A discourse of military discipline devided into three boockes, declaringe the partes and sufficiencie ordained in a private souldier, and in each officer; servinge in the infantery, till the election and office of the captaine generall; and the laste booke treatinge of fire-wourckes of rare executiones by sea and lande, as alsoe of firtifasions [sic]. Composed by Captaine Gerat Barry Irish.
Barry, Gerat.
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THE FIRSTE CHAP. Declaringe the partes and sufficiency required in aprivat Souldior.

HE which intereth into the noble profession of ar∣mes firste and principally oughte to by agoode Christian, fearefull of God and devoute, that therby his proceedinges may the better prevai∣le, and finish with ahappy ende. Secondly to buylde his valerouse determinationes with a constante and uncorrupted zeale in servinge his prince with geeat love and punctuality. Alsoe to by obediente to his Officeres from the loweste to the higheste in degree. If otherwise he by inclined he erreth much, yea and harelly all the goode parts in him can prosper. Litle or no a peerance can by of his furtherance or goode success, hardly any body can truste in him, or hope of any goo∣de Page  2 proceedinges of his, hee is to by litle esteemed in referinge to his chardge any office or comaunde; No man of qualitie and goode par∣tes can truste in him, or keepe him Company.

Hee which intered into this noble profession of armes oughte to shun eschewe and forsake all basenes imagined and thought of manes mynde. And he oughte diligently to applee him self to learne the ar∣te of warr, from whence proceedeth all nobilitie, and wherby, many men of lowe degrees and base linadge haue attayned into high de∣grees dingnitie and fame, as CAIUS MARIUS decended of poore and vile parentes in a Viladge of the Arpines, came to by a Romaine Emperor; and trough his vertue. VALINCIAN a po••e man is son of Cibaly in Hongari came into the licke dingnitie, and alsoe MAXI∣MINO borne in a poure Castel in Thrasia, Nicolas Pichino a boucheres son by his vertue and valor, came to by Captaine generall of Philipp Viconte Ducke of Milan is army and of all the Potentates of Italie.

The Senoria of Venecia was governed by Francisco Carmanola a poure man is son, and that trough his prudence and valor. Many mo∣re borne of loe degre, and base linadge, came into the licke and sem∣blable dingnity, and creditt, and raised unto honorable degrees and reputation, of perpetuall memory. So let none by ingnorante, that vertue valeur prudente and braue conduction is the true. Way of proceedinge in the noble profession of Armes.

Let him alwayes with a pure and senseare harte aboue all thinges by Carefull to serue God, for although all professions are therunto bounde, yet none more deeply then the braue Souldior, whose actio∣nes are day and nighte in danger of death, (more then anny other) and douptles he that soe doth a complish, fighteth with a more reso∣lute determination, and suche men moste comonly are a fisted by the divine power: fighting in a iuste cause, and with a cleere conscience; Wher of there have beene to many examples, which i have read in antciēte Auctores, and noted my self the same in many incounteres.

He is alwayes bounde to by carefull, and vigilante in acomplishing his obligationes, and principally to by obediente. For mishinge this pointe, the other goode partes whiche in him do ocurr are of litle or noe estimation. Aboue all thinges lett him alwayes liue in the feare of God, and let him by no blasphemer, for in this worlde it is moste o diouse, and can not escape withoute severe punishmente of his Divi∣ne majestie. Wherof theyr have beene many examples and we see that such blasphemers in the warres are shot in the mouth, or receive other Page  3 impedimentes in the same, and comonly dee a moste miserable death, for theyr wicked a customed inclination to that diabolicall vice.

Lett him by carefull to chuse to his comarades and fellowes oulde Souldiers if posible, and men well acquainted, and of good conditiō, and to by yerie carefull that they bee no factioners nor mutineres, whose Company are more dangerouse then the divell, he is to by quiet and frindly, and rather seveare then licentiouse in spiches, for such like persones moste comonly doe loose there estimation togither with theyr owne quietnes, and are wonte to have many un happiecrosses in this worlde, and to be litle reputed, and hardly can prosper as wee dayly see.

In his diet let him not by to couriouse nor inclined to delicate mea∣tes, rather to distribute, well his meanes and contente him selfe with such provitiones, as the campe or place shall affourde, for those that are given to there belly, and to the unsatiable vice of drunknes are ap∣te for nothing, and moste comonlie are subject to many disgraces, wherof theyr are many examples. Prisco Captaine of Maurish, Em∣peror of Constantinopla, a prehended and defeated the Kinge of Mo∣saquio de Salabia, and his army, who beinge blinde drunk with drin∣king to muche wine in the Selebratinge of a certaine sacrifice don for the soule of a brouther of Mosaquio. Which bienge killed the evenin∣ge before in a certaine skirmish, and the victorious Soulders havinge ended theyr, figt they fell to eatinge and drinkinge, and for that vice, and there litle care, and beeinge found unprovided and forgetfull in a complishinge there obligation were defeated, as many more unsa∣tiable drunkardes and gluttons have beene. There contraries suppo∣singe afterwardes to finde theyre enemy in the like trap, with the like forgetfulnes wherin they were founde. Thinkinge and consideringe that they were a smale distance of. They determined to turne, and fall uppon them, and revenge them selfes, and release theyre kinge or die in his recoveringe, which they agried uppon with a resolute de∣termination: soe that Prisco nor none of his shoulde escape, and had itt not beene for a Captaine of horse named Gencono who beeinge hoth prudente and experiment in warr. Comaunded that those under his chardge shoulde in no manner take anny liberty in not acomplishin∣ge, with theyre military obligationes. Wherof hee and his officers tooke a spetiall care; so that at the arivinge of his enemy, and deter∣mined to fall on with greate fury, he fell on them with greate courad∣ge, and constrayned them ro retire, and turne theyre backes. And Page  4 with the like or semblable fortune Tomires queene of the Scithians did overcom kinge Ciro, and his three hondereth thousande Persians in theyre Slugish, and beastely drunknes, who came to revenge the death of Sargapiso hir son, who beeinge before slaine by Ciro, and the selfe same succes happened Achab kinge of Iraell againste kinge Be∣nado of Ciria, so that trough the inclination which som have to this vice causeth greate disorders, destruction of the coon wealth, and rebelliones, wherof theyre are many exāples, Not contentinge them selues with the ability of theyre poore hoste, wher by greate scandles do offten tymes arise, causinge townes citties, and provences to revol∣te from theyr prinses, by resultinge of thies unsatiable drunckardes, which un ruly disorderes and filthy examples are to by well looked unto, and severely punished; the Tirantinos for this vice drived a way the Romaines, and theyre Captaine Cajo Lucio, and rendered them to Haniball his enemye. Abidio Casio did soe seaverely punishe his Souldie∣res for theyre disorders and insolences, that in five dayes space he co∣comaunded to hange al moste the one hause of his army, for theyr robberies, and unruly factes comited a gainste the contry people: Whiche severitie caused the enemy townes to yealed unto him, and with willinge myndes provided his army vvith vituales, and all other necessaries Pesenio niger for takinge a cocke per force from theyre hos∣ste condemned to death a vvhole comarade of Souldieres, Marques de Pescaro comaunded to cutt of the eares of a Souldier of his for leavin∣ge his order in marchinge, and for his intente to make spoyle in a vil∣ladge, (vvhere he vvas aprehēded) the Souldier repleeinge to the Mar∣ques that he vvoulde rather suffer death then receive such an offron∣te, to vvhiche the Marques condecended presently, and commaunded to hange him in the firste tree; Greate Tamberlan punished soe severlie one of his Souldieres for the like or semblable offence, that the rigor therof did soe corecte and feare his vvhole army, that vvhere his campe did continue three dayes to gither, a tree full loaded vvhith fruite at there departeture remayned vvhole and untouched (a mer∣vayllouse example to all Souldiores to imitate this vertue) and ab∣staine from all disordered apetites, and patiently with greate cou∣radge to indure hunger and misery, when extreame necessitie, soe re∣quireth, as did the army of Cesar in the seedge of Abarico in France, vvho seeinge the Emperor, takinge greate greefe and compassion of theyre hunger, for vvhich cause he vvas determined to retire his cam∣pe; vvhereunto they vvoulde by no meanes condecend, re pleeinge Page  5 that firste they shoulde finish theyre lives by chance of cruell fortu∣ne or hunger, rather then give overtheyre interprice. And vvith the like constancie valerouse and noble determination they tooke in Du∣raco, eatinge earbes and rootes: In the honorable regaininge of Breda by Spinola many examples may by given of the necessitie of theyre Souldiores, and greate constancie, vvhere ihave seene many brave Souldiores compelled to extreame and intolerable necessitie, and ne∣verthelesh vvoed that they shoulde rather die in that honorable acte then spott theyre honor by runninge a vvay in suche a famouse oca∣tion of perpetuall memorie.

Marques de Pescora vvith his ovvne handes kiled tvvo Souldieres findinge them forceinge a gentle vvooman decended of noble linad∣ge in the sacke or tacking of Genoua. Let him bee carefull to by vvell armed if posible beeing both honorable and profitable, and that be∣sides it licketh much his superiores; Alsoe let him bee carefull in vvell a parelinge him selfe, a cordinge to his a bilitie and pay, and in no ca∣se let him hy not overloaden vvith muche bgadge vvhiche is agreate empedimente in o cationes of marchinge, and specially in tyme of service. For wee dayly see that trough to much bagadge the whole ar∣my is often tymes troubled, and of the same resulteth many disgra∣ces, and somtimes is wholy loste. It importeth much an honorable Souldier to goe as lighte as may bee posible, without anny impedi∣mente that shoulde cause him to bee absente from his coulors. Much bagadge in o cationes of march causeth much trouble and care, and specially when it is loste as often times happened.

He is to be carefull and vigilante in keepinge his culores or watch with greate puntualitie, and beeinge imployed in centery or rounde let him by verie warie in a complishinge his obligaciones, and special∣ly not to fall a sleepe for beeinge soe founde it lieth in the disgression of the Officer to use him a cordinge his desert, as did Phirates in Corin∣to going in the rounde of that Cittie, and findinge a Souldier a leepe killed him, when other wise the leaste affronte he coulde have, was to bee in publike punished, and that for example to the reste, that are not wourdie to carie armes for ther carelesh mindes and litle honor.

Let him looke well not to refuse his Officieres beinge comaunded in o cationes of his Majesties service, and be no meanes let him not by absente from his garde beinge on the watch withoute licence of his officer, though he thinketh the place to bee peasable, and of no sus∣picion. If he thincketh to goe forwarde, or to bee prefered in this ar∣te Page  6 he profesheth, he is to a complish with greate care and punctua∣litie his obligationes, that bee his care and diligence he may dayly hope of better prefermente. Let him consider that oure predecesso∣res were not Captaines nor Master de campes, nor that they were borne vvith thies offices but rather vvith goode partes, dilgence and goode service optained the same honorablie.

Let him not marry if he hopeth to a complish vvell his obligatio∣nes, or to bee prefered, for in o cationes of march if shee goe a longe vvith him hardlie can he vvell a complish with his obligationes, if his meanes be litle and beinge chardged vvith many children, consider vvhate and how many crosses shall happen, and he muste of force ne∣glecte in a complishinge the obligationes of an honorable Souldior in the righte performance of the kinges service, or forgoe his wife and children, for he hath inough in a complishinge vvell vvith the one, and give over the other.

In the corpes de garde he is to behave him selfe sober and honeste, and looke vvell that he fall not unto any quareles, for theyre he gi∣veth bad example, as alsoe sheoweth litle respecte to his Majesties ser∣vice, and seemeth that he neyther feareth nor respected his Officeres. Wherfore the Officer is to punish him, for suche as are given to qua∣reles in suche places are moste comonly accounted for couardes, for it is knowen that suche places is not for quareles, nor fightinge, nor by no meanes can be permited, and so suche as are given to quareles in suche or semblabel places, are a compted for couardes, and for men of litle expectation of theyer valor before theyre enemy, and ought not to escape vvithoute severe punishmente.

He is to be earneste to imitate the goode partes, and verteuse ca∣riadge of those vvhich raise unto degrees by theyre prudente gover∣mente, and to marke those that are daylie declininge ttough theyr bad and unruly factes; litle fearinge God or man. Of such persones litle expectation can be of theyre furtherance, or happie success, but rather hated and envied by God and the vvorlde; so let him allwayes imitate te beste.

In all places in townes, Citties, or Villadges where he is lodged, let him by kinde and amiable vvith his hoste, and let him demaunde for no delicate meates nor regalose, as som are incliued unto, but rather conforme him selfe with his hoste: For all thinges don vvith amitie in thies ocationes is far better, and more laudable then rigor, and dis∣orderes. Wherof often times resulteth greate scandeles, disgraces, and Page  7 revoltes. If it shoulde chance, as som times happened that his patro or hoste shoulde be aman of unreasonable conditiones, let the Soul∣dier then repayre to his Officer that he might by changed into ano∣ther place, or els see his cause remedied better. If it be his chance to happen in the expuungnation of any Cittie towne or forte, let him not be avaritions but rather folowe and Persue the victorie untill such time as his contrarie be wholy yealded, and licēce granted to the spoy∣le and sacke. Wherin he shall sheowe him selfe neyther covetouse nor cruell, (as many gacelesh Souldiores doe) who vvithoute feare or respecte of God or man doe spare no kinde of crueltie uncomitted) with bestiall ravismente both of maydes and vvoomen, vvholie givin to theyre bruthis inclination withoute concience, reason, or conside∣ration: like vvicked and blinde men, robbinge, of chnges and mona∣steries built for divine sacrifice. Wholy given to theyre disordered fil∣thy a petites, and murtheringe of poore people, and inootes yeal∣ded, which rather to the contrarie they shoulde sheowe them selves fearefull of God, and mercifull to the homble vanquised, and ra••er defende them then offēde them, and in particular the honce of woo∣men, as did Don Pedro Conde de Feria in the expanguation of Du••, brought all the woomen to the church of that towne, and defended them from the furie of the Emperores people, vvho at that time re∣resolved to put all to the sowrde.

If in batteries, assaultes, or in counteres be shall happen to overco∣me his enemy. Let him be of a generouse determination and set all his care in executinge the victorie, and in no vvife to attende the spoyle, nor leaue his order as doe many nowe adayes, like 〈◊〉 and base factioneres to the greate dishonor of the action and losh of ••ly••li∣ves, and of litle regarde of theyre owne honor and reputation.

He is to serve and fighte in his prince his cause and degnes with afection and constancie, and he is not to 〈◊〉 vvhether the poe by juste or unjuste, soe that it by not againste Godes true Religion. But in such o cation he is to looke vvell to his conscience, and to be vvel advised, for Godes cause is to be loocked unto aboue all thinges.

In all ocationes that shall happen or falle oute in the courses of vvarr, and specially in travailes and adversities, he is perihly to in∣dure and suffer them. That therby his vertue may 〈◊〉, and 〈◊〉 knowen the uncorrupted affection he beareth to his prince, in acom∣plishinge his obligationes, vvith a generouse minde and 〈◊〉 constancie, not murmuringe of his sloe paymente 〈◊〉e com∣pelled Page  8 to stande in greate nede therof. And specially let him be mo∣ste carefull not to yealde, or by any meanes give eare to Mutenies or Rebelliones, whiche sometimes resulte of suche cases, and vvhose ende moste comonly is Sheamefull death, vvher of there have beene toe many examples.

He whiche intereth in to this noble profession of vvarr oughte sen∣ce the day of his asentasion to serve his prince with greate loue and loyaltie, and obey his Officeres and willinglie fighte for a juste cause, for suche vertues seeme to be a similitude of a generouse minde, and true religion. As Platon saieth that loue and obedience are signes of a high; and generouse minde, and he that wanted the vertue of obe∣dience is un wourdie of this name, for cause that trough disobedience resulteth the greatheste disgrace than can happen to an Army.

Let him be careful bin not murmuringe nor speaking ill of any Of∣ficer of his nor of any that serveth his prince, for it seemeth a bad cu∣stome; resultinge of litle prudence and respecte, to speake ill of him whome he is bounde to defende, and by whome he is to by governed, and comounded, but rather honor and respecte him: though his ver∣tue and goode partes are not agreeable to his obligationes, never∣thelesh for beinge a minister to his prince he is thereunto bounde.

Let him by no meanes trough his comarades wife, nor for any thin∣ge that shoulde give him lawfull occation of discontentemente, be∣cause that of suche like inconueniences and disordered apetites resul∣teth many quareles and scandeles amonghste Souldieres, and oftener kill one another trough the same; then for any other o cation. Ney∣ther is he to receive the boy of another withoute licence, so that the∣reby he may the better acomplish his Masteres service.

In all ocationes of marchinge, skirmish incounteres, or assaultes with the enemy by force of armes, all Officieres are to by obeyed and respected for it belongeth to them or any of them to see all thinges well ordered; and specially where theyre devitiones fall. Not onelie those of his Company, or Regimente, but whosoever of the army, (be∣inge so comodiouse for the Kinges service.) In such semblable occa∣tiones let him not stande uppon termes, not disputes as some doe, in sayinge do not knowe youe for my Officer▪ Let him not by ingno∣rante therin, because that the Officer may lawfully punish him, for if otherwise it falleth oute, and that the Officer doth complaine of him to the higher Superiores, he shall by reprehended for his ingnoran∣ce, for because that at all times and occationes his owne Officieres Page  9 can not be presente, wherfore he is to obey all Officeres.

Let him exercise him selfe in all sorte of Weapones, and of them let him choose the armes whereunto he is moste a fected, and findeth more fit for his purpose, the pike and coselett a mongste foote men is of moste estimation, for beinge the moste firmeste to defende and mantaine a place beinge vvell ordered and sett; and specially again∣ste the furie of horse. Of manual firie weapons the Musket is of grea∣teste execution, nexte to the same the caliver, both which are to in viron, and line the Pikes in theyre due devitiones, a cordinge as time place and occation shall require.

Let him practice him selfe in eache sorte of Weapon, to imitate as neere as posible the Ianisaros Turcos, who were moste experte in ar∣mes trough theyre continuall exercice; And let him frequente the sworde and target, and specially i woulde vvish oure Irish to frequen∣te the same for beinge more inclined to this sorte of weapō more then a ny other Nation, and besides that of all Nationes none are more fitt for the same, nor more resolute. This vveapon is of greate im∣portance in many occationes, and specially when men close togither, or to vive or recnoledge a ny narowe or straighte pasadge or place as trenches, fortes, batteries, assaultes, encamisada, and for other pur∣poses in warr; and specially a boute the cullores or to defende or of∣fende in a ny narow place.

Let him alwayes a plie him selfe vvith affection to vvarlike exerci∣ces, because that vertue exeleth fortune, and it avayleth him, much to reade histories, and to be experte in Aritmeticke, for it doth both revive and perfectionate manes vvitt. There be shall he understande the cariadge, prudence, and valor of braue men, and base inclina∣tion of bad persones, the alteration or decayinge of Kingdomes, and comon vvealthes, the braue and prudente conduction and stra∣tagemes of battelles, both vvon and loste, the vertue and valcor of the renoomed, the shame and infamie of the vile, the maner and use of ancient and moderne vvarres vvith the stratagemes used both for the one and the other.

If he happen to be at the siedge or takinge of any stronge place or fortress, he is diligentlie to vive, the scituation the orderes and in∣dustrie used for the defence therof; and the stratagemes used for the vvininge of the same; consideringe thiese aforesaide and many more used in vvarres, and that vvhich toucheth everie Officer in particular, even from a Corporal to a Captaine generall, to the ende he may be Page  10 perfecte in the arte he profeseth, that by his vertue he may be ad∣vaunced into greater dingnitie; sith that this arte he profesheth is the moother and true fundation of nobilitie. Therfore reason it is that it be perfectly understoode of the Professores and followeres therof, seinge that the practice of mecanicall artes do folowe the same order and course to come to the cunninge of theyre crafte. And that besi∣des that no man can reduce into perfection those thinges wherof he is ingnorante, and knoweth not the arte, vvithoute much practice, and specially in this soe noble and couriouse arte, who for the execu∣tiones therof, vvith prudence and auctoritie is required both longe and diligent practice and theorike. It importeth him muche to be a goode swimer which is one of the foure qualities required in a Soul∣dier, to be rebuste or stronge of boddy, nemble and skillfull in armes, and obediente, thies are the foure qualities a foresaide required in a Souldier. Thus yove see who manny goode and honorable partes are vvished to be in a perfecte Souldier, not learned be heersay nor gai∣ned withe ease and vaine glorie, but rather in a plienge him selfe well vvith affection, care, diligence, valor, and practice, and specially per∣fected with learninge and longe exercice in vvarr.

THE SECONDE CHAP. Treatinge of the election and office of a Corporal in a Companie of Infanterie.

THE office of a Corporal is verie antciente for in times paste in the electiones made of Captaines of Infante∣rie in theyre reall patentes, no Officeres were elected with them but Corporales, and afterwardes were ele∣cted the offices of Alferifes, and Sardgentes; in the ele∣ction of the a foresaied Officeres the Captaine oughte to doe it with great consideracion, and to choose those of greatest vertue and expe∣riēce, to the ende he mighte be the more beloved and respeed: geevin∣ge them goode exāples, and instructiones, procuring to pacifie they∣re quarelles, that they may still live in unitie and love licke bretherin.

He is to procure that his squadron be devided into comarades and live togither in theyr lodginges and all other places vvithe greate Page  11 conformitie and love: and if a ny contraversies shoulde happen or a rise betwext them, he is to be verie earneste to see it pacified vvithou∣te delay, and if in case a ny disorderes shoulde fall oute that he can not remedy: Let him vvithoute delay repaire to his Sardgent, Alferis, or Captaine vvhich of them firste he can finde, soe that the quarell may be a comotaded in due time.

Let him be carefull to see that theyre armor be neate and servisa∣ble, vvithoute a ny empediment or let, that he may be readie vvith the same all times and occationes. Let him not truste onelie to the rowle of his squadron, but rather learne everie Souldieres name in memo∣rie, and where each one lodgedh. Let him teach and instructe the bi∣sones and rawe men who to handle theyre armes, and by experte in the same to a compilsh vvith theyre Kinge, and alsoe for theyre one honor, utilitie, and defence. He is alsoe to by carefull to knowe the qualitie and condicion of eache one of his squadron, for beinge em∣ployed in convoy or a ny other separated service, vvherof he is to gi∣ve a compte. If in his squadron theyre be a ny disordered fellowes; and it is alsoe necessary that he knoweth such as are soe inclined to prevente remedie a ganiste theyre unruly disordered apetites.

A Corporall or cavo de esquadra beinge employed vvith his squa∣dron in convoyes or a ny seperated vvatch let none be ingnorante that he is to oversee and correcte all disorderes comitted, beinge in o cationes of his Majesties service; or for any other kinde of disorder committed, for he is the person that muste yealde accompte to his Superior of all that is refered to his chardge: Wherfore he is to co¦maunde resolutely such as are comitted to his care and chardge, who∣me they are to obey and observe his orderes in all that he comaun∣deth touchinge his Majeties service, and vvhosoever shoulde not o∣bey his directiones as a foresaied of those under his chardge, if be fai∣re meanes he doeth not a complish. Let him severelie punish him with the sworde, but in no case maine the Souldier as some raish and unconsiderate Officeres doeth: But let him alwayes see vvho he co∣maunded, and a complished the contentes of the order given him a cordinge as discression time and the occation shall require (and not otherwise. Trouh much libertie wee dayly see resulte many disorde∣res, wherefore obedience muste be observed, and seaveritie minstred, but that vvith greate concideration and equitie, rather then vvith raishnes and litle prudence. For som times some Officeres trough theyre auctoritie blinde and sinister, understandinge doe comit faul∣tes, Page  12 but the Souldier alwayes is bounde in obedience to his Superio∣res, but nothinge the furder in optaininge Iustic.

All vituales and amunitiones that shall be delivered by the Sard∣gentor furiell to the Corporal, he shall with equalitie devide and di∣stribute the same betwexte the Souldieres of his squadron, vvithoute any fraude or parcialitie, and procure that they a comodate them selves in all places vvith amitie like true companiones, and let him selfe in vvourde and deede be carefull and lovinge towardes them, so shall he by the better reputed both by his Superiores and Inferiores.

Those that are bisones or rawe men, he is to be carefull in instru∣ctinge them, in handelinge theyre armes, and who to serve whith the same because he is to instructe him to stande in his centerie, and who to a complishe his obligationes, to have his peece ready chardged and primmed, and to cock his burninge matche, and soe to presente his peece and who: And beinge a pickemam to terciar or chardge his picke. When the rounde comes let him demaunde for the wour∣de▪ and vvith soe lowe a voice in receivinge or givenge the same, that they may understande one a nother and no higher.

THE THIRDE CHAP. Treatinge of the Office of Asardgente of a Companie of Infanterie.

IN the election of a Sardgente it is verie requisite for his Majesties service that the Captaine choose one of goode partes, and approoved suficiencie, consistinge in him the moste parte of the observationes of Militarie discipline. For it is his Office to execute the orderes gi∣ven be his Superiores; Wherfore it importeth he be not chosen, by fa∣vor nor affection, hut rather trough his valor and longe experience in warr: Beinge soe chosen it is a greate repose to his Captaine and Alferis, and all other executiones shall have the better success.

It importeth much that he doe reade and vvrite for many respe∣ctes, otherwise hardlie can he vvell performe his office: it importeth alsoe that he be skilfull in martiall matteres, yea and of soe greate im∣portance, that more tollerable it were that all the other Officieres of Page  13 the company were it the Captaine him selfe to be rawe men, and of litle experiencie, but the Sardgente not soe, who of necessitie oughte to be of approved partes greate care and punctualitie in executinge the orderes given hy his Superiores, consistinge in the suficiencie and care in him required.

It belongeth to him the devitiones of the squadrones of his Com∣pany, and see that each Souldier do serve with his complet armes as∣sented on him in the Kinges liste, he is to oversee whith care and dili∣gence all disorderes comitted in his Company, and reprehende fa∣ctioneres, and not dismeasure him selfe in the same: but rather with moderation to redresh and a comodate all disorderes, and eavell oca∣tiones which shall occurr. In ranckinge and orderinge each sorte of weapon, there are sundrie maner of, wayes for theyre devitiones, but allwayes let him put eache sorte of weapō by it self. Touchinge they∣re devitiones, and who they shall be ordered, (shall by at lardge de∣clared in the office of the Sardgent Mayor.) Let him be alwayes care∣full in the devition of his pickes, in puttinge or plasinge in the van∣garde, retegarde, and two flankes theyr beste armed corseletes, and the ensigne or culores in the center. But in offeringe of occation, of framinge of a squadron he shall observe the order given be the Sard∣gent Mayor: Sheowinge him selfe with grea diligence, and care in a complishinge whate is refered to his chardge, in soe doenge he me∣rite the honor and reputation, and doinge the contrarie, dishonor and shame, wherof resulteth disorderes and loosinge of muche time, and cause of greate discontentemente for not acomplishinge and observinge the orderes given. When ocacation offereth he is to figh∣te as vvel as the reste, choysinge a convenient place that he may re∣turne to his office, for it is verie necessarie that he accomplish the ob∣ligation, of a prudente carefull, and vigilant Souldier. He shall goe galantlie withe a faire millan hedpeece, and an extraordinarie good collet, and a halbart or geneton. But be reason of his overmuch tra∣vell and paines his armes by no meanes oughte to by heavie, for if they be soe, hardlye can he well execute his office.

