A discourse of military discipline devided into three boockes, declaringe the partes and sufficiencie ordained in a private souldier, and in each officer; servinge in the infantery, till the election and office of the captaine generall; and the laste booke treatinge of fire-wourckes of rare executiones by sea and lande, as alsoe of firtifasions [sic]. Composed by Captaine Gerat Barry Irish.
Barry, Gerat.
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Page  [unnumbered]Page  147

THE FIRSTE CHAP. Bigininge with the election and office of a Campe-master generall.

THIS Office troughe greate consideration is to by comended and bestowed uppon a personad∣ge of greate gravitie, prudence, and valeour, and of tried experience and exercice in warr, that therby he may comaunde with greate auctoritie, and by estimed acordinge his qualitie and truste; Whiche ought to by reputed in a personadge of so many a proved and goode partes. This office is of such greate importance, that the securitie and goode success of the whole army dependes for the moste parte on him, as a cheefe∣taine and head over the whole army, and all the orderes of the Kin∣ge are by him given, and by his comaunde observed. But when the Captaine generall is in presence, (all muste depende on him) beinge a Superior, and nexte under him the Camp-master generall, as Lugar∣teniente, and in his absence doth comaunde the whole army.

This office with the Romaines was of greate and high estimation; which they cauled Metador, he is to be of suche extraordinarie pru∣dence and care, that not withstandinge he givethe the necessarie or∣deres, he him selfe muste visite, and see who all thinges are ordered, for which he is to have nexte his person a rare Inginier for many effe∣ctes, and for the dividinge of the campe betwexte the Regimentes, Cavalleria and Artillerie, the necessarie grounde, distance, and cir∣cuide for the same, in dividinge the juste proportion of grounde due to severall sortes of nationes, in whiche greate consideration oughte to by used, for whiche purpose he hafe a Quarter-master generall, whiche oughte to by curiouse in thies.

Firste shall be a pointed the fitteste place for the Generall, and if theyre by any reall personadge consideration also is to be taken: This place is to by chosen for the moste a sureste and beste, placinge the Cavallerie on the outewarde side, and the Infanterie on the other si∣de, he beinge shutt and inviorened betwexte both. The quarter of Page  148 the Artillerie, and of his courte and traine is to be ordained in a sure place, and well garded rounde a boute on every side; Theyre traine of Officeres gastadores wourkmen pertrechos of sundrie sortes of munitiones, ocupies greate roome: The Cavalleres and pinsioneres nexte the generall is person, Auditor generall, Provoste generall, a Tambor mayor generall, and many more folowinge the Generall, are to be placed not farr from the Generall, and the Provedor generall is also to be placed not farr distance if a conveniente place can be foun∣de for his purpose, for he alsoe requireth muche roome for his amu∣nitiones and wagones. The Infanterie shall invieron the whole cam∣pe, the Ingineres are alsoe to visite all over the campe, and findinge that water is not plintifull to open pittes in the beste and convenien∣teste places for the same.

In the ocasiones and repartitiones that shall offer in imployenge the foote and horse in convoyes to scoute and recnowledge doupte∣full places and oecasiones, and to featche foradge, it oughte to goe by turne, soe that eache one shall take his share of the paines and troubles, excepte onelie in time of hote and extraordinarie service, for in suche ocasiones greate considerationes oughte to by had, in choysinge those that are more fitt for the purpose, which shall by im∣ployed as it shall by more fitt. Greate care oughte to by taken in due time to by well provided of all sortes of amunitiones, as alsoe of all sortes of vituales, and take a speciall care, that all thinges be preven∣ted in due time, that the enemy doe not let or hinder youre convoyes, nor the pasadges, where they come with all sorte of provision for the campe, and to by prevented a gainste all stratagemes they can pre∣vente: When the army shall marche, and that theyre shall by many regimentes of severall nationes, in theyre divisiones, and in the obser∣vinge of goode order greate care and industrie is required, givinge order that eache nation by theyre turne shall marche in the vangar∣de, battell, and rergarde, for beinge so conveniente for his Majesties service: If youe chance to marche troughe an enemy countrie, or nee∣re unto theyre frontieres greate vigilance, and goode order needeth to by observeth, it importeth alsoe to get goode and faithfull guides, and diferente spies of truste, for feare of fraude, as alsoe for to have goode inteligence of the enemies designes in due time.

In suche ocasiones nedeth muche to sende before some horse in a certaine distance to discover, and learne the plottes and stratagemes of the enemy to hinder oure journey. Havinge had inteligence, and Page  149 beinge well informed that the enemy are waitinge for to hinder yo∣ue; Cause the Artilleie to marche with theyre garde, and drawe upp the Infanterie in goode order on the other side of the Artillerie be∣twexte them and the enemy, and the horse alsoe on the outewarde si∣de of the Infanterie, (and in a goode distance of.)

It is necessarie to by prevented of the enemies designes, and con∣sider the situation where youe marche, soe that youre divisiones may acordinglie be ordered, as the situation shall permit and require; In narowe and straighte pasadges, goode order is to by observed, and specially where the enemy is to be suspected, and that the Sardgentes be verie carefull in acomplishinge theyre obligationes, soe that they∣re be no crossinge nor confusion, and suche as shall not keepe theyre rankes to severelie punish them in publick, in as muche that they and the behoulderes may take notice of the same, soe that in oferinge o∣casion with grace and brevitie they may of a sodaine fall into battell. If inteligenee be had that the enemy be stronge on horse in the van∣garde or way where wee intende to pass, and that the pasadge where wee march be soe narowe that oure horse beinge in the vangarde, and beinge chardged and broken by the enemyes horse, and that the na∣rownes of the pasadge doe not permit that they may pass on eyther of the two flankes of the Infantery, and beinge brocken they fall on oure order, and wee incurr greate danger if the enemy doe followe with a brave resolution, if theyre be no remedie that they may pass on eyther of the two sides, of force way is to be made for them, and the shott are to come all on one side of the pasadge, and make way, and the pikes are to be opened on bothe sides of the way, in thies oca∣siones and many more occurrantes in warr greate danger may ocurr, excepte prevension be prudentlie taken in due time.

In suche ocasiones a troupe of musketes and arcabuseros are neces∣sarie to by sente in the vangarde, and then five or six rankes of pikes, which with theyre fronte shall ocupie the pasadge, which shall reviwe recnoledge, and advertice if theyre by any danger or ambuscado.

After thies the reste shall march in goode order as before declared in the office of the Sardgent mayor; In the rergarde shall the Cavalle∣rie marche with a garde of short and pikes, after which shall marche the Cavallerie in order, and if inteligence be had that in the vangar∣de, theyre by any impedimente, or lett that oure Artillerie can nott pass or any parte of the army, lett theyre marche a Company of ga∣stadores, with theyre Captaine to acomodate thies impedimentes, Page  150 and in case the enemy by suspected, to conducte them for theyre bet∣ter securitie with a troupe of lighte horse, (togither with an Inginier) with thies gastadores beinge in quantitie, unespected and dificulte matteres are broughte to pass, and sometimes riveres are taken from theire moother, and conducted to other places, as did Ciro Kinge of Percia goinge to beleager Babilonia he divided the river Gange into 360. partes for the revenge of the drowninge of a Gentleman a deere frinde of his, soe that this mightie river was lefte of no force? Kinge Ciro seinge it so fe oble saied thove haste not respected nor feared my, but nowe all thy forces for a revenge, are seperated that a wooman with a childe may pass thy over withoute feare or danger: So the Ge∣nerall of an army is allwayes to consider, that it is of greate importan∣ce to have many gastadores, for by theyre meanes matteres of greate dificulte are broughte to effecte with facilitie, for many handes ma∣keth lighte wourke.

