THE TENTHE CHAP. Treatinge of the confines of a Kingedome, as alsoe of the goode lawes to by observed in the same, and of many necessary instru∣ctiones thereunto apertaininge, and who the same is to by forti∣fied and stronge by arte, or by nature, or by bothe.
SUch as are desirouse to be couriose and experte in war∣like afaires it importeth that they be of goode judge∣mente in fortificasiones, as well to offende as to defen∣de; Notwithstandinge that for this purpose in all kin∣gdomes and states are elected ingineres a luinge them a goode pinsion: Yet suche as are of longe practice in warr, and do aplie them selves well in hope to by advanced, by theire a proved goode partes and suficiencie oughte to exercice them selves in fortifi∣cationes, bienge very necessarie in owne who profesed to be experte in this arte of warr, and knowe howe to intrinch and fortifie him selfe in many ocurrantes in oppen filde, howe to cutt a trince to win a tow∣ne or any stronge place: As also to knowe howe to drawe the plott of townes fortes and castelles, and also in knowinge all necessaries for the defence therof, and to know howe to prevente the stratagemes to be feared of his enemy.
Douptless thies thinges are of greate consideration, for the strenghte of akingdome consisteth much in beinge well fortified, to∣gither with the quantitie and qualitie of his subiectes, and in the goo∣de qualitie of his dominion and country: Those princes and Ree∣publikes are judged mighty and stronge, whiche in theire kingdomes and states do montaine goode religion, goode lawes and goode ar∣mes, and do exercice the same, and do inioy holsom ayre, fertill grounde and naturall strenghte, with suche other conveniente co∣modities therunto required; To by vnderstoode that all countries are strōge by nature or by arte or by both; By nature they are stron∣ge when they are inuiored withe the sea rounde aboute, or on parte therof, or backed with marrasses or riueres, and those to be stronge by arte, and in theire frontieres nexte adjoyninge and places moste conveniente to haue townes castelles and fortresses fortified by arte. Page 198 All confines are eyther maritime or mediterraneall or both the one and the other, whether they are montanouse places or in plaine cam∣paina, or do participate of the one and the other, if they by mediter∣raneall it muste by viewed and considered on whate parte the enemy might come to offende the same, and where he mighte moste como∣diouse come to atempte, And it is alsoe to be considered on whate partes he mighte make his inroades, and retire a gaine with safetie, and whether their by any situation whiche beinge fortified by the enemy mighte moleste or a noy the country nexte adioyninge: If the confines of the kingdom by maritime or on the sea coaste, all the coaste and circuide of the same are to by viewed and remarcked, that prevention mighte be taken in due time, in as muche as may posible to hinder the enemyes imbarcasion, in the places moste fitt for the same; Yea and in all places whiche mighte by suspected (if it be po∣sible) for the better securitie of the kingdom or state, but in some kingdomes the circuide and places on the sea coaste are so greate that hardly all can be fortified, and so the enemy ariuinge with a mightie army, and mighte be in a place litle suspected, may put the kingdom and country in greate perill and danger, as was seene by the spanishe navie at the conqueste of portugall, when they landed neere cascales in a place never thoughte vppon by the portugeses, so that they foun∣de them selves deceived, thinckinge that the disembarcation shoulde have beene betwexte the citti of Lisboa and Sangilians castell, where they stoude fortified in theire trinches, with determination to hin∣der the disēbarcation of the spanish navie, but he landed in aplace far better for his purpose, and of muche lesh danger, whiche was on the other side of cascales towardes the northe litle toughte of by the por∣tuges, so that it is toughte that sea coastes are with greate coste and dificulties defended, thouge theire be many places stronge by nature or by arte; And for asmuche as theire be diveres and variable quali∣ties of confines, and hardlie any rules to be given for theire propor∣siones, nor whate distance from frontier to frontier, it muste be pre∣sumed that the confines of akingdom doth houlde some corespon∣dance with the circuide of a citti, in fortifienge wherof the bulwarkes are of the moste importante memberes, the which moste comonlie are put in the places where they can moste offende the enemy, and defende them selves, and the place, regardinge due distance in suche sorte, that the one may defende the other in as muche as may by with their artillery and smale shott. And in like maner the curtines and Page [unnumbered]
