of a battel, or any order of men a pro∣chinge neere to execute thire intente: In suche and semblable ocasio∣nes the aforesaiede instrumentes bienge well handled by goode and skillfull Canonieres in due time, are of wonderfull executiones, and do putt the enemy in mightie terron, in many occasiones by sea and lande, greate quantitie of bullettes for youre greate ordenance, and goode store of match, and bulletes for the smale shott, a store of mat∣tokes shoules and pickaxes, hatchetes, and axes to cutt woode and fagotes, and a store of wood houkes, a store of plankes, and peeces of timber, whiche may serve for many purposes, greate store of bas∣ketes to carie earthe to fill the gabiones and cover the smale shott in trinches and fortificationes, sledges and yron barres to breake rockes, greate and smale sawes, laddeles of brace and theyre staufes, spon∣ges, rameres for eache sorte of the greate ordenance; greate store of Page  [unnumbered]〈1 page duplicate〉Page  [unnumbered]

A Table for to finde oute the names of the greate ordenance nowe used for ofensive and defensive warres, the height of their diameter or height of their bullettes, and theire weights, the compass of the same, weight of the pouder required to each peece, the weight of eache peece of ordenance, lenght of the same, their thicknes, linght of their laddells, and the breade of the same, the number of men sufficient to drawe each peece, and the number of horses requisite for to drawe the same, the distance of paces eache peece cariethe at point blanke, the distance of paces eache greate peece shootes at utmoste random, the lenght of the coyler rope requisite for to drawe eache peece.
The names of the peeces of greate orde∣nance.The height of the dia∣meter of e∣verie peece in enches and partes.Heighte of the bullet in inches and partes.VVeight of the shot in poūdes and partes.Compas of the shot in inches and partes.VVeight of corne pou∣der due to charge each peee in poū∣des.VVeighte of the peece in poundes.The lenghte of the peece en feete.Thicknes of the mettall at the tou∣che hole in inhes and partes.Thicknes of the peece at the neck of the same.Lenghte of the laddel in inches and partes.The brea∣de of the laddell.Lenghte of the planc∣kes of the cariage in feete.The num∣ber of men, suficient to drawe each peece, when nede requi∣re.The num∣ber of the horses re∣quisite to drawe each peece of or∣dinance.Distance of pases the peece ca∣rieth at point blan∣ke.The distan∣ce of pases each great peece shoo∣tes at ut¦moste ran∣don.The lenght of the coy¦ler roape requisit to drawe each peece.
Cannon.87 ¼6425 1/7328000128423 ½1516 ⅔9016300150070
Cannon serpintin7 ½7 ¼5223 4/726700011 ½7 ½3 ¾2214 ¼16 ¼8014340160066
Frence Cannon.7 ¼7 ½46 ¾22 11/14236500127 ¼3 2/2113 ¼167012360174064
Demi canō eildest6 ½6 ¼36 ⅝21 3/1420600011 2/46 ¼3 ⅛221215 ½6511370180060
Demi canō ordin.6 ½6 ¾3220 2/718560010 ½6 ½32011 ½156010350170054
Demi canon.6 ¼5 ¼24 ½18 6/71650001163 1/102111 ½16569340160046
Culveringe.5 ½5 ½1917 2/715 ½460013 ¼5 ½3229 ½18508420210040
Ordinari culver.5 ¼5 ¼16 ¼16 ½124300125 ¼2 ¾21917 2/4468400200036
Demi culveringe.4 ½411 ¾14 1/793000114 ½2 4/208 ½16 ¼367380180034
Demi culveringe, somvvhat leshe.4 ¼4 /2913 5/147 ⅔2300104 /42 ½19 ½7 2/414 2/286320160030
Skr ordinary.3 ¼3 ½611 11/14519009 ½3 ¾2 1/16 ¼6 2/414245300150028
Saker or minnon.3 ¼3 ½4 ¾10 3/143 ¼110083 ¼2145 ¼11204280140024
Faucon.2 2/42 ½2 /38 9/142 ¼75072 2/42124 ½10 /4163260120020
Faconet.2 ¼21 ⅛7 1/141 ½40062 ¼1 2/4103 /48 2/4102220100020
Page  [unnumbered]Page  155 nayles litle and greate, coradge of smale sortes, horse sheowes and horse nayles, litle and greate bandes of yron for the whiles, and spare whiles withoute faile, lanternes and store of candles, for Carpente∣res to wourke at night time when necessitie soe requireth, talowe and tarr for the whiles, torches, wax, candeles, scalinge leaderes, a quan∣titie of musketes and pikes; A store of compositiones and mixtures for fire wourkes, saltpiter, camphora, solfer, armoniacke, sal gema, colofonia, rosin, red wax, stronge brandevin, a quantitie of o cam, smale cordes, and yron wires, giniper oyle, linseede-oyle, turpintin non preparata: The saltpiter used for fire-wourkes is moste co∣monly refined three times, of thies mixtures there needeth no grea∣te quantitie because that they are seldom used and besides they are ve∣rie costly and feowe can by founde for there due orderinge for seve∣rall executiones.

To drawe a cannon of greate cice in faire weader is required 18. or 20. horses, sometimes more if the situation by not goode, but in foole weader is required 24. horses, sometime more if the situation by not goode, thies horeses is to by chosen both greate and stronge, for a demy cannon 12. or 16. horses, in foole weader 16. or 18.

A stronge and goode wagon will carie 70. cannon shott and of o∣theres of lesher sieze acordinge to that rate, to the drawinge of which is required 4. or 6. horses, and acordinge to that weighte are all the other wagones loaden, with pouder and other munitiones, bridges, barckes requires more horses acordinge to the greatnes of the loade.

For the manadginge of thies amunitiones, and of the greate orde∣nance is required many men, a monghst the which it is moste neces∣sarie that theyre by goode and experimented Carpinteres, Canonie∣res, Gentlemen of the Artillerie to governe and conducte the same, prudently. A Contador, Mayor domo, Pagador, Comesaries or mu∣ster masteres, a harbinger to whose chardge, is 250. horse, and a pro∣voste over the horses that caries the Artillerie, some Smittes and ma∣ny pioneres or wourkmen, to make trinches rampares, mines, and contra-mines to make plaine and eiven bad pasadges, that the greate ordenance may pass, skillfull Ingineres to under-mine walles of tow∣nes, and fortreshes; to digg welles for water, over thies pioneres are a pointed Captaines to governe and comaunde them, which of ne∣cessitie oughte to by experte in fortificationes, contramininge, trin∣chinge, and knowinge who to manadge ingines of fire-wourkes to burne boates shipes, or any suche combustable thinge, and in kno∣winge Page  156 the compositiones fitt for them, and who to make them.

There oughte to by one of perfecte skill for a condestable or Ma∣ster gunner to governe, comaunde, instructe, oversee and examine all the reste gunneres, and to by verie carefull to see that they doe theyr dutie, and knowe who to a complish with theyr obligationes, for some rawe and unexperimented men do undertake the char∣ge of a gunner who knoweth juste nothinge: Theyre oughte to by in∣strumentes to take the leavelles, ingines to monte and dismonte all sortes of ordenance.

The Generall of the Artillerie, as a superior comaunder, oughte to procure and take a speciall care in due time to see all matteres pro∣vided and put in order, rather then to thincke theruppon, when oc∣casion shoulde presente, and specially in the lowe countries, where warres are dayly in exercice, and sundrie interprises, and brave exploi∣tes executed of a sodaine. He is to get a liste of all sortes of amuni∣nitiones and armes, as well defencive, as offencive both for foote and horse, givinge order and chardge of the same, to the Mayor domo, the which they oughte to give oute by librances or ticketes, from the Generall, because that goode acompte may by yealdeth of provisio∣nes of suche greate importance, in as much that no fraude mighte by suspected: When occasion shall offer to plante youre cannon or grea∣te shott, to batter a cittie towne foote or castell, or any other occa∣sion.

And pretendinge to effecte well youre purpose, youe shall place them by 5.6 7.8. as occasion shall require, a leowinge a certaine di∣stance betwexte every two peeces, acordinge as the occasion and si∣tuation shall require or permit, firste orderinge the place where they shall by put with plankes or tables all a longste under theire whiles, a leowinge 7. foote litle more or less behinde theyre whiles, for the re∣tiring of the peece, soe that of it self, or with litle paines it returnes a gaine to his due and former place; And alsoe before the Artillerie is to by set a resistance of tables, betwext it and the gabiones and para∣pet, and soe of a neowe bigin to chardge it. And when the Artillery bi∣gines to be hott, it is not to by refreshed with vineger, but rather weathinge the trimer in water, and with the same to refress the cane or barrell.

This observation beinge fullfilled in due time youe may still shoo∣te of, if occasion require: It is alsoe to by considered the thicknes and mettal, advertisinge that the Masteres of the ordenance doe a leowe Page  157 no more then 40. or 50. shott a day, if the occasion by not of suche importance.

He who taketh this honorable chardge in hande oughte to by skillfull in the arte of warr, and of greate care in givinge all orderes and instructiones in due time, and see that with greate care and pun∣ctualitie his orderes be observed. He oughte to knowe the names of every peece, and theyre severall weightes lenghtes bignes, and the ju∣ste boare of the cilender, the weighte and thicknes of theyre bulletes, the quantitie of pouder necessarie for every peece, their beste advan∣tadge att poincte blanke, the diference and goodnes of theyre pou∣der, the laddels, sponges, and rammeres necessarie, and befitinge for eache one, theyre ought to by bulletes and a rowes of wilde fire.

It is still to by considered the goodnes or badnes of the pouder, for the pouder beinge goode the lesser will serve, and is of farr better exe∣cution, and doth less heate the peece: To knowe who much pouder youe oughte to a leowe to eache peece take in pouder the waighte of the ⅔ partes of the bullet, and soe with all sorte of ordenan∣ce 〈 math 〉 of whatesoever cice, as for example a cannon of 66. pounde bullet requires 44. pounde of pouder, which is the ⅔. of the waighte of the bullet, and soe with the reste. The laddell beinge filled two times is the righte chardge of each peece, but that consideration oughte to be taken in the goodnes of the pouder and peece uppon the pouder and Artillery ought alwaies to be a pointed a goode and vigilante watche, soe that no fraude may take effecte, in naylinge the ordenance, or givinge fire to the pouder, both foote and horse ought to garde the same if neede require, and specially goode roundes.

The setinge, montinge, or placinge the Artillerie belongethe to the Campe master generall, or highe Marshall of the fielde: Theyre oughte to by a speicall care taken that of all sortes of munitiones thei∣re shoulde by rather more to spare then that theyre shoulde wante, for two many goode respectes, for the more youe have allwayes to spare of pouder, and other munitiones, the more honoure youe gai∣ne and the quieter youre mynde.

If youe shoulde chance to come to conqueste a foraigne coun∣trie where youe are well asured to get both horse and foote, and bein∣ge fullie resolued to overcome that countrie, and remaine in posses∣sion of the same, it is verie necessarie youe carie a longe with youe a greate quātitie of saddeles, briddles, spurres, and Masteres to make su∣che Page  158 wourkes, and alsoe to carie a longe with youe a quantitie of many sortes of weapones and munitiones, which suchc countries can not a fourde, and to take a speciall care that youe receive no men whiche mighte by suspected, for fidelitie is a preciouse guel of greate wourth, for nexte under God theyre is nothinge of so greate importance to a Prince as to have loyall subjectes, for trough theyre love and unitie, the fertilitie of the countrie, a companied with good lawes, goode discipline, prudente and brave conduction of his Captaines and Co∣maunderes in warr, as alsoe a companied with thies saied a faithfull and resolvte determination of his Souldieres, who beinge exercised and experimented in warr is a wounderfull comforte securitie, and repose bothe to the Kinge and countrie.


WHen occasion is offered that a smale or greate number of Souldieres are besiedged in a citti towne forte or ca∣stell, where they are apointed by theyre Kinge or Ge∣nerall for to defende the same, like faithfull and true subjectes, where rather they shoulde dye honorably in defence of the same then yealdeth it, excepte greate extreamitie, and goode reasones, constraine them therunto, and makinge notoriouse there prudence, valoure, and fidelitie; And if it shoulde chance to fall oute theyre comaunder or governoure of such a place trough a covardelie minde, or by meanes of sellinge the same for money to the enemy, and findinge that he shoulde presume to yealde the same to the enemy, litle regardinge his Prince is service, nor his owne repu∣tation, and knowinge that such a place mighte be defended; They all with a brave resolution are to comforte the comaunder, presentinge theyre reasones that suche a place may be well defended, and at lēgh∣te, findinge his minde yealde to the base acte, and seinge that rea∣sones can persuade not a vayle. They are with a brave and resolute determinotion to say that to honoure theyre Prince, and mantaine theyre one reputation, that like unto faithfull subjectes and honora∣ble Souldieres they rather chouse to dye in defence of the place, then yealde the same, till they knowe the will of theyre generall; And if the Generall finde no oportunitie to advertice them with answer, or in Page  159 soucorringe them; They are withe a brave and noble determinasion to proteste to die in defence of the same, with aresolute minde then yealde the same covardly, estiminge but litle the honoure of theire prince and their one reputasion, and findinge that the Governor of that place will not agrie but still goe forwarde in his base minde they may lawfully aprehende him, and electe another in his place, to whome they oughte to obey and respecte as if he were elected by the kinge or generall, protestinge to fulfill with him as a superior, and for the better performance therof to putt all theire conclusiones in wri∣thinge; soe that the enemy beinge informed of their valerouse de∣termination brave spirites and fidelitie, they shal hardlie fall uppon them, but uppon greate and extraordinary advantadge, seinge that they are resolved rather to die in defence of theire honoure and re∣putasion then to yealde or hasarde their fame in rinderinge the same to the handes of theire enemy, whiche may use there one discression in a matter of so heavie importance, in eyther gaininge honoure or disgrace, so considerenge the diferince betwext thies two pointes in the noble profession of armes, better and more honorable it is to die in defence of a iuste and honorable cause, and perpetuate thee fa∣me to all posteritie, then yealde to any lowe or base imagination.

When an army doe inter into a foraine country and determineth to remaine theire that winter, and conquest the same, firste he is to fortifie him selfe, or com in pocession of stronge places if it mighte by posible: Secondlie to gather all the corne cattell wine bire and all other sorte of vituales necessarie for the manteinance of his army: Soe that his may not wante, and that his enemy may by driven unto greate extreamitie (and that trough meere extremitie they may co∣me to offer them selves to serve as faithfull subiectes) so that of ma∣teres whiche bienge prudently and diligentely manadged doe often times resulte prosperouse and goode successes: A necessarie thinge in warr that the souldiores of eache army doe carrie theire device and token wherby they may by knowen by theire owne as frendes, ra∣ther then to fall uppon as if it were an enemy not knowinge them as it may well fall oute.

When a generall of an army doth inter to conqueste a kingdom the provinces or places trough which he marcheth, he is to take care to leave them well fortified and sure, with goode and stronge gariso∣nes that his soucors munitiones and convoyes, may with the better securitie pass and repass, for cause that importeh muche for the bet∣ter Page  160 securitie and goode success of his jurney and pretended purpose: And if by chance in suche places his convoyes by beaten or broken, as it may well fall oute, he may retire to the nexte adjoninge forte ca∣stell or towne, for his securitie, and soe shall all sorte of trade, mar∣chandise, munitiones, and traficke freely pass from place to place, conducted with stronge and vigilante convoyes both foote and hor∣se. Suche persones as shall by chosen to recnoledge citties townes, fortes castelles, theyre fossose and walles, and the places easieste to by won, as alsoe to recnoledge the place more conveniente to cutt trin∣ches. Thies persones oughte to be chosen of men of longe experien∣ce in warr, as well in the Theorick and practice of the same, ingeni∣ouse and of a grtate spirite, of a setled minde to houlde and take no∣tice of whate he seeth, the perill and danger of the matter, the neces∣sarie preventiones for the same in as much as may be possible in ta∣kinge advantadge of the enemy; Some that are employed in thies o∣casiones doe carie armes of proofe and targetes, otheres do onelie carie targetes, whiche i thincke is inoughe, by reason of the greate weighte of both, such men are to arme them selves with a setled min∣de, not fearefull but of a brave spirit scilente and patiente, for other∣wise hardly can they bringe to perfection theyre purpose, nor give a goode relation of whate is recomended to their chardge whiche by experience is often tried in the ocurrantes of warr.

When ocasion shall offer to give an escalada to a towne citti or forte it is necessarie it by at nighte alitle before day, and in an obscu∣re nighte alitle before day, and that to be verie scilent and secretly, and with greate expedition to execute his purpose, but firste and be∣fore hande oughte to be taken the heighte of the wall and place of youre execution, that the laderes may juste conforme with the place and that it be nothing higher for bienge dangerouse, for the parte within discoveringe him, with litle paines may turne the ladder and hinder the execution pretended, and the ladder oughte not to be soe shorte but it may come within two foote to the upper patre of the wall, or juste to the same litle more or less; for otherwise time and ocasion may be loste, and the firste that are to by chosen for suche ex∣ploites are to be pikmen and chosen of persones of brave spirites and valerouse determinationes to intertaine the place with theire pikes till the shott do inter; and as the pikes do inter they are to turne theire faces towarde both sides of the wall to kepe of the furie of the enemy till the shot do inter; And then the leader is to marche forwar∣de Page  161 in goode order till he come to the beste poste of the enemy, and moste fitt for his purpose, with a troupe of chosen and resolute mus∣kettieres in the uangarde who dischardginge that value giueth greate terror to the enemy, and let them make theire rekoninge before han∣de that theire is no turninge bake, but with a brave resolution step forwarde with a ualerouse determination, otherwise athousand to one they are loste, for suche and semblable executiones is required prudente and brave conductores of tried ualoure and resolusion.

Nexte under god, true religion and pure concience, there is no∣thinge to be so highlie esteemed and comended in the profession of armes as obedience, acompanied with goode discipline and exam∣ples, for otherwise all other goode partes in him are to litle purpose and of litle estimasion, yea and of what sover qualitie or condision he be of, from a private souldier to a Master de Campe generall; al∣waies the lower is to respecte the higher in degree (for the prospe∣rouse succeses of warlike afaires.) And it is moste necessarie that tho∣se who doth militate in the same doe serve withe agoode, will cencer∣ly and faith fully, sheowinge them selves louinge and loyall, in all ocasiones to theire Prince, and Generall, whiche they are to sheowe by testimony of goode examples, soe they shall be beloved and gaine goode fame, and by all likhoode shall have goode successes▪ And ma∣ny souldiores who bienge assured that theire cheefe doth inbrace and recompence all brave actiones in warr do venture them selves with a better couradge, and resolute determination; Then if they were constrained by force, and of litle hope of recompence.