Greate industrie and many aprooved goode partes are required for the rare executiones of this office of a Master de campe generall, of whose prudence and brave conduction greate exspectationes are to by hoped: When he aprocheth neere the place where he thinketh to pitch his campe uppon, he is to goe forwarde with a suficiente garde of horse to viwe all the circuide, and he is to be a companied with one or two Ingineres, to ordaine and divide the quarteres; And when, the army shall inter into the campe or place where they intende to pitch theyre quarter' the Generall of the horse shall remaine in the fielde, he and all his troupes mounted, till all the Infantery be in camped, and then to inter orderlie with his troupes, and repaire to theyre quarter, leavinge his scoutes in the fielde till the Trumpetes sound, and the watch by set, and the cinteries placed in theyre postes, at which time, and when the watches of foote and horse are set in theyre due places, they shall retire, and not before, for the better securitie of the cam∣pe, and that nothinge may happen withoute preventinge in due time the necessarie remedies, or as neere as can by posible.

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THE SECONDE CHAP. The election of the Captaine generall of the Artillerie.

THe office of the generall of the Artillerie, troughe greate con∣siderationes of his aprooved goode partes and suficiencie, is chosen and apointed by the Prince, consideringe his longe and tried experience in warr, his gravitie, prudente and brave condu∣ction, and valerouse actes.

This honorable office of so highe dingnitie and truste, in choysin∣ge of his Officeres and Gentlemen of the Artillerie, it importeth that he by well informed that they by men of many goode partes, skillfull and curiouse in many ingines, and to by verie carefull, and vigilante; For this office of manadginge of pouder in sundry maner of wayes is of wounderfull danger, excepte it by prudently carefullie, and with greate vigilance handled, as well simple as artificiall; which be seve∣rall triales i caused to be tried by severall persones, (and often times) and hardlie coulde i finde any of suche care and vigilance for the ma∣nadginge, and keepinge of the same as required, for beinge the mo∣ste dangerouse thinge that is, or can by handled in warr. An enemy who giveth no time nor respecte, his treasones are most terrible, spee∣dy, and of unmercifull executiones, and moste comonlie do fall on such as doe moste truste in it, in his exeeutiones there is no appella∣tion, nor grace to by expected.

This Office requireth many Officeres; Firste his Leutenante, Ma∣yor Domo, Contador, Pagador, his ministeres for the examinatio∣nes and executiones of justice, Amunitioneres, Gentelmen of the Artillerie, his Ingineres, Masteres of severall sortes of ingines of fire∣wourkes▪ Canonieres, Masteres of the mine, or Minadores, Gastado∣res, or Wourkmen, with theyre Captaines, a Furiell, Smittes, Tem∣bermen. A greate store of tentes is required for the saftie of thies va∣riable sortes of amunitiones and pertrechos, as pouder of all sortes, led, match, and all sortes of bulletes, and in quantitie for greate and smale ordenance, it is alsoe necessarie he be a compained with a cu∣riouse Inginer curiouse in all sortes of fire-wourkes, necessarie for ve∣rie Page  152 many exeeutiones, if one of such aprooved partes can by hit up∣pon, he is also to have Masteres who hase goode skill in makinge and refininge of pouder: When ocasion shall offer to plante his greate or∣denance to beleager or batter a towne, cittie or Castell, his Leutenan∣te, Ingineres, Mine-masteres, and Pouder keeperes, and Gentelmen of the Artillerie, are all to by in a readines to dispose of the Artillerie and amunitiones, when occasion shall offer, that it muste by planted, or sente from one place to a nother, and his Leutenante is to gett a relatiō, who many cannones shall by apointed in each place; and con∣sider suche as are fit for one execution, and for a nother, but thies re∣solutiones muste com from the Captaine generall, or Master de cam∣pe generall, which of them doth comaunde in the fielde, but the exe∣cution belongeth to the Generall of the Artillerie, and to such under him to whose chardge they are recomended, the Leutenante of the Generall of the Artillerie is to see that theyre by horses and wagones inoughe, and to be verie, vigilante, and carefull to visite often times the store houses, where the pouder led or math doe lye; Of which do∣ble cinteries oughte allwayes to be putt uppon, for many goode re∣spectes, and specially for feare of spies to use industrie to give the sa∣me fire, wherfore prudente Generalles of the Artillery are wonte to divide thies munitiones, in sundrie and secure places, (fearinge of a sodaine disgrace.) Alsoe he is to see that his Canonieres or gunneres doe lye every nighte by theyre canonnes, that they may in a readines uppon the firste advice, and it were necessary that each Canonnier shoulde have a boy to assiste him.

The Leutenante is to by verie curiouse and vigilante to see that the greate ordenance by still well provided with all necessarie instru∣mentes, and rather more then less, fearinge of urgente necessitie, and that theyre wante no kinde of munition, nor instrument fitt for theyr sundrie executiones. It is necessarie that theire be a certaine quantitie of goode refined saltpiter three times refined, camphora, vinager, sal armoniak, sal gema, rosen, colofonia, stronge brandevin, a store of o kom, linsat-oyle, gineper-oyle, all which are required for severall executiones of fire-wourkes, when occasion shall offer, but for the curiouse orderinge of thies compositiones, for there severall and rare executiones, wee finde but verie feowe:) It is necessarie that he be a companied with good carpinteres.

He oughte to by curiouse and carefull in seinge that all sorte of mu∣nitiones be boughte before he shall have neede, for offten times we Page  153 see that in times of moste neede. Verie litle can be had, and someti∣mes all moste none at all, and specially pouder and matche, for often times oure enemy secretlie under hande buyes all that can be had; soe the Generall knowinge this matter to be of suche importance to his Majesties service, is to see it prevented before hande; Greate conside∣ration oughte to by taken in knowinge where beste to plante the or∣denance, and to fortifie and intrinche with speede, as time and oca∣sion shall require, and to keepe good watch, and to by a companied with good Controulers, for to provide all sortes of provisiones.

He is to knowe who to a proach, and who with prudence and good watch and vigilance to secure him selfe and Artillerie, and in many o∣casiones not to truste to many, butt rather in person, and with spee∣de to see thies thinges putt in execution as the importance of the oc∣casion shall require, (and to be well garded on every side,) He is to see that his Artillerie doe orderly marche, and such as do not obey the orderes by him given, to see them severelie punished; he is to kno∣we at nighte who his ordenance shall by planted for the execution he shall exspecte, and by day see the same ordered, in takinge the heighte and line for his purpose, eyther a farr of or neere, if it by into a cittie towne, or forte, or in the fronte of the enemy, or if by chance they shoulde come to defeate him to by prevented.