With care and diligence he shall execute in due time the orderes given by his Superiores, not missinge any pointe therin, and if at one time two or three severall Officeres give him order, let him followe the order given be the higher Officer, if it be not recauled; or that he seethe the occation to be of importance to his Majesties service. He is to have alwayes aboute him a liste of all the Souldieres of his Com∣pany Page  14 squadron by squadron, alsoe he is to be carefull to knowe whe∣re every one lodgeth, and whate comarades are togither in eache lodginge, and that for many respectes.

He shall and oughte diligentlie to reprehende and procure to dri∣ve oute of the Company all factioneres if they doe not a mindd, as theeves, dronkardes, quarleres, and revolteres for they are moste discomodiouse for his Majesties service; besides they doe noe goode, butt are rather dangerouse. For they are meanes to learne others theyr office, and moste odious kinde of life; and drawe them to imita∣te there base factes. He is to be verie carefull in all ocationes of mar∣chinge and imbattellinge, to instructe his Souldieres to punctually keepe theyre ranckes observe distance and file, to handell well and serve with theyre armes, and to be verie varie to instructe suche as are ingnorante: Whiche for the moste parte resulteth of the litle suffi∣ciencie and care of some Sardgentes chosen be favor or affection. For wee see that some Souldieres of longe time have served, and knovved not who to handell theyre armes, nor serve with the same in time of neede, which resulte of the litle regarde suche persones have of they∣re honor, and litle hope to by advaunced troughe theyre goode par∣tes: But in thies occationes and in many more the Sardgente beinge one that knowethe who to complie well with his dutie and office, can redress thies greate faultes. Butt oherwise he beinge unable, yo∣ve shall finde under his chardge some Souldieres that in cominge be∣fore ther enemy, when occation offer; they neyther knowe howe to handell theyre armes, nor serve with the same as before spoken. To prevente thies and many more faultes, the Captaine beinge vigilan∣te and prudente, ought to by in formed of everie thinge in particu∣lar, of his inferior Officeres, and he beinge carefull he can prevente eache particular, and see them redreste in due time. Soe shall he be the more respected and beloved be the honorable Souldieres of his Companie, and shall with the more resolutiō fall on his enemy when occation is offered, and alsoe shall manifeste his care and affection in his Majesties service.

If he shall of his owne motive a prehende any Souldier and ac∣quaintinge his Captanie there with, or any other Superior; Let him in no case, put him at libertie, but afterwardes it apertaineth to him to procure his libertie, by faire meanes.

Let him by no meanes displace any Souldier from his lodginge to put an o ther in his place, for it lieth not in his power withoute li∣cence Page  15 of his Captaine for he hath no auctoritie to drive one oute, and to accommodate an other in his place, besides it is an ocation of greate discontentemente, excepte he put him oute for disorderes co∣mited betwexte him, and his hoste or comarades; for that lodginge is given him by the Prince, and if he be driven oute for an unjuste cause and makinge his complainte to the Master de campe or Colo∣nell he shall give him licence to chāge his place into an o ther Com∣pany for the wronge don unto him, and his Captaine may by juste∣ly reprehended for not ministringe justice. He shall permit noe Soul∣dier to put of his armes enteringe into the watch till the Alferis firste be disarmed. In garison the wourde is not to be given, till the gates be shutt, nor in campana til the houre apointed be the Sardgent mayor to sett the sinteries, and that to be verie late. Till this houre all ough∣te to be in armes. In givinge the wourde in all places of importance. It is moste required that itt be given with greate silence for many re∣spectes. In receivinge the wourde from his superior Officere▪ let him be carefull not to forget the same, besides that it is discomdiouse for his Majesties service, and it shall by toughte that suche a aulte shall resulte of the litle care in him.

Interinge into a cittie towne or place where he shall inter with his Company, he oughte to visite and knowe where the inteies shall be placed, and the course of the roundes, as shall be a pointed and or dayned be the Sardgent mayor, alsoe he shall with greate punctuali∣tie and care procure to a complish and execute in due time all the orderes given be the Sardgent mayor, that therby he may by the mo∣re honored and affected, besides that it is his obligation.

Let him beware not to be cruell nor inviouse to his Souldieres which is a token of a bad inclination and nature, and of Officeres of litle vertue. If by chance he shoulde by angrie with any Souldier of his, (in turninge his backe he is to forget that furie) and afterwardes sheowe him selfe amiable and lovinge, and soe they cominge to the knoledge of his homoures, they shall have the more eare not to an∣ger him; and if other wise he sheowe him selfe rigorouse, and inclined to be revenged, tbey will run away, and he shall fall into disgrace, and shall be hated by his Captaine.

Let him be no meanes presume to slashe or cutt Souldieres with his swourde, exepte uppon juste occationes in his Majesties service, and specially in disputes of plea, or any other particular quarell of his owne. In suche and semblable ocationes let him looke wel to him Page  16 self, for the Souldier in such a particular oweth him but litle respecte or none at all beinge therunto constrained, for a Souldier is to defen∣de his life and honor for whiche none can blame him beinge of force thereunto constrayned.

THE FOURTHE CHAP. Treatinge of the election and Office of an Alferish of a Companie of Infanterie.

THE chardge and office of an Alferis or Ansign bearer of a Companie of Infanterie is to be reputed as a Cap∣taines leftenant in whose choysinge, his Captaine is to have many and greate considerationes. For not onelie suche a one oughte to by agoo de Souldier, and of boul∣de and valerouse determinationes, but to by his equal if it may be; both in vertue and discresion) because that oftentimes in his absence the govermente of the Company dothe belonge to this Officer; And for as much as the ansigne is the true fundation of the Company, and that in the same consisteth the honor both of his and of his Souldie∣res reputasion. It is necessarie that he, unto whome this office is co∣mitted have in him the a proved partes wissed in a brave Souldier. For the greate truste in him reputed, and that in his Captaines absence he ruleth, and governeth the Companie, and from him the Sardgente and Corporales are to receive the orderes; as they doe from theyre Captaine but the Alferis is not to set at libertie any prisoner withoute consente or licence of his Captaine, or other superior Officeres, ney∣ther is he to give licence to any Souldier to leave the Company. It is necessary to whome this so honorable a chardge is recomended never to a banden it as many brave fellowes have don to theyre perpetuall fame and glorie.

He oughte to goe galante and well armed for many respectes, as in day of battell, or in giveng an assaulte, or in marchinge before his Kinge or Cptaine generall. In ocationes of fightinge withe his ene∣my, he is to sheow him selfe dreadfull and terrible, with his sowrde in the righte hande, and his culores in the lefte, bravely displaying the same; sheowinge him selfe valiante, and givenge goode examples Page  17 to the Souldieres, and animatinge them, he is to live and die in de∣fence of the same, with a resolute mynde and brave determination, as did the Alferis of Oloa in the battell given be Conde Don Gomes, and Don Pedro de Lara, for the queene Uraca of Castilla againste Don A∣lonso Kinge of Aragon hir husband, in whiche they were overcome, and the Conde slayne cutinge of the two handes of this Gentleman to quite him of his culores untill which time he never yealded, after which cruell woundes he embrased his culores betwext his armes, and as did an Alferis Tudesco in the incounter which Kinge Don Fernando de Napoles had with the Frence and Dutch, with his righte hande cutt of, and the leifte sore wounded; and findinge that he coulde doe no more, greepte the culores with his teeth, and toucke houlde at the same till he was slaine. In garison the day that he is to enter unto the watch with his Company; that morninge he is to putt or displaye his culores in his windowe, that it mighte be seene by the Souldieres of his Company, for a true token that that nighte he shall inter the watch, and in settinge the watch he oughte not to disarme him selfe till the gates be shutt, nor in Campan̄a till the wourde be given, and all thinges provided. His Souldieres oughte to imitate him beinge therunto bounde, he givinge them allwayes goode examples and in∣structiones.

He oughte to honor and respecte his Captaine, and a complish his orderes with love and punctualitie, beinge therunto bounde, for the honor don unto him, which his father beinge Captaine coulde doe no more, for no greater honor coulde he give then referinge to his chardge the Kinges culores. Wherfore the Alferis is to forbeare with his Captaine in many disputes which happen, rather then sheowe him selfe ungratefull, as some unconsiderate fellowes doe. The verie same woulde he wish to him self if he came to that dingnitie and chardge, he is to make muche of the drummeres, and fifes because he may by sure to finde them when ocation is offered, and that he and the Captaine shall see them contented for feare they run a way, con∣cideringe the greate neede he hath of them.

He is to garde his culores well in all places, and tacke a speciall ca∣re of the same. Let it be before theyre eyes that they may see itt, for the watch is not a pointed for his person, but for the securitie of his culores▪ hardly can they give a compte of the same exepte they see itt, neyther doth the Souldier vvell a complish his obligation excepte itt be soe. It is necessary that he by a man of goode partes, verteuse, of Page  18 goode govermente and examples; for thies are required in him, for in the absence of the Captaine the govermente of the Company a per∣teineth to him. For he is to give the orderes, and directiones to the Sardgent, Corporalles, and Souldieres of his Company; for one to dishardge well this office it cā be with the greater facilitie and aucto∣ritie, havinge exercised himselfe in the manadgeinge, practice, and executinge of other offices and degrees; and douptles it doth further and helpe him in his executiones, that he findeth greater ease in redu∣cinge unto perfection whatesoever shall be recomēded to his chard∣ge; though he can not sometimes but file the smarte of his overmu∣che travaile, care, and punctualitie. Yett is he vvel pleased and con∣tented, seeinge that his chardge is vvell governed and a complished.

The office of an Alferis or Ansigne bearer is an honorable chardge, and in the muster he is not to empatch him self in the same nor sitt, neyther take, chardge of listinge or vvritinge, excepte urgente ne∣cessitie constraine him thereunto. For itt a pertaineth to the furiell, he is still to be armed with his vanable in hande duringe the time his Company passeth muster; allwayes lookinge to his coloures, and or∣daine to garde the same vvith the firste Souldieres of his Company, that shall pass muster, and soe succescivelie shall be releeved by those that folowe one after an other, and the Sardgent is to procure that the Company pass in order, and vvith speede as they are called by the Comessary, for beinge therunto bounde; and eache one shall attend in a complishinge his obligation, that thinges may be the better orde∣red and dulie finished as it is required.

It is necessarie knoweth the houses vvhere his Company, doth lodge, and the comarades of each lodginge, and nowe and then to vi∣site them, and informe vvho they live; that thereby he may the better knowe the qualitie goode and badd conditiones of each; that thereby each one mighte be honored and prefered a cordinge as he deser∣veth. He is alsoe bound to qualifie bee faire meanes some disputes vvhich happen betwexte them, and the Sardgente; for vvhiche dispu∣tes sometimes when it comes to the Captaines eares, he is alsoe offen∣ded vvith them. To prevēte the one and the other the Alferis ough∣te to visite them and to by a mediator to pascify all; and specially to satisfie and contente the Souldieres, so that they may have no ocation to run a vvay. For if every Officer fall uppon them and none take theyre parte they muste of force by grived; and perhapes run a way. Wherfore it is necessary and untill that the Alferis be carefull as a me∣diator Page  19 to a peace thies contraversies. It is verie necessarie he be a Cō∣panied still with goode comarades, men chosen of goode behavioure valerouse, and of brave and resolute determinationes, for none is mo∣re bounde to have suche comarades then he; for in offeringe of oca∣tiones of inconuteres a saultes or battell with the enemy they are to assiste and keepe him with a more willenge minde, in the assaulte or winninge of a any towne or forte of emportance, he is not to putt his colours in any place till the furie of the enemy be wholie vanquised▪ orderlie and prudentlie a comodated and prevented, and when all the furie is paste and dulie prevented, he shall putt in his coloures in∣to his lodginge, and display the same in the windowe nexte unto the streete, that the Captaine, Officereres, and Souldieres may note, and marcke where the coloures are; to repaire unto with speede when o catiō offereth. And alwayes let him be verie carefull to ordaine a good garde for the same, and that he him selfe shall looke well thereunto. Let him take a special care that covetousenes nor disordered a petites doe ouerkome or master him. When all is setled and pasified quarte∣res shal be devided and a pointed for each Regimente whiche shall be sente in due time be the Sardgent mayor, or his a judante.

In o cation of framinge of squadrones incounteres or assaultes with the enemy, he is to cary his coloures displayed, and passinge be the Captaine generall, he is to advance it bowinge the pointe some wha∣te downe wardes, but if he pass by the Kinge or Prince he is to bowe almoste to the grounde one of his knees a difference from the gene∣rall, and in passinge by the blessed Sacramente he is to kneele on be the his knees, and with the coloures to the grounde sheowinge greate reverence unto the same, and all his Company in like manner, and theyre armes laied on the grounde till the blessed Sacramente pass, vvithoute stirenge till they see theyre Alferis rise upp, and that when the Sacramente is vvholie paste, duringe whiche time they are to kee∣pe silence.

Page  20

THE FIFTH CHAP. Treatinge of the election and office of a Captaine of a Companie of Infanterie.

THE electione of Captaines of Infanterie in Spainie is made be the Counsell of State, and warr, vvhen theyre is any leavie or raisinge of men, and vvhen theese pla∣ces are voide eyther in campe or garison, other Captai∣nes are elected in theyre place be the Captaine gene∣ralles or Visroyes in theyre govermentes. The electiones made by su∣che personadges shoulde by all lickhood seeme to be goode and sure; notwithstanding it faulethe oute offten times that boath Generales and Viseroyes, and alsoe counseleres have missed in the consideration therof, bestowenge those honorable chardges uppon theyr owne fol∣loweres, frendes▪ or uppon, greate courtieres, and favorites; vvherby often times many scandeles and domadges do resulte to the prince, and to the action. For by the meanes, of thies inconciderate electio∣nes, many valiante, brave, and skilfull Souldieres do remaine wi∣thoute chardge, litle concideringe uppon those of longe seruice, pru∣dente and brave cariadge, yea and who have shed theyre bloode with greate valeor, sheowinge them selves in many brave incounteres a gainste the enemy. O cruell unhappie, and sinister electiones of smale expectaciones, when the verteouse, prudente, and valerouse Souldier is not thoughte uppon▪ trough vvhose meanes many scandeles doe a rise, and many brave o cationes are loste, vvithe greate dishonor and discomoditie to the prince. And the prudente and brave Souldier re∣maineth almoste oute of all hope, and almoste os no desire to atemp∣pte a ny hanorable enterprice, seeinge that they are neyther honored nor rewarded, and seeinge that Bisones and men of litle skill are prefe∣red before them.

To prevente many sinister electiones vvhich often times happene∣the, and are more necessarie to be remedied. I woulde wish that in all electiones of those vvho shoulde pretende to be prefered by meanes of favor, or afection as many are, it vvere necessarie they shoulde be comanded to serve; as oftentimes i have seene be prudente and brave Page  21 Comaunderes, yea and theyre sones and neereste frendes for exam∣ple to otheres, and for the ob servation of true discipline. To preven∣te thies sinister electiones, vvherof resulteth greate shame and loshe both to the prince and contrie. The Kinge of Sprine acketh a goo∣de cource vvhen o cation is presented to rayse a ny neowe levies, he sendes to his Viseroyes and Generalles of severall States and Provin∣ces, that they shoulde choyse and sende relation of the ancienteste Alferises and beste a proved Souldieres in the vvarres, both in vertue, valeor, and suficiencie, that suche persones be elected for Captaines, and that alsoe a relation shoulde by sente of the anciēteste reformed Sardgentes to be elected for Alferises, and of Corporalles, Sardgen∣tes, and of brave Souidieres Corporalles. The Visroyes and General∣les of righte shoulde looke vvell to see thies orderes yustly a complis∣hed, concideringe the emportance therof to his Majesties service, soe shall the brave Souldier of longe service prudente and resolute deter∣minationes be prefered, and advaunsed; and otheres imitate theyre a prooved vertue and goode a plicationes, that there by eache one may with diligence, care, practie, and learne this noble arte of vvarr; seeinge that eache one is prefered, by theyr vertue desertes and goode partes, but o ther vvise vvhen thies electiones are made by favor and affection to bisones of litle sufficiencie causeth greate dispeationes, and unwillinge myndes to attempte honorable enterprises, and bra∣ve incounteres, seeinge be experience that they are neyther honored nor prefered for the same. Whiche causeth Military discipline dayly to fall into greate decay; wherof resulteth many disgraces and the losh of many brave ocationes, ruine of the comon wealth, and of the hap∣pie success of Military discipline. He which of righte shoulde be cho∣sen for this office shoulde by a goode Cristian, prudente, and of vertu∣se cariadge, to live with greate temperance and measure in his affaires, and to by perfecte in Military discipline, that therby he may with the greater auctoritie comaunde, and be the more respected and feared. Hardelie can a ny coddy reduce unto perfectiō this honorable chard∣ge, exepte he be learned and perfecte in thesame.

It emporteth much for the prudente govermente, brave condu∣ction and executions of his Majesties service, as alsoe for ministringe justice, and redressinge many disorderes, that he knowe and take a spe∣ciall care in the electinge of his Officeres: that therebe his prudence and valeor may by the better understoode; electinge them as neere equall to him selfe as may be possible, rather then sellinge the same Page  20〈1 page duplicate〉Page  21〈1 page duplicate〉Page  22 after choysinge his Officeres as a foresaied, before he marches vvithe the same, he is firste to cause, the culores, to be bleste, and afterwar∣des deliver the same to the Alferis, giving him to understande the ho∣nor recomended to his chardge, and that he is allwayes to take a spe∣ciall care of the same, and to die in defence therof as before decla∣red. Then he is to devide them into squadrones, electinge and namin∣ge one squadron for him selfe of those of beste qualities and conditio∣nes, for beinge soe necessary and of emportance. For of them moste comonly he is to choise his Officeres, and consulte with them. In o ca∣tiones of fighte and enconteres with the enemy moste comonlie they are nexte his owne person, respectinge and honoringe them as his owne person, and sometimes they are employed for cavose or Co∣maunderes of some brave exploytes. It emporteth alsoe that in the o ther squadrones ther by some particular Souildieres and a ventaja∣dos. He is to procure that all by goode Cristianes, and of a goode and verteuse life, to heere mass and often confes for beinge the true fun∣dasion of happiness; he is to a comodate all disorderes, quarelles, and disputes, that shall happen amongste them, and reprehende those of bad exāples, and dishoneste behavior, and if by faire meanes they doe not a minde to drive them a vvay. For factioneres and infamouse fel∣lowes are not to be permitted to a Company the Kinges culores, nor to equal them selves vvith the observeres of the noble arte of vvarr. In o cationes of marchinge with his Company let him procure not to be troubled with much bagadge, and specially to use suche moderation in not permitenge that his Souldieres be overloaden with lugadge, or traishes (as some times happened) butt rather to goe as lighte as may by possible, vvith onelie theyre armor and o ther litle inescusall necessaries, that therby they may vvith the lesser empedimente ma∣nadge theyre armes, and fighte with the more resolution in offering o cation.

In each Company of Infantery it were necessarie theyr shoulde be a feowe horses permited to some Officeres and particular perso∣nes, but not many. Thies horses doe serve for many purposes, and spe∣cially to recnoledge passadges, and places vvhere the enemy may be suspected to be in ambuscado; which for suche o cationes are verie re∣quisit, as alsoe to sende vvarninge of sodaine o cationes of importan∣ce. He is not to a tempte o cationes of litle a peerāee, faringe it shoul∣de fall oute unhappilie, excepte he be constrayned therunto of ne∣cessitie, for such as do not prevente and forecaste theyre successes in Page  23 time, are wonte when the o cation offereth to by muche troubled, yea and some times oute of theyre vvittes, he is to by carefull in a com∣plishinge and observinge the orderes givē him by the Officers mayo∣res, vvhen manifeste o cation, doth not offer that the a complishin∣ge of suche orderes shoulde be hurtefull.

It is verie necessarie he knoweth eache souldier of his Company by his name, and in o cationes of marchinge that he procure and see that they still observe theyre order and rankes, and not to permit them to stragle hire and there for beinge verie necessarie for many o cationes, because that greate scādeles doe arise trough the over much liberty of stragleres in spoyling gardines, orchardes, and the houses of the inhabitāce or contrye where they march; wherof resulte grea∣te discorde and discontentmente to the inhabitantes for the loshes they receive of some unrulie campaniones. In the redresinge vvherof the Captaine is to be verie carefull, and not to permit them to by ri∣gerouse with theyre hoste for theyre meales, butt rather contente them vvhith vvhate he can give; and see those that do not observe thies orderes severelie punished. For beinge the obligation of a goo∣de Cristian, and vertuese Souldier.

If o ther wise he doe, hardly can he escape scandales and bad repu∣tasion, and besides if it come to the Generall is eares. He and his Of∣ficeres are in danger of reprehension, yea and often times see theyre Souldiers hanged before theyre faces, for theyre spoyles don uppon the poore innocente people. Wherfore theyre have beene many pu∣nishmentes executed for such and semblable disorderes.

Julius Caesar passinge from Cicilia to Africa againste Cipio and Kinge Juda de Numidia havinge lefte in that Ilande the minthe and tenth le∣gion, and afterwardes when he sente for them, beinge informed of the Captaines and o ther Officeres in permitinge theyre Souldieres to spoyle the contry vvithoute ministringe any goode discipline, co∣manded that they shoulde by broughte in presence of the vvhole ar∣my reprehended theyre bad goverment, presently comaunded them to by banished oute of the army, and yvithoute any delay to embarck oute of all Africa. The licke punishmentes did Ducke de Alva in the vvarres of Portugal, reforminge soe many Captaines for theyres and theyre Souldiers disorderes: They vvere banished for example to the reste of the Captaines, and Officers of the army; and soe many Soul∣dieres vvere executed to death for robberies and stelth that in theyre reconinge vvas founde, that more Souldiers vvere executed to death Page  24 by justice for theyr disorderes then killed or dead o ther vvise in that vvarr.

Disorderlie shall he governe in vvarr vviche never was practised in the arte; Wherfore it vvere verie necessary that men chosen for this office shoulde wourdily passe trough all the degries before spoken of, or at leaste parte of them, to the ende he may the better knowe howe to governe and comaunde, and particularlie that he be alwais mind∣full to feare God, and to be verteouse and experimented in martiall affaires, in many can thies goode partes be had, and many more, and in suche as they cannot be wholie founde, let theyre choyse be made of those of vvhome the moste are to by founde, because that itt im∣porteth muche the Kinges service, for all observation of military dis∣cipline.

If he be comaunded vvith his Company and o ther troupes ioy∣ned to them as often times do happen to the garde or defence, of a ny place. Let him vvith greate care, vigilance, and valeor animate his Souldieres, and consulthe vvith his Officeres, and beste experimented Souldieres, and beinge resolved let him with all care and speede for∣tifie and intrince him selfe, as many brave and valiante Captaines have don, sheowinge them selves vvith prudence, valeor, and brave conduction, presentinge them selves in all actiones of the firste, with a brave and resolute determination, but let him by verie varie that he a tempte nothinge inconsiderate, and raish as often times happened to ingnorant men of litle experience to theyre owne and Companies confusion. To a voide such enconveniences and hasardes let him be verie carefull to a complish and observe the orderes and instructio∣nes given by the higher Comaunderes. If o cation do nott offer wher∣of greater domadge may insue, or a goode o cation to by loste, in whi∣che Captaines are some times of force to prudently prevente the be∣ste. Let him never deney a ny honorable interprice beinge comaun∣ded thereunto be the Generall or Governor, though he finde it a jor∣ney of greate danger. But he is to presente his reasones if he finde o cation necessarie, and soe fall on vvith a valerouse determination.

He shall vvith a generouse mynde and goode vvourkes procure to vvin the good vvill of his Souldieres, a continge them as his sones, and children and that by suche faire meanes, in not sheowing him sel∣fe over coveteouse, and greedy, but rather liberall; still secoringe his Souldieres to his abilitie in theyre necessities and vvantes, and not to basely wronge them in robbinge or deceivinge them of theyre payes, Page  25 as some Captaines are wonte to doe; with litle honestie or feare of God; makinge a comon practice therof, trough whiche they win bad fame, and toughte and reputed by theyre higher Comaunderes un∣wourdie of the name of a Captaine, and often times are severely pu∣nished for the same, and deprived of theyre Companies vvith a juste sentence.

He is to be verie carefull to visite the centeries and corpes de Gar∣de under his chardge, sheowinge greate diligence, care, and punctua∣litie in his owne persone, that the Officeres and Souldieres doe imita∣te him, and precisely a complish vvith theyre obligationes, a cordin∣ge the orderes given by the highe Superiores, and be him.

Let him be carefull that his Souldieres be not given to vice and to much libertie trough there owne negligence, and bad a plicationes, all fin fallinge into bad customes, for in permittenge thies unruly fa∣ctes vvithoute necessarie redress, he offendeth God and his Kinge, for they beinge under his chardge as his familie, he is to cause everie one of them to confess at leaste once in ayeare, and specially in all times and o cationes of danger of death as befiteth a goode Cristian to doe.

It is verie necessarie to haue a goode furiell a ble in Aritmeticke, as also in readinge and vvritinge, and to be one of truste and vvell ac∣quainted, for the lifte and reconinges of the Company moste comon∣ly is refered to his chardge, as vvell to pass muster of his Company, as in distributing munitiones, armes, and a parell vvhich are given be the Kinge to the Souldieres; of vvhich he is to yealde a compte when it is sought for by the Prince is ministeres, to vvhose chardge the same a pertayneth, to thies furielles or clearkes dothe a pertaine to receive the orderes for the makinge of quarteres, in townes Viladges and campana from the furiell mayor as shall be ordained and a pointed by him, and moste comonly the distributinge and devidinge of the quarteres are refered to the chardge of the Sardgente. It hapēeth so∣me times that the furiell doth marche with his Company a lone, from one place to a nother, may be of reasonable distance, carienge vvith him his patente or order for the same, goinge for the moste parte be∣fore the Companie to cause the quarter to be made att theyre a riven∣ge. In suche o cationes the Captaine is to be verie carefull, that thies persones do not comit greate faultes, as some times happen trough the covetousenes of such persones, resultinge often times troubles to his Captaine, for robbinge and stealinge not onelie in the vvay butt Page  26 alsoe in the Villadge vvhere they doe lodge, spoylinge the same and givinge o cation to the inbitanes to run avvay. Whiche disorderes soe comitted doe often times come to the highe Comaunderes eares, and chardinge all uppon the Captaine is honeor and reputasion, and the factioneres run avvay for feare of punishmente, and sometimes thies furielles or Clearckes in meetinge a goode fellowe doe fall a drinckinge and makinge goode cheere, and his chardge not finised, nor findinge him, nor knowen vvhere to be founde, yea and often times for a pee∣ce of money leaves the Company, trustinge to smale comoditie, and it may by in o cationes of moste necessitie; beinge vveary and vvett to the skin, thinckinge to stopp theyre mouthes vvith envented fables and lyes, for which disorders the Captaine as a father of his Souldie∣res is to see him severely punished, beinge thereunto bounde for the dischardge of his conicience and reputation.