Iulius Caesar that famouse Captaine of greate renoome who in all his actiones sheowed him selfe with suche a generouse minde and lo∣vinge towardes his souldiores, acompanied with his military pruden∣ce did triumphe and over com in 52 battelles and incounters of grea∣te hazarde and dificulte, with the slaughter of 110000. persones for the space of eighte yeares he governed Wourthie to be noted and ke∣pte in perpetuall memory when he touke his jurney to pass over the river of the Rhine in germany to fall uppon the Suitseres, to revenge the injurie and treason comitted by them againste the republicke of the Romaines in killinge Casio a famouse Romaine Consull, and all his people: But Iulius Caesar for a revenge therof gave them a battell, they bienge in number 290000. men; Notwithstandinge he defeated 130000. of them, and they askinge for peace after that Cesar did over∣come them he came to a gremente and composition with them.

Page  162A nother thinge wourdie to by noted that when the Suitsers did pass the river of the Rhine, with 43000. men to inhabite, and over∣come France, Borgondie, and Flandes. Julius Caesar heeringe of theyre presomtion, presentlie departed to meete them, and defeated and o∣vercom them, and for the moste parte suche as escaped the battell, for the greate renoome and relation they had of his brave govermen∣te, and kinde intertainemente, they were contente to remaine in ser∣vice under him, soe that trough his prudence, bra ve conduction, and the greate contentemente souldiores had to serve under his comaun∣de, he did overcome all the Provinces of the Suitseres Fleminges, and Frence, and passed into Inglande and did put them under subiection, and after pasinge over sea, the Inglish begon to rebell againste him, so that he was forced to returne a gaine to recover thē, and leavinge them setled, wente into spaine and drived a way Pompeo, and maste∣red all that he had under subiection: So that this laudable and renoo∣med Captanie lefte to all warriers many brave examples of perpetuall memory.

His brave and prudente conduction, liberalitie clemencie and mangnanimitie made him victoriouse, so that he triumpheth over Asia, Africa, and Europa. And soe many more brave and valerouse warrieres for bienge beloved by theires, kepinge them still conten∣ted, have optained manny rare victories. And to the contrarie o the∣res who were of bad conduction, and careless to contente theire Ar∣mies had but litle goode succeses; As did happen to Atilla kinge of the Hunos a proude and cruell man, an enemy and scourdge of cristia∣nes, was overcom in the battell betwexte him and Theodorico Kinge of the Burgonones in the campe of Cathalanos, thoughe he had mo∣re men then the Burgonones he was overcom with the loshe of 180000 men, in whiche battell the Kinge Theodorico was slaine, many more comparisones mighte be related, but nowe a dayes the warres are so diferente in usinge no tyranny, but rather by industry brave and prudente conduction goode discipline, dayly subtilitie engeniouse wittes, inventenge of fire wourkes and other military actes in warr, to which helpeth muche the readinge of antiente histo∣ries of prudente and valerouse Captaines to sharpen the witt of men, and increase the hartes and understandinge of suche as do followe the noble profession of armes: But let none presume that by onely readinge he can be apte to governe in warr (in governinge of an ar∣my) nor truste to the same withoute havinge exercised him selfe Page  163 and practisinge him in many ocurantes of warrlike afaires, but the learninge becometh none better then the souldior, for it bringes him to greate perfection, firimnes and auctoritie. Many Kinges Em∣peroures and Captaine generalles do imbrace the letteres with ar∣mes and finde it moste necessarie, and are of rare importance, and finde that learninge is moste required to the executiones of this pro∣fession more then to any other profession, for bienge the true funda∣mente of nobilitie: In the profession of armes the wicked uice of in∣vie is moste odiouse and uileste of all actes; for bienge master of ma∣ny vices which resulte of rude and blinde ingnorance, subjecte to quareles, murmurasion, backbitinge, disgraces and bad examples, enemy to all goode proceedinges, truth and vertue, whiche doth so penetrate the unconsiderate and base understandinge of many of litle conscience and reputation, daylie decaienge and fallinge unto many crimes and disgraces, enemy to frindshipp and acorde, subje∣cte to afrontes and vices, of bad life and bad ende: In the profession of armes greate care oughte to be taken of suche as are given to suche and semblable vices; and when by faire meanes and goode instru∣ctiones they do not a minde to see them severelie punished, or drive them a way, like base factioneres inclined to vices troubles and bad examples.


WHosoever woulde wish to be a perfecte souldior and desirouse that matteres of importance were refered to his care and chardge, firste he muste by exercised lon∣ge time in warres, sheowinge him diligēte in a plienge him selfe in the theoricke and practick of this arte, to be couriouse and ingeniouse in many ocurrantes and warlike exploi∣tes, in fortifienge him selfe in ocasiones of necessitie eyther in plaine or hilly grounde, riveres or pasadges or where soever. He is to be cou∣riouse in understandinge the dificulties of the situation, the uantadge and disadvantadge of the place, and howe he may intertaine the pla∣ce, in as muche as industrie can a fourde, in consideringe how soucor can be kepte from him, and the necessary prevension, if he by invio∣rened with wood gardines ditches valeyes ould buildinges in 700. Page  164 or 800. paces, and if theire be any suche empedimentes to see them with speede plained and prevented that he may discouer every way, and let him looke well that he be not deprived of water, and in as muche posible to informe him selfe in knowinge all meanes the ene∣my may use to cross him of soccoure; and the sureste way or mea∣nes who he may receive soucor, and use all industrie posible in so mu∣che that the enemy do not cross him of the pasadges, and put them selves in posession of the same: He is to fortifie him selfe in as muche as may by posible, and as the situasion shall permit, not grudginge at the greate paines required to that effecte, in raisinge the walles in the heighte and forme requisite, the ditch of the breade and heighte conveniente. To raise the bulwarkes of the same in the heighte that they may discover the sircuide and places befitinge on eache side, let him by provided in due time of all necessarie munitiones, and as much as may by, and rather have to spare then wante, alsoe to be provided of severall sortes of fire wourkes whiche are of rare empor∣tance in many ocasiones, let him by alwaies vigilante and warie, and feare of the suddaine plottes and stratagemes of his enemy, whiche may fall uppon him when he leaste thinketh, so let him not wholie truste to his and his souldiores valour, but rather alwayes be readie to receive the alarme with greate vigilance and brave resolusion, so shall he a complish the obligationes of a prudente carefull and vigi∣lante souldior, and defende his reputasion.

When any stronge place is beseeged and that yove woulde cut atrince to win the same, the person that undertaketh this chardge muste by curiouse and skillfull, the trince is to by five foote deepe and the earthe to be caste up on both sides then it shall be seaven foote deepe in some places it is to by ten foote broade, in some places eighte, but in the biginenge it needeth not to be above eight foote broade, and in every place it muste by five foote at leaste deepe. Thies trinches are to by cutt and goe on crossed (and crouked) so that the enemy do not discover oure fronte, but givinge them still oure side, and so shall the companies inter with the better securitie and feowe men kilth, and they may goe upp and downe the trince at theire owne ease, but they muste beware and by in all redines leaste the enemy shoulde chance of a soddaine come to trye theire valour, and kill suche as they finde in the trince, and nayle the artillerie if they can come so farr, therfore let theire by chosen the beste and moste valerouse pikemen, and order them in thre in ranke to hinder Page  165 the entinte or empetue of the enemy, in thies and semblable ocasio∣nes in warr where carelelie Officeres and souldiores do assiste they finde them selves amazed for there litle care and vigilance in soddai∣ne prevented exploites of the enemy, after bienge well informed of trustie spies of the litle vigilance and care of the enemy it is an easie thinge to triumphe victorie of them, so in ocurrantes and ocasiones of warrlike afaires all securitie is to by prevented in due time in as mu∣che as industrie vigilance and care can afourde, and such as do not thinke uppon them selves to prevente the necessarie remedies, are moste comonly loste, and suche as do escape remaine tatched with greate disgrace, for bienge overthrowen trough careless mindes and litle discipline, so let none by ingnorant but that vigilance and care acompanied with military prudence and brave resolusion is of rare importance in warr.

THE SIXTE CHAP. Treatinge of the Office of a Captaine generall of an Army.

THis office beinge of so high dingnitie and degree, the Kinge doth chuse and electe it be the advice of his prudente counsell of state and warr; and in this ele∣ction greate consideration oughte to by had, for bien∣ge the office of higheste degree in the fielde; which of all reason oughte to by comended to the care and chardge of a per∣sonadge indued with the befitinge partes for the executinge of so ho∣norable a chardge: Therfore he oughte not onely to have the per∣fection and aproved partes of all other officeres under his comaun∣de; but to excell them all in experience, gravitie, policie, secrecie, temperance, valour constancie, vigilance, care liberalitie, and to by of brave and resolute determinations, preventinge and executinge in due time with care and prudence all thinges apertaininge to his chardge: To relate of all the goode partes in him it were tedious, for he is to by of suche perfecte judgemente of all thinges which hath and shall by writen of this arte, so that the goode partes in him requi∣red are infinit.

He is not onely to by of perfecte judgemente in excellinge all the Page  166 reste, but alsoe to by of a verteouse life in givinge goode examples, as apateerne lighte and lanterne of all the army (soe that they may imi∣tate him) for moste comonlie averteouse prudente and valiante ge∣nerall will chuse valiante verteouse and prudente Captaines and Of∣ficeres; prudente and valerouse Captaines oughte to estime ver∣teouse valiante and skilfull souldieres.

The accidentes of warr are so many that it altherethe the hou∣more of some professores of this arte, excepte they by indued with singular vertue and constancie, which are founde but in verie feowe. Very many dificulties doe offer in the daylie ocurrantes of warr, but greate abilitie is requiered to see them prudently ordered; and har∣dely can any master be had of suche perfection, but that some times he muste err.

To relate in particular of the partes required in a generall it were tediouse, Wherfore i will name the foure princlpal partes the Gree∣kes and Romaines desired to occurr in such personages; firste to be skillfull in the arte of warr, to be valiante and of brave and prudente resolution, to sheowe him selfe with greate gravitie and auctoritie, and to be fortunate in his sucesses. If he be acompanied with the par∣tes and proprietie before declared it is inough. Nevertheless he hase inoughe to learne.

For the better securitie and success of his army it is necessarie that his person be still well garded in all plases where he marches with his army. (And trough his valeoure and mangnanimitie) findinge that he is inclined to presente him selfe the firste in all dangeres, his con∣sell of warris not to permitt him for many respectes, for bienge kilth or taken prisoner it were no smale matter. That besides it is an oca∣sion to animate the enemie, and to disanimate oures, wherof greate consideration oughte to be taken.

The Greekes and Romaines for the defence and repose of theire re∣publike have chosen theire Captaine generalles of souldieres of grea∣te and longe experience in martiall actiones, wherby they mighte prudentlie governe and comaunde with full auctoritie and due re∣specte. And therfore they alwaies did chuse thies personadges of men of longe practice, greate experience in warr, and of reepe yeares and judgement.

It is true that Alexander Magnus, beinge but of yonge yeares begon to governe and comaunde an Army, and conquered all Asia and did put the worlde in amace. Somtimes it is moste conveniente that Page  167 Kinges and Princes in person be presente withe theire armies for many respectes, thouge theire experience be not greate; but when suche ocasiones do presente they carie with them the moste ancien∣te and experimented Captaines they finde as did Alexander of those Captaines whiche Kinge Philip his father had for his Counseleres and conductores of warr. And as did Kinge Philipe of Spaine when he elected don Juan de Austria for his Captaine generall, he a poin∣ted for his Lieutenante don Luis de Suniga the gran comendador of castilla.

And to the contrarie who infortunate hapened to don Sebastian Kinge of Portugall not to imitate thies renoomed examples of per∣perpetuall memorie, in his infortunate and disastred journey made into barbarie, he beinge yonge and vnexperimented in warr whiche was cause of his and his armies perdicion, so that yonge Princes in warres oughte to have for theire Counseleres grave and experimen∣ted Captaines, none can denay but this Kinge was of a high conceite and of amoste brave and valerouse determinasion but by reson of his yonge yeares and lesse experience in warr, he wanted prudence for the due conduction of such an honarble action.

In the honorable journey made by the famouse and renoomed conquerour Kinge Edward the thirde into France, sendinge his eyl∣dest son the Prince of wales for generall, Naminge for his Counse∣lers and Captaines the valiante prudente and renoomed Earles of oxforde warwick, suffolk and salisbury, where at the battell of Poy∣tieres they made knowen theire vndeniable prudence and greate va∣lour, that at lenghte they overthrewe the whole power of france, and theire Kinge Iohn and his son Philipe were taken prisoneres, with very many of the frence nobilitie, to the Inglish is perpetuall glorie and fame.

Aniball that renoomed Captaine of perpetuall memorie was but very yonge when he began to governe an army, but he had for his Counseleres anciente and prudente Captaines, and was ruled and governed by them till he came to understandinge, givinge many fa∣mouse battelles and overthrowes to the Romaines, till at the ende he was overcome with Cipio Africano that renomed Captaine of the re∣maines.

The Captaine generall oughte to informe him selfe well of the forces qualitie and condiciones of his enemy, if bisonos or rawe men, or oulde and experimented souldiers, alsoe to be well informed of Page  168 the cituation strenghte and forme of theire citties townes, fortes, and stronge houldes, and of the convenienteste plases to passe over thire riveres. Alsoe to informe him selfe of the situation of their cam∣pes, so that he mighte be the better prevented when ocasion shall of∣fer, alsoe to be well informed of persones of goode judgemente and truste of all the dificulties that maie hinder him, so that in due time he may prevente all necessarie prevenciones, and specially see that he trusteth the relatinge of thies and many more ocasiones to persones of greate fidelitie and truste and of goode understandinge.

When the Captaine generall shall inter to conqueste aforaigne country he is to indevoure with speede to put him selfe in pocession of the principaleste pasadges of riveres casteles and stronge plases, and with speede see them well provided with all necessaries, that the∣reby he may put the country under subiection, and that his amuni∣tiones and all other necessaries may be transported with the more securitie from one place to another, and withe speede to see all places fortified in as muche as can posible, where any parte of his army bein∣ge constrained trough extreame necessitie may safelie repaire unto. For it faleth oute often times that the ocurrantes of warlike affaires are subjecte to many disgrases, and may be when we leshe feare. Wherfore aprudente comaunder oughte in due time to prevente su∣che dificulties, which is the kea and securitie of his army, and special∣ly to see thies plases well provided with all sorte of amunitions, and to see that they be recomended to the care and chardge of carefull vigi∣lante prudente and valerouse Captaines.

When resolution is taken to scale any towne forte or stronge place, firste information oughte to be taken by skillfull and trustie persones of al dificulties which mighte be suspected or feared, as alsoe of the juste heighte of the walles that ladderes may be made for that purpo∣se, and not to be overlonge for bienge dangerouse for cause that the enemy may easilie turne them up side downe. Thies ladderes are not to be so shorte but that they may reache to the place of theire execu∣tion (for thies executiones moste comonlie are firste imploied pike∣men of chosen and valerouse souldieres) to make way till the shott followe to socoure them, duringe whiche time they are to man∣taine the place with greate valeoure till all the shott do ioyne, and then with speed goe forwarde, well and prudently ordered, and with abrave and resolute tetermination til they come in poces∣sion and master the place, and strongeste watche they finde. In thies Page  169 and other semblable ocasiones there is no lookinge after, still goe for∣warde with greate couradge and valeoure, whiche execution oughte to be recomended to the care and chardge of prudente and valerouse Captaines and chosen souldiores, which bienge so hitted uppon, grea∣te expectasiones mighte be hoped of theire goode sucesse. And or∣der oughte to be given that in paine of death no souldier shall stir oute of his order till the enemy be wholie vanquised and all thinges dulie ordered and prevented.

Goode successes are often times optained by meanes of military prudence care and diligence, wherfore it is necessarie the Captaine generall be verie industriouse in knowinge who to invente neowe oc∣casiones of warr to diverte and intertaine the enemy when ocasion shall require, and to corupte them with money, for many ocurantes in warr it is necessarie to have many trustie spies whiche serve for ma∣ny purposes, it is moste necessarie that thies persones by knowen for men of truste and fidelitie; for otherwise beinge of double dealinge they are moste dangerouse. In all ocasiones he shall atempte he is to be verie carefull and diligente, and to knowe the qualitie and condi∣sion of the enemyes comaunder wheader he be raish and inconsiderat or prudente and reposed in his actiones, and wheader he be a man of a high minde to come to the facte of armes, and to knowe the quali∣tie of his counseleres conductores and officeres, and of whate deter∣minasiones, and to be well informed if his army be of bisones or rawe men or of anunciente skillfull and practised souldiores, and of whate nasiones and of whate desingnes. A generall can helpe him selfe in many matteres havinge goode and trustie spies, whiche are to be verie well rewarded and paied for be their, meanes often tymes mat∣teres of greate momente is prevented in due time, and to the con∣trarry for wante of suche trustie and carefull persones greate disgra∣ces doe happen, and brave interprises loste, thies persones beinge of confidente truste care and abilitie is agreate repose of minde to the generall.

Moste necessarie it were that some Captaines and Alferises refor∣med of longe practice and experience in warr shoulde still asiste ne∣xte his person, to informe of many matteres which doe occurr un∣knowen to the Generall, and of greate importance to his majesties service, and which shoulde by prevented in due time. Thies persones for cause of there longe experience and a proved fidelitie in materes of warr shoulde rather by imploied then otheres ordinarily sente Page  170 with comisiones in visitinge frontieres, fortificasiones amunisiones magasenes or storehouses, and of verie many more ocasiones of im∣portance to the furtherance of his majesties service, and in givinge true relasion of the extreame necessities of souldiores for wante of the ordinary and inescusable necessaries ordained for them be the Prince in theire garisones as lodginges bedes, &c. And seinge that none do procure nor pittie them they run away from theire coloures which mighte be prevented in due time be meanes of faithfull and trustie relatores, to the better performance of his majesties service and re∣pose of the comon wealth and poure inhabitances, it were verie ne∣cesary he shoulde have trustie persones of good skill and understan∣dinge in warr who shoulde in due time advertice him of many mat∣ters which doth ocurr unknowen to him or his counsell, and verie necessary for his majesties service.