THe places bienge viewed and found apte to receive offence by the enemy, and also to offende him, it is necessary to fortifie the same as well vpon the sea coastes as the inlande with strōge for∣tificationes, takinge goode advicement and carefull consideration in choisinge the situation therof, whether it by on plaines or hilles or marittim, or consistinge of al the thre, understandinge that the circui∣de of the place or fortification is to have aconveniente space rounde aboute (neyther to much nor to litle for many respectes.) The si∣tuasiones in plaines, are stronge whiche are invioroned with deepe lakes greate moores greate riveres, and suche as may by sonke vnder water in time of necessity, as in Holande and Zelande, and suche as have acampaina raza or plaine, sufficient distante from all thinges that mighte over comaunde the same. The situation that is uppon a hill, that is stronge that standeth on the moste higheste parte ther∣of, and all vnderlaied with naturall rockes rounde aboute, not havin∣ge neere it any superior nor equall moante, as is the castell of lisbur∣ne. For all situationes which have a dificulte access are stronge when they can not be offended from other adioyninge moantes and the muche more stronger when it is not minable. All stronge places mo∣ste comonlie are won eyther be force of armes, battery, treason, sur∣price, or by longe beseedginge, or by assaulte, scalinge, or undermi∣nige: The maritime situationes are stronge when they are compased by the sea, or parte therof, and the reste divided from the maine by greate and deepe ditches as is the castell of san Jean in Portugall, who hath on the shore side a deepe ditch digged uppon a rocke, and the maine sea on the other side, or buitlte uppon the topp of some rocke with the saied comodities, as is the penon of veles or the castell of cas∣cales in Portugall. Citties and townes are made stronge by nature Page 200 and industrie of those by nature we have all ready spoken in the strenght of situationes: Citties by industrie are stronge by the forme and by the matter, stronge by the matter when they haue thicke walles, greate terraplenos, broade and deepe ditches. By the forme they are stronge when it is framed in suche sorte that the moste far∣deste and all quarteres may haue corespondance to offende the enemy with the cannon and fyry shott. Of this sorte are those which do moste neere a proach, vnto the sircular figure but with goo∣de regarde of the due lardgnes and proportion of the curtines, and equall distance from bulwarke to bulwarke.
Theire intereth amongste thies all townes and stronge fortes con∣sistinge of five, six seaven, eighte, nine, or ten ravelinges, and curtines, by directe line, and who many more angeles, so muche the better the foure anguled of all is the weakeste. It is to be vnderstoode that smale places of them selves are weake because they can not so sufuciently resiste any excessive battery, and other offences as greate places may which haue roome capable inough to raise defences and necessary rampares and horne wourkes, a gainste any greate force, neyther oughte they to be so lardge that the circuide therof woulde require awhole army to defende itt.
THe fortificationes of citties and castelles is principally groun∣ded a gainste the offence of greate ordenance, and alsoe de∣fended with the same and with other fyrie weapon: It is to be considered that the artillery is devided and differensed into greatnes or Zices Royall, and into lesher zices.
Of the zice Royall is that peece that shooteth of seavintine pound upwarde, as is the culverrin the quarter cannon: the demy cannon, the cannon and double cannon, the pedrero basalisco and such like. And for the lesser zice the diference is to be vnderstoode that all pi∣ces that shoote bullet from seavintine pounde weighte downewardes as is the demiculverin, the saker, the minnon, the falcon and falco∣nett even to the rabinet and arcabuse de crocke.
The artillery from whence a citty, forte or stronge place may re∣ceive moste offence and domadge, is that of the greatest zice, for of the lesher zice there is no greate doupte to by had, sith that the de∣miculverin can do no greate offence nor domadge, and alsoe from Page [unnumbered]〈1 page duplicate〉Page [unnumbered]
The bulwarkes are uppon the angles or corneres of the forme of the citty or forte, and of such distance and due proportion, as shall seeme to the skilfull Inginer, and they oughte to by made optouse or blunte, and not sharpe, for so they are more stronge and capable.