It is verie necessary for the Captaine and Company to have a goo∣de Chapleyn reasonable learned, and specially verteouse, and of goo∣de life and examples; But not a frier excepte it be vvith licence of his Superiores. Aboue all o ther prpfessiones the arte of vvarr is of moste danger, soe the Souldier is to be verie earneste to be devote, and of cleere conscience, for he is more neerer dangeres of death then any o ther sorte of men; and it is necessarie that he allwayes haue a prieste not far of, for the soules health: To whome he may cōfess at all times and o cationes, a cordinge as time and necessitie shall require. In the choisinge and keepinge of thies priestes the Captaines in conscience are bounde to procure that they be verteouse and of goode life, if o therwise, itt were far better not to have any at all.

He is of necessitie to have a barber in his Company, and if it be pos∣sible of goode skill in this arte, for beinge a verie necessarie instrumē∣te in warr; for when a Souldier is hurte the greateste comforte he can have is a goode barber, that shall cure him vvell, and with speede, for if he depende to be cured by another which at all times is not to be had, excepte he sende for him may by a far of; hardlie can he be well cured; and besides he is in danger of deathe. If the wounde or hurte be dangerouse, he is both in danger and trouble: This beinge such a necessarie instrumente in warr and because that Souldieres are men of libertie they fall often times into many disgraces, excepte theyre Officeres have a speciall care to prevente the necessarie remedies. For whiche and for many more dangeres they incurr, it is uerie necessarie they have a goode barber as before spoken. And if his pay be not able Page  27 to intertaine him with instrumentes and o ther necessaries, the Offi∣ceres and Souldieres are to further and asiste him, that he may the better, and with a more willinge minde serve them, and a complish with the more punctualitie his obligationes.

In o cationes of marchinge with his Company, the Captaine, and other Officeres are to by verie earneste that theyre Souldieres doe not dismaunde oute of theyr order, and rankes, (as many unruly fa∣ctioneres doe) litle regardinge theyre Captaines honeor nor theyre owne reputation, as before declared; and at his departinge oute of a∣ny towne or viladge where he shall lodge (though it were but for one nighte.) He is to see all disorderes comitted redressed, not opresinge nor a beedinge injuries don to the poore innocente inhabitantes, but rather stay after the Companie till they be cleere oute of the towne or Villadge, givinge order to the Alferis to march to the a pointed place or distance where he is a pointed to mak alto or stande, and alsoe gi∣vinge order to the Sardgente to chardge the bagadge with speede; ha∣vinge soe don he him selfe is to visite over the quarter and see if there bee any complaintes, and to see them remedied before the Company doe departe. Havinge finised well with his obligation, and desire he∣rein.

It is necessarie he carie withe him in writinge from the Comaunde∣res of that towne or Villadge that they are satisfied with the goode govermente ministred bee the Captaine in not permitinge injuries nor disorderes withoute redress and satisfaction: Havinge acomplis∣hed with thies he is to repaire to his Company, callinge the Corpo∣ralles that he may knowe, and be well a sured if any boddy wantes or no, and then he gives order that the bagadge doe marche in theyre due place, as time and o cation shall require, and the same still acom∣panied with a garde.

If the countrie be peaceable and of no feare of the enemy, he may vvell comaunde the bagadge to marche in the vangarde, and if o ther¦wise let them march in the rergarde or battel, acordinge as he shall suspecte of feare both in the vangarde and reregarde, commandinge the Alferis to leade the Companie, and the Captaine to stay in the re∣regarde, and the Sardgent to and froe all a longste the flanke of the Company, soe shall they orderlie marche, keepinge theyre ranckes and doinge litle spoyle and disorderes.

Let him cause that they marche still in goode order, givinge ware∣ninge to the Sardgente to be verie varie, and vigilante in 〈…〉Page  28 the same, soe shall he instructe and perswade his Souldieres to be ap∣te, and readie to goode actiones, and dissaude from unrulie and bad factiones, reprehende faultes and disorderes, and commend valor, vertue, and obedience, that therbey they may be readie and apte to all incounteres and o cationes, which shall or may happen, and indu∣re them by faire meanes. To indure patiently all toyles, discomodi∣ties, and wantes, soe that they arise not into mutenies trough there impatience bad inclination and govermente which some times hap∣pen for vvante of goode govermente, and litle care of some Captai∣nes, in givinge goode instructiones and examples.

Let him be carefull that no Souldier of his Company play nor pa∣ne his armes nor aparell, for he which is givē to such vice seemed to be of litle shame and of less honor. Wherfore suche unrulie fellowes oughte to be severely punished for there villeny and bad examples. Some times it hapened a Captaine with his Companie to be employed in secrett services of importance, or may by with parte of his Cōpany; And some Souildieres that are given to learne hire and theyre of neo∣wes, doe burste with desire to knowe where he shoulde goe. In suche o cationes the Captaine oughte to by severe, and not to permit any Souldier to treate or demaunde where he is bounde. For it is a dange∣rouse wourde resultinge of litel prudence, and besides he offendeth muche, for in thies and semblable exploictes there are greate miste∣ries; wherefore the Captaine is to sheow him self rigorouse to vvhoso¦ever shall presume to intermiddell in any such fulish and dangerouse demaundes, and pardon none that shall intermiddell in the same, for example to the reste: Happie are those that are considerate scilente and obediente, and do nott intermiddell in thinges oute of sence, and not apertaining to them; for comonlie of such Souldieres are greate expectationes in time of neede, hopinge all goode corespondance of theyr goode life examples and cariadge. Wherefore suche are still fir∣ste prefered, and of moste estimation, vvhiche by all reason oughte soe to by: If a Captaine be carefull that his Officeres doe well acomplis- theyre dutie and obligationes, he is to procure that they be persones that can reade and vvrite for beinge moste necessarie, for o ther wise they beinge unable, he can hardely truste to write to them, and special∣ly any thinge of emportance, touchinge his Majesties service, for of force such o cationes muste pass trough the handes and understan∣dinge of o theres, vvhere hardlie he can truste unto, noe sorte of men or professiones are more boūde or more in neede in knowinge to rea∣de Page  29 and vvrite then the Officeres and Comaunderes of the Souldieres; for often times matteres of greate qualitie secrett and importance to theyre Kinge are recomended to ther care and chardge, vvho requi∣reth more secrecie, then advertissementes or affaires ot marchantes, or any other tradesmen vvhatesoeuer; soe that this Officer may be re∣puteth unable to fully acomplish his obligationes, and he may vvell say that he oweth butt litle to his father for not instructinge or lear∣ninge him, beinge soe greate a faulte, and specially in this profession.

THE SIXTHE CHAP. Treatinge of the election and office of a Sardgent mayor ente∣ringe withe his Regimente to Garison.

THE election of the Sardgente mayor of a Regimente is to be choysen and elected of suche as the Master de campe, or Coronel do name or putt in election to the Generall, in this election greate consideration oughte to be taken, and be no meanes the Generall is to give way or intrance to favor nor affection; but rather to vertue, valor, and sufficiēcie; for cause that this office is of suche emportance to his Ma∣jesties service, and beinge a Generall minister of a whole Regimente of many Companies, and Superientendente of all the Sardgentes of the same be whose prudence and industrie, the Master de campe or Co∣ronel doth give convenient orderes for the due govermente of his Regimente, in o cationes of marchinge, fightinge or imbattelinge, and in o ther matteres concerninge the same, whereby may be gathe∣red the aproved partes, valor, experience, care, and diligence wished in suche a person.

Who beinge chosen to this degree and office of such importance; we reade that in times paste the generales of the Romaines, and of o ther nationes trusted the execution of this office to none, but the Ge∣neralles them selves administred the same, concideringe that in day of battell the beautie and force therof consisteth in the well orderin∣ge and framinge of the same (be vvhich the victorie moste comonlie is vvon) for undeniable it is that those that are beste ordered and ex∣ercised in vvarr are masteres of the victorie, though they be lesser in Page  30 number: Where of theyre have beene to many examples of anciente and brave Auctores, and all a firminge the same, as did a peere in the laste and famouse jorney in vvhiche Haniball Carthagenense vvas overkome by Scipio Africano. Not vvith standinge Haniball havinge to his judgemente prevented and ordered all thinges as necessarie and fitt; neverthe less the sagacitie and prudence of Scipio vvas at that day soe greate, that it vvas inough to putt them all to flighte, vvith his singular and extraordinarie military prudence. Amongste the Frence and Dutche this office is more estimed then in o ther places, wherfore it shoulde be alwayes comended to the chardge of the mo∣re prudente experimented Captaine that can be had in the Regimen∣te, and togither with this office they have Companies; soe that they have the name of a Captaine and Sardgente mayor, and profitt togi∣ther, and in absence of theyre Coroneles or Master de campes to them by righte belongeth the govermente of the Regimente.

This election of all reason and justice shoulde be provided in one as before spoken, and the counsell of State and vvarr shoulde alwayes have a speciall care to see thies electiones soe prefered, and specially the Generall, rather then chosen by favor, frindsihip, and affection, as some times it falleth oute, recomended to unable bisones, of litle service, and less sufficiencie, Wherof resulteth to many inconvenien∣ces, and because that in them doth not o curr the aproved and pru∣dente partes and auctoritie required for executinge well this office, Captaines of the Regimente doe give them some times but litle re∣specte or creditt: For this election be all equitie and justice, and for many considerationes of importance, oughte to be earnestly soughte a Souldier of the beste o pinion and sufficiencie, that amongste the vvhole Regimente can be had, and that he be verie perfecte in Arith∣metick, for beinge the moste necessarie pointe for the executiones of this office, after havinge exercised much in the vvarr. And not elected be no meanes by favor, for beinge an office whoe requireth much abi∣litie.

Verie many can be founde who have spente theyre time in the war∣res who are not fitt for this chardge, rather by triall and examination made of his a proved sufficiencie, as with Doctores in winenge theyre chaire of dingnitie be triall of theyr a proved partes and sufficiencie. And he who in his examin representeth him with auctoritie, in givin∣ge the beste reasones, is firste prefered.

For by thies meanes douptless Souldieres shoulde be the more wil∣linge Page  31 to study to by perfecte for the optaininge of this soe honorable a chardge by triall of theyre vvoordie deserte. But vvee se it dayly given to persones vvho a plied them selves but litle, neyther in the Theorick or Practice of this arte, and whoe have seene verie feowe o cationes of importance, that by theyre goode and diligente aplica∣tiones they may be the sooner preferred and honored.

This office beinge o ther wise given, the Kinge and o cation is of∣fended; for some to dischardge them selves in this office doe truste to the dialoge of valdese or to the table or numerato of catanae novarae of the State of Venecia, who made a table from 100. to 2000. men to forme squadrones which table they vvere vvonte to carie in they∣re poketes, and if the numerato or table be loste, he remaines in darcknes; that besides it dothe not serve in yerie many o cationes nor for many sortes of squadrones. Soe none is to truste to itt, but rather leaarne diligently to shifer and thereinto to exercice him selfe, which is the true vvay for beinge once perfecte it can not be loste, and he shall with the greater auctoritie and respecte acomplish his obliga∣tiones.

He is to acomplish with the orderes of his Master de campe as a Superior head Governor and Conductor, and justice of his Regimen∣te, but the executiones a pertaineth to the Sardgent mayor, for bein∣ge the principall minister of the same in all ocationes, as well in cam∣pan̄a, as in garison, soe that in the profession of vvarr, it may of all righte by reputed fot an honorable office, and of greate preminiences and truste, and of righte he oughte to by of extraordinarie care at all times.

When o casion offereth he is to by freely permiited to come to speake to his generall, yea and to the verie Kinge beinge in the o ca∣tion, noe doore or intrie oughte to hinder or lett him from freelie co∣menge and goinge at all times, for it is soe required for the execution of his office, as well in receivinge orderes from the Generall, as in de∣liveringe tha same unto his Master de campe or Coronell, and alsoe in a complishinge and executinge his office. This office is of righte wourthie honeor, and reputation, but til the yeare 1500. amongste the Spanardes they had but smale payes, meaning twentie five crow∣nes a month, buth in the same yeare his Majestie encreased theyre pay with fifeine crownes, which in all is forthy, and togither with pa∣tentes of Captaines and Sardgente mayores, soe that they were equal in meanes with Captaines, and afterwardes they vvere augmented Page  32 with 25. crownes more vvhich in all is 65. crownes vvholie paied, soe that they pass Captaines in meanes and degree at this presente; and the o cation of murmuringe and equalitie betwexte them and the Captaines is set a side: Which of right oughte soe to by; and by them the order of the Generall and Master de campe is given to the Cap∣taines, and there executipnes acordingly acomplished.

For to a complish vvell with the extraordinarie care and travaile of this office, it vvere verie necessary that he be provided with two or three goode nages stronge and well proportioned, and that can indu∣re greate travaile, and it is verie necessary that they goe with a faire pace for his more ease: Somtimes oceasiones doe offer that he weareth oute three or foure horses a day for the well acomplishinge of his office. For the vvell executinge of this office it is verie necessarie to have two ajudantes vvhich are to be chosen of men of longe exercice in vvarr, and of a prooved partes and sufficiencie, presentinge them selves with auctoritie, prudencie, and brave cariadge, and specially to be verie experte in Arithmeticke, many goode partes are required in thies persones; for some times it hapeneth that the Sardgent mayor is hurte or sicke. In the meane time his a judante may execute his offi∣ce; It is verie necessary they have goode meanes to intertaine them selves, and theyre horses; for it faleth oute moste comonly that he tra∣veleth and taketh greater paines then the Sardgent mayor. Wherefo∣re and o curinge in him thies befitinge partes, he is to by much estee∣med and furthered by the superior Officeres.

To acomplish vvell withe his office he muste bee moste vigilante and carefull, he oughte to knowe in memorie the names of all the Of∣ficeres of his Regimente, yea and besides of many Souldieres, and to knowe all the Ensignes by theyre coloures. He is alsoe to knowe the Officeres reformed and particular persones; As the Sardgente mayor is the principall minister in executinge the Master de campe is orde∣res, soe is he to by resolved in executinge the orderes given him by the Sardgente mayor, and that with moderation and love, he is to be verie carefull to acomplish in due time the orderes given by the Ma∣ster de campe, or Sardgente mayor; And by the entercession of none to omitt any faulte withoute reprehension or necessarie redress.

It is the Sardgente mayor is parte to diligently procure and sollici∣te with the Prince and Generall, and other superior Officeres for the providinge of armor munitiones, and all o ther necessaries for the Companies of his Regimente, as pouder, led, match, vituales, &c.

Page  33The which he shall cause to be vvell distributed betwexte the Sard∣gentes, and by them to be delivered to the Corporalles who are to di∣stribute the same betwexte the Souldieres withoute any fraude. He is alsoe to be an universall procurer of all thinges fit and necessarie for the Souldieres soules healthe, in severelie punishinge and banishin∣ge publicke and uglie crimes oute of the Companies of his Regiment as theeves, disordered persones of no feare nor shame, as dronckardes and all such as live enfamously, oute of hope of a mendemente; and specially blasphemeres, vvho like base and blinde factioneres withou∣te feare and conscience, doe highlie offende his Divine Majestie.

Suche as have a speciall care to see thies haynouse faultes and disor∣deres redressed, and justly punished, oughte and are moste comon∣lie to be reputed, fauored, and highlie recommended, and specially by his Divine Majestie for theyre affection and care in acomplishinge his vvill.

He is to be earneste that the Master de campe doe choyse the drom mayor of his Regiment of one that he knoweth to by able in well exe∣cutinge his office, and that he by noe meanes by elected by favor, but rather for one vvho knoweth to instructe all the dromeres of his Re∣gimente, for beinge one chosen for that effecte: He can assiste in ma∣ny occasiones in carienge and bringenge of orderes, as shall by more at lardge declared in his election and office. When he shall inter into any towne or place of defence, he is to use greate consideration in the devition of the gardes, and watch therof, and specially if it be a fron∣tier, or place where the enemy is to be muche feared. He shall in no case devide unto every Company the parte or place of the vvall whe∣re they ordinarilie shall assiste or keepe, for by cause townes and pla∣ces of importance have often times beene betrayed, and taken by treason.

The principall cause vvherof hath bene that the Officer and Soul∣dier which selleth that place knoweth the parte and quarter where; ordinarilie he is to watch. Wherefore the Sardgent mayor is to pru∣dently prevente thies haynous plottes and that no boddy may kno∣we vvhere he is to garde or vvatch: Som doe cause them to caste the deece otheres to drawe lottes or billettes, and otheres doe ordaine thies devitiones oute of theyre owne heades. And to observe such dis∣cipline and order that no Company may fore knowe theyre quarter nor any o ther boddy eyther litle or greate may knowe the parte of the wall which shall a pertaine unto him, untill the verie time that Page  34 the watche by set or a litle before. When occasion shall offer that he shall inter vvith his Regiment to lodge in any towne, he or his a ju∣dante is to revewe the place or market, to knowe vvhere he may fin∣de a comodiouse and fitt place to frame a squadron of his Regimen∣te, and presently after this, he is to revewe all the rampar and circui∣de of the towne, carienge a longe vvith him one of his ajudantes, and alsoe he is to revewe the gates and corpes de gardes, and a pointe the convenient place for the postes and roundes, and see that vvithin and vvithoute the circuide of the towne that he prevente in due time all thinges necessarie.

He is alsoe to revewe the Master de campe is lodginge, the store houses or magasenes and prison, and to a pointe the necessary gardes. After all he is to relate unto his Master de campe of all the difficulties he findes in; as vvell on the rampar, gardes, and circuide of the same, and vvithoute delay to prevente and redress eache particular vvith speede, and to consulte vvith his Master de campe to see vvho many Companies shall by required or necessarie to inter the vvatch each nighte, and then make his devitiones, and deliver the orderes to his a judante, that he may deliver them to the Sardgentes, and sheovve them the places a pointed for the centeries, and the corpes de garde, and at vvhate howre they are to sett the cinteries.

He is alsoe to a pointe the places conveniente, and fitt for the co∣loures, and give the Alferises necessarie instructiones. After that he causes the Drum mayor to joyne all the Dromes, and proclaime the orderes delivered by the Sardgente mayor, then naminge the Com∣panies that are to be that nighte on the watche, and soe shall he brea∣ke the squdron, leavinge the coloures that are on the vvatch, givinge order to the reste to retire to theyre quarteres; Then shall the a ju∣dante directe eache Company to theyre a pointed place, and shall make the divitiones of the gardes as ordained by the Sardgent ma∣yor, deliveringe them the orderes they shall observe, he shall a poin∣te and provide the garde of the Master de campe, and of the magase∣nes, or store houses, and alsoe the place of armes vvhere all the Com∣panies and coloures shall repaire unto when a larme or occasion shall be offered.

Havinge made the devitiones of the vvatch, and gardes as before spoken, he is to revewe all the circuide on the outewarde parte, and see if theyre by any fitt place for ambuscadose for the enemy, of hed∣ges vvoodes or gardines, and prevent itt vvith all diligence, and Page  35 all necessarie endustrie, so that the enemie may not prevaile in takin∣ge any advantadge, as often times itt faleth oute in the morninge at the openinge of the gates. To prevente this he is at the openinge of the gates to comaund foure or five lighte arcabuseros to revewe the campe withoute the gates for the better security, and the reaste of the garde in the meane time vvith theyre armes in theyre handes, and not to vvholy open the gates till thies returne, givinge them order to visit and revewe well all the circuid on the outerwarde side, some 300. pa∣ces more or less till he see that theyre is no suspicion. And if they spee∣the enemy they are all to shoote, and the cinterie above the gates shall presentlie advertice the garde or vvatch, and vvhen otherwise he seeth that they do not spee the enemy the gates may by opened by or∣der of the Officer, that theyre comaundes, and then shall he cause the centeries to be set on the gates and bridged as ocasion may be suspe∣cted, not failinge to be verie varie, and carefull in previntinge wha∣te might insue or mishappen, and specially to be carefull that the Souldieres doe not absent them selves from theyre vvatch, and for feare of stratagemes of treason, it is verie necessary that in each por∣te or gate vvhere any suspition may be feared, that theyre by two lon∣ge sharpe yrones like spittes, vvhich shall serve to pass trough from side to side vvagones of hay and strawe, for feare that any men may by secretlie hiden in them. And to lett no men armed pass into the towne, vvithoute order, and specially if it by a frontier or place to by feared much of the enemy. At the shutinge of the gates the Officer and Souldieres there a pointed to garde, shall by all in armes till the same be shutt, and the Officer of the vvatch shall looke vvell that the gates be vvell shutt: All beinge soe acomplished, the Officer shall sende the Souldieres he thinketh fitt to convoy the keayes to the Go∣vernor or cheefe Comaunderes lodginge.

The bagadge of the vvhole Regimente, interinge to garison is to march in the rergarde vvith a Companie of Souldieres guardinge the same, and the Sardgent mayor and a judante are to goe still a horse∣bake till all thinges by vvell ordered and provided, until suche time they see that all by lodged. For in the biginēge of such partisiones mo∣ste comonlie are many questiones and disputes vvhich ought vvith all care and haste to by redreste: In vvhich occasiones the Sardgent ma∣yor is to comaunde vvith resolute auctoritie, in ordaininge all thin∣gss to by pacified and redreste, ministringe justice and equitie, not ad∣mitenge any disorder vvithoute due redress; causinge his orderes wi∣thoute Page  36 repleee to be executed with obedience.

If otherwise it by not acomplished as he firste ordayned, his exe∣cutiones can not vvell prosper, but let him before hande looke that his orderes by prudently given, soe that with this resolution he shall vvell a complish all: And shal be reputed and respected for a man who knoweth vvho to governe and comaunde vvith prudence and auctoritie, and shall be both respected and feared by the Souldieres: When any vando or proclamation is to be given he is to procure with the Master de campe that it be put in vvritenge uppon the corpe de garde that the orderes may be observed and the better understoode be all.

After the proclamation is made, and that none may by ingnoran∣te in understandinge the penalties in the same mentioned, and the executiones acordinglie made, (for if otherwise not executed) it were far better not to sett it fourth, but in thies executiones consideration is to by used acordinge as the occasion shall require, after true infor∣macion by taken of the case.

All Officeres in vvarr are broughte into goode perfection vvith prudence, care, and templance, rather then sheowinge him selfe ri∣gourouse and licenciouse in speeches vvith a furiouse contenance, beinge not therunto constrayned, for the Souldier feeleth no punis∣mente almoste soe grivouse as this, vvhich seemeth to him to resulte trough ingnorance and envie, and of al the reste of the Officeres this bad custome is more odiouse in the Sardgent mayor, beinge the ma∣ster of vvhome they shoulde by righte learne good examples and in∣structiones, and in vvhome by reason the befittinge partes therunto necessary shoulde acurr; beinge a minister to see faultes redreste.

Such Officeres as doe sheowe them selves, vvith a furiouse and o∣diouse contenance doe opress theyre condition, vvhich doth not re∣sulte of a generouse minde, and moste comonlie they are hated. But suche as sheowe them selves with a prudent cariadge and amiable be∣haveure are muche esteemed, obeyed, honored, and respected, by the Souldieres, and doe binde them in obligatione and repose of minde: But for one contrarie another contrary, that if in case the Soul∣dier doe not acomplish his obligationes, as he is bounde to doe. And in doinge the contrarie in comitinge disorderes it is necessarie to pu∣nish him severely, yea and soe far that it may sticken into his harte if by faire meanes he dothe not a minde.

Some Officeres of prudente cariadge, and amiable behavior doe one∣lie Page  37 with a groomely contenance and goode reasones cause theyre Souldieres to tremble, and feare them vvithoute any o ther rigoure, and the Souldieres knowinge of ther Officers goode inclination, doe both obey love and feare them, findinge by experience that he love∣the them and assisteth in time of moste necessity and neede, sheowinge thē goode examples, and giuinge them goode instructiones, and kno∣winge that he hath noe rancor, envy, nor revenge in his harte, but ra∣ther to couradge them in al necessities, and equallinge him selfe with thē in all dangeres and travailes, and to be inclined to redress theyre wantes; in this case they both love and feare him, and indure all dan∣geres and necessities with him, and doe followe him in all perilles with a vvillinge mynde; soe that nothinge doth more contente an hono∣rable Souldier then a lovinge Officer, havinge in him the partes and qualities before declared.

The Sardgente mayor is to give order that if the rounde doe heere any rumor or stirr in the towne or any other place, that he with spee∣de advertice the nexte a dioyninge garde, and that he by no meanes give over his rounde, but continually with care and vigilance visite till his time by expired; And the corpe de garde or vvatche to vvho∣me he gave intelligence are bounde with greate speede to repayre to a comodate the occasion, as alsoe to give intelligence to the superior Of∣ficeres if the occasion be of suche importance.

He is alsoe to give order to the Officeres of his Regimente, that they have a speciall care, that theyre Souldieres doe not lende armes one to a nother for to inter the garde, for it is a bad custome, of which resulte noe goode, for often times a Musquetier lendeth his musket to one that shoulde carie a pike and if in that night doe offer ocasion of an a larme both are discomodiouselie provided. And besides when the Musketier is restored of his musket, and interinge with the same into the watche, not remembringe that he lente it, shooteth it freely thinckinge that theyre is no bullet, (as he chardged the same) and the other to whome it was lente leaveth a bullet in it, he shooteth thinc∣kinge no ill and killeth one of those before him (which often time ha∣pened) yea and sometimes beinge on the watch, often times the one caries the muskett or caliver of his fellowe, and puteth a bullet into the same, the other thinckinge of noe suche matter frily shooteth, and alsoe killeth another.