To by prevented in due time againste the poysonous designes and practises of the enemy, it were moste necessary to get faithfull and trustie spies to knowe the intentes of the enemy, and to whate ende they aspire, and to see thies spiees well rewarded, so that with the greater care they acomplish the truste emputed in them, so that matteres of greate importance may by discovered and prevented withoute facte of armes, onely with military prudence. His ceasless care and high conceite, ought never to be weery in toylinge after vertue, and to attaine with travaile care and military prudence the gloriouse issues of his deepe designes.

In thies oure later warres for the moste parte all electiones goes by favor frindshipp or affection to the greate discomoditie of his majesties service; wherfore the Captaine generall as a supreame iusti∣ce over a whole army shoulde have aspeciall care in informinge him selfe well in due time, to see amatter of so greate importance pruden∣tely prevented. It alsoe falethe oute that when the Generall Caules for arelasion of the Master de campes to reforme so many Captaines of eache regimente of eache nasion to reforce other companies. In such and semblable ocasiones, the Generall shoulde take aspeciall care to by well informed, for cause that by dayly experience wee see thies afaires sinesterly handled; Reforminge those of greate service suficiency and valoure, which is manifeste, and to no smale discomo∣dity to his majesties service, in the atemptes of many honorable in∣terprises and incounteres, and to the greate decay of military disci∣pline. So that for wante of prudente conductores, many honorable Page  171 ocasiones are dayly loste. And that resultinge of the litle perfection of many officeres in military discipline. To see thees ocasiones and many more duly prevented, the Captaine generall for many wour∣die respectes oughte to informe him selfe well, in as much that favou∣re frindshipp nor affecsion may take place, but rather forwarde and advance those of longe and faithfull service, prudente cariadge, re∣noomed actes and valoure. So that in the administrasion of justice he shall by reputed for one inclined to minister equitie and righte, as alsoe for one of greate disgression and wisedome, And soe moste co∣monly by all reason the sucesses of military discipline shall prosper, to the greate renoome of the Prince, repose and furtherance of the comon wealthe. Happy is the Prince and renoomed is the Generall who in his electiones doe imitate the Greekes and Romaines, in ele∣ctinge the conductores of theyr armyes of men experte and skillfull in the arte of warr, and moste comonly wise vertuese and valiante Generalles, will chuse wise valiante and vertuese Captaines, of longe practice renoomed actes and goode examples; So with the asistan∣ce of the divine powere (greate hopes oughte to by expected of thei∣re happie successes) as Alexander the greate, Scipio Africano, Ani∣ball, and many more renoomed warrieres lefte in writhinge sufi∣ciente examples of the same.

The ende of the seconde Booke.
Page  [unnumbered]Page  [unnumbered]

THE THIRDE BOOKE TREATINGE OF FIREWOURKES OF RARE EXECUTIONES BY SEA AND LANDE. After which followes A DISCOURSE OF THE CONFINES OF A KINGDOME; And the goode lavves to by observed in the sa∣me, and hovve it is to by fortified, and stron∣ge by arte, or by nature, or by both.

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THE FIRSTE CHAP. Treatinge of Patarres.

TO chardge a pattar to breake a bridge is requi∣red six pounde of pouder, or six and haulfe, and to breake stronge portes or gates, foure poun∣de, or foure and haulfe, and for palisados two pounde, or two and haulfe.

This pattares are to be chardged of the fine∣ste and beste pouder that can by had, whiche to do well for the perfecte execution of the same. Pouder shoulde be made for itt of refined mixtures of saltpeeter and solpher, and at the chardginge of the same it muste be well bea∣ten, but not so much that the graine of the pouder by brocken, and when it is chardged, the mouth of the pattar muste be very well stopped with apeece of tember (and wax) oboute the which on the outwarde parte, or abouth the mouth of the pattar muste be wrap∣ped and tied apeece of canuas dobbed in wax, fearinge that water mighte come to touche the pouder to hinder the execution of the same, if in case it shoulde chance faule into the water. (Advertisinge that the pattar is not to be wholie filled, rather to leave three or foure fingeres voyde, and to fill the moste parte therof with okum, and the touch hole is to be coated with apeece of waxte canuas, and well tied to the same for feare of water and fire.

The touche hole muste be filled with mixtures ready and quick to kindel fire, but sloely to effecte that the patardier may have tyme to retire after giving fire.

The compositiones required to charge a pattar.

FOr this purpose take three partes of fine and strong pouder, five of solpher, eighte of refined saltpeter, or eight and haulfe, after∣wardes mingell all thies mixtures well togither til yove corpora∣te them, and put to them alitle petrol oyle, so muche that they cor∣porate togither, and let them drie well in the sun, and beinge well dried, fill the pattar with the saied mixtures, for the tienge of thies pat∣tares Page  176 aforck with two teethes is estimed the beste, and in tyme of exe∣cution to putt the same trough the eares of the pattar to fasten the same both with a chaine and corde.

When yove woulde surprise a ny place of emportance by scalinge pattar, or by meanes of any faulte in the walles of the same, wherby yove may easilie come in, or by inteligence or treatment of treason. Ifby pattar yove determin to win the same, yove muste firste by well informed of skilfull and trustie spies, or of persones of truste, of the strenght and entrie of the gates, batteries bridges, palisados, bucke∣tes, and chaines of the bridges, the height and distance to come to the place of execution, and if the ditch by drie or with water, and who deepe and lardge, and if there be any forlorne centeries, or cor∣pes de garde that may hinder yove, and in whate place they lay, and if theyr by any greate ordenance that may play on yove, and on whate side it layeth and in whate distance·

The place beinge well discovered, to effect youre entention, yove are to vse stratagemes to divert and ocupie the enemy another way. Juste aboute the tyme that yove are ready to execute youre de∣sire.

The tyme beeingh well hit uppon, with oportunitie, and being well informed by trustie spies of no deceite nor fraude, fasilitateth much the interprice, which is moste comonlie alitle before day; at which tyme the centeries are moste laesie and have more desire to sleepe, beesides that the obscuritie helpeth much the interpricce and aprochinges.

When the pattares are to be planted to their execution betwexte the mouth of the same and the gate or bridge yove are to put aplanc∣ke of stronge woode, of two foote broade and two foote and haulfe longe and three foote distance from the place of execution, and if yove finde that the plancke be not stronge inough, you are to take two barres of yron and put them cros wise for the better perfor∣mance of youre execution, and that betwexte the saide planckes and the place of execution, and to order all thies thinges in areadines with every thinge apertaining, before yove com to the place of execution. Greate consideration and curiositie is to be used be the engenious and skilfull person that taketh in hande this busines, in givinge fire to the same, whiche is easie and enfalible for suche as are of perfecte skill in fire wourckes but to otheres verie dangerouse.

Page  177

THE SECONDE CHAP. How to make a torche to endure againste the force of winde and raine.

TAke of fine cotten threede, which is used for candles the one thirde parte, and the other two thirde partes of threede made of fine ocam, and make of this acorde as thicke as youre finger. Then take a quantitie of saltpe∣ter, and let it by finely stamped, and then tacke a quan∣titie of Aqua vitae, and let the corde boyle therin a goode while till it almoste be drie, then put into the same a litle quantitie of gineper oy∣le, and one parte of pouder, two of refined saltpeter, and one parte of rosen; and corporate them all togither, and let them boyle over a softe fire till the corde be almoste drie, and turne the same often times with much vigilance or it will kindel fiere if any extraordinary hett come nere it. Beinge drie inough tacke it up, then take one parte of wax, one parte of rosen, haulfe parte of colofonia, one fourth parte of linesatt-oyle, and so muche of camphora, one parte of saltpeter three times refined, one parte of pouder, and boyle all thies mixtures togither, and when they are well corporated dob youre corde in the same mixtures as if youe were to make a candel, and after beinge dob∣bed in thies mixtures often times, set the candel a parte till it be drie inough then let it be dobbed in wax, as youe doe other candels till such time as it be of the thicknes youe woulde have it to be, then lay it upp till it be drie, and in lightinge the same it will burne with greate furie and force, and no raine nor winde can quince it, and it will yeal∣de a greate flame, and terrible noice, that the behoulderes will mu∣che admire at the same.

To trie who to reduce saltpeeter into water take three onces of rai∣ne water, and put it in acaldrō over the fire, and put into the same two onces of saltpeeter well stamped, and let it boyle so longe till it come to be water, whiche for many effectes of this wourke is goode, and specially to guie more force to mixtures that are not in theyre full substance and perfection.

To refine solfer and make it more stronge put into the same one Page  178 eighte parte of quicksilver, and ⅔. partes of refined saltpeeter, and mel∣te them over a softe fire till they corporate well, and after, takings the same up and beinge alitle hote caste it into strong veneger, and within alitle while take itt up and it will by of full strenghte.

To discover the enemy at nighte when yove woulde fall to do any execution, cause aquantitie of fagotes secretly to by put in the moste convenienteste place for that purpose (that will give yove inogh light) en vsinge them in this maner followinge and also will indure longe.

Take agoode quantitie of ro sen, and foure times so muche turpin∣tin de Venetia, and haulfe so muche of colofonia as yove take of roo∣sen, and put aquantitie of the saied mixtures on each fagot and give the same fire with awad of okum, dobbed in pouder brandevin and turpintin, which wad beinge dried will presently give fire to the fago∣tes and yealde agreate flame and indure longe, and if yove will ha∣ve it to indure longer put aquantitie of colofonia uppon the fagottes in the thickeste parte of them and the fire will endure longe inoghe.

Page  179

THE THIRDE CHAP. To arme tronckes or canes made for severall executiones of this arte, the figure of which canes youe shall see hire followinge whiche are made of lighte woode and are to be of two foote or two and haulfe longe, and som shorter for cause of their weigh∣te in time of execution.

THies canes are hollowe within and made of lighte tember like the barrell of apeece of ordenance, and they muste by well bounde all rounde aboute with stronge marlin corde, fearinge leaste it shoulde splin∣ter by meanes of the stronge compositiones, and mi∣xtures put into the same, of whiche we will nowe treate. After yove have well tied the same alongste with the corde all aboute, yove may doabe or coate the corde in a mixture made of pitch and wax for the more securitie of the cane in keepinge it from water, and not to splin∣ter. Which douptles they will exepte they be well handled by men of goode experience, and practice in this arte, and let none presume that for the readinge of many goode bookes he cā bringe this wourc∣ke to perfection, for it is of suche rare and deepe judgemente in the orderinge and measuringe in proportion of the seaveral sortes of mixtures required for the same. In the drienge and manadgeinge of them is required greate consideration, good skill, vigilance, and rare judgemente of longe exercice; wherof i have seene many dangerous triales bothe in the handlinge and executiones of this wourcke, in his due measure and proportion, therfore confideration, care, and vigi∣lance is required.

The compositiones required for the saied canes, take six partes of musket pouder, foure, of solfer, a haulf parte of quicksilver, one parte of cristal glashe beaten into pouder, one parte of armoniacke alsoe beaten into pouder, one parte of camphire, three partes of saltpee∣ter three times refined, two partes of rosen, all whiche cause to by well stamped and mingled togither, then tacke of gineper-oyle, or petroll oyle, as much as will wet a litle all the saied mixtures, then put as muche stronge brandevin, as shall be sufficiente to weate well all Page  180 the saiede mixtures, and mingel them togither, and let them be dried in the sun or over a softe fiere till they corporate well, then putt a monghste them a litel quantity of fine cotten made or a nointed in fi∣ne beaten pouder and gineper oyle, and when all thiese compositio∣nes are drie, fill youre cane or troncke, putinge in the bottom of the same three musket-shotes of pouder, or more, acordinge to the great∣nes of the cane, then a quantitie of youre mixtures then a litle pou∣der, then mixtures, then alitle pouder, and so till youe almoste fill the cane to the brim, leavinge two enches emptie where youe shall put drie mixtures quicke and apte to kindel fire, and haulfe, a quar∣ter of an once of fine pouder in the very mouthe of the cane, and sti∣ke into the same a peece of match made of fine cotten, and boyled in Aqua vitae, gineper oyle, and fine pouder of the beste youe can finde, to presently kindell fire, when occasion shall require; And when youe will bigin with the execution of the same, youe are to give fire in the mouthe of the cane, and it will yealde a moste furious and greate fla∣me till it burne oute, and the execution of the flame will reache so∣me 12. foote, and with a greate furie and force, which artificiall canes are excellente to inter per force into shippes, or into a breache or trinche, alsoe it is moste excellente to breake any order or array, and specially in narrowe or straighte places, as the draught marked with the letter A. sheoweth.


THE FOURTH CHAP. Another way to arme artificiall canes of fire-wourcke.

TAke three partes of rosin, two partes of brimstone, one haulfe parte of the grease or fatt of a hog ¼. parte of red wax, cause the rosen and brimstone to be beaten into pouder, and mingell them togither. Then put to them the grease, and red wax and put them over asofte fire in a caldron, or earthen pott, stirringe them still til they corpora∣te well, and remaine a goode while over the fire: Then take five par∣tes Page  181 of serpintin pouder of the beste, and of saltpeeter three times re∣fined three partes, whiche muste be beaten to pouder, then take two partes of camphire stamped, then one parte of cristall glash, whiche muste be beaten into fine pouder, alsoe one parte of armoniak whi∣che muste be beate in into pouder, all which yove shall putt into the saied mixtures, and let them all boyle over asofte fire till they be well corporated and dried, or if yove will tacke them up when they are well corporated and reasonable drie it emporteth nothinge, by rea∣son they are quick to kindle fire, and required not over muche drien∣ge, and if yove finde that the mixtures be not well wet that they may the better corporate, put alitle a qua vite or petroll oyle or of bothe to them, till yove see that they be very well corporated, he that un∣dertaketh to macke any store of thies Fire-wourckes muste make up a furniesh for the beater securitie of the same, for putinge the mixtu∣res in caldrones or pottes over the fire as many do, it is dangerouse exepte it be handeled be one of perfect skill and greate vigilance whiche jhave often times tried.

For the fillinge of youre artificiall canes or tronkes withe the aforesaid mixtures, needeth much consideration and practice, for the perfecte execution of this wourcke. Put in case it is acane where aboy is arme can inter into, yove muste fill it as foloweth but if grea∣ter or lesher consideration muste be taken in fillinge the same with the mixtures in measure and proportion, or it will faile in burninge all of asodaine or verie sloe so that greate practice and curiositie is required for the perfecte handelinge of this wourke.

For the fillinge of the saide canes before spoken of put into the bottom of the same two handes and haulfe full of musket pouder, then three handes full of the drieste mixtures, then two handes full of pouder, then foure handes full of the mixtures, then a litle pou∣der, then five handes full of the mixtures, and soe still in this course, till youe fill youre cane within three eaches of the mouthe of the sa∣me, which youe shall fill with verie drie and quick mixtures apt to kindle fire, and on the upmoste parte or mouthe of the cane some pouder. That don take a peece of matche made of fine cotten, and sod in Aqua vitae, gineper-oyle, and fine beaten pouder, and well dried, in the sun or over asofte fire till ib be verie well dried of this matche cutt three enches and sticken itt into the mixtures that is in the mouth of the cane, and when youe are ready for youre exe∣cution do but give fire with youre ordinarie matche to this gunpou∣der Page  182 matche, and presently at the firste touch of youre ordinary match, or of any other fire it will instantly kindel fire: Advertisinge that youe are to cover the mouth of the cane with a peece of stronge parchmente, and binde it well, so that the mixtures may not faule oute of the cane, the veri end of the match muste a peere trough the saied partchment to give it fire, when occasion shall require, and then the cane shall presently bigin to wourcke with greate furie and terri∣ble to the behoulderes, for the wonderfull flame and terribel noyce.

I have seene trial made often times that theyer is nothinge that pu∣teth one in more terror then thies instrumentes, beinge well made and duelie handled, and douptles the flame and noyce of this fire will put the enemy in greate terror, when it bigines his course of exe∣cution, and none so valiante durste stay neere it as longe as the flame indures, and questionles it will make a way as farr as the haulfe pike and flame can reache though ever so valiante youre enemy be, and it is a moste excelent instrumente to bourde shippes per force, or to gi∣ve fire to theyre mines if youe perceive where the same doeth laye, advertisinge that the saide cane shall shoote of two shottes one after a nother, the firste that layes in the thirde degre, and the other that layes in the bottom.

Thies canes can be made severall maner of wayes be such as are curiouse in the manadginge of this arte, whicc none can bringe to perfection, but with longe practice, and muche chardges, be reason the compositiones and mixtures required for the same are wonder∣full deere, so that for the saide respectes hardely can youe finde one in ten tousand that will undertake the executinge of this wourcke; may be some will that are curiouse in readinge many brave Auctores, thinckinge that onely by the same they knowe inough, they are farr deceived, for i knowe that withoute practice they shall fall into very many errores, wherof i have seene verie many triales made, and besi∣des greate chardges before they coulde come to the perfecte judge∣mente of the deepe secretes and curiousities of this rare arte.

Thies canes or tronckes of fire-wourcke, are handled severall ma∣ner of wayes be suche as are curiouse; for some are of quicke execu∣tiones, otheres of slow acordinge as the ocasiō shall require, in putin∣ge to thē mixtures agriable for that purpose, some yealde a flame of 16. foote but thies indures but verie shorte, otheres yealde a flame of 12. or 13. foote, whiche indure lōger, whiche are made for sodaine executiones, otheres are made which do yealde a flame of 9. or 10. Page  183 foote, whiche do indure lōge i nogh for any sodaine exploite, for thies are made for suche executiones: Suche as doe not indure a bove the ⅛ parte of a quarter of an houre wil almoste wholy burne the cane, i meane all the inner parte of the same, suche as are made to indure haulfe a quarter of an houre will wholy burne the cane into a eish∣sees as faste as the mixtures or compositiones do burne. So any bod∣dy may perceive that thies compositiones are of wonderfull force, and of rare executiones, whiche questionles shall soe by founde by such as will take the paines and chardges, to make triall, and beinge experte in the due handlinge and manadginge of them. Thies mi∣xtures are to bee putt in canes made, like the figure folowinge mare∣ked with the letter B.