The partes of the bulwarke are the travesses or flankes orechion, pum, garde, or shoulder, the fronte or curtine, the conter-fronte or spurres, the pestilles or parapettos, the place or roome for the artille∣ry. The bulwarkes as i saied are placed within the angles where place is to be made reddy for the artillery, and to mounte the same in suche a heighte, that it may discover the campe or circuid on every where in at much as is posible.
It is to by considered that the curtines of the bulwarke shall stan∣de in suche sorte that they may be touched or beaten from the firste corner from whose flanke or traves it taketh his defence, and the line or pointe is to be taken som whate more from the flanker, and in su∣che distance agreable to the greatnes of the bulwarke, soe acordinge to the greatnes of the same, the measures are to by increased or de∣minised, observinge the due proportion required; It is necessary to make in the bulwarkes certaine issues, the whiche are made in the par∣te that looketh towardes the flanker or travess, thies are moste neces∣sarie to put men oute for the ditch. The conterfortes and apertenan∣ces of the bulwarck, have alsoe theire measures and proportiones, the whiche i leave to avoide prolixitie, and because that they may by mo∣re or lesh acordinge the discresion and plates of the curiouse and per∣fecte Inginer. The Cavallero within side adjoyninge to the curtine in the mideste of them are builded, and from suche Cavalleros are the curtines or walles of the bulwarke defended, and alsoe the fielde, and for this cause are the bulwarkes wonte to by made, and to raise them so high, that they may discover well the places of theyre execu∣tiones.
THe gates or portes of a towne cittie or forte, are to by placed in partes, moste comodiouse for the service of the same, both in peace and war, conveniente to receive in, or to put oute peo∣ple moste safe and sure from all offences (in as much as can by) the gate muste have his drawen bridge made of stronge timber and yro∣nes necessary for the same, it is to be reasonable broade for the como∣ditie of the wagones and artillery, and very stronge, if theyre by no more then one drawen bridge or gate let them not be directe. Ne∣cessary it where that no high wales nor hedges of gardines, nor ochar∣des nor such like by permited on the outewarde partes of the gates or walles of any cittie or place of importance; and a distance of 600. pa∣ses, but all razed and made plaine on all the circuide rounde aboute, which do offten times serve for ashelter to the enemy to aproache of asuddaine neere the walles, that they can not by discerned, till they com into the ditch, by reason that trees and hedges do shelter them, by which meanes many places of importance are soone loste.
The terra plena is the onely remedy againste the furie and execu∣tion of the artillery, and is to by made with in, and behinde the wall close to the same; and the cavallers and bulwarkes oughte to by made in suche forte, that the wall bienge fallen, the same mighte remaine and stande like amightie mounte againste the enemy, and shoulde by made of suche faste and massie earthe (that it cromble slipp nor roule not, and so fall downe) as do many fortificationes made of runinge sande; the heighte and bread therof oughte to by suche as the co∣moditie and seate will require: All thies thinges are the memberes of a fortification, the which how muche more fitt and proporsionally they by placed aboute the boddy of acitti or place of importance, so much doeth it make the same more stronge and beautifull.
It is alsoe to by noted, that if a ny of thies situationes theire by nee∣re adioyninge any woodes, vine yardes, orchardes, tries, houses, churches, monesteries or other edificies, consideringe if they be su∣che as mighte annoy the enemy or render him any comoditie, wher∣by he may easilie hinder the citti castell or forte, prevension oughte to by taken in due time; If the ceate of the citti forthe or fortress by marittime or sea coaste, there muste by considered the qualitie of that sea, and of the haven, and of whate depthe it is, whether if it Page [unnumbered]〈1 page duplicate〉Page [unnumbered]
THies conciderationes duly had, and resolusion taken, then Aploott muste be drawen with conveniente rules and measu∣res to reduce the citti forte or place to the beste forme that may by, with as litle ruine or defeatinge of houses or churches as can be, plasinge the bulwarkes, and cavalleres and other edifices conve∣niente to theire seates and purpose in the place moste fitt for the sa∣me, and that to be don withe as litle loss to the inhabitantes as may be possible. Resolution taken uppon the designe forme and greate∣nes that the place or fortress is to haue, he is to fortifie the feobleste parte or partes therof firste, and the apteste to by offended. The fortification well fortified and finished, it is necessary that it be fur∣nished with a conveniente garison of souldiores for the better securi∣tie and defence therof, for otherwise it were like a boddy withoute a soule (and biside this) if it haue not provision of all sortes of vitual∣les, artillery and munitiones, and of all armes defencive and offenci∣ve in goode and sufficiēte store, and of shoules spades mattokes pick∣axes, Page 204 sawes, hameres, yron, sledges, barres of yron, nayles, ropes, &c. And many other necessaire instrumentes to wourke in earth, or in walles or in stones or in tember, and alsoe in water, mandes, baske∣tes, hand barrowes and wheele barrowes, plankes, beames, stakes, watlinges gabiones, and other thinges at batteries and beseedginge, withoute the which it is impossible to repaire and intrinche againste batteries asaultes and other ofences of the enemy, all which belonges to the office care and dutie of the generall of the artillery: to see them provided in every towne or place of any importance within the realme, as also all other places which standes for the defence and safetie of the same.