This bad sinister and dangerouse custom oughte to by prevented, and to severelie punish the Souldier that did lende his armes, for a re∣medie Page  38 of thies ingnorante careless and inconsiderate faultes: All pru∣dente and skilfull Souldieres oughte to be verie varie to prevente and dischardge thies dāgerouse chardges before they inter into the watch: Some base companiones and covardes dayes of feastes doe chardge theyre peeces vvith bullet and killeth vvith envie and revenge vvho pleaseth them; Wherfore a straighte order oughte to by given to all, that they shoulde be verie varie and in paine of death no Souldier shoulde be founde in suche an acte. Moste necessary it is for a Sard∣gent mayor to be carefull to exercice his Souldieres in manadginge of theyre armes, and in knowinge howe to serve vvith the same, as alsoe howe to observe theyre order in march and squadron, and fall withou∣te confusiō into theyre juste place in battell a ray. All vvhich the Sard∣gente mayor is bounde to instructe, for beinge the master vvho is to learne and leade them; for it belongeth to his chardge and office, and besides it importeth him muche that they be vvell instructed and exer∣cised in martial affaires, for soe vvith greate facilitie shal he execute his affaires, as did the Thesarios to vvhose chardge be the Romanies was re∣comended this office, as vvell in filde as in garison.

They instructed theyre Souldieres in the scoole they, exercised the Tirones which were the Bisones, or newe Souldieres two times a day, and the Veteranos vvhiche vvas theyre oulde Souldiers once a day: Soe they vvere very experte as vvell in knovvinge howe to manadge theyre ar∣mes, as to serve with the same, as alsoe in punctualy knowinge to ob∣serve order in march and squadron, as alsoe induringe greate travailes.

They alsoe vvere exercised in runinge, leapinge, shevvminge, and all other exercicee and vertues necessarie and fitenge for warr: They were constrained to march with theyre complet armor both foote, and those that wente a horssbake two dais in a month carienge alsoe with them on theyre backes al necessary foode for that jurney, fightinge as it vvere vvith the enemy, givenge and receivinge the chardge as if it vvere in a bloody vvarr, for the space of ten thousand pases in theyre vvhole yurney, cominge and goinge, and vvith this as customed ex∣ercice they were apte and nemble whensoever occasion of service or employmente did offer; Soe that vvith two thousande of these, grea∣ter exploytes and executiones vvere made, then with thirtie thousan∣de bisones or rawe mē, for vvhich cause they vvere victoriouse coun∣coringe with greate renoome till they vvere vvholie given to vice idelnes and regalitie.

Trough which meanes they begon to fall into decay; and of they∣re Page  39 longe repose and idel life, did resulte a bad and sorowfull ende, for beinge vvholie given to woomen, delicate meates, sleeepe, and ease, and of no care to exercice them selves in armes. They became to for∣get all vertue, to by covardes and fall into decay: Now see a plaine ex∣ample vvhich happened to one of the moste famouseste Captaines of the vvorlde vvhich was Anibal Cartagenes son to Amilcar beinge nine yeares oulde vvas broughte to the vvarres and vvas caused to swere to be enemy to the Romaines duringe life, and cominge to the adge to governe an army he marched from Spaine trough France into Italie, vvhere in passinge the river Rodane. The Romaines a tendinge him, where he had a moste sore incounter in pasinge the river; But Aniball with prudence and greate valeure with tables tember and greate tries made a bridge trough with dificultie and greate hasarde, that at lēgh∣te he paste his army over the river by force of armes, and vvith no lesh endustrie did he pass the hugie montaines of the Alpes, breakinge downe greate rokes and makinge them plaine, where he made a way that his army coulde pass; which contained 120000. of foote and hor∣se, and theyre bagadge on Elefantes and brute beastes, and pased to piamonte vvher he rejoysed of his safe a rivall trough such a trou∣ble some and dangerouse vvay, comfortinge and givinge his to under∣stande that they vvere oute of danger and trouble, and arived into a fertill countrie abondante of all necessaries befittinge.

Ther havinge reposed his army he touke his jurney towardes the river of Trevia in Plasintin, and met vvith the Romaines where he op∣tained the victorie, and from thence he touke his jurney, and paste by Perusa til he came to Trasimeno vvhere he gave an other overtrow to the Romaines, and kilth of them three and twenty thousande. And after this he paste with his army to Pulla in Canas which nowe is Bar∣leta, vvhere he alsoe foughte vvith the Romaines, and had the victo∣rie of them vvith the slaughter of fortie thousande of them, as Plinius and Francisco Petrarca Tuscano declareth. Soe that he had the bri∣dell vvith Italie sixtime yeares; poseste vvith that brave and prudente conductor skilfull and valerouse army: After this he came to Capua a pleasante country of vveomen, and other comodities, and theyre gave him self and his army to repose in garisones a longe time, vvhere he and they became idel and forgetfull of all military exercice, as thoughe they never had managed armes. Which vvas cause of the rui∣ne and perdition of all his army, as they say that Capua vvas a greater perdition to Anibal then to the Romaines the losh of Canas, and after Page  40 beinge constrained to pass unto Africa to soucour Cartago his coun∣trie, beinge informed that Cipio (that famouse Captaine) vvente thiter vvith his Romaine army be vvhome Aniball vvas overcome; so that his vice longe repose and neglectinge of armes vvas cause of his destru∣ction, as alsoe hapened to many other brave vvarrieres. But this of Aniball is a sufficiente example for those that followe the profession of armes, to alwayes houlde and keepe theyre Souldieres in exercice of armes, and that vvith greate care, for feare of destruction. Soe this is a goode and sufficiente example for a Sardgent mayor, to alwayes keepe his Souldieres in the exercice of armes, and to imitate still the Romai∣nes in theyre continuall practice; And in case that the moste parte of the Companies of his Regimente are not togither vvhere he is resi∣dente.

Let him advertice theyre Captaines that they be carefull to exerci∣ce theyre Souldieres, and it vvere not amiss that he in the ende of eve∣rie three or foure montes shoulde visite them all over, and vvith care exercice them in the ocasiones of marchinge and imbatelinge; Wher∣by he shall finde them apte and ready to his will not needinge over∣much paines nor disputes as alwayes muste by with rawe men litle ex∣erciced in armes.

In nothinge is he to be more curiouse then in learninge and instru∣ctinge them who to observe orderes of marchinge, and in framing with them all sortes of squadrones, and to cause them skirmish sundrie manner of wayes, and cause them to toss the pike, and to by apte in handelinge the same, beinge queene of armes and moste noble of all the reste. This office of a Sardgent mayor vvas in times paste cauled thesariouse or Master who is to instructe military discipline, he which is apte and skilfull in vvell a complishinge the aproved partes ordai∣ned for the execution of this office, is fitt for any other office in vvarr, to the verie office of a Master de campe generall, which of all the reste requireth greatesth care and sufficiencie.

Wheresoever the Sardgente mayor shall happen to by with his Re∣gimente or vvith parte of the same, (eyther in campana or garison) when the Companies of the same shall inter the watch he is to by pre∣sente and take care that the Captaines be vvell armed with faire and complet corseletes, and all peeces therunto a pertaininge, and vvith a faire peeke of sixtine or seventine foote longe, the Musquetier with a complet goode muskett, and that by no meanes it by permitted to cutt any peece of the barell, (as some doe) to lighten it, and such as are Page  41 founde gilthie in this soe greate a faulte oughte to by severlie puni∣shed.

They are to be provided vvith goode flaskes, and flaskillos▪ vvith faire and stronge cordes, and hurquillos of six foote vvith theyre yro∣nes on both endes as behooveth, and the Arcabuseros are to be pro∣vided with goode caliveres of a stronge and sure barrell fitt to recei∣ve a bullet of an once or verie litle less, and a faire frask fraskillo and cordones, the measure of the pouder all by at leaste a haulfe once or rather more, he is never to wante a bagg of leader with twentie fi∣ve bullettes, and an yron to strike fyre at all times vvhen occasion shall require, for oftentimes beinge in centery and other places his match is quite gon oute, and then if he can get no fire his pouder is to no purpose at that instante if occasion often: Some are wonte to ca∣rie heade peeces which in many occasiones are goode, but that they are to much trouble some in longe marchinges.

Both the Musketieres and Arcabuseres shoulde knowe howe to make match, for sometimes it hapeneth that theyre is no munition, and then is it verie necessarie that the Souldier knoweth to make matche, for hardelie can he ever faile to get flax, but otherwise the Souldier beinge un expert, and knowinge not to shifte, and alsoe fai∣lenge amunition they incurr greate dangers; soe that the Souldier ought allwayes to procure with greate care to by couriouse and ex∣perte in all thinges that apartaineth to his obligation, for it may well fall oute that he shoulde march in a countrie ingnorante in vvarres, where no match nor amunition is made; Wherefore the brave and carefull Souldier is to thincke alwayes before hande to prevente wha∣te mighte in sue after: Soe shall he be not fluted at, but rather much recomended for knowinge vvho with care and prudence to acom∣plish his obligation; vvhich shall give greate contentmente to his Captaine and reste Officceres.

Fiery weapons vvithoute theyre full necessaries are of no service, vvherfore the prudent, carefull, and honorable Souldier oughte to prevente in due time whate he is bounde unto, in as much as may by possible) soe shall he be highlie esteemed by his Captaine and Of∣ficeres. If the Kinge or Prince woulde faine take a veowe of the who∣le army Regimente be Regimente, and alsoe the Standartes of horse one after an other to pass before him, as did the Spanish army before Kinge Philip the II. and the queene Don̄a Anna in the plaine of Can∣tillana neere to badajoes where the whole army did pass before them, Page  42 and soe neere that they plainelie vived the visadge of everie one of them as they paste by, as well of the horse vvhich did firste pass, and afterwardes the Infanterie.

The firste that did pass was the Regiment of Lombardie, vvhich Don Pedro de Sotemayor did leade, a rivenge righte againste the pla∣ce where his Majestie stoode did vvith grace and speede arbolare his pike turninge his face righte o his Majestie, and made greate reve∣rence as to such a place of so ••gh dingnitie a pertaineth, and having acomplished his dutie and obligation withoute stiringe did shoul∣der his pike, and marched in his jurney, in the verie same place the firste rancke of pikes that did arive observed the self same order, and in the selfe same manner did all the other rankes of pikes pass. With him at this time vvas Duke de Alva present, and the prior Don Fer∣nando.

Necessarie it is for a Sardgent mayor to cary still aboute him a table booke or booke of memories, for hardly can be conceive and houlde all thinhes in memorie, and vvhate he vvritheth is sure, of o nely the Captaine generall Master de campe generall is he to recei∣ve the vvourde of Governores and other persones the ajudantes are wonte to receive the watch wourde, and other orderes, or the Sard∣gente that is on the vvatche in absence of the ajudantes, which at all times they can not be presenre, and specially in garison.

The Sardgente mayor as a generall procurer of his Regimente, ought to solicite and procure that the corpes de garde Garites or cen∣terie houses be well provided, and the corpes de garde withe a place made of tables or plankes wheron the Souldieres may sleepe, and this to be a foote and haulfe above grounde, and to see tat theyre by a conveniente place where the fyrie armes be sett, and alsoe for the pikes. He is to procure withe the townes men that they acomodate the way of the rounde, and that the Garitas be well acomodated that the Souldier may keepe him self and armes drie: That be no mea∣nes he be gridy inconsiderate or covetouse, neyther permit or give care to any but that the gardes by vvell provided of fire and lighte, for som Provinces are extraordinary and excessive coulde, vvher vve see many Souldieres not vvell a parreled that after acomplishinge theyre dutie, and standinge theyre poste som thre or foure houres (more or lesh) they come bake frissd full of snowe, and vvhen they∣re is no fire to comforte them they die. In conclusion there Officeres, and specially the Sardgente mayor is to by werie earneste in solici∣tenge Page  43 this particular for in wantinge this comoditie of fire and of ca∣potes vvhiche some times the Prince, and some times theyre Captai∣nes do provide them, if ohterwise, it is impossible for the Souldier to escape to frise, for vve see those well a parelled perish for coulde: This and many more occasiones of importance can prudente and brave Captaines remedy to theyre greate renoome, and that besides they sheowe theyre affection to his Majesties service; if theyre procure∣mente can not prosper in this, nor theyre abilitie reache in reme∣dienge the same they discharde theyr conscience and honor, vvhen they in devor vvith care and diligence to pittie theyre Souldieres in earnestly procuringe for them, vvherunto they are bounde.

If in garison occasion require as moste comonly it doth, to provide a rounde to visit all over, (if posible it vvere necessary) that an Officer or person of respecte by apointed for cavo of the same, and that Of∣ficer or cavo onely doe cary the watch wourde, for beinge necessary if accasion shoulde by offered that they shoulde be constrayned to co∣me to the wall to learne what the occasion was, or to pass trough the postes that is betwext them and the walles, or to pass by the postes of the corpes de garde, if occasion shoulde presente: It is necessary that the outeward centeries whiche are not under defence nor sure securi∣tie that the vvatch vvourde be not given them, and if by change suche postes shoulde be ingnorance or negligence permit to pass in vvar∣des any man; Let him not come to the courte de garde vvithoute an Officer firste to receive him, and informe of his cause.

Thies roundes are to goe very silente and secrett, vvithoute any rumor, and that they enter in no conversation nor other place, butt rather with greate care and vigilance acomplish theyre order, and still goe forwarde in visitēge the magasenes or store houses, churches, and church yardes, emptie greate houses, or any other place wher suspition mighte be feared (of joyninges and mutenies.) And he hee∣ringe or understandinge of any rumor or joyning, and beinge therof vvell informed and assured, he is to aquainte vvith greate speede the Sardgent mayor, with one or two as the Officer cavo shall thinke fit, and he shall continue in that place till the Sardgent mayor sende him order, or come him selfe in person in the meane time the rounde is to by verie vigilante and silente. Thies roundes moste comonly ha∣ve one thirde parte of Musketes and Arcabuseros, and if theyre be any suspicion they are rather to goe stronge then vveake to prevente the empetue of the enemy.

Page  44In vvarrlike affaires and exercices, all Comaunderes ought conti∣nually to be vigilante, varie, carefull, and fearefull in nott trustinge to manny, for vve see that in many places that townes and citties doe revolte, when lesh suspicion is of them; Soe that often times in truste is treason. Therefore the Professores of the noble arte of vvarr are bounde in all places to be varie and vigilante, and continually feare of sodaine improvided disgraces. Continuall exercice and practice in warr is of greate importance, vvherfore the Sardgent mayor beinge in garison or els where is never to permitt the Companies under his chardge betwexte vvatch and vvatch to sleepe at home above thre nightes, for soe the Souldieres shall by the more apte to indure when occasion shall presente, for douptles continuall use and exercise hel∣peth much to compass, and ease difficulte matteres. Whosoever shall be inclined to comitt disorderes, and give bad examples in the corpes de gardes ought to by severelie punished, for suche places are to be respected for reall houses, and he vvho vvithout honor, discipline, and shame doth comit disorderes in a place of such greate respecte, ough∣te not to escape vvithoute due punishmente.

The Sardgent mayor is to advertice the Captaines of his Regimen∣te not to give licence to anny of theyre Souldieres to pass unto an o∣ther Regimente, nor oute of the country by no meanes, because that it dothe not lie in his auctority, neyther to give him leave withoute beinge firmed of the Master de campe, or Governor that shall co∣maunde. Who shall apointe the dayes fitt to a complishe his jurney, and affaires, and in the Vedoria generall noe Souldieres place oughte to be changed unto another Company, vvithoute licence of his Captaine, or Master de campe, for som unrulie factioneres are desi∣rouse to have liberty to run the contry to comitt disorderes, and ne∣glecte theyre dutie and obligationes; Spoylinge the country, decea∣vinge the Kinge, and dishonoringe theyre nation, and dayly provoo∣kinge otheres to that base kinde of life, of no honor feare nor shame. Whosoever shall a sente his place amonghste the Infanterie, and vvho entreth in rancke with the observeres of true discipline, oughte not to be tollerated to lay hande in anny mecanicall trade, for it is not fitt that suche a one shoulde equall him self vvith honorable Soul∣dieres of noble and vertuese life.

Dayes of solme feastes kermishes or fayeres, the Sardgent mayor is to reforce the gardes or vvatches, for in suche time greate congrega∣tion of people of other places are wonte to joyne; And at suche times Page  45 may happen tumoltes and revoltes; findinge the men of armes unwa∣rie and unvigilante theyre enemyes may fall uppon them and optai∣ne theyre desire, vvherof both notable disgrace and loss may resulte, as by experience hath beene tried in diverses Provinces and places of importance.

When the Sardgent mayor seteth the vvatche he or one of his a ju∣dantes are to ride a horsbake▪ and visite all the gardes and rampar, to see if each garde be provided vvith the men apointed, for some times trough the litle care or forgethfulnes of some Sardgentes, and Cor∣porales they err in the orderes. Wherfore in such occasiones by righ∣te they shoulde by severelie reprehende, that they may be the more ca∣refull and vigilante, beinge refered to theyre care and truste the repo∣se, and safetie of all the reste.

If need require he is to advertice the Captaines of his Regimente, that in suche places where they are with the Master de campe they can give no order to sound the Drom, excepte it by for extreame necessi∣tie, or in time of the watche withoute order of the Master de campe: When occasion shall offer that armes, or any sorte of amunitiones shall be received from the Kinge it apertaines the Furiell mayor to re∣ceive the same, and to yealde a compte to the Kinges ministeres (when it shall besought for) thies amunitiones are to be devided be∣twext the Companies by the Sardgent mayor, causinge to deliver ea∣che Sardgente whate belongeth to his Company, as he shall thincke conveniente, and fitt for his Majesties service. He is earnestelie to procure to see severelie punished such as are inclined to vices and bad examples, and alsoe to advertice the Captaines of his Regimente, that they a siste in whate toucheth theyre Companies, touchinge this particular for beinge therunto bounde; Soe that all factioneres of ba¦se life, as theeves quarleres, mutineres, dronkardes, and suche as are vvholie given to vice may by driven a way, soe that those of good life may live at reste; Beinge in garison with his Regimente, or with parte therof he is to apointe, and ordaine where shall eache Company re∣paire when occation of alarme doth represente to frame his squa∣dron, and he is alsoe to apointe each Company of those on the vvatch whate place of the rampar they are to defende, and alsoe he is to give chardge to his ajudante, where they shall asiste that they may acom∣plish with care, diligence, and perfection, vvhate is refered to theyre chardge, and those orderes beinge once given eache one with greate speede and care shall repaire to acomplish his obligation; soe that du∣ringe Page  46 the time he is framinge his squadron the reste doe repaire to theyre apointed places, that of a sodaine all thinges may be preven∣ted in due time, advertisinge that he is to choise the moste convenien∣test and fiteste place for the framinge of his squadron, and of less em∣pedimentes of casteles, towres, or offencive places nexte adjoyninge.

The Company or Companies that are of the vvatch he is not to permit them to departe the same till firste other Companies doe reli∣ve them, and take possession of the place, but stande in array till the other Companies doe inter, and take posession, and then they are to marche towardes theyre quarter, in this manner shall he perceiue tho∣se that intred the garde, and those that doe departe from it.

He is not to give the wourde till the gates are shutt, he is to be care∣full to see all thinges well ordered and acomplished, and see that the Corporalles them selves in person doe acompany the Souldieres till he leave them in theyre centeries, where he is to give them the vvourde, bringinge backe along vvith him those that were relived to the cor∣pe de garde, where he is to keepe them that nighte for respecte of the watche wourde, sometimes it happeneth that Corporales of litle disci∣pline and honor, do give the vvourde to those that goeth to relive the postes, vvhich resulte of pure ingnorance, and for theyre ovvne ease, not thincking of the sore reprehension they may have of theyre supe∣rior Officeres for that badd and sinister custome: Thies disorderes in no case are to by permitted, for beinge verie dangerouse. In this par∣ticular the high dutch is to be comended (for at nighte they cause the Drom to by beaten againste every relife,) and the Corporalles doe a company the Souldieres til they leave them in theyre postes, and brin∣ge those that are relived a longe with them to the corpe de garde; but in garison and other places nowe a dayes they use it diferente withou∣te the sounde of Drom, not failenge in the reste, and the Corporall yealdeth goode a compte of all that a pertaineth to his chardge, and trusteth the care therof to none but to him selfe, to by the more asu∣red.

Greate and speciall care ought to by taken dayes of the watch that no Souldier of the same doe absente him selfe excepte it by to eate, and the Officer therin oughte to take a goode course in licencinge them orderly by comarades, one after another, givinge thē straigh∣te comaunde to returne vvith all speede. And if they be founde lon∣ge absent eyther, drinckinge, pleainge, or pasinge a way the time idell, to severelie see them punished, and to repeehende the Sardgen∣te Page  47 or Corporall that shall licence them beinge in seperated gardes, and specially dayes of greate feastes and fayres.

Let no Souldier absente him selfe from his vvatch, you if it vvere but to change a shurte or bande, beinge bounde such dayes to o cu∣pie him selfe in nothinge but in a tendinge his vvatch: Some times gamesteres who beinge therunto much inclined not findinge pleain∣ge in theyre ovvne garde do goe unto other vvatches to play, vvho oughte to by severely punished, for the redresinge of thies faultes, and many more, the a judantes oughte nowe and then to visitt the courte de gardes, rampares, and centeries, to see many faultes redre∣sed.

When occasion is offered in pasinge of muster it hapeneth, that some times the Veedor generall, or Contador is sente to see that mu∣ster by order of the Generall, In which occasiones the Sardgent ma∣yor is to asiste, in sheowinge and instructinge the more conveniente∣ste places for the same. As alsoe of all other necessaries therunto aper∣taininge, and he is to repaire and comunicate with his Master de cam∣pe, and receive the necessary orderes for the same, and at the faulinge of the nighte to camaunde the Drom mayor, and all the Dromeres to joyne in the place or principall corpe de garde, givinge order to the Drom mayor to beate a vando of the muster, not advertisinge the a pointed place for the same, for sertaine respectes, but rather pasinge the same in severall places that none may knowe where till the verie instant they marche, givinge order to the Drom mayor that he pro∣claime thatt all Companies be readdy, at the breake of the day to pass muster, and to be carefull to observe the instructiones of the Vee∣dor generall touchinge the muster, for duringe that time he hase ful auctority for ministringe vvell his office, or vvhosoever is apointed by him for that purpose, givinge firste order to the Company of the Master de campe to marche and after the same if theyre be Compa∣nies of Arcabuseros, and after thos vvhiche he thinketh beste, and in pasenge muster they are to be cauled in the self fame maner, one after another as they did formerly enter, advertisinge that the Company or Companies that are on the watch shall marche laste to muster, and the firste that shall pass muster.

The ajudante at this time shall cause the gates of the towne to be shutt; And presentlie after at leaste one of the Companies of the watche shall pass muster, and then the Company of the Master de campe, and after the reste Companies that are ••inter the watche, Page  48 and the reste shall pass muster as they have intered, the muster bein∣ge paste, and the listes confronted, the Sardgent mayor is to get a re∣lation of the number of Souldieres that shall be conteined in each Company, and bringe the same to the Master de campe to knovve the full number of the muster of the Companies of his Regimente. Wherof the Sardgent mayor is to have a copie for many respectes: A Sardgente mayor who woulde with prudence and auctoritie have his office vvell executed, it is verie necessarie that he knoweth the quali∣ties and conditiones of eache Captaine of his Regimente, that he may employ eache one with discretion, as time and occasion shall re∣quire, consideringe the partes and suficiencie of eache one, that the∣reby he may employ each one acordinge to the partes that in him doth o curr: When his Captaine generall, or Master de campe gene∣rall, or ordinary Master de campe giveth order for any execution of emportance. Some are goode for all executiones vvhiche are estee∣med for perfecte Souldieres, some to fighte with a valerouse determi∣nation, others thoughe valiante of unhappie proceedinges, and that resultinge for the moste parte of theyre litle prudence, som otheres doe o bey and carefully acomplish with whate they are comaunded by theyre Superiores; of whiche often times happie proceedinges doe resulte; otheres with prudence, valor, auctoritie, and brave con∣duction.

It is moste necessarie that the Sardgente mayor doe knowe the o∣ne, and the other that he may vvith the more securitie employ each one acordinge as the emportance requireth of eache execution; he is alsoe to knowe the qualitie and condition of the inferior Office∣res, vvho are to assiste and who are to by employed acordinge to the partes and sufficiencie in them: He is to presente him selfe with aucto∣ritie and brave resolution, reprehendiges faultes and disorderes with discretion, vvhiche shall oblidge them to obey and acomplish they∣re obligationes vvith love, he is to instructe them and sheowe them goode examples, as vvell in the exercice of theyr armes, as in acom∣plishinge theyre obligationes with punctualitie, he is to comaunde vvithe prudence and greate resolution for beinge soe moste required for the executiones of his office, but with prudente consideration, for vvhich it is required that he be of a sober and gentle mynde for o therwise hardely can he bringe to pass his obligation in this, and specially in vvinenge the love of the Souldiers. The Sardgente ma∣yor is to visite novve and then the postes or centeries, instructinge Page  49 them who to handel theyre armes and comaundinge them to let no∣ne pass by nighte tyme, nor permit none come nere him, withoute fir∣ste givinge the wourde, though it were his Captaine or Master de campe, and the Souldier that otherwise permitethe any to pass is to be reprehended, for ocation may be invented at nighte of greate em∣portance, and soe it is verie necessary that none be permitted to come neere the centerie, withoute firste givinge the vvourde, and that for many respectes. Yea and if it were his Officer presuminge that he kno∣vveth him, and intreating and repleeinge to lett him pass, he is to answer, vvith aresolute determination, and say i knovve none but he that giveth the vvourde for soe doth he vvell acomplish his obliga∣tion. In garison he shall comaunde the maner and vvho the roun∣des shall be distributed, whiche is the moste and sureste securitie of the place, and whē he him selfe shall rounde by night tyme to discover re∣dress and reprehende the faultes and negligences of the roundes and cinteries; he is to hid him selfe and aproache verie secretlie to perceive the care and punctualitie of the rounde, and if otherwise he finde him still, or vvith rumor in theyre jurney not attendinge the outewarde as the inwarde side of the vvall, he is to severely reprehēde them. For the more securitie of a place dependeth on the care and prudence of the rounde: Alsoe if he findes the centeries negligente and careles in not acomplishinge theyr obligation, let him see them severelie punished, that therby it may be an exemple both for them and otheres to com∣plish vvith greate vigilance and care theyre obligationes: Some Sard∣gent mayores for theyre better securitie doe carie at nighte a target, because that often tymes unruly factioneres doe pass at nighte and comittt many disgraces; Soe it is not amiss he goeth vvell provided to prevente theyre unruly tached inclinasiones, he is to use greate dis∣cressiō, and moderatiō vvith the cinteries in goenge the rounde. The ajudante is to rounde alsoe novve and then to seconde the Sardgente mayor in differente nightes as ordained by the Sardgent mayor, imi∣tatenge the steppes and order of his Master, and he is to informe of the cinteries if they hearde any rumor or ocation eyther vvithoute or vvithin, givinge the cinteries goode instructiones, as alsoe in the corrpes de garde or vvatches, and sheowe him selfe amiable to the Souldieres, and reprehindinge theyre faultes vvith prudente reaso∣nes. Soe shall he by both feared and beloved.