When occasion shall offer to pass an army over deepe riveres, it is necessarie to by well provided of boathes of two yardes and haulfe deepe, wheruppon bridges are to by framed, which are to be made of stronge tember, and plankes to pass the Artillery, and the whole ar∣my, as did that famouse and prudente Conductor Marques SPINOLA in takinge of Reinbarke, and the scounse over the Rhine, and in ta∣kinge Vesell, and in the honorable regaininge of Breda.

They are wonte to carie for thies bridges sometimes 30. boathes sometimes more: Firste consideringe the greatnes of the river, where they meane to pass over. To which purpose is required a Captaine for every fiftine boathes, and to each boath foure Marineres, some, times more, and sometimes less, acordinge as the Generall shal thinc∣ke fitt and as many Carpinteres as shall by toughte necessarie, also-Smittes to sheowe horses, and for many other purposes, a store of anc¦cores, cables, graplinges, while wrightt with such necessaries; Befit∣tinge his purpose, and allwayes muste not faile whiles to spare, for the cannon, and greate ordenance, fearinge least any while shoulde breake, that presently prevension may by had.

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THe Artillerie whiche is to by conducted with an army, is to by comaunded by the Captaine generall, conside∣ringe the executiones he doethe pretende, and the greatnes of his army, and the circuide they may ocupie, they carie 30. or 35. canonnes of greate cice for batte∣rie some more, sometimes lesh, acordinge the execution, some shoote a bullet of pounde, from 7. to 8. inches in heighte.

  • 15. Haulfe cannonnes from 25. pounde bullet to 30.
  • 16. Culverines from 16. to 20. pounde bullet.
  • 26. Demy Culverines.
  • 25. Falcones and falconetes.
  • 82.

Greate store of cannon-pouder, and alsoe a goode quantitie of pouder, for smale shott, a store of leader bagges to carie pouder be∣hinde men a horsebake, when any sodaine occasion soe requireth, hi∣des to cover the pouder in the cariadge of the same, pices of chaines and broken yron, cartages full of musket bulletes to shoote oute of greate ordenance in the fronte of a battel, or any order of men a pro∣chinge neere to execute thire intente: In suche and semblable ocasio∣nes the aforesaiede instrumentes bienge well handled by goode and skillfull Canonieres in due time, are of wonderfull executiones, and do putt the enemy in mightie terron, in many occasiones by sea and lande, greate quantitie of bullettes for youre greate ordenance, and goode store of match, and bulletes for the smale shott, a store of mat∣tokes shoules and pickaxes, hatchetes, and axes to cutt woode and fagotes, and a store of wood houkes, a store of plankes, and peeces of timber, whiche may serve for many purposes, greate store of bas∣ketes to carie earthe to fill the gabiones and cover the smale shott in trinches and fortificationes, sledges and yron barres to breake rockes, greate and smale sawes, laddeles of brace and theyre staufes, spon∣ges, rameres for eache sorte of the greate ordenance; greate store of Page  [unnumbered]〈1 page duplicate〉Page  [unnumbered]

A Table for to finde oute the names of the greate ordenance nowe used for ofensive and defensive warres, the height of their diameter or height of their bullettes, and theire weights, the compass of the same, weight of the pouder required to each peece, the weight of eache peece of ordenance, lenght of the same, their thicknes, linght of their laddells, and the breade of the same, the number of men sufficient to drawe each peece, and the number of horses requisite for to drawe the same, the distance of paces eache peece cariethe at point blanke, the distance of paces eache greate peece shootes at utmoste random, the lenght of the coyler rope requisite for to drawe eache peece.
The names of the peeces of greate orde∣nance.The height of the dia∣meter of e∣verie peece in enches and partes.Heighte of the bullet in inches and partes.VVeight of the shot in poūdes and partes.Compas of the shot in inches and partes.VVeight of corne pou∣der due to charge each peee in poū∣des.VVeighte of the peece in poundes.The lenghte of the peece en feete.Thicknes of the mettall at the tou∣che hole in inhes and partes.Thicknes of the peece at the neck of the same.Lenghte of the laddel in inches and partes.The brea∣de of the laddell.Lenghte of the planc∣kes of the cariage in feete.The num∣ber of men, suficient to drawe each peece, when nede requi∣re.The num∣ber of the horses re∣quisite to drawe each peece of or∣dinance.Distance of pases the peece ca∣rieth at point blan∣ke.The distan∣ce of pases each great peece shoo∣tes at ut¦moste ran∣don.The lenght of the coy¦ler roape requisit to drawe each peece.
Cannon.87 ¼6425 1/7328000128423 ½1516 ⅔9016300150070
Cannon serpintin7 ½7 ¼5223 4/726700011 ½7 ½3 ¾2214 ¼16 ¼8014340160066
Frence Cannon.7 ¼7 ½46 ¾22 11/14236500127 ¼3 2/2113 ¼167012360174064
Demi canō eildest6 ½6 ¼36 ⅝21 3/1420600011 2/46 ¼3 ⅛221215 ½6511370180060
Demi canō ordin.6 ½6 ¾3220 2/718560010 ½6 ½32011 ½156010350170054
Demi canon.6 ¼5 ¼24 ½18 6/71650001163 1/102111 ½16569340160046
Culveringe.5 ½5 ½1917 2/715 ½460013 ¼5 ½3229 ½18508420210040
Ordinari culver.5 ¼5 ¼16 ¼16 ½124300125 ¼2 ¾21917 2/4468400200036
Demi culveringe.4 ½411 ¾14 1/793000114 ½2 4/208 ½16 ¼367380180034
Demi culveringe, somvvhat leshe.4 ¼4 /2913 5/147 ⅔2300104 /42 ½19 ½7 2/414 2/286320160030
Skr ordinary.3 ¼3 ½611 11/14519009 ½3 ¾2 1/16 ¼6 2/414245300150028
Saker or minnon.3 ¼3 ½4 ¾10 3/143 ¼110083 ¼2145 ¼11204280140024
Faucon.2 2/42 ½2 /38 9/142 ¼75072 2/42124 ½10 /4163260120020
Faconet.2 ¼21 ⅛7 1/141 ½40062 ¼1 2/4103 /48 2/4102220100020
Page  [unnumbered]Page  155 nayles litle and greate, coradge of smale sortes, horse sheowes and horse nayles, litle and greate bandes of yron for the whiles, and spare whiles withoute faile, lanternes and store of candles, for Carpente∣res to wourke at night time when necessitie soe requireth, talowe and tarr for the whiles, torches, wax, candeles, scalinge leaderes, a quan∣titie of musketes and pikes; A store of compositiones and mixtures for fire wourkes, saltpiter, camphora, solfer, armoniacke, sal gema, colofonia, rosin, red wax, stronge brandevin, a quantitie of o cam, smale cordes, and yron wires, giniper oyle, linseede-oyle, turpintin non preparata: The saltpiter used for fire-wourkes is moste co∣monly refined three times, of thies mixtures there needeth no grea∣te quantitie because that they are seldom used and besides they are ve∣rie costly and feowe can by founde for there due orderinge for seve∣rall executiones.