THE FIFTE CHAP. Artificiall bullettes, and cross barres made of fire-wourke, to shoo∣te oute of greate ordenance to burne shippes or houses, or to be shot into magasens or munition houses of the enemy oute of greate ordenance, or to be shot into the enemyes campe to bur∣ne theyre quarteres, whiche are to be made and ordered in this maner folowinge.

TAke foure partes of saltpeeter thre tymes refined, of brimstone two partes, of camphire one parte and haulfe, of rosen two partes, of armoniak one parte, of cristal glash beatin into pouder halfe aparte, of bay saulte one fourth parte; all thies compositiones bein∣ge beaten into pouder mingle them togither, this beinge don take one haulfe parte of the fat of ahog, of turpintin one fourth parte, of linsat oyle so much more, of aqua vitae one parte, then putt thies mi∣xtures togither over a softe fire in acaldron or stronge earten pott, and mingel them altogither till they corporate very well, then when Page  184 they are a goode while over the fire put to them six partes of serpin∣tin-pouder, and corporate them well, and when youe finde that they are reasonable drie take them upp, and make a plaster or cover of oecam, so thick as the backe of a knife, and so broade as shall cover the bullet or cross barr. All that beinge ordered as before declared take 4. partes of serpintin-pouder of the beste, and cause it to be bea∣ten into pouder, take of refined saltpeeter two partes, of rosen two partes, armoniacke one parte, brimstone one parte, all which muste be beaten into pouder, then wet thies mixtures with two partes of stronge brandevin, or Aqua vitae, one parte of gineper∣oyle, one par∣te of turpintin, haulfe parte of linsat-oyle, that don put over the fire the rosin, brinstone Aqua vitae, the geneper-oyle, the turpintin and linsat-oyle a bove mencioned, and when they are melted, and well corporated putt into the same the saltpiter, armoniack, and foure partes of serpintin-pouder, and corporate all thies mixtures togi∣ther, and a noynte the twoa in them till youe finde it full of the sub∣ce of the same. Then let the ocam be all over covered with the firste mixtures made for the bulletes a boute a finger thicknes or more; al∣waes tackinge regarde that it doe agree with the peece oute of which youe entende to shute the same, and when the coate of the saied bul∣let is covered, and full of the saied mixtures, then wrappe it rounde a boute the bullet, or cross barr, and tee it very well with stronge mar∣lin corde, and benge well bounde with the said corde, and shot oute of a peece of ordenance it will burne with terrible force, and greate furie, and water can not quince it, of the which for curiositie as alsoe to knowe of the operation therof i made severall triales.

Thies mixtures needeth not much drienge when they are well cor∣porated over a softe fire, but the outewarde plaster of twoa of the three, wherewith youe are to cover every bullet, and in suche sorte that presently it may kindell, and give fire to the inner cōpositiones, to the which when youe give it fire, it will burne with greate force.

Thies bullettes are excelente to burne shippes, and to by caste in∣to townes to burne houses, theyre execution is of suche wonderfull force that questionless they will burne an oaken boorde, and if youe caste water uppon them the more they will burne, and will make su∣che a wonderfull noyce able to putt the behoulderes in greate ter∣ror, and specially suche as have no understandinge of theyre opera∣tion, for when the water is caste uppon them they shall give a greate crie juste as if it were of a wilde boare, wherof i made severall triales Page  185 wourdie the lookinge uppon, and none of the behoulderes of the sa∣me durste stay neere in a greate distance for the strange operation of the same, and the terror whereunto they put the behoulderes but such as knowe of the course of theyre operation, whiche is almoste incredible but to suche as are a quainted with the same.

For the better execution of the cross barres and specially be sea they shoulde be made with yron chaines fastened to the end that fir∣ste muste by put into the peece whiche is moste excelente to cut sayles of shippes ropes mastes, and to make other greate spoyles, the figure of whiche yove see heere folowing where the lette C. sheo∣weth.

Thies cross barres are to be coated as before taughte and with the selfe same mixtures, the bulletes are alsoe to be coated takinge regarde that the bullet be made no greater but that it mighte inter into the peece of ordenance oute of whiche yove meane to shoote the same. And they are to be doble bounde all rounde aboute very well with stronge marlin corde, fearinge that be the greate force of theire roaringe and wrastlinge oute of the peece the ocam and com∣positiones, beinge not well bounde shoulde be untied, and tacke no effecte, which questionless it will excepte it by verie well bounde as before declared; of the whiche i caused my selfe triall to be made. The figure of thies bulletes and cross barres youe see hire marked with the letter C.


Page  186


TO arme a haulfe pike with fire-wourcke to inter or bourde shippes per force or to inter into a trence or baterie or breake any order or array where the balles fastned to them shall fall, thies balles are to be made of lighte woode of the bignes or somwhate greater then abuter box, and of the very selfe same makinge, but that it muste be bored with foure holes crosswise, and of the greatnes that youre thom might inter into them, whiche shall by filled in this maner fo∣lowinge.

Take of the same mixtures and compositiones that was ordained for the artificiall canes to whiche youe are to ad two partes of rosen and one parte of brimstone of the beste, and melt thies togither putin∣ge alitle Aqua vitae to them of the strongeste yove can finde, and bien∣ge well corporated and molten, put the other mixtures over the fire and when they are hote put the molted rosen and brimstone to them, and corporate all togither, and beinge almoste coulde fill you∣re artificiall balles therewith as full as they can houlde, putinge a litle of the drieste mixtures and pouder in the mouthe of each hole of the foure, and alitel cotten boyled in gun pouder, brandevin and gineper-oyle, and afterwardes dried verie well, that therby they may pre∣sently kindel fire. That don take as much ocam or towe as will cover or coate them, makinge aplaster of the same of ahaulfe ence thik or litle lesh, this coate or plaster cause to by sod over asofte fire in fine beaten pouder to the quantitie of foure partes, of saltepiter two par∣tes, rosin two partes, armoniacke haulfe a parte, brimstone one parte and all thies beinge firste beatē into pouder let them be wet in bran∣devin and giniper-oyle and well corporated togither, then take as muche ocam as will cover them as before declared, and when all thies mixtures are well corporated and dried over asofte fire, then spread them uppon the ocam with whiche yove entende to coate youre ball and put on the same to the thicknes of haulfe anence or litle lesh of the saied mixtures and wrapp the same rounde aboute the ball and let it be tied verie well with marlin corde, and when all this is don ta∣ke a peece of gunpoder matche beinge well handled and dried, and binde it in severall partes of the ball that in touchinge the same with Page  187 youre ordinarie matche it will presentlie kindell fire, and withoute delay and it will bigin to burne with amoste wonderfull flame and terrible noyce that it will put the behoulderes in greate terror; and if it fall uppon abourd or any other thinge apte to kindle fire it will burne it into aeishes, and alsoe the cover that goes aboute the same: the terror wherunto thies balles do put the behoulderes of rhem when they burne is vncredible but to suche as do see the same, wher∣of jmade severall proofes and founde it soe that no boddy durste stay neere, thies haulfe pikes somtimes are armed with skubbes made of fire wourcke which alsoe are goode to offende or defende, thies bal∣les and haulfe pikes are of rare executiones which draughte yove see hire vnder marked with the letter D.


A prudente and brave conductor of aforecaste considerasion, bien∣ge determined with military prudence, and resolusion of his and of his souldiores valoure to fall on any execusion moste comonly they are wonte to have goode sucesses, to which effecte many stratagemes and military prudence is required. And bienge in the fielde and re∣solved to give battell or at leaste to dommadge or put the enemy in greate terror; Verie necessary it were to by provided withe bulletes cross barres and yron chaines armed with wilde fire to by shutt oute of greate ordenance, the which in suche ocasiones, as also in sea servi∣cees are of rare execusiones bienge prudently armed and manad∣ged, by one of perfecte judgemente and longe practice in this arte. Thies bulletes or cross barres bienge shoote oute of greate ordenan∣ce in the fronte of abattell or of an army in areasonable neere distan∣ce are of wonderfull executiones, and specially yron chaines and cross barres They are alsoe goode to cut the tackle of shippes shrou∣des mastes yardes top mastes sailes, &c. The draugh of which bulletes yove see hire folowinge where the draughte with the letter A. sheoweth. And howe to chaine them togither when yove put them into a peece of ordenance.

Page  188And the draughte with the letter B. sheoweth howe the same flieth trough the ayre when it is dischardged oute of a peece of ordenance, and who it spreadeth a sonder, in some execusiones they are armed with artificiall fire-wourckes to burne townes, shippes, the quarteres of the enemy as also theire store houses or magasenes whiche cross barres are envented for that purpose and bienge prudently handled and armed by one of perfection in fire wourckes i am asured that if they fall into any thinge apte to kindle fire withoute delay they shall burne and kindell fire, for often times i made triall of theire operasion and vncredible force and terror and often times to trie theire nature and course of theire execution i caused to caste water uppon them, notwithstandinge they burne with the more vehemence and terror, and when the water is caste uppon them they give suche aterrible noyce wourdie the admiringe and burne with suche force.

Thies haulfe pikes are armed another maner of way with fire-wourcke, that is to say take apece of the strongeste canuas yove can finde as big, or of the greatenes yove thincke fitt for youre purpose, and fashionige the same as yove shall see here folowinge be the figu∣re marked with the letter E. This peece of canvas yoveshall cause to be dobbed in molten colofonia and when it sukes i noghe of the licor take it up and put aforme into the same or fill itt with drie sande, and when it is drie caste the sande oute and fill it of the receite made for the artificiall canes. But that they muste be mingled with two partes more of rosen, and ahaulfe parte of brimstone, whiche muste by smelted over asofte fire, and corporate the same and the other com∣posiciones togither, and fill the saide canuas with them, beinge well fastened with marlin coarde and the half pike trouge the midel of the same as the draughte followinge sheoweth, and in the mouth of this scuibb yove are to putt a quantitie of verie drie mixtures, and some pouder, that withoute delay it may kindell fire, the execution of this instrumente is execellent to bourde shippes, to burne sailes, to inter atrince or anay narrowe place, or to break any order or array, if yove please yove may fasten or sticken into the saied scuibb in de∣grees lighte pipes or canes of yron or brace of five enches longe, bein∣ge of apistol or caliver boare, placinge the touche hole therof to∣wardes the oute warde side of the mixtures, beinge well bounde to the pike so that it doth not fall, at leaste till the execution be finished, and let the touche holes be primed with goode pouder; also yove may put abullet into each one of thies pipes, beinge chardged Page  189 with goode pouder, and well handled they will doe greate execu∣tion.


To arme haulfe pikes with fire-wourcke, which is rare to burne sayles of shippes or to bourde or inter per force into shippes or assaul∣tes, trinches or any narowe place, they are both goode in many de∣fensive and offensive occasiones be sea and lande, they are to be filled with the selfe same receite before taughte, and alsoe coated in the self same maner. For executiones at nighte to inter into a trince or forte, per force they are of moste rare executiones, and douptless they shall put the enemy into greate terror by reason of the furie, terrible noy∣ce, and force of theire flame, in the executiones of patarres and ca∣misadas they are wonderfull goode, beinge recomended to the chard∣ge of brave Souldieres of aproved valeor and resolute determinatio∣nes, for douptless they will put the enemy into greate terron, for so∣daine ex ecutiones in trinches or breaches at nighte they are won∣derfull goode. The figure of theire draughte youe may see hire under set downe, as marked with the letter F.


For to offende or defende in diverses occasiones of importance youe may arme a halbarde with a device of fire-wourcke in the selfe same maner as before taughte to arme pikes. And with the selfe sa∣me mixtures and coated, with the like coatinge as before taughte for the arminge of pikes, to whiche youe may binde with copper wire thre or foure shorte pipes like caliver barreles, of six or seaven enches longe made of brace, and loaden with pouder and bullett, as the draughte by the letter G. sheoweth; which alsoe beinge plased be∣twexte pikes is goode for severall ocasiones of service; youe may alsoe arme targetes in the selfe same manner which for verie many execu∣tiones in warr are goode, and let none be ingnorante that thies engi∣nes Page  190 of fire-wourcke, beinge well and curiously handled doe put the enemy in wonderfull terror, and specially in sodaine occasiones, and stratagemes used often times at nighte.



THe figure followinge beinge armed and well ordered is ofrare execution in narowe or straighte places, ey∣ther to ofende or defende, and are verie necessarie in many ocasiones be sea and lande; On the two shoulde∣res wherof youe may arme two scubbes filled withe the receites before taughte, and in the inner parte of the instrumente, whiche is made of yron for this purpose whiche youe see by the figure followinge and goeth cross the pike, youe may put five pipes of yrō or brace prepared and made for that purpose, and that eache of them be of eighte or nine enches lōge, and soe greate in the boare as a pistoll barrell, whiche are to be fastened with nayles and coper wire, and to chardge them with goode pouder bullet and wad, that don youe may cause them to give fire one after on other, in layinge all a longhste the touche holes a peece of fine linenge clath filled with fine pouder, and wett in gineper-oyle, that the fire may take hir course by degrees; soe that the saide pipes shall shoute one after a nother as youe woul∣de desire it to doe, (eyther quicke or sloe;) Advertifinge that the linin∣ge wherin youe put the pouder to give fire to the touche holes is to be well fastned or bounde yuste uppon the touche holes with marlin corde, so that the course of theyre execution may tacke effecte in ju∣ste the due time ordained, the which in givinge fire to the firste the reste will dischardge one after an other.

Duringe which time the two scubbes placed on the two shoulde∣res of the instrumente, beinge fired will burne; duringe the time of the execution of thies pipes, and rather more, and will yealde a grea∣te Page  191 flame, the compositiones that goes to this instrumente are the sel∣fe same before taughte for to arme scubbes, soe that this instrumente beinge handled by one that is skilfull and curious in this arte, the exe∣cution wherof is wourdie the behouldinge, and shall see who orderly shalll those five shottes dischardge one after an other, eyther quicke or floe, as the curious understander of this wourcke will have the sa∣me to be, (soe acordingely shall he put the proportion required for the execution he desireth) the draughte of this instrumente sheoweth the letter H. hire after.

In ocasiones of triumph youe may cause other pipes or canes grea∣ter then thies to by made of the greatnes of the boare of an arcabuse de crocke, and of fiftine inches longe in the barrell, whiche beinge filled in this maner followinge, is wourthie to by admired, fill each of the saide canes as foloweth firste take a caliver shott of pouder, and chardge the firste cane therwith, then beate uppon the same a stop∣p or wad of fine cotten boyled in pouder brandevin and petrol-oy∣le, then fill uppon the same to the quantitie of a goode musket shott of the mixtures made for the artificiall canes, and uppon the same a stoppel of cotten as before taughte then amusket shott of pouder, then fill the reste of the cane or barell to the mouth of the mixtures made for the artificiall canes, and take heede that youe doe not beate them harde uppon the pouder and see that thies mixtures be verie drie, for beinge soe required for this execution, and observe the selfe same order for the fillinge of the reste of the canes and all alonge the mouthe of thies putt apeece of lininge full of fine stamped pouder wett in gineper-oyle and brandevin and see that it be verie well faste∣ned juste uppon the mouth of thies canes, that no fire can touche the same, but that whiche is ordained as before taughte: soe in givinge fire to the firste cane or barell, the reste in order one after another will dischardge, and each of thies bareles or canes shall yealde two shotes and aflame, whiche shall indure but very shorte, the mixtures required for this execution is of that which is made for the artificiall canes the draughte of this instrument sheoweth the letter H. Adver∣tisinge that thies mixtures are to by very drie and apte to kindell fire, and in theyre putinge to the barrell to beate them very softe for bein∣ge soe required.

Page  192


THE EIGHTE CHAP. To arme a rowes with artificiall Fire-wourckes.

AHies artificiall arowes beinge shote oute of greate or∣denance are goode to burne houses, or in cāpain̄a they are alsoe goode to burne the enemyes quarter, the ma∣ner who to arme them is to tacke apeece of stronge canuas boyled alitle in colofonia and to fill the same with the compositiones before thaughte to arme haulfe pikes, and that it be well bounde to the arowes with marlin corde, for the due proportion lenghte and weighte of thies arowes is required the asi∣stance of acuriouse matematisian, or of one of goode judgemente in givinge the necessarie instructiones for the makinge of them, severall man̄er of wayes, some to pearche shippes from side to side eyther above or under water, otheres to be shote afar of to burne houses or quarteres, greate curiositie and perfecte judgemente is required for the severall maner of wayes which thies arowes are to be handled and made acordinge to there severall executiones, some are made to bur∣ne the amunition of pouder in shippes if they chance hitt the same and whiche will pearche any shippe from side to side and are of farr greater execution then youre bulletes the draughe wherof the letter I. sheoweth.

Page  193


THE NINTHE CHAP. To arme artificiall instrumentes ordained in potes made of met∣tall filled with composisiones and mixtures of fire-wourcke, to burne of asodaine shippes gates bridges palisados or any other combustable thinge apte to kindel fire.

TAke foure partes of rosen, one parte of armoniak fou∣re partes of salpiter thre times refined, a haulfe parte of bay saulte, all whiche cause to by beaten into pou∣der, then take one parte of linsatt-oyle, of the fatt of a hoge one parte, then cause all thies composisiones to be mingled togither and putt them in apott made for that purpuse over asofte fire, and let them boyle till they corporate well, and then take them up, and put into them one parte of camfire, and thre par∣tes of musket pouder and mingell them well togither, and put them over asofte fire till they corporate well, then take them up and put to them smale pices of gun-pounder match made of fine cotten and boy∣led in fine beaten pouder, stronge brandevin and giniper oyle or pe∣troll-oyle, then take foure partes of colofonia and cause it to be bea∣ten into pouder, and let it be mingled with the reste mixtures. Then cause the instrumente or pott made for this purpose to be filled till youe come to the thirde parte of the pott or instrumente, that don take of the other mixtures withoute colofonia, and fill the reste of the instrumente with them, and on the upermoste parte of all putt of the drieste mixtures, and let them be so drie that they by apte to kin∣dell fire, and in the verie mouth of the instrumente cause to be putt a quarter of an ence of pouder and of the beste, and sticken to the sa∣me apeece of gunpouder matche some foure inches deepe into the instrumente and cause itt to be well covered with apeece of canuas till time of execution, soe that water nor fire can touche the mixtures Page  194 nor the pouder. And when occasion shall ofrer to give it fire, do but touche the gunpouder match with youre ordinary matche, and it will presently kindell fire, yea and muche sooner then pouder, to which effecte this gunpouder matche is made of purpose.