The Officeres of the vvatches are alsoe to asiste in visitenge the cin∣teries as ordayned by the Sardgent mayor, and that with scilence and Page  50 Vigilance demaundinge the cinteries if they have hearde any thinge, soe that remedy mighte be prevented in due time if ocation requi∣re.

And specially the Corporall, in givinge eache Souldier to understā∣de who he shall handel or manadge his armes, and who he is to take the wourde, and to be alerto, let him not be given nor muche credible to uncertayne shadowes, as many bisones and rawe men doe, givenge many alarmes withoute o cation; And when the round a procheth the cintery is to terciar his pike and demaund quin Viene alla and if he houldeth his peace, let him turne againe in demaundinge with much severitie with an angrie and furiouse contenance, if he answere amigo which is to say afrende, then let him demaunde the vvatche vvourde, preparinge and makinge ready him selfe for that purpose; And if it were soe that he Shoulde suspecte of the rounde that it were an enemy, thoughe they give the vvourde let them not pass, aleadginge that they have not the righte vvourde: but otherwise knowinge the rounde and givinge the vvourde he is to lett them freely pass.

The cinteries are alvvayes to by moste carefull and Vigilante, for some tymes it may happen that the enemy shoulde steale the wourde, and fall of a sodaine on the cinterie and kill him, vvherefore he is al∣vvayes to by alerto and verie varie, and if he suspecte the rounde to be an enemy as before spoken let him be no meanes come neere to Master his armes, and specially if they replee let him cause them to retire, if not, presently he is to caule alarme vvith great furie and high voice that he may by vvell hearde, and if neede require lett him by a litle and litle retire, defendinge him selfe the beste he may beinge therunto constrayned but not otherwise, vvheresoever the Sardgent mayor shall asiste vvith his Regimente or parte therof he shall comaunde the co∣mon table ordained for gamesteres to be putt on the principall courte de garde, and the barata of thies gamesteres he shall a pointe one to oversee the same, vvhiche barata shall be to sheovve his horses. He is not to permitt to putt this table in other places nor permitt any joyin∣ge of gamesteres oute of that a pointed place, for many respectes, and specially to avoyde quareles disputes joyninges and rumores of some that are given to thies vicees, but rather in the corpe de garde as a pla∣ce of respecte and vvhere each one shall not presume so muche to co∣mitt disorderes, for knovvinge of the severe punishmente for suche as comit errores, and loose respecte to a place of soe greate priviledge.

Page  51

THE SEAVENTE CHAP. Treatinge of the election and office of a Sardgente mayor, marchinge in campaina.

THE election of the Sardgent mayor moste comonlie is made by the Generall of such as the Coronelles or Masteres de campe doe name or give in relation, his of∣fice is to by a generall minister of a vvhole Regimente of sundrie Companies; And a Superintendente of all the Sardgentes of the same. By vvhouse, prudence, and brave condu∣ction the Coronell or Master de campe doth give him the orderes ne∣cessarie for the due govermente of his Regimente, in marchinge, or∣deringe, and embattellinge of the same, and of suche materes hereūto a pertayninge, be vvhose a proved goode partes may be gathered the brave conduction, valor, and prudence, required in a perfecte Soul∣dier, beinge chosen as a man who hathe the be fittinge partes required for this office of suche greate emportāce. Whiche in time of the Gree∣kes and Romaines vvas trusted to none, but the Generalles executed the same in there one persones for many rare respectes of importan∣ce. The firste thinge that he is to doe before he begines to march, is to consulte withe his Master de campe of all necessarie thinges for his jurney, and see such thinges befitinge prevented, and provided in due time; advertisinge all the Captaines of his Regimente to put them selves in order to marche, vvith as litle bagadge as may be possible, and within so many dayes to have all thinges in areadines, and given∣ge order to the Captaine de campana to prepare him selfe, and his sutleres, as alsoe to the Auditor, Furiell mayor, Surdgent mayor, Drom mayor, and that he be carefull that Dromes and Phifes by vvell pro∣vided in each Company.

The office of a Sardgent mayor is of higher degree then any or∣dinarie Captaine, for the Captaines doe receive the orderes from him, and follow this directiones, and the Sardgente mayor, from the Coronel, Master de campe, or Generall, or from the Kinge or Em∣peror him selfe if he be in the fielde, for he is barred no entrie gate nor other place but freelie sufered to pass into rhe Kinge or Empe∣ror Page  52 is chamber, for beinge a person of greate respecte and fidelitie: Wherefore theyre ought greate concideration and regarde to be ta∣ken in the election of this Officer. Which otherwise beinge chosen by favor, frindship, or affection of one of litle sufficiencie, resulteth ma∣ny enconveniences: It alsoe faleth oute often times that such perso∣nes so chosen, vvantinge the prudence, auctoritie, perfection, and brave conduction in him required, looseth often times his due respe∣cte, and reverence of the Captaines and other Officeres: Wherefore it vvere farr better for him to remaine a Captaine rather then inter∣middell in a matter vvhich requireth suche greate capacitie and per∣fecte experience in vvarr.

In occasiones of marchinge he is to consider the qualities and con∣ditiones of the countrie, if fertill or scante, if hilly or plaine, and not to permit to mounte a horsebacke but as feowe as can possible; Alsoe to consider the quantitie of bagadge, and provision, youe are to ca∣ry, and that to by as litle as may be possible as before spoken, rather onelie so much as neede shall require, and that the wantes therof can not be excused.

After that all thinges necessarie for youre marche are treated and consulteth of (and put in order) yove shall comaunde that all the Companies of youre Regimente shall joyne where voure Master de campe shall ordaine, and thincke moste fitt: Then bigen to make youre devitiones to marche as youre Superior shall comaunde. But if onelie one Regimente doe march by it selfe, the Sardgent mayor is to consulte with his Master de campe, never failenge if they marche in any place or countrie where yove shoulde chance, or feare to en∣counter your enemy to provide youre selfe vvith sertaine barreles of pouder, match, and bullettes, that alwayes yove carie of thies rather more then lesh; some pikes fearinge to wante, a quantitie of shoules bills, hatchetes, which is necessarie if neede or occasion require to make a way with trees boughes, and earth, in places where vvith dif∣ficultie the Infantery, and bagadge may pass, or to cutt tries to shutt up a pasadge of o sodaine, or to make even places when otherwise but with greate difficultie youe can pass them, thies are necessary per∣trechos, for not knowinge when occasion may offer to have neede of them, and speciallie pasinge troughe a foraine country.

In occasiones of marchinge the Sardgente mayor is to make the devitiones, and ordaine where each Captaine shall leade, and in such maner that each Captaine shall take his turne, meaninge that the Page  53 Captaine or Captaines that did leade this day the Musketteria shall to morowe leade the Arcabuseros, that did followe and another day the pikes, and another day the Arcabuseros of the rergarde, and soe fall a neowe and be his turne take possession of the vantegarde and reregarde as his turne shall fall: And it is inogh to ordaine this on∣ce, and let each one unconfusedlie be his turne take place of the van∣gard, rergard, and battell.

Pasinge trough any cittie or place where any danger mighte by su∣spected▪ In the devitiones of the shott and pikes greate industrie and consideration is to by used, youre shott are to marche in goode or∣der, and not confusedly, and be noe meanes to let none miss his ranc∣ke, givinge order to all the shott to lighte theyr matches, and to by redy of a sodaine if neede require, and otherwise where theyre is no∣thinge suspected, one or two matches in every ranck may serve, it vvere not amiss to have no more bagadge then neede shoulde re∣quire, and not to permitt the Souldieres to putt theyre musketes in vvagones as often times they doe, and in ofringe occasion to serve with them, it hapened that trough this bad custome many are of no service vvith the barreles, and lokes of theyr musketes brocken, soe that in time of moste neede they wante.

It is moste necessarie that the Sardgente mayor and Captaines by curiouse to see many faultes redresed, and that the Souldieres be well provided of all necessaries, in as muche as can by posible and speci∣ally the shott to by well furnished with bulletes, at least twenti five, and in no case to faile in this: The Captaines and Alferises, are to goe bravelie armed with complet corseletes, and let no Captaine not Alferis monte a horsebacke till all the devitiones of shot and pikes are well ordered, and when all the bagadge is readie, and that the Ma∣ster de campe doe pass to the Vangarde.

Then havinge all thinges in order; in amile distance from the quarter the Sardgente mayor shall step into the vangarde, and give order to the Captaines to goe a horsebake and not before, as alsoe the Alferises and other particular persones, the Alferises recomendinge theyre culoures to theyre a vanderadose, and the Captaine or Cap∣taines that are of the vangarde shall permitt noe Souldieres to pass but such as have order in vvritinge for the same from the Generall or Master de campe generall or ordinary Master de campe, and the Cap∣taine that goeth in the rerergarde shall take a speciall care to permitt none to tarie behende, but rather cause them to stepe forwarde to Page  54 theyre rankes. That alsoe no boyes nor sutleres by permitted to stay behinde for some of purpose doe stay to no goode entende, but to stea∣le robb and spoyle the poure enhabitantes goodes, vvhiche is a thin∣ge not to by permitted: And such sutleres and other unrulie factione∣res as are given to this base and odiouse acte, are to be severelie puni∣shed in publicke. Wherof speciall care oughte to be taken for many respectes.

Before youe marche the Captaine de campana and all the sutleres and amunition vagones are all to by drawen oute of the quarter, or∣dayninge those that shall garde them. And then consideration is to be taken of the maner who to march with the amunition and bagad∣ge vvhich is, that if it by knowen that the enemy is to by feared in the vangarde, on the way vvhere yove are to pass, let the bagadge by pla∣ced in the rerewarde, and if contratie yove have intelligence to feare the enemy in the rerewarde yove are to pass the bagadge to the van∣garde. And if on the righte side, to conducte it to the leefte, and if on the leifte side transporte it to the righte; And in this maner the army beinge smale or greate it shall be a vvall and defence to the a muni∣tion and bagadge. And this don by alwayes provided and ordered in due time, for otherwise it vvere a greate miss if sodaine occasion shoulde represente, and that the enemy of a sodaine shoulde fall up∣pon, and chardge on yove; Douptless it vvere a greate let and dan∣ger if yove were not provided and well ordered: To prevente the su∣daine incursiones and stratagemes of the enemy theyre oughte to by sente certaine lighte horse to scoute, and revewe before a certaine distance: soe beinge advertised before the enemy a proache, all thin∣ges necessarie may by prevented in due time.

The Furiell mayor or Quarter-master with the reste Furielles are to marche all at once and not otherwise, for to make the quarter in due time. For If otherwise they goe they may use fraude and villany in spoylinge the Villadges and poure enhabitantes, to whome all equi∣tie, justice, and goode examples are to be ministred, for many goo∣de respectes. Some Souldieres of litle honor and reputation some times in theyre marche to ease them selves doe breake theyre pikes or leave the same behinde, of suche base fellowes the Sardgent mayor is to take a speciall care to see them severelie punished in publike, ex∣cepte it be one that is sicke or hurte, of vvhich persones he is present∣lie to give enteligence to theyr Captaines, and see that order be tac∣ken to save them.

Page  55In ocasiones of marchinge, the Sardgent mayor is to order, and make his devitiones when he thincketh that all the Souldieres of his Regimente are gathered; and comenge to a conveniente place to fra∣me a squadron of them, of whate forme he thincketh beste. And when he cometh within a mile to the quarter vvhere he is to lodge with his Regimente, he is to step forwarde to see whiche is the fiteste place to frame a battell; As alsoe to revewe the sallies and entries of the quar∣ter.

The Quarter-master is to receive him, and sheowe howe and whe∣re the Regimente shall be lodged, As alsoe the fiteste place for the embattellinge of his Regimente, and after the squadron is framed, he is to a pointe the Companies that shall be on the watch that nigh∣te, if on the generall a munitiones, or Master de campe, or elsh whe∣re, let him see that ther by no empedimente in the place vvhere he choiseth to be more fit for the framinge of his squadron; Alsoe he is to be verie carefull and diligent in ordaininge the necessarie places for the watches, and he shall a pointe gardes a goode distance from the quarter; Soe that the enemy of a sodaine doe not fall uppon him, of which for many respectes greate consideration oughte to by taken and prudenrly prevented.

He is to procure with the Master de campe to cause avando or proclamatiō to by beaten for the observationes in passinge the wour∣de in march, battel, or eilsh where, and such as do not observe this van∣do to see them severelie punished for this beinge amatter of greate emportance, and wherof greate disorderes and inconvenienses doe resulte often times for not observinge the same: The wourde is to by given be foure persones, that is the Master de campe, Sardgent mayor, and from the Captaine that leadeth the Vangarde, and from him that leadeth the rergarde: And greate speede oughte to by tac∣ken from whence it came and the cause.

For it may be that the enemy shoulde of a suddaine chance to fall on the rergarde, or that some other ocation of emportance may offer; for whiche respectes and many more considerationes this order is to be inviollabbly observed: And let itt with greate speede pass from rancke to rancke in youre march or order.

It is moste necessarie nowe and then to make some altos, or standes to ease the Souldiores, and refresh them with suche sorte of vituales as they cary a longe with them, and specially where theyre is como∣ditie of water, and take a speciall care that some unruly fellowes by Page  56 not permitted to goe oute of the order, and fall aspoylinge the con∣try, neyther there boyes.

The Sardgent mayor is to oversee and informe of all thinges that paseth in his Regimente and give order to the Captaine de campan̄a or borachell to see that his sutleres by well provided with vituales and other necessaries therunto a pertaininge, and to take a speciall care that noe wronge by don unto them. But rather to see severelie punished suche as vvoulde presume to doe them wronge. That ther by they may vvithe amore willinge minde a complish theyre obliga∣tiones in furnishinge them selves with vituales and other comodities, and alsoe the Sardgente mayor is to see that they be well paied for otherwise beinge ill paied and seeinge that there is no justice mine∣stred they will run avvay and give a bad reporte, soe that noe other sutleres shall dare to come, and soe provicion will be vvantinge to the greate discomoditie of the Officeres and Souldiores.

The Captaine de campan̄a is to use discression and concience in seeinge that the sutleres doe fell there vituales with suche concidera∣tion that they may gaine and not overpress the poure Souldior trou∣ghe coveteousnes and griddie deceite, as often times they doe. In thies and many more ocationes if the Sardgente mayor be courious and carefull in a complisinge with his obligationes, hardlie can any thinge pass vvithoute discoverie and redress in due time, for he is a∣principall minister to oversee redresh and remedie many faultes, dis∣orderes and fraudes, and he is in conscience bounde to procure the goode of the poure Souldior, that noe fraude be permitted in decei∣vinge him of his poure meanes.

If the Sardgente mayor be in the filde with his Regimente alitle before the fallinge of the nighte he is to relive the watches soe that the enemy may not discover them cominge nor goinge: but in gari∣son the watches is to be sooner set. In campan̄a aspecial care oughte to be takē that the enemy for cause of oure negligence litle care and pru∣dence do not of asodain fall on us beinge un provided, for to preven∣te such soddaine ocationes it is necessarie that a corpe de garde volan∣te be ordained acertaine distāce towardes the enemy where yove mo∣ste suspecte theyre cominge, which is a greate securitie for that quar∣ter of the campe, but this muste be set at the fallinge of the nighte, and theyre can hardlie any fire be made that the enemy may not dis∣cover yove, they oughte to be verie readie varie and vigilante vvith there armes at hande to fall on the enemy if of asoddaine they be the∣runto Page  57 constrayned, and see if they can finde any conveniente shado∣woe to shelter them; And if perhapes the enemies spies doe knovve or discover vvho oure vvatches are set, and not knovvinge of this vvatch set soe late and soe secrett, it may fall oute that the enemy may fall into theyre handes, for not beinge advertised by there spies of the prevention taken; And fall of a sodaine on them, and give the a larme to the vvhole campe, soe that they may be ready in due time to pre∣vente the enemy his incursiones, and purpose, and at lenghte cause them to retire, in executinge nothinge of theyre designe or desire. For this purpose muste by chosen a Captaine vvho is vvell knovven to by prudente, vigilante, and valerouse, and of a brave and resolute de∣termination: And findinge the enemy brocken, let him in no cse fol∣lovve them any greate distance, for they may prevente him vvith a se∣crett ambuscado, and findinge them pass the ambuscado fall on them on bothe sides, before and behinde, and defeate him: Often times it happened that ravve Souldieres and men of litle consideration doe give a larme vvithoute any occasione, wherfore they are to by adver∣tised not to give any such till they by informed, and vvell assured that it is the enemy, for such as otherwise doe, they are estimed of litle con∣sideration and of a vveake spiritt findinge them selves presentlie a ma∣sed, trustinge to theyre inconsiderate imaginatiō of noe firme groun∣de nor reason figuringe in theyre imagination to have seene this, and that, and of no purpose nor firmenes; Advertisinge that if an alarme be given where occasion doth presente, it is not to pass all the campe in soundinge dromes and trumpetes, but rather verie secretly, and withoute any rumor nor voice and vvith greate silence, joyne, and speedilie put them selves in order; Which orderes the Master de cam∣pe, Generall, or the person that comaundeth shall comaunde to be observed all over: Soe that all thinges by preventeth with better or∣der, and with amore setled minde; and if otherwise the a larme be gi∣ven every vvhere it is harde to knowe in due time, vvhere the occa∣sion is.

The centerie oughte to by verie firme, and seeinge one come let him not stirr, but rather prepare him selfe till he be well informed, and knowinge that it is an enemy then in a prochinge neere and assured, to shoote at him, and to be assured in as muche as may possi∣ble not to miss; And beinge a pikeman he is to let him com under the puiesh of the pike, and then give the a larme, sheowinge him selfe with a valerouse determination, and kill the enemy, or take him, Page  58 and to learne the designe of the enemy, and to whate purpose he was emploied, and then to retire to the nexte adjoyninge cinterie, and from thence to the seconde, and soe from hande to hande till he be sente to the firste garde, and from thence presentlie to advertice the Sardgent mayor, advertisenge that everie cintery shall remaine in his a pointed place, and to be verie varie and vigilante fearinge that othe∣res shoulde followe, and inter of a soddaine findinge conveniente op∣portunitie for theyre purpose: Another thinge is to be considered that some times it doth happen that a spie favorable to us doth come from the enemyes campe to give us inteligence of whate occurreth, which spies are to be received and causinge him to stande or make al∣to till the Officer of the garde by advertised, who is to receive him and presentlie carrie him to the Sardgent mayor, who shall advertice his Master de campe, and withoute delay conducte him to the Superior to inform and sheow him the cause of his cominge.

If be chance the enemy shoulde fall on the pikeman standinge in cinterie, and seeinge that they are of such force, that he can not resi∣ste, let him retire to the nexte cintery shot that he may shoote at them, and give the alarme, and soe by litle and litell retire, and the pikeman shall with all speede goe to the firste watche and give inteligence of the occasion, that they may be readdie in time.

And this order oughte the Sardgente mayor to give that all thin∣ges may be don in order and in due time, givinge alsoe order to the watches and culoures, where they shall 'oyne, and whate they shall doe; soe that withoute delay they shall be founde to be putt in order to fighte as the situation of the place and occasion shall requi∣re.

In all places on the frontier of the enemy where greate suspicion may be feared of soddaine exploites and embuscados of the enemy. In such places, and occasiones, the Sardgente mayor is to give order in the morninge, that noe cintery doe retire till all places of suspicion by visited; and then the cinterie perdue shall retire a litle further in∣wardes: And he is to by examined to see if he did a complish the vigi∣lance, care, and truste referred to the exspectationes of his fidelitie; And findinge his reasones and proofes goode in a complishinge his obligationes, he is wourdie of thankes, and if the contrie be founde, and he beinge founde hiden in some sure place of no danger, nor servi∣ce to rewarde him a cordinge his merit with a publicke reprehension, for not a complishinge his obligation in a place of suche importance; Page  59 and soe shall he be rewarded and imputed be all brave Souldiores which doe hire of his doinges, and pusilanimitie. When inteligen¦ce is had that the enemy are readdie to fall on you, or that any suspicion or a peerance may by of the same, eaverie one oughte to be readdie with theyre armes in hande with a setled minde and brave determination, soe that with the firste alarme they may have no kinde of lett, but presentlie followe theyre leader withoute bea∣tinge Drom or phife or makinge any kinde of rumor, but rather with greate scilence fall in to theyre order.

And concideringe that this is not onelie for the obligationes they owe unto theyre kinge or Prince but alsoe for the safegard honor and securitie of theyre owne persones,

For thies and suche ocationes all honorable Souldiores oughte to by well prepared and specially the shot withe theyre peeces all in areadines with as muche pouder as theyre flaskes can houlde, and twentie five bulletes, soe that in offereinge ocation he shall not caule for pouder and led as some careles and covardlie fello∣wes are vvonte to doe, not beinge vvell provided before hande; litle regardinge the kinges service and theyre owne reputasion; to prevente thies, and suche faultes theyre Officeres ought all∣wayes to see all thinges prevented in due time. Soe that theyre be no escuse.

And suche as woulde not a complish the same in preparinge all necessaries befitinge as ordained for that purpose, to see them re∣prehended, and in case the souldier hase not wherwith to buy thies and other inescusable wantes the Captaine is to helpe him therun∣to, for beinge conveniente for his Majesties service, that the soul∣deres alwayes be well provided and suche as do not obey thies inescu∣sable wantes to give them publike afronte like, covardlie and disobe∣diente fellowes; such Souldieres as are of prudēte cariadge and have a speciall care in acomplishinge with punctualitie theyre obigationes, and in givinge goode examples to otheres to imitate them, unwourdie is the Captaine and Officeres that will not honor futher and assiste thē.

For in thies ocationes we see many brave and honorable Souldio∣res whiche, are wonte ordinarily to carri apice of extraordinary goo∣de match in there pocketes withe the two endes of the same in area∣dines, and rubbed in pouder, that without delay it may kindel fire, and alsoe with a fleaskillo in his pocket with fine and drie pouder for touch pouder, whiche if it were wett and afterwardes dried in aqua vite or in Page  60 gineper oyle or in bothe togither it were verie goode, which beinge well dried, can not miss; And suche Souldieres as are knowen to be cu∣riouse, and punctual in this and many more occasiones.

Theyre Captaines and Officers ought to have a speciall care to ho∣nor, and prefer them a cordinge to the trial of ther valor, care, pun∣ctualitie, and prudence, in givinge goode examples, and sheowinge them selves in all occasiones, and incounteres, vvith a brave and re∣solute determination, vvhiche is a vvonderfull cōforte to theyre Cap∣taine, and puteth him in greate hope of the victorie, and goode suc∣cess, unhappie is the Captaine, and unwourdie of the name that vvill not make knowen to his brave Souldieres his inclined affection towatdes them, and specially in time of moste neede.

In ordaininge the conveniente places for the cinteries both in the fielde and garison. The Sardgente mayor is to use greate discrestion, in oversienge all the circuide and entries of moste importance and danger, (and after viwenge all) he is to a pointe a conveniente place where eache cintery shall by placed a luenge twentie five or fortie pa∣ces betwexte every cintery, some times more, and some times less, as occasion shall require: But in the fielde is there to be a pointed a cin∣terie perdue, or rather call it the contrary (the securitie of the campe) this Cintinel is to be put doble meaninge a pike and a caliver, in a di∣stance of, som o honderth paces litle more or less towardes the ene∣my, and withoute all the other cinteries, in the place or places wher there is moste suspision of the enemy to come. Some houlde an opi∣nion, that this cinterie is not to get the wourde (not soe (for if they see or hire any rumor, or a peerance of the enemy cominge, the pikeman shall repaire vvith speede and tel the nexte cintery vvhate he hath ey∣ther seene or hearde, and if he have not the wourde or contrasena he shall not let him come neere, and this cinterie with speede is to let this pass to the nexte, and soe from hande to hande verie secret and scilent till it come to the nexte adioyninge vvatche or garde, that they may be prevented in time.

Thies cinteries of righte is to be caulled the securitie, of the campe rather then centerie perdue: They are to by chosen of valerouse and setled Souldieres, of goode judgemente and brave determinationes; And when the advise cometh vvith goode securitie to the watch, that the enemy are in armes, or approchinge neere, presentlie the Master de campe, and Sardgente mayor is to be advertised. And they are with speede to advertise the Master de campe generall, in findinge as Page  61 before true relation of the occasion to by suspected of any emportan∣ce. Thies outewarde cinteries are never to retire, but when urgente and assured accasion doe constraine them therunto, in seeinge the enemy a prochinge, (and not before) and untill they reviwe if it be foote or horse. Or if they come in order of squadron or marchinge in single file: After well reviwenge them, let them retire to the nexte cintery, and let the wourde pass very secretly from hande to hand til it come to the next watch, or let the pikeman goe forwarde with neo∣wes and the other stay vvith the firste cintinell til they be constrained to retire to the nexte, and soe retire be litle and a litle, observinge still the enemy, and with whate order they doe marche, and soe fall into theyre owne people, and informe of all of whate they have bothe see∣ne and hearde: And seeinge them come disordered, thinckinge to fall uppon oures of asoddaine beinge a sleepe or in provided. Then oures to turne uppon them with full resolution with the short Dro∣mes and Phises which douptlesse if as before they come, they shall finde them selves pusseled and amased: Thies exploites require pru∣dence, valeor, silence, and brave resolution.

It is necessarie that the Sardgent mayor give order that uppon pai∣ne of deathe none doe presume to give a false alarme vvithoute occa∣sion, excepte it be vvith order of the Superior. And in occasiones of encounteres, skirmises, or assaultes vvith the enemy let the Sardgent mayor give order that none call for pouder but verie silente; for it is a thinge moste odiouse and of litle discretion, that the enemy shoulde knowe of oure vvantes in such occasiones: If neede require the pikes and raperes vvill serve in goode steede, if the Souldiores vvithe brave resolution and determination doe a complish theyre obligationes, for vvhich extremities is required a prudent and brave conductor of a va∣lerouse and resolute determination.

In all occasiones in the filde where the enemy, is to be feared and suspected, the Sardgent mayor is to give order that the outewarde cinteries of oures nexte unto the enemy doe take a speciall care that none doe pass unto the enemy from oure campe; Which is rather to be suspected then if one of the enemy came into oures, for such as run unto the enemy they may be suspected, that they goe with some ad∣vise or secrett intelligence, if such persones can not be killed or tac∣ken, let theyre warninge by presently given to his Captaine, and then presently to the Sardgent mayor who at that instant shall comaund that noe Souldier of the watches who hath the wourde shall be per∣mitted Page  62 to leave the same that night wiche orderes he shall deliver the Sardgentes to deliver theyre Captaines to see the same executed; And in such occasiones the watche wourde is to by changed, and if any bod∣dy by founde absente, of those of the watch let theyre warninge, presēt∣lie be given to the Captaine, for it may be a villaine of a base minde, and that he did goe with some advise to the enemy, and within foure or five dayes after come into oure campe, and give faluse excuses, ho∣pinge to be pardoned, and comitt more villany: In thies occasiones goode heede oughte to be taken.