Thies fortificationes wee treate of are very costely, and hardlie to by performed but by a mighty Prince, and specially suche as are made with brike stone goode earth and thurff, as is the castell and citti of Anwourpe, Gante, and san Gilian in Portugall, and the castell of Millan, and sundrie otheres the licke, are hardlie broughte to perfe∣ction but with expence of millones, so nowe adayes all places are for∣tified with earth and thurff onely, as is for the moste parte the greate towne of Gante, Mastrick, Dam, Ostende, Hulste and many more places in the lowe countries, as Sluse, Weasell and the towne of Breda, which haue indured such gallante batteries, sufficiente to weare oute a greate and mightie prince, both in his power and purse, whiche was to be seene in the famouse siedge and regaininge of Bre∣da, where all Kinges and Princes in Cristendom for the moste parte on both sides, sheowed theire forces and mighte, not withstandinge it was won by the invencible power of that mightie Monarke the Catholick Kinge of Spaine, troughe his greate mighte and power, acom∣panied with the prudente brave conduction and militarie industrie of his renoomed Generall Marques Spinola, and many brave Captai∣nes and souldiores, togither with the incomporable power loue and vnitie of his faithfull and renoomed lubjectes of the vnited provin∣ces of the lowe countries, to their greate glorie and honoure, and soe spreade abroade and related by many auctores to their and predeces∣sores greate fame and renoome of perpetuall memory to all posteri∣tie, wherof to relate it were tediouse, and incredible to such as haue not seene the same, with so many thousandes of wagones ful of all sortes of vitualles and amunisiones cominge every day, where mighte by perceived the loue and greate encomparable mighte of his vnited subjetes of the vnited provinces. Al which i haue seene and this Page [unnumbered]〈1 page duplicate〉Page [unnumbered]
AL stronge places of importance are to be well fortified wi∣thin as also on the outewarde partes, and greate considera∣tion oughte to by taken that the enemy may not a proach to the walles or gates, withoute beinge discouered before they may come to execute theire intente, for which in all stronge houldes and places of importance, moste comonlie, are placed on the outewarde partes roundes and cēteries, and places for theire defence and retreate, with such consideration and previntion, that the enemy do not a rive vn∣knowen to the desired place of theire execution as related by their spies, withoute firste beinge spied oute in due time be the outewarde cinteries and roundes, so that all the reste may haue time to by all in armes, and each company to repaire in time with speede, with the fir∣ste advice or alarme to their culoures, and there in all readdines to repaire where they shall be comaunded by the Comaunder or Go∣vernor of the place. Advertisinge that for many conciderationes no company oughte to repaire or budge withoute order of the Gover∣nor or Sardgente-Mayor, for feare of inconveniences and secret co∣respondance. To see thies and many more ocurrantes in warr pre∣vented, it is moste necessary that the Governor and Sardgente Mayor do lodge as neere possible to the place of armes or meaine garde, so that vrgent ocasiones may by prevented in due time, and with all speede as ocasion shall require, the cintery perdue and outewarde roundes oughte to be chosen of vigilante and braue souldiores, ad∣vertisinge that the roundes oughte still to goe forwarde, and very sci∣lente, and to make no alto nor staies as some careless roundes do, and that for the greate truste and care refered to theire chardge; to see thies well ordered and fullfilled, the Governor and Sardgente-Mayor by turnes shoulde goe the rounde, and findinge the roundes Page 206 and cinteries not acomplishinge their obligationes to see them seve∣rely punished.