To drawe a cannon of greate cice in faire weader is required 18. or 20. horses, sometimes more if the situation by not goode, but in foole weader is required 24. horses, sometime more if the situation by not goode, thies horeses is to by chosen both greate and stronge, for a demy cannon 12. or 16. horses, in foole weader 16. or 18.

A stronge and goode wagon will carie 70. cannon shott and of o∣theres of lesher sieze acordinge to that rate, to the drawinge of which is required 4. or 6. horses, and acordinge to that weighte are all the other wagones loaden, with pouder and other munitiones, bridges, barckes requires more horses acordinge to the greatnes of the loade.

For the manadginge of thies amunitiones, and of the greate orde∣nance is required many men, a monghst the which it is moste neces∣sarie that theyre by goode and experimented Carpinteres, Canonie∣res, Gentlemen of the Artillerie to governe and conducte the same, prudently. A Contador, Mayor domo, Pagador, Comesaries or mu∣ster masteres, a harbinger to whose chardge, is 250. horse, and a pro∣voste over the horses that caries the Artillerie, some Smittes and ma∣ny pioneres or wourkmen, to make trinches rampares, mines, and contra-mines to make plaine and eiven bad pasadges, that the greate ordenance may pass, skillfull Ingineres to under-mine walles of tow∣nes, and fortreshes; to digg welles for water, over thies pioneres are a pointed Captaines to governe and comaunde them, which of ne∣cessitie oughte to by experte in fortificationes, contramininge, trin∣chinge, and knowinge who to manadge ingines of fire-wourkes to burne boates shipes, or any suche combustable thinge, and in kno∣winge Page  156 the compositiones fitt for them, and who to make them.

There oughte to by one of perfecte skill for a condestable or Ma∣ster gunner to governe, comaunde, instructe, oversee and examine all the reste gunneres, and to by verie carefull to see that they doe theyr dutie, and knowe who to a complish with theyr obligationes, for some rawe and unexperimented men do undertake the char∣ge of a gunner who knoweth juste nothinge: Theyre oughte to by in∣strumentes to take the leavelles, ingines to monte and dismonte all sortes of ordenance.

The Generall of the Artillerie, as a superior comaunder, oughte to procure and take a speciall care in due time to see all matteres pro∣vided and put in order, rather then to thincke theruppon, when oc∣casion shoulde presente, and specially in the lowe countries, where warres are dayly in exercice, and sundrie interprises, and brave exploi∣tes executed of a sodaine. He is to get a liste of all sortes of amuni∣nitiones and armes, as well defencive, as offencive both for foote and horse, givinge order and chardge of the same, to the Mayor domo, the which they oughte to give oute by librances or ticketes, from the Generall, because that goode acompte may by yealdeth of provisio∣nes of suche greate importance, in as much that no fraude mighte by suspected: When occasion shall offer to plante youre cannon or grea∣te shott, to batter a cittie towne foote or castell, or any other occa∣sion.

And pretendinge to effecte well youre purpose, youe shall place them by 5.6 7.8. as occasion shall require, a leowinge a certaine di∣stance betwexte every two peeces, acordinge as the occasion and si∣tuation shall require or permit, firste orderinge the place where they shall by put with plankes or tables all a longste under theire whiles, a leowinge 7. foote litle more or less behinde theyre whiles, for the re∣tiring of the peece, soe that of it self, or with litle paines it returnes a gaine to his due and former place; And alsoe before the Artillerie is to by set a resistance of tables, betwext it and the gabiones and para∣pet, and soe of a neowe bigin to chardge it. And when the Artillery bi∣gines to be hott, it is not to by refreshed with vineger, but rather weathinge the trimer in water, and with the same to refress the cane or barrell.

This observation beinge fullfilled in due time youe may still shoo∣te of, if occasion require: It is alsoe to by considered the thicknes and mettal, advertisinge that the Masteres of the ordenance doe a leowe Page  157 no more then 40. or 50. shott a day, if the occasion by not of suche importance.

He who taketh this honorable chardge in hande oughte to by skillfull in the arte of warr, and of greate care in givinge all orderes and instructiones in due time, and see that with greate care and pun∣ctualitie his orderes be observed. He oughte to knowe the names of every peece, and theyre severall weightes lenghtes bignes, and the ju∣ste boare of the cilender, the weighte and thicknes of theyre bulletes, the quantitie of pouder necessarie for every peece, their beste advan∣tadge att poincte blanke, the diference and goodnes of theyre pou∣der, the laddels, sponges, and rammeres necessarie, and befitinge for eache one, theyre ought to by bulletes and a rowes of wilde fire.

It is still to by considered the goodnes or badnes of the pouder, for the pouder beinge goode the lesser will serve, and is of farr better exe∣cution, and doth less heate the peece: To knowe who much pouder youe oughte to a leowe to eache peece take in pouder the waighte of the ⅔ partes of the bullet, and soe with all sorte of ordenan∣ce 〈 math 〉 of whatesoever cice, as for example a cannon of 66. pounde bullet requires 44. pounde of pouder, which is the ⅔. of the waighte of the bullet, and soe with the reste. The laddell beinge filled two times is the righte chardge of each peece, but that consideration oughte to be taken in the goodnes of the pouder and peece uppon the pouder and Artillery ought alwaies to be a pointed a goode and vigilante watche, soe that no fraude may take effecte, in naylinge the ordenance, or givinge fire to the pouder, both foote and horse ought to garde the same if neede require, and specially goode roundes.

The setinge, montinge, or placinge the Artillerie belongethe to the Campe master generall, or highe Marshall of the fielde: Theyre oughte to by a speicall care taken that of all sortes of munitiones thei∣re shoulde by rather more to spare then that theyre shoulde wante, for two many goode respectes, for the more youe have allwayes to spare of pouder, and other munitiones, the more honoure youe gai∣ne and the quieter youre mynde.

If youe shoulde chance to come to conqueste a foraigne coun∣trie where youe are well asured to get both horse and foote, and bein∣ge fullie resolued to overcome that countrie, and remaine in posses∣sion of the same, it is verie necessarie youe carie a longe with youe a greate quātitie of saddeles, briddles, spurres, and Masteres to make su∣che Page  158 wourkes, and alsoe to carie a longe with youe a quantitie of many sortes of weapones and munitiones, which suchc countries can not a fourde, and to take a speciall care that youe receive no men whiche mighte by suspected, for fidelitie is a preciouse guel of greate wourth, for nexte under God theyre is nothinge of so greate importance to a Prince as to have loyall subjectes, for trough theyre love and unitie, the fertilitie of the countrie, a companied with good lawes, goode discipline, prudente and brave conduction of his Captaines and Co∣maunderes in warr, as alsoe a companied with thies saied a faithfull and resolvte determination of his Souldieres, who beinge exercised and experimented in warr is a wounderfull comforte securitie, and repose bothe to the Kinge and countrie.