Thies instrumentes in times of execution they have theyre stron∣ge chaines of yron that they may by bounde and fastned, to the pla∣ce of theyre execution, soe that they do not fall, nor that the enemy may use any endustrie to cut or put them of; so that the executiō may take effecte. It were verie goode, for the securitie of theyr execution to arme two or three artificiall canes on both sides of them, whiche are ro be rocomended to persones of brave spirites, and of aproved valeor and determination.

Thies compositiones when they bigin with theyre execution they∣re operation and execution is moste rare; Advertisinge that they mu∣ste be putt in to yron or brasse pottes made for that purpose, as the figure folowinge sheoweth, and also withe theyre stronge yron chai∣nes, for in putinge thies compositiones into veseles of woode questi∣onles the force of this fire will burne them at an instante, which for curiositie, and alsoe to knowe the operation of this fire, y caused tria∣les to by made, and founde that thies instrumentes made of woode did presentlie burne, and consume into aieshes, and was sooner con∣sumed then the matter that was putt into the same, be reason of the wonderfull force of the fire of the saied compositiones, which rare and wonderfull breef execution is wourthie the admiringe, the orde∣ringe and figure of the saiede instrumentes youe see hire under where the letteres K. L. M. sheoweth.


Page  195The receites wherwith fire-wourck instrumentes are armed in fin∣dinge theyre operation sloe, youe are to augmente them with drie mi∣xtures apte to kindel fire, as pouder, saltpeeter, brimstone, armonia∣ke, and migell thē well togither, and let them be corporated with the sloe mixtures in theire due proportion, Also the mixtures youe finde quicke and apte to burne, and do not indure, acordinge as theyre exe∣cution requireth youe are to augmente thē with a litel sloe mixtures, as linsat-oyle, turpintine, colofonia, rosen, and wax, but greate con∣sideration, and curiositie is required in put them in theire due pro∣portion.

An artificiall baule of fire wourcke beinge dischardged oute of a peece of ordenance in a cleere day can not by discerned nor seene till it declines to the earthe, But beinge shot oute of a peece of ordenan∣ce at any marcke in a darcke nighte, may by perceived, and specially when it begines to decline oute of his righte course or line, and the more darcke the nighte is, when it is dischardged oute of a peece of ordenance the better youe may discerne it; but in the begininge of the range or line youe can not see it so perfecte as when it begines to decline to the earthe, which i have tried at the leager of Breda, the nighte a pointed for the triumphe don for the regaininge of that place.

If for curiositie youe woulde have a ball made with wilde fire to burne within the water, let the coate therof firste burne a litle before youe caste it into the water, soe that it gives fire to the compositiones there in ordained for his execution, whiche beinge fired, (to wit) that parte or partes where in the vente is, beinge filled with ayre doth cau∣se the other partes of the same to shume and burne a bove the water, with a wonderfull noyce admirable to the behoulderes.

The balles made for this purpose are lighte, and if youe put them into a peece of ordenance, beinge loaden with the ordenary pouder required for the executiō of the same, in their roaring and wrastlin∣ge of this ball it will burste unto peeces; Soe that for to shoute bulle∣tes or balles oute of greate ordenance armed with fire wourcke the cross barres nowe of late invented is the beste, the maner of arminge and coatinge thies bulletes and cross barres, i have set downe before, who and with whate compositiones, whiche are of rare executiones by sea and lande, beinge well ordered by one of perfecte judgemente in this arte.

I have alsoe put downe neowe invented cross barres to be shot ou∣te Page  196 of greate ordenance, whiche beinge armed as before taughte, are excelente to burne townes, and the enemyes quarteres, and iam well asured that no comprabell device, for that purpose was as yet inven∣ted, neyther to by shoot in the fronte of a battell, i meane those cross barres invented with chaines for beinge dischardged oute of a peece of ordenance in a reasonable neere distance in the fronte of a bat∣tell, or any order or array, y doupte not that it is the beste invention, that hase beene divised as yet for that purpose, the enemy beinge a reasonable distance of; But the enemy beinge very neere at hande the cartadges and bagges filled withe musket bulletes, nayles peeces of brocken yron, peeces of chaines, which beinge shoote oute of greate ordenance are of wonderfull executiones, beinge handeled by pru∣dente and curiouse gunneres of perfecte judgemente, and longe pra∣ctice in this arte.

The draught marked with the letter N. sheoweth howe the saied cross barr shall be put into the peece; and the letter O. sheoweth ho∣we the same flieth violently trough the ayre, and howe it spreadeth a sonder when it is shott oute of the peece, givinge a terrible noyce in his motion and range.


The draught marcked with the letter P. sheoweth howe this other cross barr is to be put into the peece, and when it is dischardged the letter Q. sheoweth howe it spreadeth a sonder, and flieth withe grea∣te violence in his line and range.


Page  197

THE TENTHE CHAP. Treatinge of the confines of a Kingedome, as alsoe of the goode lawes to by observed in the same, and of many necessary instru∣ctiones thereunto apertaininge, and who the same is to by forti∣fied and stronge by arte, or by nature, or by bothe.

SUch as are desirouse to be couriose and experte in war∣like afaires it importeth that they be of goode judge∣mente in fortificasiones, as well to offende as to defen∣de; Notwithstandinge that for this purpose in all kin∣gdomes and states are elected ingineres a luinge them a goode pinsion: Yet suche as are of longe practice in warr, and do aplie them selves well in hope to by advanced, by theire a proved goode partes and suficiencie oughte to exercice them selves in fortifi∣cationes, bienge very necessarie in owne who profesed to be experte in this arte of warr, and knowe howe to intrinch and fortifie him selfe in many ocurrantes in oppen filde, howe to cutt a trince to win a tow∣ne or any stronge place: As also to knowe howe to drawe the plott of townes fortes and castelles, and also in knowinge all necessaries for the defence therof, and to know howe to prevente the stratagemes to be feared of his enemy.

Douptless thies thinges are of greate consideration, for the strenghte of akingdome consisteth much in beinge well fortified, to∣gither with the quantitie and qualitie of his subiectes, and in the goo∣de qualitie of his dominion and country: Those princes and Ree∣publikes are judged mighty and stronge, whiche in theire kingdomes and states do montaine goode religion, goode lawes and goode ar∣mes, and do exercice the same, and do inioy holsom ayre, fertill grounde and naturall strenghte, with suche other conveniente co∣modities therunto required; To by vnderstoode that all countries are strōge by nature or by arte or by both; By nature they are stron∣ge when they are inuiored withe the sea rounde aboute, or on parte therof, or backed with marrasses or riueres, and those to be stronge by arte, and in theire frontieres nexte adjoyninge and places moste conveniente to haue townes castelles and fortresses fortified by arte. Page  198 All confines are eyther maritime or mediterraneall or both the one and the other, whether they are montanouse places or in plaine cam∣paina, or do participate of the one and the other, if they by mediter∣raneall it muste by viewed and considered on whate parte the enemy might come to offende the same, and where he mighte moste como∣diouse come to atempte, And it is alsoe to be considered on whate partes he mighte make his inroades, and retire a gaine with safetie, and whether their by any situation whiche beinge fortified by the enemy mighte moleste or a noy the country nexte adioyninge: If the confines of the kingdom by maritime or on the sea coaste, all the coaste and circuide of the same are to by viewed and remarcked, that prevention mighte be taken in due time, in as muche as may posible to hinder the enemyes imbarcasion, in the places moste fitt for the same; Yea and in all places whiche mighte by suspected (if it be po∣sible) for the better securitie of the kingdom or state, but in some kingdomes the circuide and places on the sea coaste are so greate that hardly all can be fortified, and so the enemy ariuinge with a mightie army, and mighte be in a place litle suspected, may put the kingdom and country in greate perill and danger, as was seene by the spanishe navie at the conqueste of portugall, when they landed neere cascales in a place never thoughte vppon by the portugeses, so that they foun∣de them selves deceived, thinckinge that the disembarcation shoulde have beene betwexte the citti of Lisboa and Sangilians castell, where they stoude fortified in theire trinches, with determination to hin∣der the disēbarcation of the spanish navie, but he landed in aplace far better for his purpose, and of muche lesh danger, whiche was on the other side of cascales towardes the northe litle toughte of by the por∣tuges, so that it is toughte that sea coastes are with greate coste and dificulties defended, thouge theire be many places stronge by nature or by arte; And for asmuche as theire be diveres and variable quali∣ties of confines, and hardlie any rules to be given for theire propor∣siones, nor whate distance from frontier to frontier, it muste be pre∣sumed that the confines of akingdom doth houlde some corespon∣dance with the circuide of a citti, in fortifienge wherof the bulwarkes are of the moste importante memberes, the which moste comonlie are put in the places where they can moste offende the enemy, and defende them selves, and the place, regardinge due distance in suche sorte, that the one may defende the other in as muche as may by with their artillery and smale shott. And in like maner the curtines and Page  [unnumbered]

N. I.
Page  [unnumbered]Page  199 flankes betwexte bulwarck and bulwarck, with other concideratio∣nes therunto apertaininge, and even so the fortes to be made in the frontieres are to houlde the like proportion and correspondance with the confines of the contry as do the bulwarke with the curtines of acitti or stronge place, the one to be placed so neere and in due distance vnto the other, that they may asiste and socour one ano∣ther, and in suche partes that they may damnifie the enemy, and de∣fende them selves in as much as can be posible.

Num. I.

THe places bienge viewed and found apte to receive offence by the enemy, and also to offende him, it is necessary to fortifie the same as well vpon the sea coastes as the inlande with strōge for∣tificationes, takinge goode advicement and carefull consideration in choisinge the situation therof, whether it by on plaines or hilles or marittim, or consistinge of al the thre, understandinge that the circui∣de of the place or fortification is to have aconveniente space rounde aboute (neyther to much nor to litle for many respectes.) The si∣tuasiones in plaines, are stronge whiche are invioroned with deepe lakes greate moores greate riveres, and suche as may by sonke vnder water in time of necessity, as in Holande and Zelande, and suche as have acampaina raza or plaine, sufficient distante from all thinges that mighte over comaunde the same. The situation that is uppon a hill, that is stronge that standeth on the moste higheste parte ther∣of, and all vnderlaied with naturall rockes rounde aboute, not havin∣ge neere it any superior nor equall moante, as is the castell of lisbur∣ne. For all situationes which have a dificulte access are stronge when they can not be offended from other adioyninge moantes and the muche more stronger when it is not minable. All stronge places mo∣ste comonlie are won eyther be force of armes, battery, treason, sur∣price, or by longe beseedginge, or by assaulte, scalinge, or undermi∣nige: The maritime situationes are stronge when they are compased by the sea, or parte therof, and the reste divided from the maine by greate and deepe ditches as is the castell of san Jean in Portugall, who hath on the shore side a deepe ditch digged uppon a rocke, and the maine sea on the other side, or buitlte uppon the topp of some rocke with the saied comodities, as is the penon of veles or the castell of cas∣cales in Portugall. Citties and townes are made stronge by nature Page  200 and industrie of those by nature we have all ready spoken in the strenght of situationes: Citties by industrie are stronge by the forme and by the matter, stronge by the matter when they haue thicke walles, greate terraplenos, broade and deepe ditches. By the forme they are stronge when it is framed in suche sorte that the moste far∣deste and all quarteres may haue corespondance to offende the enemy with the cannon and fyry shott. Of this sorte are those which do moste neere a proach, vnto the sircular figure but with goo∣de regarde of the due lardgnes and proportion of the curtines, and equall distance from bulwarke to bulwarke.

Theire intereth amongste thies all townes and stronge fortes con∣sistinge of five, six seaven, eighte, nine, or ten ravelinges, and curtines, by directe line, and who many more angeles, so muche the better the foure anguled of all is the weakeste. It is to be vnderstoode that smale places of them selves are weake because they can not so sufuciently resiste any excessive battery, and other offences as greate places may which haue roome capable inough to raise defences and necessary rampares and horne wourkes, a gainste any greate force, neyther oughte they to be so lardge that the circuide therof woulde require awhole army to defende itt.

Num. II.

THe fortificationes of citties and castelles is principally groun∣ded a gainste the offence of greate ordenance, and alsoe de∣fended with the same and with other fyrie weapon: It is to be considered that the artillery is devided and differensed into greatnes or Zices Royall, and into lesher zices.

Of the zice Royall is that peece that shooteth of seavintine pound upwarde, as is the culverrin the quarter cannon: the demy cannon, the cannon and double cannon, the pedrero basalisco and such like. And for the lesser zice the diference is to be vnderstoode that all pi∣ces that shoote bullet from seavintine pounde weighte downewardes as is the demiculverin, the saker, the minnon, the falcon and falco∣nett even to the rabinet and arcabuse de crocke.

The artillery from whence a citty, forte or stronge place may re∣ceive moste offence and domadge, is that of the greatest zice, for of the lesher zice there is no greate doupte to by had, sith that the de∣miculverin can do no greate offence nor domadge, and alsoe from Page  [unnumbered]〈1 page duplicate〉Page  [unnumbered]

Page  [unnumbered]Page  201 that zice downewardes, and therfore, the bulwarkes terraplenos and parapetes are to be made in suche sorte and strenghte as they may be able to resiste and beare the blowe and gulpe of the artillery, of the greateste zice; mattokes shoules or spades are verie necessary instrū∣mentes, for the same. Relation beinge taken of the forme of the cit∣tie, forte, or fortress, by it eyther of 5.6.7. or 8. angles, or ravelin∣ges, or of how many soever it is necessary to couple the same, withe theyre convenient membres, to make it proportionall in strenghte.

The bulwarkes are uppon the angles or corneres of the forme of the citty or forte, and of such distance and due proportion, as shall seeme to the skilfull Inginer, and they oughte to by made optouse or blunte, and not sharpe, for so they are more stronge and capable.

The partes of the bulwarke are the travesses or flankes orechion, pum, garde, or shoulder, the fronte or curtine, the conter-fronte or spurres, the pestilles or parapettos, the place or roome for the artille∣ry. The bulwarkes as i saied are placed within the angles where place is to be made reddy for the artillery, and to mounte the same in suche a heighte, that it may discover the campe or circuid on every where in at much as is posible.

It is to by considered that the curtines of the bulwarke shall stan∣de in suche sorte that they may be touched or beaten from the firste corner from whose flanke or traves it taketh his defence, and the line or pointe is to be taken som whate more from the flanker, and in su∣che distance agreable to the greatnes of the bulwarke, soe acordinge to the greatnes of the same, the measures are to by increased or de∣minised, observinge the due proportion required; It is necessary to make in the bulwarkes certaine issues, the whiche are made in the par∣te that looketh towardes the flanker or travess, thies are moste neces∣sarie to put men oute for the ditch. The conterfortes and apertenan∣ces of the bulwarck, have alsoe theire measures and proportiones, the whiche i leave to avoide prolixitie, and because that they may by mo∣re or lesh acordinge the discresion and plates of the curiouse and per∣fecte Inginer. The Cavallero within side adjoyninge to the curtine in the mideste of them are builded, and from suche Cavalleros are the curtines or walles of the bulwarke defended, and alsoe the fielde, and for this cause are the bulwarkes wonte to by made, and to raise them so high, that they may discover well the places of theyre execu∣tiones.

Page  202

Num. III.

THe gates or portes of a towne cittie or forte, are to by placed in partes, moste comodiouse for the service of the same, both in peace and war, conveniente to receive in, or to put oute peo∣ple moste safe and sure from all offences (in as much as can by) the gate muste have his drawen bridge made of stronge timber and yro∣nes necessary for the same, it is to be reasonable broade for the como∣ditie of the wagones and artillery, and very stronge, if theyre by no more then one drawen bridge or gate let them not be directe. Ne∣cessary it where that no high wales nor hedges of gardines, nor ochar∣des nor such like by permited on the outewarde partes of the gates or walles of any cittie or place of importance; and a distance of 600. pa∣ses, but all razed and made plaine on all the circuide rounde aboute, which do offten times serve for ashelter to the enemy to aproache of asuddaine neere the walles, that they can not by discerned, till they com into the ditch, by reason that trees and hedges do shelter them, by which meanes many places of importance are soone loste.

The terra plena is the onely remedy againste the furie and execu∣tion of the artillery, and is to by made with in, and behinde the wall close to the same; and the cavallers and bulwarkes oughte to by made in suche forte, that the wall bienge fallen, the same mighte remaine and stande like amightie mounte againste the enemy, and shoulde by made of suche faste and massie earthe (that it cromble slipp nor roule not, and so fall downe) as do many fortificationes made of runinge sande; the heighte and bread therof oughte to by suche as the co∣moditie and seate will require: All thies thinges are the memberes of a fortification, the which how muche more fitt and proporsionally they by placed aboute the boddy of acitti or place of importance, so much doeth it make the same more stronge and beautifull.

It is alsoe to by noted, that if a ny of thies situationes theire by nee∣re adioyninge any woodes, vine yardes, orchardes, tries, houses, churches, monesteries or other edificies, consideringe if they be su∣che as mighte annoy the enemy or render him any comoditie, wher∣by he may easilie hinder the citti castell or forte, prevension oughte to by taken in due time; If the ceate of the citti forthe or fortress by marittime or sea coaste, there muste by considered the qualitie of that sea, and of the haven, and of whate depthe it is, whether if it Page  [unnumbered]〈1 page duplicate〉Page  [unnumbered]

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Page  [unnumbered]Page  203 hathe any litle Isle arrocke neere vnto itt the which; the enemy in∣ioyenge may offende and anoye youe, and whether it hath any shore bay receptable, or place of refuge, or any river mouthe where the enemy fleete reedinge easilie at an ancor, mighte hinder and emplea∣che theire socoure by sea, and continually moleste them, and whether it be suche that the enemy mighte advantadge him selfe therewith. And all the aforesaide conciderationes touchinge the situation of sea or lande, to forecaste the same in due time with greate care and pru∣dence, in as muche as may posible. The same regarde is to be had wi∣thin the place, and to recnoledge every parte therof, bigininge with the forme, and then the heighte and thicknes of the wall, and the qua∣litie therof Moreover it is to by viewed in whate parte or partes it is moste weake and feoble, whate flankes it hath, whate terraplena, how high and howe thike, whate space betwexte the same and the inhabitantes, whate gates, how framed and seated, whate ditch, ho∣we broade, and howe deepe, whether it be drie or with water, whate intries or sallies without the place cittie or towne, and whether the ha∣bitasiones of the place be on high aboue the alture of the walles or equall with them, or whether the walles do surmonte them, and fi∣nally all other considerationes wourthie to be noted.