Such fortificationes as are planted on hilles or high rokes, greate consideration oughte to by taken for theire due defence, thoughe the asendinge of such places by dificculte, yet it were goode they shoulde by compassed with double palisados for their better securitie, and with a parapet made of thurff or brick at the foote of each of them, and way for the rounde betwexte them and the wall.
FOr the more security of castelles and stronge places are moste comonly planted in theire fronte haulfe-mounes oppen on the inwarde side, in which for theire better securitie, is wonte of righte to be agarde every day and nighte, vnder which shelter the gates of the towne or castell are made for their better security from the fury of the greate ordenance, as also for other respectes, and that they may discover the enemy, and hinder theire designes. It is very requisit that the fosso or ditch be deepe and broade inough, and that the curtines be of goode heighte that withoute greate dificulte it can not be scaled.
For the better asurance of all stronge places, it is necessary that they by well provided with stronge and vigilante watches, and for many goode respectes that no company which shall inter the watch shall knowe theire a pointed place till the verie time that the watch is set (or alitle before) for feare of treason by some provooked by interes, or proceedinge trough afrontes, or greate injuries received from the Governor touchinge theire reputasion or honoure or meanes.
It also may procede of some of bad govermente and inclinatio∣nes, for which cause they are not prefered nor advanced, it may alsoe by invented by burgeres, who bienge overmuch opressed with tiran∣ny, and findinge no conveniente remedy nor justice executed for hainouse factes and disorderes comitted, do procure treasones and revoltes.
When any suche ocasiones are suspected or feared the roundes are to be doubled, and sende contraroundes of Officeres and men of greate truste, for the vigilance care truste and fidelitie hoped of them, for prudente and carefull souldiores maketh easie materes of greate Page [unnumbered]〈1 page duplicate〉Page [unnumbered]
THe security of stronge houldes and fortresses dependeth of the goode order and vigilance of the Governores and reste ministres of the same, and that, as well within as withoute side bothe by polecie and Military Discipline, in ministringe goode justi∣ce betwexte the inhabitantes and souldiores, and in ordaininge a goode and vigilante watch, and to be well provided of all necessaries in due time. And preventinge the stratagemes and plottes of the ene∣my in as muche as can be, havinge alwayes an eye towardes the bur∣geres and souldiores, concideringe theire humores condisiones and fidelity, theire shoulde by alwayes secret spies to learne of theire esta∣te and humores, and whate they comunicate in secrett and publike, and finally theire actiones and inclinasiones, and to haue goode re∣garde of suche strangeres as do arive into such places, if they be peo∣ple well knowen or not faithfull or suspected.
In the ocurrantes and courses of warr, greate and many are the considerationes required in the generall of an army, and in his coun∣sel of warr, in prudently preventinge manny materes of greate im∣portance, of presente and future ocationes (with aforcaste prudente prevention) which otherwise bienge induced (do often fall oute to the greate discomodity of his Majesties service) in atemptes of man∣ny honorable interprises and incounteres, to the greate decay of Mi∣litary Discipline, whiche by dayly experience wee see, that for wante of prudente conductores of care truste and fidelity, many honorable interprises are loste, resultinge of the litle perfection of many Offi∣ceres.
Page 208A matter wourdie to be noted examined and prevented for the due orderinge of future ocasiones, of whate resulteth that so many oulde and experimented souldiores of the late reformasiones in germany and lowe country wente on the countrary side to the greate disco∣moditie of the house of austria, sence which time who many millo∣nes were consumed in raisinge of neowe levies and recrutes for the furtherance of the warres of the lowe countries, yea to my judgemte as muche as mighte intertaine an invincible army of oulde and expe∣rimented souldores, duly paied and satisfied. By dayly experience we see that thies neowe levies for the moste parte, in ocasiones of service feowe were founde to asiste; whiche i haue noted and pitted often times, for bienge so greate alet to his Majesties service: The Omni∣potente inlighten his Majesties faithful ministeres in preventinge in due time the conveniente course of a matter of so greate importan∣ce: And agreate enemy for the vnprofitable consuminge of his Ma∣jesties treasure and Indies. Let none thinke that i disalue recrutes and reforsinge of companies in theire due time and conveniente course, profitable to his Majesties service. Vndeniable it is that an army well disciplined ordered contended, and conducted with prudente and braue comaunderes, though lesher in number are by all reason ma∣steres of the victorie, which all auctores that wrote of this arte do afir∣me, and by dayly experience we finde to be true.