WHen occasion is offered that a smale or greate number of Souldieres are besiedged in a citti towne forte or ca∣stell, where they are apointed by theyre Kinge or Ge∣nerall for to defende the same, like faithfull and true subjectes, where rather they shoulde dye honorably in defence of the same then yealdeth it, excepte greate extreamitie, and goode reasones, constraine them therunto, and makinge notoriouse there prudence, valoure, and fidelitie; And if it shoulde chance to fall oute theyre comaunder or governoure of such a place trough a covardelie minde, or by meanes of sellinge the same for money to the enemy, and findinge that he shoulde presume to yealde the same to the enemy, litle regardinge his Prince is service, nor his owne repu∣tation, and knowinge that such a place mighte be defended; They all with a brave resolution are to comforte the comaunder, presentinge theyre reasones that suche a place may be well defended, and at lēgh∣te, findinge his minde yealde to the base acte, and seinge that rea∣sones can persuade not a vayle. They are with a brave and resolute determinotion to say that to honoure theyre Prince, and mantaine theyre one reputation, that like unto faithfull subjectes and honora∣ble Souldieres they rather chouse to dye in defence of the place, then yealde the same, till they knowe the will of theyre generall; And if the Generall finde no oportunitie to advertice them with answer, or in Page  159 soucorringe them; They are withe a brave and noble determinasion to proteste to die in defence of the same, with aresolute minde then yealde the same covardly, estiminge but litle the honoure of theire prince and their one reputasion, and findinge that the Governor of that place will not agrie but still goe forwarde in his base minde they may lawfully aprehende him, and electe another in his place, to whome they oughte to obey and respecte as if he were elected by the kinge or generall, protestinge to fulfill with him as a superior, and for the better performance therof to putt all theire conclusiones in wri∣thinge; soe that the enemy beinge informed of their valerouse de∣termination brave spirites and fidelitie, they shal hardlie fall uppon them, but uppon greate and extraordinary advantadge, seinge that they are resolved rather to die in defence of theire honoure and re∣putasion then to yealde or hasarde their fame in rinderinge the same to the handes of theire enemy, whiche may use there one discression in a matter of so heavie importance, in eyther gaininge honoure or disgrace, so considerenge the diferince betwext thies two pointes in the noble profession of armes, better and more honorable it is to die in defence of a iuste and honorable cause, and perpetuate thee fa∣me to all posteritie, then yealde to any lowe or base imagination.

When an army doe inter into a foraine country and determineth to remaine theire that winter, and conquest the same, firste he is to fortifie him selfe, or com in pocession of stronge places if it mighte by posible: Secondlie to gather all the corne cattell wine bire and all other sorte of vituales necessarie for the manteinance of his army: Soe that his may not wante, and that his enemy may by driven unto greate extreamitie (and that trough meere extremitie they may co∣me to offer them selves to serve as faithfull subiectes) so that of ma∣teres whiche bienge prudently and diligentely manadged doe often times resulte prosperouse and goode successes: A necessarie thinge in warr that the souldiores of eache army doe carrie theire device and token wherby they may by knowen by theire owne as frendes, ra∣ther then to fall uppon as if it were an enemy not knowinge them as it may well fall oute.

When a generall of an army doth inter to conqueste a kingdom the provinces or places trough which he marcheth, he is to take care to leave them well fortified and sure, with goode and stronge gariso∣nes that his soucors munitiones and convoyes, may with the better securitie pass and repass, for cause that importeh muche for the bet∣ter Page  160 securitie and goode success of his jurney and pretended purpose: And if by chance in suche places his convoyes by beaten or broken, as it may well fall oute, he may retire to the nexte adjoninge forte ca∣stell or towne, for his securitie, and soe shall all sorte of trade, mar∣chandise, munitiones, and traficke freely pass from place to place, conducted with stronge and vigilante convoyes both foote and hor∣se. Suche persones as shall by chosen to recnoledge citties townes, fortes castelles, theyre fossose and walles, and the places easieste to by won, as alsoe to recnoledge the place more conveniente to cutt trin∣ches. Thies persones oughte to be chosen of men of longe experien∣ce in warr, as well in the Theorick and practice of the same, ingeni∣ouse and of a grtate spirite, of a setled minde to houlde and take no∣tice of whate he seeth, the perill and danger of the matter, the neces∣sarie preventiones for the same in as much as may be possible in ta∣kinge advantadge of the enemy; Some that are employed in thies o∣casiones doe carie armes of proofe and targetes, otheres do onelie carie targetes, whiche i thincke is inoughe, by reason of the greate weighte of both, such men are to arme them selves with a setled min∣de, not fearefull but of a brave spirit scilente and patiente, for other∣wise hardly can they bringe to perfection theyre purpose, nor give a goode relation of whate is recomended to their chardge whiche by experience is often tried in the ocurrantes of warr.

When ocasion shall offer to give an escalada to a towne citti or forte it is necessarie it by at nighte alitle before day, and in an obscu∣re nighte alitle before day, and that to be verie scilent and secretly, and with greate expedition to execute his purpose, but firste and be∣fore hande oughte to be taken the heighte of the wall and place of youre execution, that the laderes may juste conforme with the place and that it be nothing higher for bienge dangerouse, for the parte within discoveringe him, with litle paines may turne the ladder and hinder the execution pretended, and the ladder oughte not to be soe shorte but it may come within two foote to the upper patre of the wall, or juste to the same litle more or less; for otherwise time and ocasion may be loste, and the firste that are to by chosen for suche ex∣ploites are to be pikmen and chosen of persones of brave spirites and valerouse determinationes to intertaine the place with theire pikes till the shott do inter; and as the pikes do inter they are to turne theire faces towarde both sides of the wall to kepe of the furie of the enemy till the shot do inter; And then the leader is to marche forwar∣de Page  161 in goode order till he come to the beste poste of the enemy, and moste fitt for his purpose, with a troupe of chosen and resolute mus∣kettieres in the uangarde who dischardginge that value giueth greate terror to the enemy, and let them make theire rekoninge before han∣de that theire is no turninge bake, but with a brave resolution step forwarde with a ualerouse determination, otherwise athousand to one they are loste, for suche and semblable executiones is required prudente and brave conductores of tried ualoure and resolusion.

Nexte under god, true religion and pure concience, there is no∣thinge to be so highlie esteemed and comended in the profession of armes as obedience, acompanied with goode discipline and exam∣ples, for otherwise all other goode partes in him are to litle purpose and of litle estimasion, yea and of what sover qualitie or condision he be of, from a private souldier to a Master de Campe generall; al∣waies the lower is to respecte the higher in degree (for the prospe∣rouse succeses of warlike afaires.) And it is moste necessarie that tho∣se who doth militate in the same doe serve withe agoode, will cencer∣ly and faith fully, sheowinge them selves louinge and loyall, in all ocasiones to theire Prince, and Generall, whiche they are to sheowe by testimony of goode examples, soe they shall be beloved and gaine goode fame, and by all likhoode shall have goode successes▪ And ma∣ny souldiores who bienge assured that theire cheefe doth inbrace and recompence all brave actiones in warr do venture them selves with a better couradge, and resolute determination; Then if they were constrained by force, and of litle hope of recompence.