Num. IV.

THies conciderationes duly had, and resolusion taken, then Aploott muste be drawen with conveniente rules and measu∣res to reduce the citti forte or place to the beste forme that may by, with as litle ruine or defeatinge of houses or churches as can be, plasinge the bulwarkes, and cavalleres and other edifices conve∣niente to theire seates and purpose in the place moste fitt for the sa∣me, and that to be don withe as litle loss to the inhabitantes as may be possible. Resolution taken uppon the designe forme and greate∣nes that the place or fortress is to haue, he is to fortifie the feobleste parte or partes therof firste, and the apteste to by offended. The fortification well fortified and finished, it is necessary that it be fur∣nished with a conveniente garison of souldiores for the better securi∣tie and defence therof, for otherwise it were like a boddy withoute a soule (and biside this) if it haue not provision of all sortes of vitual∣les, artillery and munitiones, and of all armes defencive and offenci∣ve in goode and sufficiēte store, and of shoules spades mattokes pick∣axes, Page  204 sawes, hameres, yron, sledges, barres of yron, nayles, ropes, &c. And many other necessaire instrumentes to wourke in earth, or in walles or in stones or in tember, and alsoe in water, mandes, baske∣tes, hand barrowes and wheele barrowes, plankes, beames, stakes, watlinges gabiones, and other thinges at batteries and beseedginge, withoute the which it is impossible to repaire and intrinche againste batteries asaultes and other ofences of the enemy, all which belonges to the office care and dutie of the generall of the artillery: to see them provided in every towne or place of any importance within the realme, as also all other places which standes for the defence and safetie of the same.

Thies fortificationes wee treate of are very costely, and hardlie to by performed but by a mighty Prince, and specially suche as are made with brike stone goode earth and thurff, as is the castell and citti of Anwourpe, Gante, and san Gilian in Portugall, and the castell of Millan, and sundrie otheres the licke, are hardlie broughte to perfe∣ction but with expence of millones, so nowe adayes all places are for∣tified with earth and thurff onely, as is for the moste parte the greate towne of Gante, Mastrick, Dam, Ostende, Hulste and many more places in the lowe countries, as Sluse, Weasell and the towne of Breda, which haue indured such gallante batteries, sufficiente to weare oute a greate and mightie prince, both in his power and purse, whiche was to be seene in the famouse siedge and regaininge of Bre∣da, where all Kinges and Princes in Cristendom for the moste parte on both sides, sheowed theire forces and mighte, not withstandinge it was won by the invencible power of that mightie Monarke the Catholick Kinge of Spaine, troughe his greate mighte and power, acom∣panied with the prudente brave conduction and militarie industrie of his renoomed Generall Marques Spinola, and many brave Captai∣nes and souldiores, togither with the incomporable power loue and vnitie of his faithfull and renoomed lubjectes of the vnited provin∣ces of the lowe countries, to their greate glorie and honoure, and soe spreade abroade and related by many auctores to their and predeces∣sores greate fame and renoome of perpetuall memory to all posteri∣tie, wherof to relate it were tediouse, and incredible to such as haue not seene the same, with so many thousandes of wagones ful of all sortes of vitualles and amunisiones cominge every day, where mighte by perceived the loue and greate encomparable mighte of his vnited subjetes of the vnited provinces. Al which i haue seene and this Page  [unnumbered]〈1 page duplicate〉Page  [unnumbered]

Page  [unnumbered]Page  205 towne of Breda inuiorened with adoble trince rounde aboute som fi∣ve leages with verie many fortes and redutes, all which was finished in verie feowe dayes with earth and fagotes. In fine suche fortificasiones may serve to goode purposes and indure sufficientlie, beinge well and ingeniouslie made and of goode earth, and carefully remended in due time, and when anny piece of the same should fall or decay, pre∣sently to be repaired and made upp.

Num. V.

AL stronge places of importance are to be well fortified wi∣thin as also on the outewarde partes, and greate considera∣tion oughte to by taken that the enemy may not a proach to the walles or gates, withoute beinge discouered before they may come to execute theire intente, for which in all stronge houldes and places of importance, moste comonlie, are placed on the outewarde partes roundes and cēteries, and places for theire defence and retreate, with such consideration and previntion, that the enemy do not a rive vn∣knowen to the desired place of theire execution as related by their spies, withoute firste beinge spied oute in due time be the outewarde cinteries and roundes, so that all the reste may haue time to by all in armes, and each company to repaire in time with speede, with the fir∣ste advice or alarme to their culoures, and there in all readdines to repaire where they shall be comaunded by the Comaunder or Go∣vernor of the place. Advertisinge that for many conciderationes no company oughte to repaire or budge withoute order of the Gover∣nor or Sardgente-Mayor, for feare of inconveniences and secret co∣respondance. To see thies and many more ocurrantes in warr pre∣vented, it is moste necessary that the Governor and Sardgente Mayor do lodge as neere possible to the place of armes or meaine garde, so that vrgent ocasiones may by prevented in due time, and with all speede as ocasion shall require, the cintery perdue and outewarde roundes oughte to be chosen of vigilante and braue souldiores, ad∣vertisinge that the roundes oughte still to goe forwarde, and very sci∣lente, and to make no alto nor staies as some careless roundes do, and that for the greate truste and care refered to theire chardge; to see thies well ordered and fullfilled, the Governor and Sardgente-Mayor by turnes shoulde goe the rounde, and findinge the roundes Page  206 and cinteries not acomplishinge their obligationes to see them seve∣rely punished.

Such fortificationes as are planted on hilles or high rokes, greate consideration oughte to by taken for theire due defence, thoughe the asendinge of such places by dificculte, yet it were goode they shoulde by compassed with double palisados for their better securitie, and with a parapet made of thurff or brick at the foote of each of them, and way for the rounde betwexte them and the wall.

Num. VI.

FOr the more security of castelles and stronge places are moste comonly planted in theire fronte haulfe-mounes oppen on the inwarde side, in which for theire better securitie, is wonte of righte to be agarde every day and nighte, vnder which shelter the gates of the towne or castell are made for their better security from the fury of the greate ordenance, as also for other respectes, and that they may discover the enemy, and hinder theire designes. It is very requisit that the fosso or ditch be deepe and broade inough, and that the curtines be of goode heighte that withoute greate dificulte it can not be scaled.

For the better asurance of all stronge places, it is necessary that they by well provided with stronge and vigilante watches, and for many goode respectes that no company which shall inter the watch shall knowe theire a pointed place till the verie time that the watch is set (or alitle before) for feare of treason by some provooked by interes, or proceedinge trough afrontes, or greate injuries received from the Governor touchinge theire reputasion or honoure or meanes.

It also may procede of some of bad govermente and inclinatio∣nes, for which cause they are not prefered nor advanced, it may alsoe by invented by burgeres, who bienge overmuch opressed with tiran∣ny, and findinge no conveniente remedy nor justice executed for hainouse factes and disorderes comitted, do procure treasones and revoltes.

When any suche ocasiones are suspected or feared the roundes are to be doubled, and sende contraroundes of Officeres and men of greate truste, for the vigilance care truste and fidelitie hoped of them, for prudente and carefull souldiores maketh easie materes of greate Page  [unnumbered]〈1 page duplicate〉Page  [unnumbered]

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Page  [unnumbered]Page  207 dificultie, and by their care and vigilance do bringe them to a goode ende to theire greate honoure and perpetuall fame, resultinge of theire braue and prudente cariadge and goode aplicationes, resolute valour and care: All braue souldiores oughte to be of full resolution to indure all travailes and hardnes when ocation shall require, and in thies extremities to sheowe them selves with greate couradge, fi∣delitie and obedience, for an honorable souldioris to by tried in time of moste necessitie; where in deed such as are of braue spirites and ge∣nerouse mindes doe manifeste theire affection and valoure in ocasio∣nes of moste extreamity, as by dayly experience we see in ocurrantes of warr, of the whiche many examples may be declared.

Num. VII.

THe security of stronge houldes and fortresses dependeth of the goode order and vigilance of the Governores and reste ministres of the same, and that, as well within as withoute side bothe by polecie and Military Discipline, in ministringe goode justi∣ce betwexte the inhabitantes and souldiores, and in ordaininge a goode and vigilante watch, and to be well provided of all necessaries in due time. And preventinge the stratagemes and plottes of the ene∣my in as muche as can be, havinge alwayes an eye towardes the bur∣geres and souldiores, concideringe theire humores condisiones and fidelity, theire shoulde by alwayes secret spies to learne of theire esta∣te and humores, and whate they comunicate in secrett and publike, and finally theire actiones and inclinasiones, and to haue goode re∣garde of suche strangeres as do arive into such places, if they be peo∣ple well knowen or not faithfull or suspected.

In the ocurrantes and courses of warr, greate and many are the considerationes required in the generall of an army, and in his coun∣sel of warr, in prudently preventinge manny materes of greate im∣portance, of presente and future ocationes (with aforcaste prudente prevention) which otherwise bienge induced (do often fall oute to the greate discomodity of his Majesties service) in atemptes of man∣ny honorable interprises and incounteres, to the greate decay of Mi∣litary Discipline, whiche by dayly experience wee see, that for wante of prudente conductores of care truste and fidelity, many honorable interprises are loste, resultinge of the litle perfection of many Offi∣ceres.

Page  208A matter wourdie to be noted examined and prevented for the due orderinge of future ocasiones, of whate resulteth that so many oulde and experimented souldiores of the late reformasiones in germany and lowe country wente on the countrary side to the greate disco∣moditie of the house of austria, sence which time who many millo∣nes were consumed in raisinge of neowe levies and recrutes for the furtherance of the warres of the lowe countries, yea to my judgemte as muche as mighte intertaine an invincible army of oulde and expe∣rimented souldores, duly paied and satisfied. By dayly experience we see that thies neowe levies for the moste parte, in ocasiones of service feowe were founde to asiste; whiche i haue noted and pitted often times, for bienge so greate alet to his Majesties service: The Omni∣potente inlighten his Majesties faithful ministeres in preventinge in due time the conveniente course of a matter of so greate importan∣ce: And agreate enemy for the vnprofitable consuminge of his Ma∣jesties treasure and Indies. Let none thinke that i disalue recrutes and reforsinge of companies in theire due time and conveniente course, profitable to his Majesties service. Vndeniable it is that an army well disciplined ordered contended, and conducted with prudente and braue comaunderes, though lesher in number are by all reason ma∣steres of the victorie, which all auctores that wrote of this arte do afir∣me, and by dayly experience we finde to be true.

The ropose and securitie of a Kingdom or state dependes for the moste parte in observinge goode lawes, goode warres, and continual practice of Military Discipline, wherof theire are very many probable examples, as plainely hapened to Anibal that renoomed Captaine of warr, and to the invincibel Romaines that at lenghte in neglectinge Military Discipline and exercice of armes was cause of theire perdi∣tion; and when they leaste feared of any a tempes of theire enemy, and that resultinge for biengc wholie given to vice, regalitie and re∣pose, and forgetfull of all Military exercice.

Happie is that Kingdomme where goode lawes and goode disci∣pline is in continual vse and exercice, and alwayes ready for the pre∣pared vice and malice of their enemy, ready for the alarme when it shall presente, whiche offten happen when we leaste thincke uppon. Happie is the Prince, and renoomed the Generall who prudently doth prevente the prepared malice and stratagemes of their enemy and of future ocasiones.

I doupte not but those of perfection and deepe judgemente in the Page  209 arte of warr shall both admire and comende the extraordinary paines taken for the due orderinge of this wourke and in explicatinge and putinge to lighte many deepe curiosities of rare importance in the office of the Sardgente-Mayor, and ingienes of Fire-wourkes, as also the due and prudente orderinge of severall sortes of weapones ma∣nadged in warr. All which with theire neowe invented impalinge of shott and winges, and theire singular order to fighte, as also other deepe curiosities of this arte whiche were leifte in obscuritie by many auctores who wrote of this profession. And that to disperte the inge∣niouse wittes of those inclined to learne the rare and deepe curiosities of Military science, that they may imitate them (in optaininge theire desire) with longe and continuall practice and goode aplicationes, which nowe i reduced to lighte in as muche as military science, the rules of mathematicke and aritmeticke can affourde, withe theire ge∣nerall rules proufes, proporsiones and tables, neowly invented for that purpose, plainely sheowinge the reasones of eache particular, breefly declared in the tables of the battelles, and in severall figures cut in coper and wood plates: Not douptinge but those of perfecte judgemente in the deepe and rare curiosities of this arte will comen∣de the same, and a firme that as yet no auctor did explicate more plaine nor better of many particularities leifte in obscurity in Fire-wourkes and specially in the office of a Sardgente mayor, which no∣we are redused into the perfecte forme ordained for their executiones in as muche as military science and the generall rules of the same can afourde. So that suche as are couriouse and inclined to continual goode aplicasiones, and determined by vertue prudēte cariadge and perfection in Military Discipline to by advanced may in shorte time learne all the particularities in the office of a Sardgente Mayor, leif∣te in obscuritie by many auctores; Whiche nowe in this wourcke are plainely broughte to lighte in as muche as military science can afour∣de or declare, whiche is not obtained by vaine glory nor heere say.

But rather with longe and continuall practice and aplicationes in the theorick and practice of warr; with intente and desire to in∣lighten my beloved countrimen and otheres, that they may knowe howe to acomplishe theire obligationes with prudence and auctori∣tie, and aplee them selves withe care and affection, in learninge this noble arte of warr, and not to be inclined to i delnes and bad exam∣ples, garded with malice, inuy, puffinge pride and rude ingnorance, overcaste withe afaulse fisnomy and aneowe malisiouse conterfet Page  210 countenance, enemy to vertue, truthe, plaine dealinges and goode examples. But rather by vertue and goode aplicasiones wounde the hartes of raylinge spirites ful of ambision and changinge dispositio∣nes, misled with blinde malice, venemouse and slanderouse tounges, harbored in theire cancored hartes, full of crucked dealinges and in∣vy, subjecte to afrontes and vices, of bad life and bad ende, but ho∣norably to imitate and followe the steppes of those inclined to vertue and continuall goode aplicationes.


GEntle reader consider that vertue and continual goode aplicationes and plaine dealinges is a presiouse guel, and moste comonly are wonte to haue goode procee∣dinges, and finish with a happy ende.

Suficiente examples oure Irish nasion gaue nowe of late for to imitate vertue plaine dealinges and goode religion, By di∣vine power bestowed, on that noble and renoomed coronell Butler, in prudently preventinge the trechery and prepared malice of Val∣stene and his Counseleres againste the house of Austria. Whiche the omnipotente bestowinge on him that special grace, and that to be toughte resultinge of the vndeniable truth, and plaine dealinges of his, and his predecessores, and of his renoomed Captaines and soul∣diores that were with him in that honorable interprice of perpetual memory.

Plainely mighte it by vnderstoude that thies Irish bienge so feowe in number, that for the executinge of so greate, so dangerouse, and almoste vnespected and impossible acte of armes. (That it muste by a gifte bestwoed of the divine power, for the benefit of truth and vertue of theires (and predecessores) stil groundinge and observin∣ge true religion and vertouse life, so that they warded this renoomed warrier Valstene with ablowe of his mortal ende, with abucler inuio∣rened with divine defence, and prosperitie to the house of Austria, and of perpetual renoome and glorie to oure Irish nasion. The om∣nipotente inlighten vs to imitate the vndeniable true dealinges, ver∣tue and resolute determination of thies famouse warrieres, and othe∣res of this nasion, inclined to vertue and goode examples. So that Page  211 rooted rancor of inuy, slanderouse railinge tounges and croucked maliciouse dealinges may not take place, in equallinge them selves with the honorable observeres of trueth, vertue, goode aplicationes, and Military Discipline. But rather banish thos inclined to the wic∣ked vice of inny, moother of mischifes and base inclinationes, resul∣tinge of barbarouse proude blinde ingnorance, enemy to vertue trueth and goode proceedinges, subjecte to quarells, bakbitinge, murmuringe, disgraces, and bad examples, a penetrater of rancko∣red hartes, of unconsiderate understandinge, litle fearinge God or man, of litle conscience or reputation, dayly decayenge and falinge unto many odiouse crimes and disgraces, enemy to frindship and ac∣corde, subjecte to afrontes and vices, of bad life and bad ende; And which of all thinges is moste untollerable, and moste odiouse in this noble profession of armes.

Gentle Reader youe see who many goode and probable examples set downe in many places of this wourcke, (for to imitate vertue) and followe the steppes of the renoomed, prudente, and valerouse Soul∣dior, and that in many places youe finde sufficiente examples, howe many borne of lowe degre, and bace linadge, have atained unto grea∣te degries, dingnity, and fame of perpetuall memory, and that resul∣tinge of theire vertuse cariadge, renoomed actes, resolute determina∣tiones, and continuall goode aplicationes; And by dayly experience we see thos inclined to vice, unruly factes, and bad examples do fall unto decay, and many disgraces, and are hated by those inclined to vertue, and moste comonly suche as do not amende do finish theire lives with an unhappy and miserable ende. Soe i take leave besechin∣ge the Omnipotente to give us the grace, that we may live in his fea∣re with unity and acorde, and finish with a happy ende. Amen.

The Ende of the thirde Booke.
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THE CONTENTES OF THIS VVourcke set dovvne in breefe.

IN the firste Booke are contained the military instru∣ctiones necessary to be observed in the noble profession of armes a mongste the Infantery, from a private Soul∣dior, till the election and office of a Campe-master of a Regimente of Infantery.

The seconde Booke treatinge of the election of a Campe-master generall, whiche nexte to the Captaine generall is the cheefe conductor of an army, after followes the election of the Captaine generall of the Artillery, and finishenge with the office of a Captaine generall of an army.

The thirde Booke treatinge of Fire-wourckes of rare executiones by sea and lande, and of the confines of a Kingdome, and the goo∣de lawes to be observed in the same, and howe it is to be fortified by arte or by nature, or by bothe, to withstande the enemyes a temptes, and the necessary courses convenente to be taken.