The ropose and securitie of a Kingdom or state dependes for the moste parte in observinge goode lawes, goode warres, and continual practice of Military Discipline, wherof theire are very many probable examples, as plainely hapened to Anibal that renoomed Captaine of warr, and to the invincibel Romaines that at lenghte in neglectinge Military Discipline and exercice of armes was cause of theire perdi∣tion; and when they leaste feared of any a tempes of theire enemy, and that resultinge for biengc wholie given to vice, regalitie and re∣pose, and forgetfull of all Military exercice.
Happie is that Kingdomme where goode lawes and goode disci∣pline is in continual vse and exercice, and alwayes ready for the pre∣pared vice and malice of their enemy, ready for the alarme when it shall presente, whiche offten happen when we leaste thincke uppon. Happie is the Prince, and renoomed the Generall who prudently doth prevente the prepared malice and stratagemes of their enemy and of future ocasiones.
I doupte not but those of perfection and deepe judgemente in the Page 209 arte of warr shall both admire and comende the extraordinary paines taken for the due orderinge of this wourke and in explicatinge and putinge to lighte many deepe curiosities of rare importance in the office of the Sardgente-Mayor, and ingienes of Fire-wourkes, as also the due and prudente orderinge of severall sortes of weapones ma∣nadged in warr. All which with theire neowe invented impalinge of shott and winges, and theire singular order to fighte, as also other deepe curiosities of this arte whiche were leifte in obscuritie by many auctores who wrote of this profession. And that to disperte the inge∣niouse wittes of those inclined to learne the rare and deepe curiosities of Military science, that they may imitate them (in optaininge theire desire) with longe and continuall practice and goode aplicationes, which nowe i reduced to lighte in as muche as military science, the rules of mathematicke and aritmeticke can affourde, withe theire ge∣nerall rules proufes, proporsiones and tables, neowly invented for that purpose, plainely sheowinge the reasones of eache particular, breefly declared in the tables of the battelles, and in severall figures cut in coper and wood plates: Not douptinge but those of perfecte judgemente in the deepe and rare curiosities of this arte will comen∣de the same, and a firme that as yet no auctor did explicate more plaine nor better of many particularities leifte in obscurity in Fire-wourkes and specially in the office of a Sardgente mayor, which no∣we are redused into the perfecte forme ordained for their executiones in as muche as military science and the generall rules of the same can afourde. So that suche as are couriouse and inclined to continual goode aplicasiones, and determined by vertue prudēte cariadge and perfection in Military Discipline to by advanced may in shorte time learne all the particularities in the office of a Sardgente Mayor, leif∣te in obscuritie by many auctores; Whiche nowe in this wourcke are plainely broughte to lighte in as muche as military science can afour∣de or declare, whiche is not obtained by vaine glory nor heere say.
But rather with longe and continuall practice and aplicationes in the theorick and practice of warr; with intente and desire to in∣lighten my beloved countrimen and otheres, that they may knowe howe to acomplishe theire obligationes with prudence and auctori∣tie, and aplee them selves withe care and affection, in learninge this noble arte of warr, and not to be inclined to i delnes and bad exam∣ples, garded with malice, inuy, puffinge pride and rude ingnorance, overcaste withe afaulse fisnomy and aneowe malisiouse conterfet Page 210 countenance, enemy to vertue, truthe, plaine dealinges and goode examples. But rather by vertue and goode aplicasiones wounde the hartes of raylinge spirites ful of ambision and changinge dispositio∣nes, misled with blinde malice, venemouse and slanderouse tounges, harbored in theire cancored hartes, full of crucked dealinges and in∣vy, subjecte to afrontes and vices, of bad life and bad ende, but ho∣norably to imitate and followe the steppes of those inclined to vertue and continuall goode aplicationes.