Iulius Caesar that famouse Captaine of greate renoome who in all his actiones sheowed him selfe with suche a generouse minde and lo∣vinge towardes his souldiores, acompanied with his military pruden∣ce did triumphe and over com in 52 battelles and incounters of grea∣te hazarde and dificulte, with the slaughter of 110000. persones for the space of eighte yeares he governed Wourthie to be noted and ke∣pte in perpetuall memory when he touke his jurney to pass over the river of the Rhine in germany to fall uppon the Suitseres, to revenge the injurie and treason comitted by them againste the republicke of the Romaines in killinge Casio a famouse Romaine Consull, and all his people: But Iulius Caesar for a revenge therof gave them a battell, they bienge in number 290000. men; Notwithstandinge he defeated 130000. of them, and they askinge for peace after that Cesar did over∣come them he came to a gremente and composition with them.

Page  162A nother thinge wourdie to by noted that when the Suitsers did pass the river of the Rhine, with 43000. men to inhabite, and over∣come France, Borgondie, and Flandes. Julius Caesar heeringe of theyre presomtion, presentlie departed to meete them, and defeated and o∣vercom them, and for the moste parte suche as escaped the battell, for the greate renoome and relation they had of his brave govermen∣te, and kinde intertainemente, they were contente to remaine in ser∣vice under him, soe that trough his prudence, bra ve conduction, and the greate contentemente souldiores had to serve under his comaun∣de, he did overcome all the Provinces of the Suitseres Fleminges, and Frence, and passed into Inglande and did put them under subiection, and after pasinge over sea, the Inglish begon to rebell againste him, so that he was forced to returne a gaine to recover thē, and leavinge them setled, wente into spaine and drived a way Pompeo, and maste∣red all that he had under subiection: So that this laudable and renoo∣med Captanie lefte to all warriers many brave examples of perpetuall memory.

His brave and prudente conduction, liberalitie clemencie and mangnanimitie made him victoriouse, so that he triumpheth over Asia, Africa, and Europa. And soe many more brave and valerouse warrieres for bienge beloved by theires, kepinge them still conten∣ted, have optained manny rare victories. And to the contrarie o the∣res who were of bad conduction, and careless to contente theire Ar∣mies had but litle goode succeses; As did happen to Atilla kinge of the Hunos a proude and cruell man, an enemy and scourdge of cristia∣nes, was overcom in the battell betwexte him and Theodorico Kinge of the Burgonones in the campe of Cathalanos, thoughe he had mo∣re men then the Burgonones he was overcom with the loshe of 180000 men, in whiche battell the Kinge Theodorico was slaine, many more comparisones mighte be related, but nowe a dayes the warres are so diferente in usinge no tyranny, but rather by industry brave and prudente conduction goode discipline, dayly subtilitie engeniouse wittes, inventenge of fire wourkes and other military actes in warr, to which helpeth muche the readinge of antiente histo∣ries of prudente and valerouse Captaines to sharpen the witt of men, and increase the hartes and understandinge of suche as do followe the noble profession of armes: But let none presume that by onely readinge he can be apte to governe in warr (in governinge of an ar∣my) nor truste to the same withoute havinge exercised him selfe Page  163 and practisinge him in many ocurantes of warrlike afaires, but the learninge becometh none better then the souldior, for it bringes him to greate perfection, firimnes and auctoritie. Many Kinges Em∣peroures and Captaine generalles do imbrace the letteres with ar∣mes and finde it moste necessarie, and are of rare importance, and finde that learninge is moste required to the executiones of this pro∣fession more then to any other profession, for bienge the true funda∣mente of nobilitie: In the profession of armes the wicked uice of in∣vie is moste odiouse and uileste of all actes; for bienge master of ma∣ny vices which resulte of rude and blinde ingnorance, subjecte to quareles, murmurasion, backbitinge, disgraces and bad examples, enemy to all goode proceedinges, truth and vertue, whiche doth so penetrate the unconsiderate and base understandinge of many of litle conscience and reputation, daylie decaienge and fallinge unto many crimes and disgraces, enemy to frindshipp and acorde, subje∣cte to afrontes and vices, of bad life and bad ende: In the profession of armes greate care oughte to be taken of suche as are given to suche and semblable vices; and when by faire meanes and goode instru∣ctiones they do not a minde to see them severelie punished, or drive them a way, like base factioneres inclined to vices troubles and bad examples.


WHosoever woulde wish to be a perfecte souldior and desirouse that matteres of importance were refered to his care and chardge, firste he muste by exercised lon∣ge time in warres, sheowinge him diligēte in a plienge him selfe in the theoricke and practick of this arte, to be couriouse and ingeniouse in many ocurrantes and warlike exploi∣tes, in fortifienge him selfe in ocasiones of necessitie eyther in plaine or hilly grounde, riveres or pasadges or where soever. He is to be cou∣riouse in understandinge the dificulties of the situation, the uantadge and disadvantadge of the place, and howe he may intertaine the pla∣ce, in as muche as industrie can a fourde, in consideringe how soucor can be kepte from him, and the necessary prevension, if he by invio∣rened with wood gardines ditches valeyes ould buildinges in 700. Page  164 or 800. paces, and if theire be any suche empedimentes to see them with speede plained and prevented that he may discouer every way, and let him looke well that he be not deprived of water, and in as muche posible to informe him selfe in knowinge all meanes the ene∣my may use to cross him of soccoure; and the sureste way or mea∣nes who he may receive soucor, and use all industrie posible in so mu∣che that the enemy do not cross him of the pasadges, and put them selves in posession of the same: He is to fortifie him selfe in as muche as may by posible, and as the situasion shall permit, not grudginge at the greate paines required to that effecte, in raisinge the walles in the heighte and forme requisite, the ditch of the breade and heighte conveniente. To raise the bulwarkes of the same in the heighte that they may discover the sircuide and places befitinge on eache side, let him by provided in due time of all necessarie munitiones, and as much as may by, and rather have to spare then wante, alsoe to be provided of severall sortes of fire wourkes whiche are of rare empor∣tance in many ocasiones, let him by alwaies vigilante and warie, and feare of the suddaine plottes and stratagemes of his enemy, whiche may fall uppon him when he leaste thinketh, so let him not wholie truste to his and his souldiores valour, but rather alwayes be readie to receive the alarme with greate vigilance and brave resolusion, so shall he a complish the obligationes of a prudente carefull and vigi∣lante souldior, and defende his reputasion.