A verie necessarie thinge it is in a Sardgent mayor to by carefull in seeinge that all the Souldieres of his Regimente be well armed, and that there may be noe escuse in a complishinge theyre obligationes, in escusinge that theyr armes are brocken or a mindinge. All thies and many more may theyre Captaines, and Officeres prevente in time, wi∣thoute troublinge the Sardgente mayor theyrwithall, for he hathe to many other employmentes of greater momente, and as isay thies may be well prevented be theyre Officeres, beinge coriouse and care∣full.

When occasion shall require that the Sardgent mayor woulde have oute of certaine Companies of his Regimente a quantitie of Souldie∣res to be employed, this he is to demaunde of the Capitaines, who is to apointe and ordaine the number demaunded, and not to inter∣midle in takinge them otherwise, for the Captaine is he which is to gi∣ve a compte and reason of the Souldieres of his Company, and the Sardgentr mayor in noe case is to intermidel in takinge them but tho∣se which the Captaine shall apointe, for the Sardgente mayor hath no auctoritie to take them otherwise; Excepte they be on the watch, and that urgente occasion shoulde be offered which requireth greate spee∣de. And in such occasiones the Officer beinge not presente he may take them; and such Souldieres as the Sardgente mayor shall demaun∣de the Captaine is to make no acceptiones, of all such occasiones as a∣re necessarie for his Majesties service: But he is not to intermidle in takinge from any Officer any priviledge a pertaininge to the executi∣ones of his office, which if otherwise he shoulde presume itt is a sini∣ster and odiouse thinge in warr.

Some times it hapened that Pincioneres Gentelmen of the Artille∣rie, and other particular persones are emploied be the Master decā∣pe generall, and by the Generall of the Artillerie, and be otheres, whi∣che are to be permited to pass to deliver theyr mesadge in due time, Page  63 and none ought to trouble or moleste them in there voyadge, excep∣te they be suspected.

The Sardgent mayor is to take care that if his Regimēte in occasi∣ones which mighte happen they breake uppon the enemy, and follo∣we on the victorie, let none in paine of death fall a robbinge the hur∣temen, nor none of the slaughter, which if any Officer finde them in that base acte in such occasiones, may execute this sentence, beinge moste base and odiouse, but rather persue the victorie, and keepe his order as behooveth an honorable Souldier of resolute and noble minde to doe.

In like maner in occasiones to inter per force of armes into any towne citti or stronge place, the Sardgent mayor is to by verie, vigi∣lante, and carefull, that noe Souldier of whatesoever qualitie or con∣dition: be permitted to inter into any house, eyther ro robb or steale till such time as the enemy be wholie vanquised, that no danger nor execution of theyres might be feared, and that till all there furie be paste, and that uppon paine of death, for otherwise they incurr greate danger, some leavinge theyre armes hire and theyre in divers places; of vvhich if the enemy take pocession they may easilie Master them; Of suche blinde ingnorance and covetouse desire of gaine, greate di∣grace may resulte. If the enemy doe secretlie joyne in some secret pla∣ce, and fall unavare in masteringe theyre armes and murder them, which may well fall oute if prevencion be not used as before decla∣red, in suche sorte that the enemy may not come in possession of the honeor gained vvith the lives and losse of soe many brave Soul∣diores.

For the executiones of rare exploites and brave interprises in warr is required prudente and brave conduction, and specially that the Sardgent mayor be moste earneste to exercice the Officeres and Soul∣diores of his Regimente; whiche beinge soe practised in warr, greate expectationes mighte be hoped of them: Beinge exersised in well ma∣nadgeinge theyre armes, observinge theyr order and not stiringe oute of the same when they marche, in knowinge who to fall into squa∣dron, and observe the proclamationes given, and ordained be the Generall, nothinge soe dificill but that contuall use and exercice ma∣keth easie.

Who soever woulde faine be couriouse in the framinge of many sor∣tes of batteles, it is necessarie that he be exercised both in the theoric∣ke and pratike of this arte, and specially to be able in Aritmetick: Soe Page  64 shall he in time bringe his purpose to perfection with greate ease. And let him be carefull in knowinge who to give the orderes to each Officer of whate shall be comended to his chardge, and cause all thingss to be a complished as they were ordained withoute replie, he shall not recall any order given, excepte it be trough goode concide∣ration, neyther shall none be discomodated to put another in his place by favor or affection: Greate consideration oughte to be ta∣ken in choysinge one of befitinge partes for the well executinge of this office, and that be no meanes it be given be favor or affection for many considerationes of emportance. After those of perfection in this arte we loocke dayly and finde feowe, but those of imperfection in multitude.

Some houlde an opinion that in orderes of marchinge and framin∣ge of squadrones the number par, is beste, true it is that this number is good, but in the divitiones to fall oute of youvre march into squa∣dron, let none be ingnorante that they are to marche acordinge as the devition fauleth oute. And for beinge of number par or impar it importeth nothinge, and for the contrariethere is no rule, buth rather conforme vvith the divitiones as they shall fall oute, (which is the true way) for we finde no other reason to the contrarie, neyther had pirho. Kinge of the Epirotes the firste enventor of squadrons, neyther the Romaines, Greeckes, nor Macedonios nor any other na∣tion:

A Sardgent mayor ought not to by ingnorante in framinge and gi∣vinge reasones of all sortes of squadrones, at leaste all suche as ocatiō and situation shall require, of which the Sardgent mayor oughte to be curiouse, and not to err in any thinge that belongeth to his office, and specially in the devitiones and framinge of sundrie sortes of squa∣drones, though many do imagine and supose it needlesse (more then onelie the foure formes.) They are far deceived, for occasiones and situtationes shall offer where neyther of the foure formes will serve: In framinge of batteles the Sardgent mayor is to sheowe him selfe with a setled prudent and brave resolution, and by no meanes permitt any crosinge or confusion in the orderes be him apointed, nor wronge none to take him oute of his rancke for him that came late, soe hittin∣ge uppō the juste devitiones of his shot and pikes, he shal place an Of∣ficer or two as he thincketh beste in the head of each devitiō, and that the Sardgentes doe a complish theyre obligationes in letinge none to stragel, nor fall oute of theyre ranckes; Soe the Sardgent mayor shall Page  61 with ease and brevitie frame his squadron, and without any crossinge or confusion beinge so conveniente.

For each Companie of pikes shall take theyre turne on the watch and soe needeth no contraversie nor confusion. The Master de cam∣pe as a Superior of his Regimente is to choise to march where he pleaseth, and if ther by two Companies of Acabuseos the one is to march in the vangarde, and the other in the rergarde, it is inough that the Sardgente mayor giveth once thies orderes that each one be his turne shall come do optaine his right in occasiones of marchinge, withoute troublinge him any more. But if theyre be more then one Regimente eache of them shall take theyre torne acordinge as they have the vvatche, marchinge firste uppon the righte hande, and soe goe by turne, and shall alsoe be lodged firste, and the reste of the Companies withoute any crossinge or confusion as they come, yea if it were to frame a battell of the whole exercito.

Many goode partes are required in a Sardgent mayor and princi∣pally to be experte in well executinge his office, to observe goode or∣der in march, to prudently finish with expedition his affaires, to re∣prehende and redress disorderes in due time, with prudence and auctoritie, soe shall he be beloved and respected, and moste comon∣lie have goode successes. In the greatest dangeres he is ohcowe him selfe with asetled minde and brave couradge, animatinge the Souldie∣res, sheowinge him selfe with them in all dangeres and extremities, comfortinge, and givinge them goode instructiones and examples, and in the greateste dangeres that shall happen to presence him self with them with a brave and valerouse determination; soe douptles shall he by beloved, feared, and respected by thē. Let him by no mea∣nes be overcomed by disordered a petites but rather be moderate mylde, and faire condisioned, a beitinge o person of soe greate comaunde.

Treatinge of severall sortes of Squadrones.

BIgininge with the rule who to finde oute the square roote of any number, the table pitagorique, a table •• by put in memorie for the framinge of squadrones, for suche as are not experte in Arithmeticke, the table of the proportiones of unequall numberes, and who to frame severall sortes of squadrones, of severall sortes of weapones, and the industrie used for theyre due orderinge and de∣vidinge Page  62 in proportion, acordinge as time, occasion, and situation shall require and permitt.

A square roote is a digit or number whiche beinge multiplied in it self bringethe fourth a square number, as 2 beinge multiplied in it self make the 4. in sayinge two times two make the 4. and so from the number 1. to the number 9. yove shall understande in the table Pita∣gorique, the raise of 1. can not be but, 1. the rayes of 4. is 2. the raise of 9. is 3. the raies of 16. is 4. that of 25. is 5. and soe consequently as in the table folowinge yove may perceive.

To finde oute the square roote of any number be it 〈 math 〉 square or not square, yove muste wourke thus, firste ha∣vinge set downe the number propounded whiche at the leaste muste consiste of 3. figures. Set a prick under the firste digitt of the saied number on the righte hande, that donpricke every other digit or number therof towardes the leiftehande; Havinge alwayes one voyde space or chifer betwext every 2. prickes, as yove see heere don in the number folowinge 946. to finde oute the square roote of this propounded number, yove are to pricke the saied number 〈 math 〉 as before taughte, havinge so don seeke oute one of the 3. digites, whiche beinge multiplied in it self may take a way the chifer 9. that is on the lefte hande, or as muche therof as may by, in sayinge 3. times 3. maketh 9. soe that 3. is the rays of 9. firste chifer of youre propounded number, and restethe nothinge, whiche yove shall put right a bove the 9. soe that yove have wholy don withe the 9. that liethe on the le∣fte hande that don, doble the quotient whiche is 3. and it makethe 6. and set the same in the voide place righte under the figure 4. and seeke oute a digit or number, whiche beinge multiplied in it self may take a way the 4. and say how many times 6. can yove finde in 4. nullo; soe set downe 0. in the quotient right under the 6. that stand the on the righte hande, and say that in plasinge nullo in the quotient yove have don and there restethe 46. that remaineth, soe say that 30. is the square roote of 946. and there remainethe 46. that 〈 math 〉 is not comprehended in the square roote in sayinge mul∣tiply 30. the square roote of 946. by 30. and it will make 900. to whiche 900. a 46. that remaineth, and itt shall a monte the full some of youre propounded number of 946. as by the proofe yove plainely see. In all suche numberes to Page  67 knowe whether yove have dō well or no, multipliy the square roote by it self, to the producte of which multiplication yove are to ad if the∣re by any remainder, and if yove finde the summe therof to be like to youre firste propounded number, yove have don well, and if it be not like yove have errede.

But if suche number doe consiste of many numberes or figures in workēge wherof yove muste doble the quotiēt once, twece, or three∣ce, acordinge as the number dothe require, whiche yove shall more plainly perceive by this example followinge: Presupose that 37424 is the number wherof yove woulde knowe the square roote; to doe the whiche wourke as before taughte, firste prick the 4. that 〈 math 〉 standethe on the righte hande, then fall to pricke the other 4. towardes to lefte hande, and havinge so don pricke the digit 3. that standethe on the lefte hande of all, nowe seeke oute som digit or number, whiche beinge multiplied in it self, takethe a way the laste chifer on the lefte hande, whi∣che is 3. or the moste therof that can be, whiche yove shall finde to by 1. and havinge set downe the saied 1. in the quo∣tiēt say one time one is 1. whiche beinge substracted oute of 3. restethe 2. whiche is to be placed right over the 3. and conzeale the saied 3. that don, double the quotient 1. and it makethe 2. whiche yove are to place righte under the 7 of youre propounded numberin the seconde place towardes the lefte hande, that don say who many times 2 in 27. yove shall finde it to be 9. in sayinge 9 times 2. is 18. oute of 27 restethe 9. whiche yove shall place righte over, and above the 7. in the seconde place on the lefte hande, and in the quotient right under the pricke of the chifer 4 in the 3 place towardes the lefte hande yove shall place 9. havinge soe don, say 9. times 9. is 81. beinge substracted oute of 94. restethe 13. nowe double the 18 in the quotient, and it will be 38. whiche yove shall place under the 9. in the quotient towardes the righte hande, havinge soe don say how many times 38. in 132. that standethe right above it, yove shall finde it to be 3. whiche yove shall place in the quotient under the firste prike on the right hande under the chifer 4. that don say 3. times 3. maketh 9 oute of 13. 〈 math 〉 resteth 4. then say 3. times 8. makethe 24 oute of 42. re∣stethe 18 that don fall to the 3. in the quotiēt and multiply it in it self and it makethe 9. whiche yove shall substracte oute of the producte of youre laste division whiche was 184. and there shall remaine 175. soe that 193. is the square roote Page  68 of the firste number given whiche was 37424 whiche square beinge multiplied in it self is 37249. and the remainder is 175. whiche two partitiones beinge putt togither makethe the firste number of 37424. yove are alsoe to understande that if yove finde any number oute of whiche youre quotiēt beinge doubled and can not be substra∣cted, yove muste set downe a chifer in the quotiēt as yove do in divisiō.

Moste necessary it is for a Sardgent mayor, or who soever doth pretende to be curiouse in the profession of armes, that he be expert in Aritmeticke, and in knowinge who to finde oute the square roo∣te of any number, that he may withe the more facility order devide, and ranke his Souldieres, eyther of greate or smale numberes; yea and of whate soever forme a Sardgent mayor, oughte not to be ignorante, for some times occasion and situation offerethe that neyther of the 4. for∣mes of squadrones are to be used; Wherfore i will set downe the rules, firste for the framinge of the foure formes of squadrones moste a cu∣stomed and moste in use, as alsoe the rules to frame squadrones acor∣dinge to the situation and disposition of the place, and occasiones to fighte, as well of equalities as of inequalities. The 4. formes of squa∣drones moste acustomed and moste in use, is the square of men the square of grounde, bastarde square, and broade square, whiche the Spaniarde caule quadra de gente; quadra de tereno, prolongado, y gran frente.

Gentell Reader, understande that the firste thinge to by understoo∣de in framinge of squadrones, is that the principall boddies of thē are to be framed of pikes, to the whiche are required a certaine quantity of shot, which are to be devided as time situation and occasion shal-require, touchinge whiche divisiones greate consideration and indu∣stry is required in many occurantes of warlike affaires, and it is of grea∣te importance for who so ever takethe this chardge in hande to be per∣fecte in Aritmeticke to facilitate many rare occurrantes of this arte, and specially in the office of a Sardgent mayoyr.

It is to be understoode that the rule whiche is observed in setinge in order or array Souldieres, is that from the shoulder of the one to the shoulder of the other, is required 3. foote or at the moste three and haulf, and from ranke to ranke 7. foote, meaninge from the breaste of the one to the backe of the other. But when occasion shall offer to fighte 3. foote or 3 ½. is i noghe from ranke to ranke meaninge frō the breste of the owne to the backe of the other, and one for his one statiō, soe that he ocupies before and behinde, and for his person 7. foote.

Page  69To forme a squadron square of men, yove shall wourke, as before taughte in findinge oute the square roote which shall serve for fronte and flanke, as by the example folowinge yove shall more plainely un∣derstande, Suppose that yove are to frame a squadron square of men of 464. pikes, to finde oute the square roote of this nūber firste pric∣ke the laste chifer 4. towardes the righte hande, that don, pricke the o∣ther 4. towardes the lefte hande, so that the figure 6. standethe in the midel, nowe fall to the 4. that standethe on the lefte hande, and say the raise of 4. is 2. in sayinge two times two makethe 4. whiche 4 yove are to substracte oute of the 4 that standethe on the lefte hande then conzeale the 4. and plase azero above it, nowe fall to 2. that is in the quotient, and say two times two makethe 4. whiche yove shall place right under the 6. whiche liethe in the mideste of the number given, and say how many times 4 in 6. whiche can be but one, in sayinge 4. times 1. makethe 4. oute of 6. restethe but 2. which 2. yove shall place a bove the 6. and cāzeale the 6. that don fall to 1. that liethe in the quo∣tient under the chifer 4. on the righte hande, and say one time one is 1. oute of 4 that layethe on the righte hande there shall reste 3. whi∣che shall be plased righte over the 4. towardaes the righte hāde, then canzeale the 4. and there shall remaine 23. soe that 21. is youre fronte and flanke, and 23. remaininge whiche shall serve to guarnish the cu∣loures, to se if yove have don well, multiply 21. the square roote in it self, and the producte will by 441. to whiche producte ad 23. pikes, that did remaine, and the som therof wilbe like unto the firste number given which was 464. as by the figure folowinge yove may see.

A battel square of men of 464. pikes whose fronte and flancke is 21.

〈 math 〉

Page  70

Square roote.
11 502500
24 512600
39 522704
416 532809
525 542916
636 553025
749 563136
864 573249
981 583364
10100 603600
11121 613721
12144 623844
13169 633969
14196 644096
15225 654225
16256 664356
17289 674489
18324 684628
19361 694761
20400 704900
21441 715041
22484 725184
23529 735329
24576 745476
25625 755625
26676 765776
27729 775929
28784 786084
29841 796241
30900 806400
31961 816561
321024 826724
331089 836889
341156 847056
351225 857225
361296 867396
371369 877569
381444 887744
391521 897921
401600 918281
411681 928464
421764 938649
431849 948836
441936 959025
452025 969216
462116 979409
472209 989604
482304 999801
492401 10010000

Page  71For suche as are not expert in Aritmeticke i have set downe the a fore saied Table to finde the square roote of any nūber to then thou∣sande, whiche shall healpe muche suche as are not able in Aritmeti∣ke, but suche as are inclined to be perfecte in this noble arte of warr: i woulde wishe them not to wholy truste to this rule for the reasones be∣fore declared; but rather learne to be perfecte in Arithmetike, which is the sureste way.

A Squadron square of men of 361. Souldiers of the whiche 144. are pikes, and 217. musketes.

Fronte of the battel. Square of men.

〈 math 〉
  • 144 Pikes.
  • 48 Musk.
  • 36 Musk.
  • 76 Musk.
  • 57 Musk.
  • 361

Page  72Supose that yove are to frame a squadron square of men of 361. Souldiers of the whiche 144. are pikes and 217. are musketes and that yove woulde have the squadron proportionally lined, every way withe the shott. To wourke the whiche firste take the square roo∣te of the 144. pikes whiche yove shal finde to be 12. and say that 12. is the fronte and flanke of the squadron of pikes, that don take the who∣le number of shott and pikes whiche is 361. oute of the whiche alsoe take the square roote, whiche yove shall finde to be 19. oute of this 19 substracte 12. the square roote of the pikes, and there shall remai∣ne 7. and so yove finde the number that yove demaunde for the girdlinge shott, nowe devide the 7. into two partes and say that yove finde 4 in one parte and 3. in the other, and say that by youre devision yove finde that the firste maniple of musketes is to marche withe 12. rankes of 4. musketes in eache ranke, whiche is for the linenge shot of the right flanke of youre squadron. That don say that also by, youre laste devision yove finde 12. rankes of 3. musketes in eache ranke to guarinshe the liefte flanke of youre squadron, and say that the two flankes of youre squadron are linede, withe shott, meaninge 4. in eache ranke of the linenge of the righte flanke, and 3. in eache ran∣ke of the linenge of the liefte flanke; so the two flankes are lined.

That don, say that 12. the fronte of youre pikes adinge therunto 7. musketes of the linenges of the two flakes makethe 19 and say that in youre laste devision yove finde that 19. rankes of 4. musquetes in ea∣che ranke are to marche for the linenge shott of the vangarde, and al∣soe 19. rankes of 3. musketes are to marche in the laste devision of shott for the linenge of the rergarde of youre battell, as by the figure before and in the devisiones of the same yove see plainely declared, and so youre squadron of pikes is proportionally lined every way in as mu∣che as the devision and number can affourde.

Page  73
A squadron square of men of 576. Souldiers of the whiche 256. are pikes, and 320. musketes devided proportionally as by the figure folowinge yove see.

Fronte of the Battel.

〈 math 〉
  • 256 Pikes.
  • 64 Musq.
  • 64 Musq.
  • 96 Musq.
  • 96 Musq.
  • 576.

For the framinge of all suche squadrones eyther of greate or smale numberes, whiche yove woulde have to be proportionally lined withe shott yove shall wourke in this maner folowinge: Firste take the num∣ber Page  74 of pikes whiche is 256. oute of the whiche take the square roote, whiche is 16. and say that so many pikes shall the fronte and flanke of youre battell containe, and that it is of equall strenghte every way as well, to offende as to defende, and when yove woulde drawe them into squadron, for the more breuity yove may devide the fronte ther∣of into two maniples eache one contayninge 16. rankes of 8. pikes in eache ranke, nowe to proportionally guarnish the same withe the shot take youre full number of pikes, and shot whiche is 576. oute of whiche nūber take the square roote whiche yove shall finde to by 24. that don, substracte 16. the square roote of the pikes oute of 24. the square of the full number of pikes and shot, and there shall remaine 8. this digit devide into two equal partes, whiche is foure in eache par∣te, and say that the squadron of pikes is to be lined every way withe 4. shott as by the devision of the same yove see, meaninge that youre fir∣ste division of shott is to marche withe 16. rankes of 4. musketes in eache ranke, whiche is to line the righte flanke of youre squadron of pikes, and so many more rankes shall marche to line the lefte flanke of the squadron of pikes, meaninge 16. rankes of 4. musketes in every ranke, so the two flankes of youre squadron are lined. That don say that the fronte of youre squadron is 16. and therunto ad 8 the linen∣ge shott of the two flankes, and it wil a monte to 24. To line the fron∣te of youre battell, say that yove are to marche withe 24. rankes of 4. musketes in eache ranke, and so many more for the linenge of the rer∣warde of youre battell as the figure and divisiones shewethe, and soe shall yove finde youre squadron proportionally lined every way; whi∣che by the rule forme, and divisiones of the same yove may plainly un∣derstande This rule will serve to frame all suche sortes of squadrones eyther of greate or smale numberes, whiche yove woulde have to be proportionally lined withe shott, as plainely the figure and divisiones before sheowethe.

In many countries hardly can youe finde the one haulf of there pi∣kes armed withe complett corseletes, soe that this rule will sheowe yo∣ve how to guarnish the unarmed pikes, withe the complett corseletes proportionally every way, advertisinge that the culoures is to marche in the center.

A cross battell of 1416. Souldieres of the whiche 512. are pikes, and 904. musketes, whiche are to be divided into 4 batteles, and li∣ned proportionally on the two flankes, as by the figure and divisiones followinge are reasoned. Page  75 To wourke the whiche, firste take the number of pi∣kes, 〈 math 〉 for eache squadron of the 4. required for youre cross battell. Nowe to youre purpose take the square roote of 128. pikes of youre firste squadron, whiche will be 11. and 7. pikes remaininge, and say that 11. pikes is the fronte and flanke of youre firste battell of pikes, as alsoe of the other 3. batteles, and 7. pikes re∣maininge in eache battell, whiche shall serve to gua∣rinsh the culoures; soe that 11· is the fronte and flanke of eache one of youre 4. batteles of pikes, and 7. pikes remayninge for the linenge of the culoures of eache battell of the 4.

Nowe for the division of youre propounded num∣ber of shott. Double the one flanke of eache one of the 4. batteles of pikes, whiche double will by 88. this 88. the double flanke of the 4. batteles of pikes divide by 904. youre propounded number of musketes, and the number in the quotient will by 10. and 24 musketes remayninge, and say that the two flankes of eache of youre 4. batteles of pikes are to by lined withe 11. ran∣kes of ten musketes in eache ranke as by the figure, and deutiones folowenge yove may playnely see, and wi∣the the observation of this rule withe any other num∣ber eyther greate or smale yove shall withe facility kno∣we how to proportionably divide yovre shott for to guarinsh the two flankes of yovre squadron of pikes.

Thiese cross batteles are esteemed to be wonder∣full stronge consideringe well the framinge therof. It is also of wonderfull safegarde, for the security of the ba∣gadge amunitiones and hurte men, and if the enemy shoulde chance to charge the firste battel, or any of the other 3. whiche beinge a lone are but of litle force. Wherfore consideration oughte to be taken of the stratagemes of the enemy, and withe what order they do marche, and then yove may double or tribele yovre fronte acordinge as occasion shall require and the situation shall per∣mitt. And if the enemy are stronge on horse, regarde oughte to be ta∣ken in due time of the bagadge that it goe deposito, or be twexte the two laste batteles, and for theyr better security in suche ocationes, I woulde cut two rankes of eache of the two laste batteles and therwi∣the Page  76 guarnishe the fronte and regard of the bagadge and also withe shott under the shelter of this guarnison of pikes so that they may be shadowed and defended every way and give a triple fronte to the two laste batteles.

Cross Battell.

〈 math 〉

Severall sortes of armes are manadged in all coutries and in many places hardly can yove finde the one haulf of there pikes armed wi∣the complett corseletes. Wherfore i tought fitt to set downe the rules for the due orderinge in proportion of thiese severall sortes of armes, for beinge moste necessary in many occasiones in warrlike affaires: Put in case yove have 1112. souldieres, of the whiche 260. are unar∣med pikes 316. armed withe complett corseletes, 114. officeres refor∣med and particular persones who are armed withe gilted corseletes, Page  77 and for the linenge shott 422. musketes. Of the whiche number the campe master general, woulde have a squadron square of men to be framed, puttenge the unarmed pikes in the center, proportional∣ly lined every way withe the armed corseltes, and the armed pikes proportionally lined withe the gilted corseletes and officeres refor∣med, as also that the 4. sides of the full battell of pikes to be propor∣tionally guarinshed withe the 422. musketes.

To wourke the whiche firste take 260. whiche is the unarmed pikes oute of whiche take the square roote whiche is 16 and. 4 pikes re∣mayninge, and say that 16 pikes is the fronte and flanke of yovre cen∣ter of unarmed pikes. That don take the full number of unarmed and armed pikes whiche is 576. oute of whiche also take the square roote which will be 24. nowe deducte of this 24.16 the raise or square roote of the unarmed pikes, and there shall remaine 8. this 8. devide into two partes, and it is 4. in eache parte, and say that 16. rankes of 4. cor∣seletes in eche ranke is to guarnish the right flanke of yovre center of unarmed pikes, and so many more for the guarnision of the leifte flanke of the center of the unarmed pikes.