    A brife Table of the Chapteres, and moste notableste thinges contained in this wourcke.
  • THe I. Chapter declaringe the partes required in a private Soul∣dior. fol. 1
  • The II. Chapter treatinge of the election and office of a Cor∣porall of a Company of Infantery. fo. 10
  • The III. Chapter declaringe the aproved partes, and suficiencie of a Sardgente of a Company of Infantery, and howe he is to be ele∣cted. fo. 12
  • The IV. Chapter treatinge of the election and office of an Ensigne Bearer, or Alferis of a Company of Infantery, and the goode par∣tes ordained in him. fo. 16
  • The V. Chapter treatinge of the election of a Captaine of a Compa∣ny of Infantery, and many goode partes and suficiency required in him. fo. 20
  • The VI. Chapter treatinge of the office of a Sardgente mayor, mar∣chinge with his Regimente to garison. fo. 29
  • Page  [unnumbered]The VII. Chapter treatinge of the office of a Sardgent mayor, mar∣chinge with his Regimente in campaina. fo. 51
  • A discourse of sundrie and variable sortes of Squadrones of severall sortes of armes withe theire generall rules and proufes with neowe invented breviationes to that effecte, in bringinge to lighte many deepe curiosities of importance leifte in obscurity by many Aucto∣res; which nowe are reduced into theyre perfection, as muche as military science, and the rules of Mathematike and Arithmeticke can a fourde, with neowe envented tables and brevasiones of im∣portance. fo. 61
  • The election and office of a Campe-master of a Regimente of Infan∣tery, with whiche finisheth the firste Booke of this wourcke. fo. 140

    The Table of the seconde Booke.
  • THe I. Chapter treatinge of the election and office of a Campe-master generall of an army. fo. 147
  • The II. Chapter declaringe the election, and suficiency requi∣red in the Captaine generall of the artillery. fo. 151
  • The III. Chapter mensioninge the Artillery conveniente to by con∣ducted with an army, acordinge the executiones to by pretended by the Generall. fo. 154
  • The IV. Chapter sheowinge many reasones for the defence and se∣curitie of a towne, citty, or forte withe necessary instructiones the∣runto apertaininge. fo. 158
  • The V. Chapter treatinge of many goode partes required in a perfe∣ctc Souldior, howe woulde disire to have matteres of importance to by refered to his care and chardge, and many goode instructio∣nes touchinge the same. fo. 163
  • The VI. Chapter treatinge of the office of a Captaine generall of an army, and of many goode partes and rare suficiency required in a personadge of so high dingnitie and degree. fo. 165

    The Table of the thirde Booke.
  • THe I. Chapter treatinge of patarres, and theire severall execu∣tiones, and howe they are manadged, and the compositio∣nes and necessaries required for them, and the stratagemes that are to by used for theire executiones. fo. 175
  • Page  [unnumbered]The II. Chapter sheoweth howe to make atorche to indure againste the force of winde and water with artificiall compossiones, which will burne with greate vehemence and force, and strange to the behoulderes for the noyce and terror of the slame. fo. 177
  • The III. Chapter sheowinge howe to arme artificiall canes armed with Fire-wourcke, for severall execusiones of importance be sea and lande. fo. 179
  • The IV. Chapter sheowinge howe to arme tronckes or canes ar∣med with wilde fire, another maner of way. fo. 180
  • The V. Chapter treatinge howe to arme artificiall bulletes, and neowe invented cross barres armed with Fire-wourkes, decla∣ringe howe they are to by manadged, and the composiones requi∣red for theire executiones, and howe some are to by vsed and ar∣med for severall execusiones of sea servises, as also by lande, to burne townes, or the enemyes quarteres, as alsoe neowe envented cross barres withe longe chaines of yron, to be shot in the fronte of a battel or any order or aray, whiche bienge prudently handeled are of rare execusiones, yea ten times more then youre ordinary bulletes. Concludinge with goode instrucsiones to followe and imitate the stepes of the vertuse, renoomed, prudente and valerou∣se souldior, and abandon those tached with vglie crimes, and with the wicked rancored vice of envy bad inclinasiones, and bad ex∣amples, and the necessary instructiones and probable examples both of the one and the other. fo. 183

Page  [unnumbered]

A TABLE OF THE NOTABLESTE THINGES contained in this Booke.

  • A Bad and covardly incli∣nation to be givin to quarelles and dispu∣tes bienge on the watch. Folio 6
  • Abase and odiouse acte in the persuenge of a victory to fall a spoylinge til the enemy by wholy yeal∣ded and licence granted. Folio 7
  • Alferis Oloa his valour and brave deter∣mination. Folio 17
  • Alferis or ensigne bearer is not to give li∣cence to any souldior to leaue the com∣pany nor put any souldior at liberty withoute the consente of his Captaine or superior Officeres. Folio 16
  • An Alferis Tudesco his valoure. Folio 17
  • A good Cristian of vertouse life and goo∣de applicationes moste comonly is wonte to haue good succeses. Folio 22
  • A necessary thinge in warr to haue some horses in each company of foote for many respectes. Folio 22
  • Acomendable thinge in warr to see mat∣teres prudently prevented in due time. Folio 22
  • Asouldior ought to conforme him self with his hoste for bienge comendable. Folio 23.
  • Agenerouse and louinge minde of an offi∣cer in warr, is highlie to by comended. Folio 36
  • Alouinge prudente and kinde Officer causeth alouinge and obediente soul∣dior. Folio 37
  • Abad custome, and not to by tolerated that souldiores do lende theire armes. Folio 37
  • A perfecte Sardgente-Mayor is wourdie to by emploied in any execusion in warr. Folio 40
  • Alarme bienge presented, the necessary instructiones. Folio 46
  • A souldior of a prudēte cariadge is wour∣die to by esteemed by his Captaine. Folio 60
  • A Sargente oughte to by inclined to con∣tinuall good aplicationes and exam∣ples. Folio 133
  • Auditor his election and obligationes. Folio 141
  • Arcabusero, a Spanish wourd singnifie∣the a souldoure which carieth acaliver for armes.
  • Aguasiill, a Spanish wourde one tha doth asiste the executiones of justice.
  • Ambuscado, a Spanish wourde signifien∣ge an ambuish.
  • Armada, a Spanish wourde signifiethe anavall army of shippes of warr.
  • Alerta, a Spanish wourde singnifieth that when theire is any suspicion of the enemy, the souldiors to by presently reddy with their armes in hand.
  • Artillerie, a Spanish wourde whiche wee call in Englishe greate ordenance.
  • Alferis, aspanish wourde singnifieth an Ensigne bearer.
  • A dangerouse thinge the manadging of pouder. Folio 151
  • Amunitiones of pouder led and matche are to by put in secure places. Folio 152
  • Amater of greate emportance to by well provided before hand of all sortes of amunitiones for many respectes. Folio 153
  • Artillery required for the executions of an army in the filde. Folio 154
  • A Governor of any place of importance bienge determined to yealde the same covardly, or by meanes of intereses, the necessary prevention. Folio 158
  • A prudente conductor of aresolute deter∣mination Page  [unnumbered] of his and his soldiores are wonte to haue good successes. Folio 161
  • A general inclined to rewarde all braue actiones in warr, agreate comforte to honorable soldiores. Folio 161
  • Atilla Kinge of the hunos a proude and cruel man overcomed be Theodorico Kinge of the Burgon̄onos. Folio 162
  • Alexander Mangnus bienge yonge of yea∣res begon to governe. Folio 166
  • Anibal after triumphinge so many victo∣ries was overcomed by Scipio Africa∣no. Folio 167
  • A rare invencion to discover the enemy at nighte bienge resolved to fall on any peece of service. Folio 178.
  • Artificial canes or tronckes armed with Fire-wourck for many rare executio∣nes by sea and lande. Folio 179
  • Artificial enstrumentes of Fire-wourk ar∣med. Folio 192
  • Artificial arowes. Folio 193
  • Artificial instrumentes to burne any combustable thing. Folio 194
  • BAse facsioneres are not to by permi∣ted amongst hon̄orable souldio∣res. Folio 22
  • Barberes necessary instrumentes in acom∣pani. Folio 26
  • Beste ordered and disciplined in warr, are moste comonly Masteres of the victo∣ry. Folio 30
  • Bad customes prevented in due time. Folio 37
  • Barber his election and what resulteth. Folio 142.
  • Bagadge and the order given to march. Folio 54.
  • Battelles of severall formes, and theire ge∣nerall rules and proufes. Folio 61
  • Battell square of men of 464. souldiors. Folio 69.
  • Battell square of men of 361. souldiors. Folio 71
  • Battell of 576. souldiores Folio 73
  • Battell or cross battell of 1416. men. Folio 67
  • Battell square of men of severall sortes of armes proporsionally devided and guarnished by the rule of proporsion. Folio 79.
  • Battell of so muche and the one haulfe more in fronte then in flanke. Folio 8
  • Battells of proporsions of inequality, and the generall rules for theire framinge. Folio 81.
  • Battell of so much and the /3. parte more in fronte then in flanke. Folio 84.
  • Battell of two times more in fronte then in flank and the general rule for theire framinge in proporsion. Folio 87
  • Battell square of men. Folio 88
  • Battell square of men with a center for hurte men and bagadge guarnished proporsionally withe drie pikes, corse∣letes, and musketes. Folio 93
  • Battell square of men of six nasiones aluenge by the rule of proportion to each nasion his parte of the vangarde. Folio 99.
  • Battells of the saied 6. nasiones devided into 3. battelles. Folio 105
  • Battell square of grounde. Folio 113
  • Battell square of grounde. Folio 116
  • Battell square of grounde devided into fi∣ve battelles. Folio 119
  • Battell or cross battell of broade fronte devided into 4. battelles. Folio 123.
  • Battell of broade fronte of 6000. Folio 129
  • Battell with a center of arcabuseros. Folio 139
  • Battelles or an army devided into severall battallones of broade fronte. Folio 123
  • Battell of 3000. men devided into 6. bat∣telles of broade fronte. Folio 124
  • Battell of the forme of a triangle. Folio 125
  • Battell or an army divided into five bat∣telles square of grounde. Folio 138
  • Battell or an army devided into 7. battel∣les square of grounde by the rule of proportion. Folio 138
  • Boates necessary instrumentes for an ar∣my. Folio 153
  • Better and more honorable to die in de∣fence of a juste and honorable acte then yealde to any base imaginasion. Folio 159.
  • Brimstone and howe it is to be refined to give it more force. Folio 177
  • Page  [unnumbered]Bulletes or cross barres armed with wilde fire theire rare execusiones. Folio 185.
  • Balles of wilde fire and their rare execu∣siones. Folio 186
  • Balles of wilde fire made to burne with greate vehemence within the water. Folio 195
  • Bisono a Spanish wourde whiche singni∣fieth in English arawe souldior vnex∣perte in his armes and Military Disci∣pline.
  • COrporall and the goode partes and qualities in him required. Folio 11
  • Corporall is to instructe and give goode examples to the souldiores of his squa∣dron. Folio 11
  • Captaine de campaina is to observe. Folio 143
  • Captaines, and howe they oughte to by elected. Folio 20
  • Chaplen mayor his election and goode examples. Folio 142
  • Captaines and expectasiones of theire mi∣litary prudence, and goode examples and aplicationes. Folio 20
  • Comessaries theire instructiones and pri∣viledge. Folio 47
  • Captaines theire sinister election to the greate decay of Military Discipline. Folio 20
  • Captaines electinge corporales and devi∣dinge the company into squadrones and howe. Folio 22
  • Captaines and the Military prudence and goode partes ordained in them. Folio 24
  • Captaines of prudente cariadge and goo∣de examples are to by imitated. Folio 25
  • Captaines to take their turne in marchin∣ge. Folio 53
  • Chaplenes necessarie instrumentes in acompany. Folio 26
  • Captaines in march when they are to goe ahorsbak. Folio 53
  • Captaines in marchinge or in garison and who they are to by imitated trough their good examples. Folio 27
  • Captaines marchinge troughe acountry and howe they are to behaue them sel∣ves givinge good examples to dischard∣ge them selves and ministring justice. Folio 27
  • Cause of decay of Military Discipline. Folio 40
  • Centery perdue. Folio 43
  • Captaines chosen to by imploied in exe∣cutions of importance. Folio 57
  • Centery whate he is to do, the enemy aprochinge. Folio 64
  • Captaines oughte to asiste theire soul∣diors in time that they are driven to ex∣treame necessity. Folio 59
  • Centery perdue, cauled the security of the campe. Folio 60
  • Captaine de campaina to cause the ba∣gadge to by charged in due time in ocasiones of marchinge. Folio 132
  • Campe Master general of an army his election and office and the aproved partes and suficiency required in him. Folio 147
  • Convoyes and howe they are to by em∣ploied. Folio 148
  • Convoyes to take a convenient course for their goode order and security. Folio 148
  • Ciro Kinge of Percia for revenge of the drowninge of adeere frende of his did overcom the force of the greate river of gange Folio 150.
  • Compositiones and mixtures required for the executiones of Fire-wourkes. Folio 152.
  • Conductores of the greate ordenance. Folio 155.
  • Generals to prevente many matteres in time. Folio 165
  • Careles officeres and soldiors are wonte to by puzeled and amazed. Folio 156
  • Captaine generall bienge resolued to con∣ker aforaigne country. Folio 168
  • Cause of discontentement of souldiores. Folio 170
  • Corporal or Cauo de esquadro a Spanish wourde singifieth acomaunder vnder the Captaine over 20. or 25. souldio∣res.
  • Camisada, a Spanish wourde signifieng the investinge or putinge on a shurte over the souldior is armor or a parell Page  [unnumbered] which is used in night time in ocasio∣nes of soddaine exploites on the enemy.
  • Campaina, a Spanish wourd which signi∣fiethe a filde.
  • Campaina rasa, a Spanish wourde is to say an open filde rased plaine withoute any incombrance.
  • Campe Master generall a Spanish deriva∣tive is to say the high marshal of the fil∣de.
  • Castallano, is the cheef comaunder of a castel.
  • Cannonnero, signifieth a guner.
  • Cavalleria, a Spanish wourde singnifieth souldiores a horse bake.
  • Cavallero a Spanish wourde singnifieth a gentelman, in some places, it singnifieth a high mounte of earth wheruppon greate ordenance is planted to disco∣ver the filde.
  • Center is the juste midell of a battel or other thinge.
  • Cintinell, a Spanish wourde a souldior standinge in poste.
  • Coronell or Collonell, singnifieth a Cam∣pe master over a regimente.
  • Coloures a wourde in vse in English for the ensigne biēge of variable coulores.
  • Corselete, a Spanish wourde is the com∣plet armor of a foote souldior.
  • Convoy, a Spanish wourde singnifienge a garde of souldiores sente for the safe conducte of munision, or any other thinge to be safe-conducted from one place to another.
  • Contra rounde, a Spanish wourd and is a number of Officeres goinge to visite the corpes de garde, watches, cintine∣les, and also the ordinary roundes, to see if they a complish theire dutie with vigilance and care.
  • Captaine generall inventinge neowe oca∣siones in vvarr to diverte the enemy and corruptinge them vvith money. Folio 169.
  • Compositiones ordained for artificial ca∣nes. Folio 180.
  • DIsobedience breedeth many mischi∣fes. Folio 4
  • Don Pedro Conde de Feria his goode ex∣amples in the expungnation of dura. Folio 7
  • Decay of Military discipline and of vvhi∣che it doth resulte. Folio 21
  • Ducke de Alua examples of his admini∣strasion of justice and severitie for dis∣orderes comitted. Folio 23
  • Doctor of fisicke his election. Folio 142
  • Drom mayor his election. Folio 142
  • Device or token amongste the souldiores of an army that they may knovve one another, necessary to by prevented. Folio 159.
  • Don Sebastian Kinge of Portugall the cau∣se of his perdition. Folio 167
  • Decay of Military Discipline. Folio 170
  • Deposito or center is the midle of a batel or of any other thinge a Spanish vvourde.
  • ENsignes at theire firste deliveringe to the Alferishes the seremonies vsed Folio 22.
  • Examples of punishmente resultinge of disobedience, and disorder, and theire due revvard. Folio 5
  • Examples of constancie, pascience, braue determination and resolution of soul∣diores. Folio 4
  • Examples of the diference betvvexte oul∣de experimented souldiores and ravve men. Folio 136.
  • Executiones of pouder, no apelasion nor graoe to by expected. Folio 151
  • Envie dayly decaienge into many crimes and disgrases. Folio 163
  • Escalada, a Spanish vvourde singnifiethe the scalinge of a vvall vvith ladderes.
  • Enginero, a Spanish vvourde, it is one skilfull in fortificasiones, and other stratagemes for vvarr.
Page  [unnumbered]
  • FUrieles, of companies are to by cho∣sen of men of aproved fidelitie and goode partes for many respectes. Folio 25
  • Furieles, in the distributinge of munitio∣nes and makinge of quarteres theire instructiones. Folio 25
  • Furieles, sometimes do comit disorderes wourdie of severe punishmente. Folio 26
  • Furious countenance of officeres some ti∣mes are odiouse when it resulteth of a proude inconciderate minde. Folio 27
  • Furieles marchinge their instructiones for to make the quarter. Folio 54
  • Fidelitie a precious thinge in warr. Folio 158.
  • For wante of trustispies many goode oca∣siones and interprises are loste. Folio 169
  • Favor frendship and afection in Military electiones is cause of greate decay of Military Discipline. Folio 170
  • Fosso a Spanish wourde singnifieth the ditche of a towne or forte.
  • Flanke a frence wourde singnifiethe the side of a battell of men.
  • Fronte, a frence wourd is the face or fo∣reparte of a battell, fronte is alsoe the fore parte of a wall or bulwarcke.
  • Furiel a Spanish wourde singnifieth ac learke.
  • Fortificasiones and confines of a King∣dome and necessary instructiones. Folio 198
  • Fortificationes their memberes. Folio 201
  • Fortificasiones and the consideration to by taken for the placinge of the gates of a citty or any stronge place.
  • Fortificationes and prevention to be ta∣ken for their better security. Folio 202
  • Fortificationes and the conveniente course to by taken for theire situasion. Folio 203.
  • Fortification and severall necessaries for their defence and to be prevented in due time. Folio 203
  • GOode aplicationes furderethe the prosperitie and goode success of many ocasiones. Folio 9
  • Greate considerationes and military pru∣dence is required for severall execu∣tions of Captaines and brave comaun∣deres. Folio 24
  • Goode examples of Aniball and his Mili∣tary prudence, and the cause of his de∣cay and overtrowe. Folio 38
  • Gardes or watches, are places of greate respecte. Folio 44
  • Gamesteres theire instructiones. Folio 47
  • Gastadores necessaire to prevente and re∣medie dificulties in march. Folio 149
  • Generall aproachinge nere a place which he determines to beleager. Folio 150
  • General of the artillery the care he is to take in the election of his officeres and gentleman of the artillery. Folio 151
  • Greate ordenance when it is planted to batter. Folio 152
  • Goode and vigilante watche is to by putt upon the storte houses and amunisio∣nes. Folio 152
  • Greate store of pouder and other necessa∣ries required for an army. Folio 154
  • Generall of the artillery verie necessary he by acompanied with persones of perfe∣ction in severall sortes of Fire-wour∣kes. Folio 156
  • Generall of an army conquestinge aforai∣gne contry necessary preventiones to by taken. Folio 160
  • Generall, in chosinge persones for ocatio∣nes of importance and of whome. Folio 160
  • General, oughte never to by weery in toi∣linge after vertue. Folio 170
  • Garitas a Spanish wourd singnifieth a cen∣tery house.
  • Generall of an army the glorious issues of his deepe and prudente designes. Folio 170
  • General, in ocasiones of reforminge of companies, to by well informed for bienge conveniente to his Majesties service. Folio 170
Page  [unnumbered]
  • HArd it is for a souldior to acomplish his obligationes with the pun∣ctualitie and care required, if he by maried. Folio 6
  • How a souldior is to serve in a juste vvarr, and not to serve againste goddes true religion. Folio 7
  • Horse to recnoledge pasadges and places to by suspected, to by prevented in due time. Folio 54
  • Happy are thos that do not intermidle in thinges oute of scence. Folio 28
  • Horceses required for to carry several sortes of greate ordenance. Folio 155
  • Hovv a perfecte souldior is to dischardge matteres of importance refered to his care and truste. Folio 163
  • Hardly any master cā by had of such per∣fection but some times he muste err. Folio 166
  • IMitate those of prudente and vertouse cariadge, and good aplicationes and tacke notice of those decayinge trough their bad govermente. Folio 6
  • Iulius Caesar his examples in executinge justice for disorderes. Folio 23
  • In ocasiones of marchinge prevensions to by taken againste the enemys desin∣gnes and stratagemes. Folio 149
  • Instructiones for the defence of any pla∣ce of importance and how the same is to be honorably defended. Folio 158
  • Instructiones to give ascallada or to scale any place of importance. Folio 160
  • Iulius Caesar with his generouse minde to∣wardes his souldiores a companied with his Military prudence triumpheth victori of 52. battelles. Folio 161
  • Iulius Caesar pasinge over the rhine his re∣noomed victories. Folio 161
  • Iulius Caesar triumpheth over Asia Africa and Europa. Folio 162
  • In the profession of armes the wicked vice of invy is moste odiouse. Folio 163
  • Imitationes of the Greeckes and Romai∣nes comendable. Folio 171
  • KInges and Princes to asiste in per∣son with their armyes it impor∣teth much. Folio 167
  • Kinge Edwarde the thirde his happie su∣cess in France and overcomed the whole power of France. Folio 167
  • LOnge yrones are vsesed in the gar∣des or watches apointed on the ga∣tes of townes, to visite wagones loaden with hay strawe, &c. for prevention of fraude. Folio 35
  • Legion in time of the Romaines was that vvhich vve call a regimente, Tribunus vvas that vvhich vve call a Master de campe. Folio 141
  • Learninge becometh none better then a souldior for many good reasones. Folio 163
  • MAny goode partes vvished in a souldior. Folio 1
  • Many disgraces do resulte troughe the filthie vice of drunkardes. Folio 3
  • Master de campe may marche vvhere hi thincketh more conviente. Folio 61
  • Mutineres and revolteres of base actes, and inclinationes their due revvarde. Folio 142
  • Marvelouse examples of the resolution of experimented oulde souldiores in the sacke of Anvvourpe and other pla∣ces. Folio 136
  • Marchinge trough an enemy contry ne∣cessary instructiones to by observed. Folio 148
  • Many instrumentes necessary for the greate ordenance. Folio 157
  • Many matteres in vvarr are discovered Page  [unnumbered] and prevented vvithoute facte of ar∣mes. Folio 170
  • NEcessaries required for manuall fy∣ry vveapones. Folio 41
  • Necessarie observationes the firste nighte when the army is to pitche theire cam∣pe. Folio 150
  • Necessary to knowe the qualitie and con∣disiones of the enemye is generall, and conductores. Folio 169
  • OBedience duely observed amongste the professores of warr, is lauda∣ble. Folio 1
  • Odiouse in a souldior to by inclined to the bace vice of dronknes. Folio 3
  • Of greate importance that officeres by exercised in warr for many goode res∣pectes. Folio 28
  • Orderes of the proclamationes or vandos to by put in writhinge on the watches or gardes. Folio 36
  • Observationes to by kepte when the Kin∣ge or Generall comes to vieow the ar∣my. Folio 42
  • Opiniones betwexte the infantery and cavallery. Folio 134
  • Officeres of the generall of the artillery. Folio 151.
  • Obedience and Military prudence. Folio 161
  • Ocurrantes of warlike affaires are some times subjecte to disgraces and may by when we lesh feare. Folio 168
  • Ocasion of greate repose to the general. Folio 169.
  • Officeres reformed to asiste nexte the ge∣neral for many goode respectes. Folio 169
  • PArtes besitinge and ordained in a souldior. Folio 10
  • Prevention to by taken for the overmuch liberty of stragleres. Folio 23
  • Prevension to be taken when the enemy is superior on horse. Folio 149
  • Preventiones taken in narow pasadges to by secure and prevented. Folio 149
  • Pouder required for eache peece of greate ordenance, is the ⅔ partes of the weigh∣te of the bullet of the peece and other necessaires therunto apertaininge. Folio 157
  • Pouder rather to spare then to wante. Folio 157
  • Prevencion for the defence of a place of emportance. Folio 164
  • Prudente Captaines, resolute and experi∣mented soldiores bienge hit uppon, greate expectasiones ought to by hoped of theire prosperouse succeses in ocatio∣nes of importance. Folio 169
  • Pattares theire several executiones and in∣dustry used for to efect the same. Folio 175
  • Prevensiones to by taken in due time for the executiones of pattares. Folio 176
  • Pikes armed with artificial Fire-Wourkes and theire execusions. Folio 186
  • QUarter master to him belonges the recivinge of armes and muni∣tiones. Folio 45
  • REsoninge the cause that a souldior is to respecte other officeres. Folio 8
  • Roundes, and howe they are to by pru∣dently ordered to acomplish. Folio 43
  • Roundes and howe they shall acomplish theire obligationes. Folio 43
  • Roundes and the care and punctualitie they are to take in acomplishinge their obligationes. Folio 49
  • Remedy for the preventinge of fraudes vsed in deceivinge the souldiores of theire righte. Folio 56
  • Resolution to by taken to conqueste a fo∣raigne country. Folio 157
  • Resolution taken for to remaine in po∣session of aforaigne contry preventio∣nes to by taken. Folio 159
Page  [unnumbered]
  • SOuldiores to by reddi vvhen alarme do presente vvith speede. Folio 61
  • Souldiores stealinge at nighte to the ene∣my prevention for the same. Folio 62
  • Sardgente Mayor and other Officeres are to take great care that in ocasiones of persuinge a victory the souldiores do not fall a spoylinge for bienge bothe odiouse and dangerouse. Folio 64
  • Spies of doble dealinges very dangerouse. Folio 169
  • Sardgente Mayor is to animate the soul∣diores in many ocasiones. Folio 61
  • Shot in ocasiones of skirmish. Folio 134
  • Sutleres and instructiones to by observed withe care and punctuality. Folio 141
  • Souldiores of vertues and prudente ca∣riadge are to by honored and rewar∣ded. Folio 144
  • Sardgentes are not to by elected by favor nor affection for many goode respe∣ctes. Folio 13
  • Souldiores missinge theire rankes. Folio 133
  • Sardgentes to instructe and learne the souldiores howe to manadg their ar∣mes. Folio 133
  • Shott and opiniones for their divisiones. Folio 133
  • Shott to observe goode order, and howe to serve with their armes. Folio 13
  • Sardgent bienge well disciplined can re∣dress and remedy many disorderes. Folio 13
  • Sardgentes are to haue the roale of the names of the souldiores of his company aboute him. Folio 14
  • Sardgente Mayor is to apointe the table ordained for gamesteres. Folio 50
  • Sardgente Mayor arivinge neere the quar∣ter in ocasiones of marchinge. Folio 54
  • Souldiors oughte to by devoote. Folio 26
  • Sardgente Mayor how he is to be elected. Folio 29
  • Scipio Africano with his sagacitie and ex∣traordinary Military prudence did overcome Aniball. Folio 30
  • Sardgente Mayor now and then is to visite the walls and watches for goode respe∣ctes. Folio 45
  • Souldiores carefully exercised is comen∣dable. Folio 38
  • Sardgente Mayor oughte to carefulli in∣structe the souldiors in the exercice of armes. Folio 40
  • Sardgente Mayor is to take a special care to see the souldiores provided with fire in the watches. Folio 42
  • Souldiors exercised. Folio 44
  • Souldiores bienge on the watch instru∣ctions. Folio 46
  • Sardgent Mayor givinge many good in∣structions. Folio 51
  • Sardgente Mayor in ocasiones to be pro∣vided with pouder match led it impor∣teth. Folio 52
  • Souldiores to prevente theire bad custo∣mes. Folio 53
  • Souldiores prevensiones of false alarmes. Folio 57
  • Souldior how he is to governe him selfe standinge in poste or centery. Folio 57
  • Sardgente Mayor givinge instructiones to the cinteryes when the enemy are aprochinge, for to be prevented. Folio 64
  • Souldiores breakinge order or array thei∣re due reprehinsion. Folio 149
  • Spinola provided of boathes and other necessaries in takinge Reinberk and Breda. Folio 153
  • Suitchers with 43000. men resolved to conquest France, Borgondy and Flan∣deres defeated by Caesar. Folio 162
  • Singular vertue and constancie are foun∣de but in feowe. Folio 166
  • Scaling of atowne or forte necessary in∣structiones. Folio 168
  • Saltpeter reduced into vvater vvhich is goode to give more force to many compossiones of Fire-vvourkes. Folio 177
  • THe imitasion of the discipline of the Ianisaros Turkes. Folio 9
  • The professores of armes oughte diligent∣ly to learne the arte of vvarr. Folio 10
  • Trough sinister election do resulte many Page  [unnumbered] disgraces and loshes. Folio 21
  • The acomplishinge of orderes som times are hurtefull, for certaine consideratio∣nes. Folio 23
  • Thesarios their Military goode instructio∣nes. Folio 38
  • Table to by put in memory for the fra∣minge of battelles for suche as are no∣table in aritmeticke. Folio 70
  • To refresh or coule greate ordenance vvhen it is very hote by overmuch shutinge. Folio 156
  • The order for the setinge of the greate ordenance belonges to the Campe ma∣ster generall and the executiones to the general of the artillery. Folio 157
  • Torches to be artificially made vvith compositiones of Fire-vvourke to in∣dure againste the force of vvinde and vvater. Folio 177
  • UN fitt that a souldior by inclined to delicate meates. Folio 3
  • Un fittinge to see a souldior leadon vvith much bagade or traish. Folio 5
  • Very many raised into greate dingnitie be theire vertue. Folio 2
  • Vandos or proclamationes to by duly ob∣served for many respectes. Folio 36
  • Very many instrumentes necessary for the executiones of the artillery. Folio 154
  • Vigilante and goode vvatch to by apoin∣cted on the pouder for many goode respectes. Folio 157
  • Vando a Spanish vvourde an acte or la∣vve made by the Generall and Coun∣sel of vvarr and published by sounde of drum and trompet to the souldiores.
  • VVAtch vvourd and concidera∣tions touchinge the same. Folio 49
  • Watch vvourde in campaina and conci∣derationes touchinge the same to by in due time prevented. Folio 56
  • When the army shall encampe the firste nighte the houre vvhiche is apointed for the scoutes of horse to rerire. Folio 150