When any stronge place is beseeged and that yove woulde cut atrince to win the same, the person that undertaketh this chardge muste by curiouse and skillfull, the trince is to by five foote deepe and the earthe to be caste up on both sides then it shall be seaven foote deepe in some places it is to by ten foote broade, in some places eighte, but in the biginenge it needeth not to be above eight foote broade, and in every place it muste by five foote at leaste deepe. Thies trinches are to by cutt and goe on crossed (and crouked) so that the enemy do not discover oure fronte, but givinge them still oure side, and so shall the companies inter with the better securitie and feowe men kilth, and they may goe upp and downe the trince at theire owne ease, but they muste beware and by in all redines leaste the enemy shoulde chance of a soddaine come to trye theire valour, and kill suche as they finde in the trince, and nayle the artillerie if they can come so farr, therfore let theire by chosen the beste and moste valerouse pikemen, and order them in thre in ranke to hinder Page  165 the entinte or empetue of the enemy, in thies and semblable ocasio∣nes in warr where carelelie Officeres and souldiores do assiste they finde them selves amazed for there litle care and vigilance in soddai∣ne prevented exploites of the enemy, after bienge well informed of trustie spies of the litle vigilance and care of the enemy it is an easie thinge to triumphe victorie of them, so in ocurrantes and ocasiones of warrlike afaires all securitie is to by prevented in due time in as mu∣che as industrie vigilance and care can afourde, and such as do not thinke uppon them selves to prevente the necessarie remedies, are moste comonly loste, and suche as do escape remaine tatched with greate disgrace, for bienge overthrowen trough careless mindes and litle discipline, so let none by ingnorant but that vigilance and care acompanied with military prudence and brave resolusion is of rare importance in warr.

THE SIXTE CHAP. Treatinge of the Office of a Captaine generall of an Army.

THis office beinge of so high dingnitie and degree, the Kinge doth chuse and electe it be the advice of his prudente counsell of state and warr; and in this ele∣ction greate consideration oughte to by had, for bien∣ge the office of higheste degree in the fielde; which of all reason oughte to by comended to the care and chardge of a per∣sonadge indued with the befitinge partes for the executinge of so ho∣norable a chardge: Therfore he oughte not onely to have the per∣fection and aproved partes of all other officeres under his comaun∣de; but to excell them all in experience, gravitie, policie, secrecie, temperance, valour constancie, vigilance, care liberalitie, and to by of brave and resolute determinations, preventinge and executinge in due time with care and prudence all thinges apertaininge to his chardge: To relate of all the goode partes in him it were tedious, for he is to by of suche perfecte judgemente of all thinges which hath and shall by writen of this arte, so that the goode partes in him requi∣red are infinit.

He is not onely to by of perfecte judgemente in excellinge all the Page  166 reste, but alsoe to by of a verteouse life in givinge goode examples, as apateerne lighte and lanterne of all the army (soe that they may imi∣tate him) for moste comonlie averteouse prudente and valiante ge∣nerall will chuse valiante verteouse and prudente Captaines and Of∣ficeres; prudente and valerouse Captaines oughte to estime ver∣teouse valiante and skilfull souldieres.

The accidentes of warr are so many that it altherethe the hou∣more of some professores of this arte, excepte they by indued with singular vertue and constancie, which are founde but in verie feowe. Very many dificulties doe offer in the daylie ocurrantes of warr, but greate abilitie is requiered to see them prudently ordered; and har∣dely can any master be had of suche perfection, but that some times he muste err.

To relate in particular of the partes required in a generall it were tediouse, Wherfore i will name the foure princlpal partes the Gree∣kes and Romaines desired to occurr in such personages; firste to be skillfull in the arte of warr, to be valiante and of brave and prudente resolution, to sheowe him selfe with greate gravitie and auctoritie, and to be fortunate in his sucesses. If he be acompanied with the par∣tes and proprietie before declared it is inough. Nevertheless he hase inoughe to learne.

For the better securitie and success of his army it is necessarie that his person be still well garded in all plases where he marches with his army. (And trough his valeoure and mangnanimitie) findinge that he is inclined to presente him selfe the firste in all dangeres, his con∣sell of warris not to permitt him for many respectes, for bienge kilth or taken prisoner it were no smale matter. That besides it is an oca∣sion to animate the enemie, and to disanimate oures, wherof greate consideration oughte to be taken.

The Greekes and Romaines for the defence and repose of theire re∣publike have chosen theire Captaine generalles of souldieres of grea∣te and longe experience in martiall actiones, wherby they mighte prudentlie governe and comaunde with full auctoritie and due re∣specte. And therfore they alwaies did chuse thies personadges of men of longe practice, greate experience in warr, and of reepe yeares and judgement.

It is true that Alexander Magnus, beinge but of yonge yeares begon to governe and comaunde an Army, and conquered all Asia and did put the worlde in amace. Somtimes it is moste conveniente that Page  167 Kinges and Princes in person be presente withe theire armies for many respectes, thouge theire experience be not greate; but when suche ocasiones do presente they carie with them the moste ancien∣te and experimented Captaines they finde as did Alexander of those Captaines whiche Kinge Philip his father had for his Counseleres and conductores of warr. And as did Kinge Philipe of Spaine when he elected don Juan de Austria for his Captaine generall, he a poin∣ted for his Lieutenante don Luis de Suniga the gran comendador of castilla.

And to the contrarie who infortunate hapened to don Sebastian Kinge of Portugall not to imitate thies renoomed examples of per∣perpetuall memorie, in his infortunate and disastred journey made into barbarie, he beinge yonge and vnexperimented in warr whiche was cause of his and his armies perdicion, so that yonge Princes in warres oughte to have for theire Counseleres grave and experimen∣ted Captaines, none can denay but this Kinge was of a high conceite and of amoste brave and valerouse determinasion but by reson of his yonge yeares and lesse experience in warr, he wanted prudence for the due conduction of such an honarble action.

In the honorable journey made by the famouse and renoomed conquerour Kinge Edward the thirde into France, sendinge his eyl∣dest son the Prince of wales for generall, Naminge for his Counse∣lers and Captaines the valiante prudente and renoomed Earles of oxforde warwick, suffolk and salisbury, where at the battell of Poy∣tieres they made knowen theire vndeniable prudence and greate va∣lour, that at lenghte they overthrewe the whole power of france, and theire Kinge Iohn and his son Philipe were taken prisoneres, with very many of the frence nobilitie, to the Inglish is perpetuall glorie and fame.

Aniball that renoomed Captaine of perpetuall memorie was but very yonge when he began to governe an army, but he had for his Counseleres anciente and prudente Captaines, and was ruled and governed by them till he came to understandinge, givinge many fa∣mouse battelles and overthrowes to the Romaines, till at the ende he was overcome with Cipio Africano that renomed Captaine of the re∣maines.

The Captaine generall oughte to informe him selfe well of the forces qualitie and condiciones of his enemy, if bisonos or rawe men, or oulde and experimented souldiers, alsoe to be well informed of Page  168 the cituation strenghte and forme of theire citties townes, fortes, and stronge houldes, and of the convenienteste plases to passe over thire riveres. Alsoe to informe him selfe of the situation of their cam∣pes, so that he mighte be the better prevented when ocasion shall of∣fer, alsoe to be well informed of persones of goode judgemente and truste of all the dificulties that maie hinder him, so that in due time he may prevente all necessarie prevenciones, and specially see that he trusteth the relatinge of thies and many more ocasiones to persones of greate fidelitie and truste and of goode understandinge.