Nowe to proportionally line the fronte of the center say that to 16 the fronte of the center is to be aded 8 of the 2. lininges whiche make the 24. so say that the fronte is to be guarinshed withe 24. ran∣kes of 4. armed pikes in eache ranke, and so is the fronte of yovre cen∣ter and unarmed pikes lined, and the rerwarde is to be guarinshed withe the self same order, imeane 24. rankes of armed pikes of 4. pi∣kes in eache ranke, so the center of the unarmed pikes is proportio∣nally lined every way withe the complet corseletes.

Nowe to line the armed pikes withe the 114. gilted 〈 math 〉 corseletes take the full number of pikes as well armed as unarmed whiche is 690. oute of whiche take the square roote whiche is 26. oute of this 26. the laste rays deducte 24. the square roote of yovre armed and unarmed pikes and there shall reste 2. this 2. devide in∣to two partes whiche will be one, and say that the righ∣te flanke of the armed pikes are to be guarinshed wi∣the onely 24. gilted pikes which iuste ocupies place of one in eache ranke of the flāke and iuste so many more for to guarinshe the leifte flāke of the armed pikes, and say that the two flankes are guarinshed: Nowe youre fronte is 26. and iuste so many gilted pikes are to gua∣rinsh the outewarde side of the armed corseletes, and iuste so many Page  78 for the linenge of the rerwarde so youre squadron is proportionally guarinshed every way, imeane the center withe the armed pikes, and the armed pikes withe the gilted corseletes.

Nowe to devide youre 422. musketes, youe are to take the square roote of the propounded and full number of pikes and shott whiche is 1112. whiche square roote will. be 33. oute of this square deducte 26. the square roote that was of the full number of pikes and there shall remaine 7, this 7. devide into two partes, the one will be 4. and the other 3. and say that by youre devition youe finde that the right flanke of youre squadron of pikes is to be lined, withe 26. rankes of 4. musketes in eache ranke, (that don) say that for the linenge shot of the leifte flanke youre devition yealdethe 26. rankes of 3. musketes in ea∣che ranke so are youre two flankes of the squadron of pikes lined wi∣the shott, nowe withe the two linenges of shott youe finde the fronte to conteyne 33. and say that 33. rankes of 4. musketes is to line the full fronte of the battell of pikes and 33. rankes of 3. musketes in ea∣che ranke is to guarnish the full fronte of the rerewarde, for by the rule of divition and proportion it can not be other wise, so youre unarmed pikes are in the center, proportionally lined withe the cor∣seletes, and the corseletes withe the gilted armor, and the squadron of pikes proportionally lined every way withe the 422. musketes as youe shall see by the figure and devisiones folowinge, advertisinge that in youre devisiones there do remaine 4. unarmed pikes and 14. of the gilted corseletes and five musketes as in the devisiones folo winge youe may see, all whiche are comprehended in the 23. the re∣mainder of youre laste devision, as here folowth declared.

Page  79

A Squadron square of men.

  • 256 Pikes.
  • 64 Cors.
  • 64 Cors.
  • 96 Cors.
  • 96 Cors.
  • 24 Gilt. C.
  • 24 Gilt. C.
  • 26 Gilt. C.
  • 26 Gilt. C.
  • 104 Mus.
  • 78 Mus.
  • 132 Mus.
  • 99 Mus.
  • 4 Pik.
  • 14 Gilt.
  • 5 Mus.
  • 1112.
  • 16 Ran. 16
  • 16 Rank. 4
  • 16 Rank. 4
  • 24 Ran. 4
  • 24 Rank. 4
  • 24 Rank. 1
  • 24 Rank. 1
  • 26 Rank. 1
  • 26 Rank. 1
  • 26 Rank. 4
  • 26 Rank. 3
  • 33 Rank. 4
  • 33 Rank. 3

〈 math 〉

  • 260 Unarmed Pik.
  • 316 Armed Pik.
  • 114 Gilted Corsel.
  • 422 Musketes.
  • 1112
Page  80
Consideringe that many are ingnorante in knowinge the proportion of many sortes of squadrones and unequall numberes toughte necessary to put hire the tabel and rules for the same as hire foloweth.

I Woulde wishe allsuche as do pretende to step forwarde in the no∣ble profeshion of armes, troughe there prudēt cariadge, and goo∣de applicationes, to consider that many goode partes are requi∣red in them, amongste the which we finde it moste necessary that he be expert in aritmeticke, for otherwise hardly can he bringe unto per∣fection the rare curiosities required to the severall executions of the arte of warr. And especially the sundry devisiones of the severall sor∣tes of squadrones, which by dayly triall, and experience, we see that many who are not curiouse nor expert in aritmeticke do err in uerie many ocasiones, and can not compass, nor bringe to iuste perfection withe grace, many rare occurantes in warrlike affaires; and that for the moste parte resultinge of there litle aplicationes in imitatenge the vertouse prudent and approoved souldier; and also troughe the blynde consideration of som, who consideringe that nowe in oure la∣ter warres for the moste parte all electiones goes by favor frindship or affection: yea and uery many by meanes of enteres, so that very ma∣ny do not take the paines in aplieinge them selves in learninge the se∣verall rare curiosities of this arte but rather mocke, and floute at those of rare and curiouse iudgementes by cause that their skill and capa∣citie can not reache in resolvinge the rare and deepe secretes of this arte, after those of perfection in this arte we looke, for those of im∣perfection we finde on every foote: so none oughte to reprehende in absence wherof in presence he is ingnorante.

Proportiones of inequalities is that the battell may be more broade then longe or more in fronte then in flanke.

THiefe proportiones of inequalities is as 2. to 1. that is to say the battel to be two tymes more broade then longe, or more in fronte then in flanke, as is one to thre or 1. to 4. ett. or the bat∣tell to be three times or 4. tymes more broade then longe, or more in fronte then in flanke, or to be 2⅓. or 3¼. more broade then longe or any other suche like proportiones, to whiche effect i put this table and the rules thereunte apertaininge.

Page  81

is as—2to3
1 2/446
1 2/668
1 2/779
1 2/8810
1 2/911
2 2/4410
2 1/7715
2 2/6614
2 3/7717
is as —2to7
3 2/6620
3 1/7722
3 1/8825
3 2/9929
3 3/930
4 1/7729
4 1/9937
4 2/9938
is as —2to11
5 /6631
5 1/7736
5 2/7737
5 2/841
5 1/9946
6 2/6637
6 2/7743
6 2/7744
6 1/9955

To reduce theese fractiones into whole numberes, and to knowe theyr proportion youe are to wourke in this maner folowinge. Firste multiply the whole number by the fractiones denominator, and ad therunto the numerator of the saied fraction, and the proportion is founde, as for example to have the battell to containe so muche and the one haulf more in front then in flanke whiche the 〈 math 〉 Spaniard call tanto i medio; seeke in the table 1½ wher of the whole number is. 1. and the fraction is ½ nowe multiply the whole number 1. by the fraction is De∣nominator 2. and it makethe 2. wherunto youe shallad the saied fractiones numerator which is 1. whiche two adisiones dothe amount 3. and the fractiones denominator is 2. so say it is in proportiō as is 2. to 3. and so muste yove wourke withe all suche num∣beres to knowe the proportion therof, or say that youe will have the battell to be 3 3/3. more in fronte then in flanke, and to 〈 math 〉 finde the proportion say it is as 3. to 10. as in the table yove shall see, and that yove may better understand it wourke as before taughte, firste in multiplienge the vvhole number 3. by 3. the fractiones denominator and it vvill be 9 to this 9. ad 1. vvhiche is the fractiones numerator and it vvill be 10 and say that it is in proportion as 3. to 10. and vvithe Page  82 this observation and rule youe shall knovve in vvhat proportion shall by anny number.

To frame a Battell of 819. Souldieres, whiche shall containe so muche and the one haulf more in fronte then in flanke, whiche the Spaniarde and Italian call de tanto y medio.

〈 math 〉

THe advantadge of grounde goode order, and Military discipli∣ne are suche that troughe the conduction of prudente and bra∣ve Comaūderes smale numberes offten times repulse far grea∣ter numberes, and some times the situatiō and disposition of ground-so faulethe oute, that neyther of the 4. formes of Squadrones can ser∣ve; Wherfore a Sardgent mayor▪ or whosoever undertakethe to by cu∣rious or perfect in this arte, ought to be expert in framinge all sortes of batteles, as well of equall and inequall numberes whatesoever, wherfore i tought fitt to set downe the rules for the framinge of suche batteles

Bigininge with a battell of so muche and one haulf more in front then in flanke, which the Italian calle tanto y metcho; which i supose to by framed of 507. armed pikes, and that the fronte therof containe so muche and the one haulf more in front 〈 math 〉 then in the flanke, to wourke the which put downe the number propounded whiche is 507. pikes, unto which number ad the one haulf of the self number, whiche will be 253 /2. that don, ad bothe numberes and it will a monthe to 760 2/1. oute of whiche take the square roote, which will by 27. and 21. remaininge, and say that 27. is the front of the battell.

To finde oute the flanke take 507. the number of pikes, and divide it by 27. the front, the quotient ther∣of wilbe 18. and 21. pikes remaininge, and say that 18. is the flanke; and the 21. pikes which did remaine oute of youre laste division will serve to guarnishe the culoures, soe that 27. is the front, and 18. the flanke, whiche comethe to the juste propor∣tion of the forme and number propounded, to see if yove have don, well multiply 27. the front by 18. the flanke the product of which Page  83 multiplication, and the 21. which did remaine in youre la∣ste 〈 math 〉 diuision, and if it agrie with the number of pikes pro∣pounded yove have don well, if not yove err, advertisinge that the proportion of the front and flanke muste be ob∣served, the forme wherof yove shall see here followinge, and lined proportionally every way withe the 312. muske∣tes, as yove more plainely may perceive by the figure fol∣lowenge, and by the divisiones of the same.

〈 math 〉

A Squadron of so muche and the one haulfe more in fronte then in flanke.

〈 math 〉
Pikes contained in the boddy of the battell.486 p.
Pikes remaininge to guarnish the culoures.021 p.
The lineng shott of the righte flanke.057 m.
The lininge shott of the leifte flanke.057 m.
The lininge shot of the full fronte.099 m.
The lininge shot of the front of the reere.099 m.
 819 m.

Page  84
A Squadron of so muche and one thirde parte more in fronte then in flanke.

〈 math 〉
  • 208 pikes.
  • 2 pikes.
  • 42 musk.
  • 42 musk.
  • 88 musk.
  • 66 musk.
  • 12 musk, remaininge.
  • 1 1/ 460.

SOme times occasion and situation may offer to frame a squadron of so muche and one thirde parte more in front then in flanke, whiche the Spaniarde Caule tanto y un tercio, whiche i supose to be of 460. Souldieres of the whiche 210. are pikes and 250 musketes, and consideringe that asargent mayor or any perfect souldier oughte not to be ingnorant in the framinge of all sortes of squadrones as tyme occasion and situation shall require, wherfor i tought Page  85 fitt to set downe the rules for the framinge of any suche or semblable sortes of batteles, nowe biginenge withe the aboue nūber. To wourke the whiche firste take the propounded number of 210. pikes, that don devide it by 3. the quotiente wherof will by 70. this 70. the 3 parte of the propounded number, ad to it the propounde nūber of pikes and it wilbe 280. oute of whiche take the square roote whiche wilbe 16. and 24. remainenge and say that 16. is the fronte of youre battell; that don, to finde oute the flanke devide 210. the propounded number of pi∣kes by 16. the fronte, the quotiente wherof will be 13. and two pikes remainenge, and say that 13. is the flanke and 16 the fronte and two pikes remayninge, to see of youe have don well, multiply the fronte by, the flanke addinge to the producte of youre multiplicatiō the remain∣der, and if it agrie withe youre propounded number of pikes it goes well.

Nowe for the devition of youre propounded number of short whi∣che is 250. musketes take the whole number of short and 〈 math 〉 pikes, whiche is 460. and divide the same by 3. whiche quo∣tient youe shall finde to by 153. and one remaininge, nowe thiese 153. the quotiente of youre laste devision of the pro∣pounded number of 460. the producte of whiche 2. adi∣tiones wil by 613. that don take the square roote of 613. which will by 24. the fronte of the number, nowe to finde oute the flanke, take youre principall number of pikes and shott whiche is 460. whiche youe are to devide by 24. the square roote of 613. and the number in the quotiente will be 19 and 4. remayninge and say that 24. is the fronte and 9. the flanke, that don deducte 13. the flanke of youre squadron of pikes oute of 19 the laste flanke and there shall remaine 6. this 6. divide into two partes and yove shall fin∣de 3. in eache parte, and say that the firste division of shott is 14. ran∣kes of 3. musketes in eache ranke comprehended one ranke of 3. musketes for the lininge of the culoures of the righte flanke of youre squadron of pikes, and say that the leifte flanke or side of youre bat∣tell of pikes are to be lined withe the self same order i meane 14. ran∣kes of 3. musketes in eache ranke; soe is the two flankes of youre bat∣tell of pikes proportionally lined withe musketes. Nowe to finde oute the shot that will line the fronte and rerwarde of youre battell of pi∣kes deducte 84. musketes the lininge shott of the two flankes oute of 250. the full number of shott, and there will remaine 166. muske∣tes theese 166. divide by 22. the full fronte of youre pikes of the two Page  86 linges the quotient of whiche wilbe 7. this 7. divide into two partes the one will be 4. and the other of 3. and say that the guarnison of mus∣ketes that is to line the fronte is 22. rankes of 4 musketes in eache ranke, and 22 rankes of 3. musketes for the linenge of the rerwarde, so is youre battell proportionally guarnished or lined every way, ad. vertisinge that 12. musketes remainethe oute of youre division vvhi∣che vvill serve for to guarinsh the culoures, so vvithe this observation and rule youe may divide youre shott of any other suche semblable battelles.

Advertisinge that tvvo pikes, vvhiche dothe guarnish the culou∣res are above the number the devision of the battell yealdeth, vvhi∣che at leaste are to be taken oute of some ranke for that inescusable purpose to guarinsh the culoures, as also to be rekoned but once in theire firste division; so that in all squadrones when in the divisiones of theire pikes and shott, shall not reste the conueniente number re∣quired for the due lininge of the culoures, then of force must that number be taken oute of some parte of the battell, advertisinge that this number so taken is not to be rekened but once, and that is vvhe∣re theire first division sheovveth, as declared in the tabell of the bat∣tell, vvhich is the true observation, and explication of the divisiones bothe of the pikes and shott. So is it to by vnderstoode that the num∣ber takē oute of thies divisiones for the culours the battell shall con∣taine so many above the number alued in theire firste division, and so for not to err, the divisiones of the table are to be observed for bien∣ge infallible, and for cause that moste comonly of force order and ar∣ray muste be broken to orderly place the culors in the center as also to guarnish them vvithe the conveniente pikes and shott.

Page  87
A Squadron of two times more in fronte then in flanke.

〈 math 〉

TO finde oute the fronte and flanke of any number of pikes, whi∣che yove woulde have to be two times more broade then longe or more in fronte then in flanke, whiche i supose at this instant to be 1008. of the vvhiche 520. are pikes and 488. muske∣tes, 〈 math 〉 firste take the propounded number of pikes whiche is 520· and multiply the same by 2. the producte will by 1040. nowe oute of this producte take the square roote, whiche wilbe 32, and 16. remaininge, and say that 32. is the fronte of youre battell of pikes, nowe to finde oute the flanke, take the propounded number of pikes, whiche is 520. This 520. divide by 32. the fronte, and the number in the quotient will be 16. and 8. pikes remaininge so yove founde oute the fronte and flanke, meaninge that 32. is the fronte, and 16 the flanke, and 8. pikes remaininge, in youre laste division, whiche will serve to guarnish the culoures, withe the observation of this rule, yove may frame a bat∣tell of pikes eyther of smale or greate numberes, and of whate forme yove will have the same to conteine of 3. times 4. times or 5. times more in fronte then in flanke in multi∣plyinge the propounded number of pikes by the propor∣tion therof, if yove woulde have it containe 3. times more in fronte then in flanke multiply youre propounded number of pikes by 3. if yove woulde have it to containe 4. times more in fronte then in flan∣ke multiply it by 4. and in wourkinge as before taughte yove shall fin∣de oute the fronte and flanke, and there juste proportion; for the im∣palinge shott i have spoken of in other forme of squadrones, but for suche as woulde be curiouse and experte, is required greate considera∣tion to be had for the severall sortes of divisiones of shott, as time oc∣casion and situation shall require, and it is moste necessary for him that undertakethe this chardge in hāde to by expert in Arithmeticke, and so withe continuall practice shall he withe greate facility bringe to juste perfection all the divisiones befitenge for this purpose, and let none be ingnorante but that for the severall and rare curiosities of the divisiones of shott is required muche practice, and specially in Page  88 Aritmeticke, whiche is the principall fundament in reducenge thees devisiones into there iuste perfection, alwayes consideringe of tyme occasion and situation, as also of afore caste prevention againste the stratageames and orderes of youre enemy.

A Squadron square of men of 3024. Souldieres of 〈 math 〉 the whiche 1764. are pikes, and 1260. musketes divided into severall maniples, and troupes to marche that they may fall into battell presently when occasion is offered as by the figure and divisiones folowinge set dow∣ne, and for suche as have not intered into the deepe judgement and practice of this arte. I will here set downe the order of there divisio∣nes, firste take the propounded number of pikes, whiche is 1764. oute of the whiche take the square roote, whiche will by 42. the whiche is the fronte and flanke of youre pikes. That don take the full number of youre shott, whiche is 1260 and divide this by 42. the flanke of the propounded number of pikes, and the number in the quotient will by 30. That don divide 30 the quotient into two equall partes, and youe shall finde the haulfe therof to be 15 so say that 15. shot comes under the shelter of eache pike of youre flanke for the guarnison of the same, I meane to eache of the two flankes, for triall wherof multi∣ply 42. the flanke of the pikes by the quotient of youre laste devition whiche was 30. and the producte will by the iuste number of shott propounded, And that youe may the more easy perceive thiese devi∣siones I will set them downe in breefe as heere folowinge youe may see.

The firste division is 42. rankes of five musketes in eache ranke whiche shall marche in the vangarde of the divisiones of youre marchinge whiche mōted.210 musketes.
The seconde division of youre squadron is 42. ran∣kes of 7. pikes whiche folowes the firste division of mus∣ketes and monteth.294 pikes.
The thirde diuision that folowes the seconde shall marche withe 42 rankes of 7. pikes in eache ranke whi∣che monteth.294 pikes.
The fourthe division shall by of 42. rākes of mus∣ketes of 5. in eache ranke monteth.210 pikes.
The fifthe division shall marche withe 42. rankes of pikes of 7. pikes in eache ranke whiche monteth.294 pikes.
The sixte division is 42. rankes of musketes of 5. Page  89 musketes in eache ranke whiche is the laste division of shott of the vangarde and linenge shott of the right flanke of the squadron of pikes whiche monteth.210 musketes.

So are the pikes and shott of the vangarde divided and the reste of youre shott and pikes are divided as folowethe.

The firste division of the rergarde is divided into 42. rankes of 5. musketes in eache ranke whiche shall marche in fronte of the linēge shott of the liefte flan∣ke of youre battell whiche monted.210 musketes.
The seconde division of the reregarde is 42. rankes of 7. pikes in eache ranke whiche monted.294 pikes.
Vhe thirde division of the rergarde is divided into so many more rankes.294 pikes.
The fourthe division of the reregarde is 42. rankes of 5. musketes in eache ranke the firstwinge of shot of the lefte flanke of the battell of pikes.210 musketes.
The fifthe division is 42. rankes of 7. pikes in eache ranke monteth.294 pikes.
The sixte division of the rergarde is divided into 42. rankes of five musketes in eache ranke for the se∣conde winge of shott of the liefte flanke.210 musketes.

If youe woulde have the one haulf of youre shot to marche by them selfes in the vangarde of the pikes as comonly many do, youe may withe ease and breuety in observinge the same divisiones and withoute breakinge of any rāke, in onely co∣mandinge that the firste 3. divisiones of shott do marche in the vant∣garde, and then cause all the divisiones of pikes to folowe, observen∣ge there order as before set downe, plasinge the culores in the cen∣ter, and after them in therergarde to marche the other 3. divisiones of shott which is for the lininge of the liefte flanke and observinge their order as before spoken of.

Page  90

  • 1764 pikes.
  • 1260 musk.
  • 3024. men.

〈 math 〉

Page  91
By the figure followinge youe see the saide divisiones fall oute of theire marche in to battell, and proporsionally lined on the two flankes with the 1260. mus∣ketes, as by the divisiones of the same, and the figure followinge youe may see as the table of the divisiones of the battell hire folowinge sheoweth.

YOue shall understande that in the division of the pikes there did remaine nothinge, and for bienge inescusable to guarinsh the culoures withe pikes and shott, i cutt of the fronte of the battell one ranke which containes 42. pikes and 30. musketes, of thies pikes 20. shall guarnishe the two flankes of the culoures and the other 22 pikes shall by imploied for other purposes, and the 30. mus∣ketes with other 30. that are to be taken oute of the battell shall gua∣rinsh the culoures, so for suche as for curiositie woulde confronte this rekoninge it is necessary they knowe the diference is that 60. mueketes are to by taken oute of the battell to guaruish the culoures as before declared. Which are to be rekoned but once for otherwise there shall by 30. musketes diference.

The pikes contained in the boddy of the battel.1722. p.
The pikes that doth guarinsh the culours.20. p.
Pikes employed in ocasiones of service.22. p.
 1764. p.

  • 1764 pikes.
  • 1260 musketes.
  • 3024 men.
    Table of the battell.
  • 210 musketes.
  • 294 pikes.
  • 294 pikes.
  • 210 musketes.
  • 294 pikes.
  • 210 musketes.
  • 210 musketes.
  • 294 pikes.
  • 294 pikes.
  • 210 musketes.
  • 294 pikes.
  • 210 musketes.
  • 3024 men.

Page  92


  • 1764 pikes.
  • 1260 musk.
  • 3024.
Page  93
A battell square of men whiche ocupies place of 694. men in which battell goes avoide center which ocupies oume of 49. men apointed for the safe∣tie of hurte men and amunitiones, or for vnarmed men and bagadge.

The emptie center.49 men.
Unarmed pikes.121 pik.
Armed pikes or Corseletes.172 Cors.
Musketes.352 mus.

THe emptie center for hurtemen amunition and bagadge ocu∣pies plase of 49. in fronte and allsoe in flancke whose fronte and flanke is 7.

The firste division of unarmed pikes that lines the right flanke of the uoide center shall be devided into 7. rankes of 3. unarmed pikes in each ranke.21 pikes.
The seconde division of the unarmed pikes shall al∣soe marche withe 7. rankes of 3. pikes in each, to guar∣nish the left flanke of the voide center.21 pikes.
The thirde maniple of unarmed pikes that shall line the front of the center shall be divided into 13. rankes of 3. pikes in eache39 pikes.
The fourthe maniple of the unarmed pikes that shall march to line the rergarde of the center divided into 13 rankes of 3. pikes in eache ranke.39 pikes.
The first division of armed pikes shall be divided in∣to 13. rankes of 3. corseletes to line the right flanke of the unarmed pikes.39 corselet.
The second division of corseletes that doe line the left flanke of the unarmed pikes is divided into 13. ran∣kes of 2. corseletes in each.26 corselet.
The thirde division of corseletes that shall line the front of the vnarmed pikes shall be divided into 18. rankes of 3. corseletes in eache.54 corselet.
The fourthe division or maniple of corseltes that shall line the rergarde of the unarmed pikes shall be di∣vided Page  94 into 18. rankes of 2. corseletes in eache ranke.36 cors.
In the divisiō of the armed and unarmed pikes there did remaine 18. pikes of the whiche 17. are corseletes.18

THe division of the 352 musketes of the siyed squadron to line the battell proportionally everie way shall be divided in this maner folowinge, the rules bothe for this division, as also for the divisiones of the drie pikes and corseletes. I will set downe af ter this.

The firste division of shott of the saide squadron shall march in the vangarde withe 18. rankes of 4. mus∣ketes in each ranke for the lininge of the right flanke of the battell of pikes monteth.72 mus.
The seconde division of the uangarde shall marche withe 18. rankes of 4. musketes in each ranke for the linenge shott of the lieft flanke of the squadron.72 mus.
The first division of shott of the rergarde shall be di∣vided into 26. rankes of 4. musketes in each ranke for to line the front of the battell.104 mus.
The second division of shott of the rergard shall be divided into 26. rankes of 4. musketes in each ranke which shall line the rergarde of the battell.104 mus.
 352 mus.

Table of the Battell.

〈 math 〉

Page  95I Do not doubpte but many who have not longe pra∣ctised 〈 math 〉 in the framinge of squadrones, and that are not skilfull in the severall divisiones of the same, and in particular suche as are not able in Arithmetike, will in the begining finde greate difficulte in well orderinge and dividinge in proportion thiese batteles withe centeres, and lined every way pro∣porsionally withe sundrie sortes of weapones. Wherfore i tought fit to set downe in writinge the maner of theyre severall divisiones. To wourke the whiche yove muste bigin withe the center; Then withe the divisiones of youre unarmed and armed pikes, and then withe the divisiones of youre shott to see how they fall to line the squadron of pikes in proportion as hire folowethe.

To wourke the whiche, firste bigin with 49. youre propounded number for the voide center, and demaunde for the square roote of 49. whiche is 7. so youe finde that 7. is the front and flanke of the void center, that don say that youre voide place or center ocupies 21. foote in front and 49. in flanke, then place downe 49. the center and 121. the unarmed pikes whiche two adisiones, will amont to 170. oute of whiche take the square roote which is 13. and say that 13. is the front of the vnarmed pikes withe the voide center, that 〈 math 〉 don substract 7. the front of the center oute of 13. the front of the center and unarmed, and youe shall finde that 6. remaniethe, this 6 divide by 2! and the quotient will be 3. so say that by youre division youe finde that 3. unarmed pi∣kes comes to the linenge of the center everie way, beginenge firste wi∣the the right flanke of the center which is 7. and say the linenge of pikes of that flanke is 7. rankes of 3 pikes in eache ranke, and iuste so many more rankes for the linenge of the leift flanke of the center, conteinenge 21. pikes in each linenge, so by youre division youe fouu∣de the 2. linenges of pikes of the 2. flankes of the center. Nowe say 7. the front of the center and 6 the 2. linenges of the same maketh. 13. the front of the center and 2. lininges, nowe say that the thirde mani∣ple of unarmed pikes that shall line the front of the center and the 2. linenges of the same, shall marche witth 13. rankes of 3. drie pikes in each ranke, so the 2. flankes and front of the center are linde: that don say that the 4. maniples of unarmed pikes are to be divided into 13. rankes of 3. pikes in each ranke for to line the rergarde of the Page  96 void center, and say that the center is proportionally lined everie way withe the unarmed pikes, and that one unarmed pike did remaine in youre laste division.