For the breefe explicatinge of the divisiones of several sortes of armes and of several sortes of battelles, i did put downe amongste the chiferes of theire divisiones and tables the letteres followinge for theire breefe explicatinge.

THe letter A. amongste the chiferes of the divisiones signifieth arcabuse.

The letter P. singnifieth drie pikes or vnarmed pikes.

The letter C. men armed with complet corceletes.

The letter M. musketieres.

The letter R. ranckes.

The letteres Fr. fronte of the battell.

The letteres Fla. flancke of the battell.

The letter G. singnified gilted corseletes.

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Errores in the printe.

Some letteres of smale importance in the correction may be is forgotten, which i refer to the judgemente of the curiouse and gentle Reader.

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THIES Military instructiones of Captaine GERAT BARRY bienge visited by order of his Majesties privy Counsell, by the Censor of Bruxeles, and aproved by the Archbishop of Maklin the 9. of December, 1633. his saied Majesties privy Counsell founde it profitable and comodiouse for the advancemente of his Majesties service; wherfore they granted licence for the printinge of the same, as by the contentes of theire patente and broade zeale doth a peere: Defendin∣ge that in paine of the penalties contained in the saied patente, that no Printer, or any other boddi, shall printe, conterfet, or sel the saied Booke within the limites of their jurisdiction for the space of six yeares, nexte insuenge withoute full consente and commission, in writinge of the saied Captaine. Dated at Bruxells the 15. of January, 1634.

HENRICUS CALENUS, sacrae Theologiae Licentiatus, Archipresbyter Bruxellensis, Librorum Censor.

FIdem facimus positam Censuram esse legitimam, ab eo nimirum qui ad hoc à nobis commissus est. Actum Bruxellae 9. Decembris 1634.
JACOBUS Archiepiscopus Mechliniensis.
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PHILIPPE by the grace of God Kinge of Castille, Leon, Aragon, and of both the Sicil∣les, of Hierusalem, Portugall, Navare, Grana∣de, Toledo, Valencia, Galicia, Mallorca, Si∣villa, Sardena, Cordoua, Corsica, and Murcia, Jean Algarues, Algesire and Gibraltar, of the Iles of the Canaries, easte and Weste-Inges, of the Iles and continente of the ocean sea. Arch∣ducke of Austria, Ducke of Burgondie, Lo∣thier, Brabante, Limburcke, Luxenburghe, Gildres, and Millan: Earle of Habsburgh, Flandes, Artoies, Burgondie Thiroll, Palatin, Henawe, Holande, Zelande, Namure, Zutphen: Prince of Suban, Marques of the holly Impyre of Rome, Lorde of Friselande, of Sali∣nas, Machlin, of the city and countrie of Vtreghte, Over-yssel and Groninge, Dominator of Asia and Africke.

BE IT KNOWEN TO ALL MEN to whom thies presentes shall a peere that we haue received the homble suplication and peticion of oure wel beloved Captaine GERAT BARRY Irishman, oure pensioner at the Zass of Gante, Specifienge that wheras he is desirouse and willinge for the goode and advancemente of oure service; as alsoe for the goode and generall vtilitie of his countrimen, and otheres who followes the warres (to inlighten them and cause to by printed) a certaine booke which he hath writen in Inglish, cauled and intitulated Military Discipline, conteininge dive∣res obligationes, instructiones and directiones, apertaininge to the Professores of this arte, as alsoe of fortificationes and inventiones of Artificiall Fire-wourkes, offencives, and defencives be sea and lande. And in respecte that the saide impressiō can not be permited or suffe∣red withoute oure speciall warāte and permissiō; he hōbly beseecheth vs that we woulde by pleased to grante him the same for seavē yeares.

BE IT KNOWEN to all men that wheras we havinge consi∣dered the aforesaide, and seene in oure privy Conunsell the Aproba∣tion of the censure done, and performed be the Archbishop of Mack∣lin in the revewe of the booke above mencioned. And oure speciall favor inclininge to the suplication and petision of the saide Captaine GERAD BARRY oure petisioner. We haue permited consented and auctorised, and by thies presentes oute of oure speciall grace (we Page  [unnumbered] doe permit consente and auctorise) givinge him full permission and power to cause printe the saied Booke by any Printer dwellinge in oure countries in thies partes; whome he shall please to choose, and afterwardes to cause sell and distribute them in and trough oute oure foresaied countries, prohibitinge, and defendinge all other Printeres Booke, seleres and other persones who soever, not to conterfett, printe, sell nor distribute the same duringe the time and tearme of six yeares nexte insuenge; withoute permission and express consente of oure saied petitioner, or of whome he hath chosen and given au∣ctoritie for the saied impression; as alsoe for the sellinge of them. And that in paine of cōfiscation and losse of all that shall be printed, and moreover to incurre and pay the some, of six florince for every copie that shall be founde to by printed, soulde or distributeth, wit∣houte the aforesaied comission and consente of oure petitioner Ca∣ptaine GERAT BARRY, and the one haulfe to be applyed to oure profit, and comoditie; and the other to whome the saied Captaine hath chosen as before declared, and that in the maner, and acordin∣dinge to theire agrimente and a corde paste betwexte them. To be vnsterstoode that the Printer who is chosen shall be oblidged to con∣forme him selfe with the proclamation made and published uppon the arte of printinge. Besides that when the whole impression shall be finished, he shall be obliged to deliver in the handes of oure Secre∣tary havinge singned thies presentes, two copies of the saide bookes, and that verie netly bounde; to be given for the augmentation of oure library, as it is apointed and ordained.

OURE WIL IS therfore and we comaunde oure wel beloved and trustie Counselleres, oure Presedentes, and all otheres of oure privy and greate Counsell, and all other oure Officeres, justises, and subje∣ctes, that upon oure presente grace, priviledge, aprobation, permissiō and consente. They doe cause suffer and permitt, the aforesaied pe∣tisioner, as also whome he shall choose to printe, fell and distribute the saide bookes, to injoy fully and peaceably, and to vse duringe the time, and acordinge as before declared and ordained, withoute doin∣ge, givinge or suferinge, to be made don or offered any trouble, hinde∣rance, or wronge to the contrarie. For suche is oure will and pleasure, in witnes wherof we haue comanded oure greate zeale to be affixed and put to thies presentes. Given at oure city of Bruxelles the twelfe of December one thousander six hondereth thirty of three yeares and of oure Regne thirtinth.

By the Kinge in his Counsell G. Ottingnus.

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