When the Captaine generall shall inter to conqueste aforaigne country he is to indevoure with speede to put him selfe in pocession of the principaleste pasadges of riveres casteles and stronge plases, and with speede see them well provided with all necessaries, that the∣reby he may put the country under subiection, and that his amuni∣tiones and all other necessaries may be transported with the more securitie from one place to another, and withe speede to see all places fortified in as muche as can posible, where any parte of his army bein∣ge constrained trough extreame necessitie may safelie repaire unto. For it faleth oute often times that the ocurrantes of warlike affaires are subjecte to many disgrases, and may be when we leshe feare. Wherfore aprudente comaunder oughte in due time to prevente su∣che dificulties, which is the kea and securitie of his army, and special∣ly to see thies plases well provided with all sorte of amunitions, and to see that they be recomended to the care and chardge of carefull vigi∣lante prudente and valerouse Captaines.

When resolution is taken to scale any towne forte or stronge place, firste information oughte to be taken by skillfull and trustie persones of al dificulties which mighte be suspected or feared, as alsoe of the juste heighte of the walles that ladderes may be made for that purpo∣se, and not to be overlonge for bienge dangerouse for cause that the enemy may easilie turne them up side downe. Thies ladderes are not to be so shorte but that they may reache to the place of theire execu∣tion (for thies executiones moste comonlie are firste imploied pike∣men of chosen and valerouse souldieres) to make way till the shott followe to socoure them, duringe whiche time they are to man∣taine the place with greate valeoure till all the shott do ioyne, and then with speed goe forwarde, well and prudently ordered, and with abrave and resolute tetermination til they come in poces∣sion and master the place, and strongeste watche they finde. In thies Page  169 and other semblable ocasiones there is no lookinge after, still goe for∣warde with greate couradge and valeoure, whiche execution oughte to be recomended to the care and chardge of prudente and valerouse Captaines and chosen souldiores, which bienge so hitted uppon, grea∣te expectasiones mighte be hoped of theire goode sucesse. And or∣der oughte to be given that in paine of death no souldier shall stir oute of his order till the enemy be wholie vanquised and all thinges dulie ordered and prevented.

Goode successes are often times optained by meanes of military prudence care and diligence, wherfore it is necessarie the Captaine generall be verie industriouse in knowinge who to invente neowe oc∣casiones of warr to diverte and intertaine the enemy when ocasion shall require, and to corupte them with money, for many ocurantes in warr it is necessarie to have many trustie spies whiche serve for ma∣ny purposes, it is moste necessarie that thies persones by knowen for men of truste and fidelitie; for otherwise beinge of double dealinge they are moste dangerouse. In all ocasiones he shall atempte he is to be verie carefull and diligente, and to knowe the qualitie and condi∣sion of the enemyes comaunder wheader he be raish and inconsiderat or prudente and reposed in his actiones, and wheader he be a man of a high minde to come to the facte of armes, and to knowe the quali∣tie of his counseleres conductores and officeres, and of whate deter∣minasiones, and to be well informed if his army be of bisones or rawe men or of anunciente skillfull and practised souldiores, and of whate nasiones and of whate desingnes. A generall can helpe him selfe in many matteres havinge goode and trustie spies, whiche are to be verie well rewarded and paied for be their, meanes often tymes mat∣teres of greate momente is prevented in due time, and to the con∣trarry for wante of suche trustie and carefull persones greate disgra∣ces doe happen, and brave interprises loste, thies persones beinge of confidente truste care and abilitie is agreate repose of minde to the generall.

Moste necessarie it were that some Captaines and Alferises refor∣med of longe practice and experience in warr shoulde still asiste ne∣xte his person, to informe of many matteres which doe occurr un∣knowen to the Generall, and of greate importance to his majesties service, and which shoulde by prevented in due time. Thies persones for cause of there longe experience and a proved fidelitie in materes of warr shoulde rather by imploied then otheres ordinarily sente Page  170 with comisiones in visitinge frontieres, fortificasiones amunisiones magasenes or storehouses, and of verie many more ocasiones of im∣portance to the furtherance of his majesties service, and in givinge true relasion of the extreame necessities of souldiores for wante of the ordinary and inescusable necessaries ordained for them be the Prince in theire garisones as lodginges bedes, &c. And seinge that none do procure nor pittie them they run away from theire coloures which mighte be prevented in due time be meanes of faithfull and trustie relatores, to the better performance of his majesties service and re∣pose of the comon wealth and poure inhabitances, it were verie ne∣cesary he shoulde have trustie persones of good skill and understan∣dinge in warr who shoulde in due time advertice him of many mat∣ters which doth ocurr unknowen to him or his counsell, and verie necessary for his majesties service.

To by prevented in due time againste the poysonous designes and practises of the enemy, it were moste necessary to get faithfull and trustie spies to knowe the intentes of the enemy, and to whate ende they aspire, and to see thies spiees well rewarded, so that with the greater care they acomplish the truste emputed in them, so that matteres of greate importance may by discovered and prevented withoute facte of armes, onely with military prudence. His ceasless care and high conceite, ought never to be weery in toylinge after vertue, and to attaine with travaile care and military prudence the gloriouse issues of his deepe designes.

In thies oure later warres for the moste parte all electiones goes by favor frindshipp or affection to the greate discomoditie of his majesties service; wherfore the Captaine generall as a supreame iusti∣ce over a whole army shoulde have aspeciall care in informinge him selfe well in due time, to see amatter of so greate importance pruden∣tely prevented. It alsoe falethe oute that when the Generall Caules for arelasion of the Master de campes to reforme so many Captaines of eache regimente of eache nasion to reforce other companies. In such and semblable ocasiones, the Generall shoulde take aspeciall care to by well informed, for cause that by dayly experience wee see thies afaires sinesterly handled; Reforminge those of greate service suficiency and valoure, which is manifeste, and to no smale discomo∣dity to his majesties service, in the atemptes of many honorable in∣terprises and incounteres, and to the greate decay of military disci∣pline. So that for wante of prudente conductores, many honorable Page  171 ocasiones are dayly loste. And that resultinge of the litle perfection of many officeres in military discipline. To see thees ocasiones and many more duly prevented, the Captaine generall for many wour∣die respectes oughte to informe him selfe well, in as much that favou∣re frindshipp nor affecsion may take place, but rather forwarde and advance those of longe and faithfull service, prudente cariadge, re∣noomed actes and valoure. So that in the administrasion of justice he shall by reputed for one inclined to minister equitie and righte, as alsoe for one of greate disgression and wisedome, And soe moste co∣monly by all reason the sucesses of military discipline shall prosper, to the greate renoome of the Prince, repose and furtherance of the comon wealthe. Happy is the Prince and renoomed is the Generall who in his electiones doe imitate the Greekes and Romaines, in ele∣ctinge the conductores of theyr armyes of men experte and skillfull in the arte of warr, and moste comonly wise vertuese and valiante Generalles, will chuse wise valiante and vertuese Captaines, of longe practice renoomed actes and goode examples; So with the asistan∣ce of the divine powere (greate hopes oughte to by expected of thei∣re happie successes) as Alexander the greate, Scipio Africano, Ani∣ball, and many more renoomed warrieres lefte in writhinge sufi∣ciente examples of the same.

The ende of the seconde Booke.