Nowe to divide the armed pikes, to line the unarmed proportio∣nally every way, take the full number of the center, of the unarmed, and armed pikes propounded, which 3. partisiones dothe amonthe 342. that don take the square roote of this number which wilbe 18. and resteth 18. of the which 17. are armed pikes and 1. 〈 math 〉 unarmed, nowe substract the square roote 13. oute of the square roote 18. and there shall reste 5. this 5. divide and say that 3 comes to line one way, and 2. armed pikes the other side of youre unarmed pikes; then say that the firste division of armed pikes that shall line the right flanke of the unarmed, muste march withe 13. rankes of 3. armed pikes in each ranke which dothe amonth to 39. so say that the right flanke of the unarmed is lined with corseletes, nowe in the seconde division of corseletes shall march 13. rankes of 2. armed pikes or cor∣seletes in each rancke to line the leifte flanke of the unarmed as by youre division so fallethe oute, nowe say that the 2 flankes of the unarmed pikes are lined with the corseletes. Then in the third division of the corseletes shall march 18. rankes of 3. corseletes in each ranke for the linenge of the full front of the unarmed pikes, and cēter. That don cause the fourth division or maniple of corseletes to marche wi∣the 18. rankes of 2. corseletes in each ranke for the linenge of the rer∣garde of the battell so say that the voide center is proportionally lined withe the unarmed pikes, and the unarmed withe the corseletes, and that there did reste 18. pikes whiche shall serve to guarinsh the cou∣lors in the center, advertisinge that 17. are corseletes and 1. unarmed pike all which diuisiones youe se ordered as by the figure followinge apeereth; nowe to divide youre propounded number of shott which was 352 musketes take the full number of the center of the armed and unarmed pikes, as also of the musketes whiche will amonte 694 oute of whiche take the square roote whiche will by 26. oute of whiche substracte 18 the square of the center of the armed and unarmed pikes, and there shall reste 8. this 8 divide into two par∣tes and eache parte will by 4 and say that to guarinshe the righte flan∣ke of the squadron of pikes youe are to marche withe 18. rankes of 4. musketes in eache ranke, and withe iuste so many more shall youe guarnishe or line the leifte flanke of the full number of pikes, nowe to Page  97 finde oute the lininge shott of the frōte and rerwarde, say that adinge to 18. the fronte of the pikes 8 of the two linenges of the two flan∣kes it makethe 26. and then say that to guarinshe the full fronte youe are to marche withe 26. rankes of 4 musketes in eache ranke, whiche is the lininge shott of the fronte, and iuste so many more rankes shall guarnishe the rerwarde of the battell of pikes meaninge 26. rankes of 4. musketes in eache ranke and so is youre battell proportionally lined every way as the figure and divisiones folowinge sheowethe.

Page  98

A Squadron square of men withe a voide center.

Front of the Battell.

Table of the Battell.

〈 math 〉

Page  99


A battel square of men framed of six nationes, and who they shall un confused∣lie fall into battell withe grace and brevitie, dividinge to each nasion his par∣te of the vangarde, acordinge the number of men they give in relasion, as by the figure folowinge are orderly divided, to fall into battell of a soddaine withoute any crossinge or cōfusion, with the ensignes of each nation in the center of their pikes.

THe enemy aproachinge and understandinge that they are resol∣ved to give battell, the campe Master generall knowinge of the prudent brave conduction, and resolute determination of the Spaniard, Italian, Irishe, Englishe, Borgonones, and Valones, comaun∣deth that there shoulde be chosen oute of thiese nationes to the num∣ber of 10000. of chosen men of tried valor and full resolution givenge order that a battell square of mē shoulde be framed of the saied 10000. men, and for feare of confusion or contrauersie in tyme of fallinge in∣to squadron, he give the order that the Italianes shoulde folowe the Spaniardes, the Irishe to folowe the Italianes, the Englishe to folo∣we the Irishe, the Borgonones after the Inglishe and the Valones to folowe, the Burgonones, and that eache natiō shoulde folowe one ano∣ther as before declared withe the fronte and flanke that toucheth eache nation acordinge to the number of men they give in ralation, that withe grace and brevity and withoute any crossinge or confusion eache nation may fall into squadron of a sodaine, and that eache na∣tion may have his parte of the vangarde acordinge to the number of men he givethe in relation. To wourke the whiche i tought fit to set downe the rules for the divisiones of theese nationes, as here foloweth.

Page  100Firste take the full number of pikes given in relation by the saide six Nationes, which is 5500. oute of whiche take the square roote, whiche is 74. the fronte and flanke of the battell, and 24. pikes remaininge, whiche shall serve to guarnishe the culoures. That done bigin to guarnishe or line the two flankes of the battell of pikes withe short aleowinge five shot under the shelter or defence of eache pike, whiche is the moste that can conveniently be defended under the same. To finde oute the linenge shott of the righte flanke of the battell of pi∣kes, as before ordained, multiply 74. the flanke by 5. and the produ∣cte will by 370. and say that the linenge shott of the right flanke is 74. rankes of 5 musketes in eache ranke, and say that the righte flanke of the battell of pikes is lined withe shott. To guarnishe or line the leifte flanke of the battell of pikes, also say that it is 74. rankes of 5. muske∣tes in eache ranke whiche makethe 370. musketes, and say that youre two flankes of the battell of pikes are lined, nowe to knowe the short that shal guarnishe the full fronte of the pikes, and of the two lininges of the 2. flankes, ad 10. the musketes of the 2. lininges to 74. the fronte of the pikes, and it makethe 84. the full fronte, then say that the divi∣sion of shott that shall line or guarnishe the full fronte is to mar∣che withe 84. rankes of five musketes in eache ranke, and 〈 math 〉 iuste so many more rankes shall marche in the fourte divi∣sion of shot that shall guarnish the full fronte of the rere∣warde, advertisinge that eache division of the two last that lines the fronte and rerwarde conteines 420. musketes in eache, so that the full number of shott of the afore saied 4. divisiones that shall line the two flankes fronte and rer∣warde dothe a mounte to 1590. musketes, comprehen∣ded 10. musketes for to guarnish the coloures, thiese 1590. musketes deducte oute of the propounded and full number of musketes whiche is 4500. and there shall re∣maine 2910. musketes whiche i divide into 30. troupes whiche comethe to 97. musketes in eache troupe, the whi∣che 30. troupes is divided in the 4. angles and two flankes of the battel as by the figure and divisiones folowinge youe may better perceive, where all is ordered and set downe, and withe as greate facility as the divisiones can affourde, that there by suche as are not experte in arit∣meticke nor in the theorike and practike of this arte may the sooner conceive the same.

Page  101


〈 math 〉

THe full number of shott of the saied six nationes monted. —

Oute of whiche is to be de∣ducted the divisiones of the 4. linenges.

So that after deductinge the linenge shott of the 4. frontes of the battell of pikes resteth 2910. m. Whiche is divided into 30. troupes at 97 m. in eache troupe, whiche are divided in the 4 angles and two flankes of the battell of pikes as by the fi∣gure and divisiones folowinge ordered and proportionally di∣vided. Advertisinge that oute of one of the troupes of mus∣ketes of the angles youe are to take 10. musketes to guarnishe the culores.

Page  102
The divisiones of the pikes and the order wherewithe each nation shall marche to fall into battell withe grace and brevety.

BY the divisiones of the pikes before spoken of in dividinge 74. the flanke of youre squadron of pikes be 1040. the number of pikes the Spa∣niardes gave, yove shall finde the number in the quo∣tiente to by 14. and 4. remayninge and say that the Spaniardes are to marche withe 74. rankes of 14. pi∣kes in eache ranke whiche is the order they are to ob∣serve when occasion offerethe to fall into squadron withe there coloures in the center of there pikes, ad∣vertisinge that there restethe 4. pikes oute of there division.14 front.- 4.
The Italianes who gave relation of 888. pikes is divided by the self same rule into 74. rankes of 12 pi∣kes in eache ranke, and in offeringe occasion withou∣te any crossing or confusion shall fall into battell wi∣the this order, and close uppon the leifte hande of the Spaniardes withe the culoures in the center, and con∣forme them selves with the Spaniardes in fronte and flanke.12 front.
The Irish who gave relation of 946. pikes, shall be divided into 74. rankes of 12. pikes in eache ranke withe theyr culoures in the center of theyr pikes, and restethe 58. pikes oute of there division, and they shal fall into battell withe this order, and close uppon the lefte hande of the Italianes.12 front. - 58.
The Englishe who gave relation of 847. pikes is divided into 74. rankes of aleaven pikes in eache ran∣ke withe there culoures in the center, and restethe 26. pikes.11 front. - 26.
The Borgonones who gave relation of 841. pikes are divided into 74. rankes of 11. pikes in eache ran∣ke, and 33. pikes remaininge, and withe there culou∣res in the center shall close uppon the lefte hande of the English, when occasion offereth.11 front. - 33.
The Valones who gave relation of 939. pikes is di∣vided Page  103 into 74. rankes of 12 pikes in eache ranke, and 51. pikes remaininge, and in offeringe occasion to fall into squadron shall observe this order, and ioyne up∣pon the leifte hande of the Borgonones withe there coulores in the center.12 front. - 51.
Advertisinge that of the 172. pikes that did remaine in the divisiones of the Spaniardes, Irishe, English, Borgonones, and Valones. They shall by divided into 74. rankes of two pikes in eache ranke and shall close upp on the leifte hande of the Valones when occa∣sion shall offer to fall into battell, and there shall reste 24 pikes.2 front. - 24.
 74 front. - 24.

The firste division of shott that shall guarnishe or line the righte flanke of the squadron of pikes is divi∣ded into 74 rankes of five musketes in eache ranke, consideringe that a pike can hardely defende under the shelter or defence of the same above five shott at the moste.370 musk.
The seconde division of shott that shall guarnishe the leifte flanke of the battell of pikes is divided into 74. rankes of five musketes in eache ranke.370 musk.
The thirde division of shott that is to guarnishe the full fronte of the battell of pikes, and the two li∣nenges of the same is divided into 84. rankes of five musketes in each rank.420 m.
The fourthe division of shott that is for to guar∣nishe the rerewarde of the battell of pikes, and the two linenge shott of the two flankes is divided into 84. rankes of five musketes in eache ranke.420 m.
In the division of the full number of shott there did remaine oute of the division 10. musketes that is to guarnishe the coulores as in the divisiones of the shott is set downe.10 m.
 1590 musk.

After lininge youre squadron of pikes proportio∣nally every way as before declared, the 4. guarnitio∣nes 〈 math 〉 of shott montes 1590. musketes whiche are to be substracted oute of the principall some or number of musketes whiche is 4500. there shall remaine 2910. musketes, this remainder divide into 30. troupes and Page  104 youe shall finde by youre division eache troupe to 〈 math 〉 containe 97. musketes ordered and divided in the foure angles and two flankes of the battell of pikes to skirmishe acordinge as tyme occasion, and situation shall require as by the figure folowinge youe may see who all thiefe divisiones do fall oute of there marche into aperfect squadron in the forme and maner as be∣fore declared and sett downe. Advertisinge that oute of the laste troupe of musketes on the liefte angle of the battell muste by taken 10. musketes for the linin∣ge shot of the culoures, so that troupe of musketes containes but 87. musketes and all the reste 97. so that 10. muskeths difereth.

Advertisinge that the culoures of eache division of pikes shall mar∣che in the center of the same, so that when occasion shall offer they may with grace and brevity fall into battell array, and withoute any crossinge or confusion nor cuttinge of rankes nor order as many do, but unconfusedly with grace, and brevetie fall into battell, as by the figure followinge youe may see, the 10. musketes youe take oute of one of the troupes of the angles for to guarnish the culoures are to by reckoned in theire due place as the divisiones of shott sheoweth, and youe are not to reken them in the battell by reason they were borowed oute of one of the troupes of musketes.

And let none by ignorante that when the conveniente number of pikes and shott do not remaine oute of the divisiones to guarnish the culoures, then of force order and array muste be broken, in cutin∣ge the shott and pikes necessary to guarnish them, and so for not to err in the rekeninge the divisiones of the table of the battell are to by observed (for beinge infalible) and for bienge the producte: of the generall rule of all the divisiones of the battell, so is it to be under stoode that theire is no better surer nor brifer rule for this purpose.

By the figure folowinge and by the table and divisiones of the same you may see who eache nation doth march with the fronte and flan∣ke acordinge the number of men they gave in relasion, advertisinge that the culoures of each nation are to march in the cinter of theire division of pikes, and the 74 rankes of pikes of 2 pikes in ranke that did remaine oute of the divisiones of the saide 6 nationes shall close upp on the leifte flanke of the battell of pikes as be the figure and di∣visiones followinge youe may plainely see who orderly oute of there march they fall unto battell with grace and brevity.

Page  105〈1 page duplicate〉

Page  105


Page  [unnumbered]TABLE OF THE BATTEL.
THe Spaniardes are divided into 74. rankes of 14 pikes in each ranke monted.1036 pikes.
The Italianes into 74. rankes of 12. pikes.0888 pikes.
The Irish into 74. rankes of 12. pikes.0888 pikes.
The English into 74. rankes of 11. pikes.0814 pikes.
The Borgonones 74. rankes of 11. pikes.0814 pikes.
The Valones into 74. rankes of 12. pikes.0888 pikes.
The remainder of pikes of the six nasiones di∣vided into 74. rākes of 2. pik. in each.0148 pikes.
Pikes remaininge oute of the divisiones.24 pikes.
 5500 pikes.
The lininge shott of the righte flanke of the battell of pikes.0370 musk.
The lininge shot of the leifte flanke.370 musk.
The guarnision shot of the fronte monted.420 musk.
The guarnision of the reregarde.420 musk.
Shot remaininge oute of the divisiones.020 musk.
2900. musketes divided into 30. troupes.2900 musk.
 4500 musk.

Advertisinge that oute of one of the troupes of musketes are to be taken 10. musketes with the other 10. that did re∣maine to guarnish the culoures; still observinge the divisio∣nes of the table for beinge infalible.

Page  [unnumbered]Page  105
The greate battell of 10000. men before spoken of, is nowe divi∣ded into three battelles square of men as by the figure folowing appeereth.

OF the then thousande men (before spoken of, and of whiche were framed abattell square of men, and all redused into one boddy as before set downe, and the forme of there divisiones. Nowe supose that the Campe-master generall woulde have the self same nūber of 10000. men to be divided into three batteles square of men and to observe suche goode order in there divisiones that withe grace, and brevity and withoute any crossinge or confusion they may fall oute of there marche into battell, as by the divisiones, and figure folowinge youe may see. Advertisinge that of the Spaniardes and Italianes there shall by framed one squadron, and of the Irishe and English another, and of the Borgonones and Valones an other.


Spaniardes and Italianes.192816203548.
Irish and English.178615003286.
Burgonones and Valones.178613803176.

NOwe to oure pupose take the full number of pikes of the Spa∣niardes and Italianes whiche is 1928. pikes oute of whiche ta∣ke the square roote whiche will by 43. and 79. pikes remainen∣ge, consideringe that 79. pikes are muche to remayne oute of the Page  106 squadron divide 79 by 43. the square roote, and the number in the quotiente will by one, and 36. pikes yet remayninge, this one youe founde oute of 79. ad it to 43. and it will by 44. and 36. pikes remai∣ninge, and say that 44. is the fronte of the battell of pikes, and 43 the flanke, nowe consider that hardly aboue 4. shott can by, conveniently defended under the shelter and defence of the pike. And say that youe will line youre battell of pikes proportionally by 4. musketes every way. This resolution taken multiply 43. the flanke of the 〈 math 〉 battell of pikes by 4. musketes the linenge shott, the pro∣ducte wherof will by 172. musketes for the lininge shott of the righte flanke of youre battell of pikes, and iuste so ma∣ny more for the lininge shott of the leifte flanke of the bat∣tel of pikes. That don ad 8. the linenge shott of the two flankes to 44 the fronte of the battell of pikes whiche two aditiones makethe 52. the full fronte of the pikes and 2. linenges of the two 〈 math 〉 flankes, nowe to guarnishe the fronte of the battell of pi∣kes multiply 52. by 4. the producte wherof will by 208. musketes whiche is the number of shott that shall guar∣nishe the fronte of the battell, meaninge 52. rankes of 4. musketes in eache ranke. That done say that the two flankes and fronte of the battell are lined withe shott. Nowe to guarnishe the re∣rewarde of the battell, observe the self same order, and number whe∣re withe youe did guarnishe the fronte of the battell whiche was 52. rankes of 4. musketes in eache ranke, and withe so many shall youe guarnishe the re rewarde of the battell, and say that youre battell is proportionally lined every way withe shott.

Nowe for the division of the reste of youre shott take 〈 math 〉 1620. musketes the full number of shott propounded, oute of whiche deducte 760. musketes the girdelinge shott of the 4. frontes of youre battell, and there shall remaine 860. musketes. Whiche i divide into 14. troupes of 60. muske∣tes in each troupe, of the which one troupe shall conteine 74. mus∣ketes by reason the division so fallethe oute, and divided on the two flankes of the battell as by the divisiones, and figure followinge apere∣the, whiche is the firste battell of the three, and on the righte hande; advertisinge that in the laste division of shott there did remaine 6. musketes where withe youe may guarnish the coulores withe them, and withe the 36. pikes that did remaine oute of the division of youre pikes, so youre propounded number of pikes and shott are divided. Page  107 Advertisinge that the fronte of this battell is 44. and the flanke 43. multiplienge the one by the other and adinge there vnto 36 pikes that doe guarnishe the coulores makethe the propounded number of pikes, whiche was 1928. as by the divisiones followinge apeerethe, advertising that youe are to cut ten musketes that wantes for the guarnision of the culoures, oute of one of the troupes, which youe shall finde to muche in the battell, be reason they are borowed of one of the troupes so folowe the divisiones as they are set downe in the table which is the righte way, and infalible.

Table of the firste battell.

〈 math 〉

Page  108



NOwe that yove have done withe the number of pikes and shott the Spaniardes and Italianes gave. Take the 3286 men whiche is given in relation be the Irishe and Englishe, of the whiche 1786 are pikes, and 1500. musketes. To reduce them into a perfecte squadron square of men, and to be proportionally lined and guar∣nished every way withe shott. To wourke the whiche, firste take the number of pikes whiche is 1786. oute of whiche take the square roote whiche will by 42 and there shall remaine 22. pikes whiche may be imployed to guarnishe the coullores, that don say that 42 is the fronte and flanke of the battell of pikes and 22. pikes remaininge. And supose, that occasion offerethe that youe finde necessary the lininge shott not to pass 3. in ranke under the shelter, and defence of apike. Nowe to finde oute the lininge shott of the righte flanke of youre battell of pikes multiply 42. the flanke of the pikes by 3. muske∣tes that is aleowed for the linenge shott, the producte wherof will by 126. or 42. rankes of 3. musketes in eache ranke, then say the righte flanke of the pikes are lined withe shott, and iuste so many more ran∣kes of shot shall serve for the lininge of the leifte flanke of the battel of pikes, observinge the self same number and order as did the linenge shott of the right flanke of the battell of pikes whiche is 〈 math 〉 42. rankes of 3. musketes in eache ranke whiche monteth to 126. musketes, nowe to guarnish the fronte of the bat∣tel of pikes whiche is 42. ad therunto the two lininges whiche 3. aditiones will by 48. the full fronte of the pikes, and of the two lininges whiche youe shall multiply by 3. the producte wherof will by 144. musketes or 48. rankes of 3. musketes in eache ranke, so the two flankes and fron∣te of the battell of pikes are proportionably lined.

Nowe to guarnish the reregarde of the battell of pikes withe shott, observe the self same order before set downe Page  109 for the lininge of the fronte of the pikes. That is to say 48. ran∣kes of 3. musketes in eache ranke, so youre battell of pikes is proportionally lined every way. That don substracte the 540. musketes the linenge shott of the two flankes fronte 〈 math 〉 and rerwarde oute of the principall number of shott whi∣che is 1500 and there shall reste 960. musketes whiche yo∣ue shall divide by 12. or into 12 troupes and the quo∣tiente of youre division alowethe 80. musketes in eache troupe, whiche yove may double when occasion require (that don) say that the reste of youre shott is divided into 12. trovpes of 80. mus∣ketes in eache troupe to be divided on the two flankes of the battell of pikes to squirmish in single or double siele as occasion and situation shall require, so al youre pikes and shot are divided, advertisinge that the 22. pikes that did remaine oute of the division of the pikes are to guarnish the coulores, as by the divisiones folowinge youe may see. Advertisenge that by reason no musketes did remaine oute of the di∣visiones, youe are to cutt of one of the troupes 12. musketes to guarnish the coulores whiche are not to be rekoned in the boddy of the battell (but for borowed) but where the divisiones fauleth and sheoweth whiche is the righte way as here under youe see in the ta∣ble which is unfalible.

Table of the seconde battell.

〈 math 〉

Page  110



NOwe to frame the thirde Battell of the 3166. men the Borgo∣nones and Valones gave in relation meaninge 1786. pikes, and 1380. musketes, firste take the propounded number of pikes, whiche is 1786. oute of whiche take the square roote, whiche yove shall finde to be 42. soe that 42. is the fronte and flanke of the battell, and 22. pikes, remaininge whiche shall serve to guarnishe the culou∣res.

Put in case that occasion requirethe that youre linenge shott is to be no more then 3. musketes in ranke, and say that 42. rankes of 3. musketes in eache ranke shall guarnishe the righte flanke of the bat∣tell of pikes, and juste so many more for the linenge of the leifte flan∣ke, whiche two linenges makethe 252. musketes, that don take 42. the fronte of the pikes, and ad therunto 6. the linenge shott of the two flankes, whiche two aditiones will make 48. To guarnishe the fronte of youre battell of pikes, say that the thirde division of shott is 48. ran∣kes of 3. musketes in eache ranke, and juste so many more rankes for the linenge shott of the rerewarde of the battell of pikes, observinge the self same order as dothe the thirde division of shott, meaninge 148. rankes, of 3. musketes in eache ranke, whiche two divisiones for the linenge shott of the fronte and rerewarde makethe 288 musketes, and soe the 4. sides of youre battell of pikes are proportionally lined every way, the foure linenges importheth 540. musketes.

That don substracte 540. musketes oute of the full number of shot whiche is 1380. and there shall remaine 840. musketes, whiche yove shall divide as time occasion or situation shall require: whiche nowe i suppose conveniente to be divided into twenty troupes to be divided on the two flankes of the battell of pikes to skirmishe where occasion shall require in single or double fiele, as the situation shall permitt, and the occasion shall require, at 42. musketes in eache troupe, soe Page  111 all youre shott and pikas are divided, as before declared; Advertisinge that the culoures shall marche in the center guarnished withe the 22 pikes, that did remaine in the division of the pikes, and by reason no shott did remaine oute of the divisiones of youre shott yove may take 12. shott oute of the laste division of shott to guarnishe the culou∣res, soe youre three battelles are framed, and by the figure folowinge youe see howe oute of there divisiones they fall into battell. Greate consideration and curiosity is to by vnderstoode for the severall divi∣siones of shott, as tyme and occasion shall require, alwayes conside∣ringe the situation and disposition of the grounde, as also of the seve∣rall occasiones and advantadges in skirnmishenge withe greate or smale troupes withe single or double file and in whate distance (when, the enemy dothe abounde on horse, and when nott) and also in pre∣ventinge in due time the orderes and stratageames of the enemy.

Let none by ingnorante that when in the divisiones of pikes and shott theire resteth not inough to guarnish the culoures, of force the necessary shott and pikes required for that purpose are to be cutt of the winges or troupes of the flankes, and are to be rekoned where theire firste divisiones did fall, as declared in the table of the battelles for if youe reken them in the battell and where their firste division did fall, it can not confronte with the divisiones, so observe still the rule of the divisiones as set downe and declared in breefe in the table of the battelles, which is the righte way and generall rule. This table is neowlie invented for that purpose, where presentlie withoute any paines or trouble youe shall finde the reasones, and proportion of all the divisiones of the batteles in breefe (as well of the shott as of the pikes) as also whate remaineth oute of the divisiones, whiche table is of rare importance for the breefe explicatinge and orderinge of all the divisiones of battelles. And besides for cause that many auctores do leaue the same in obscuritie to avoide prolixity, as also to disperte the ingeniouse understandinge of those of perfection in this arte.

Page  112Table of the thirde battell.
Pikes contained in the boddy of the battell.1764 pikes.
Pikes remaininge to guarnish the culors.022 pikes.
Lininge shott of the righte flanke.126 musketes.
Lininge shott of the leifte flanck.126 musketes.
Lininge shott of the fronte of the battell144 musketes.
Lininge shott of the fronte of the rergarde144 musketes.
Musketes divided into 20. troupes on the flankes of the battell.828 musketes.
Musketes deducted to guarnish the culours.012 musketes.
 3166 men.

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Fronte of the seconde Battell.

Fronte of the firste Battell.

Page  [unnumbered]Fronte of the thirde Battell.

Page  [unnumbered]

Page  113〈 math 〉

A Squadron square of grounde of 1116. souldieres of 〈 math 〉 the whiche 576. are pikes, and 540. musketes, to re∣duce them into aperfecte squadron square of grounde firste take the propounded number of pikes whi∣che is 576. whiche youe shall multiply by 3. the producte wherof will be 1728 this producte divide by 7. and the number in the quotient will by 246. oute of this 246. take the square roote whiche will by 15. and say that youe foun∣de oute the flanke of the battell of pikes, nowe to finde oute the fronte of the battell, take the propounded num∣ber of pikes whiche was 576. whiche youe shall divide by 15. the flanke, the quotiente wherof will by 38. whiche is the fronte of the battell of pikes and there restethe 6. pi∣kes whiche shall serve to guarnish the coulores, so that 38. is the fronte and 15. the flanke. Nowe for the division of youre 540. musketes firste say that for the girdelinge shott of the righte flanke of the battell of pikes muste marche 16. rankes of 5. musketes in eache ranke comprehended the ranke of the culors, so the firste division of shott of the van garde is divided into 16. rankes of five musketes in ea∣cheranke. And the seconde division of shott of the van∣garde and firste winge of the right flanke of the battell of pikes is divided into 19. rankes of 5. musketes in eache ran∣ke. The thirde division or winge of the vāgarde is also divi∣ded into 19. rankes of 5. musketes in eache ranke whiche shall serve for the seconde winge of shott of the vangarde and righte flanke of the battell of pikes, so that 270. mus∣ketes, the iuste haulf of the propounded number of shott, are comprehended in the saied 3. divisiones of shott of the vangarde and righte flanke of the battel of pikes.

And for the girdelinge shott and two winges of the leifte flanke of the battell of pikes are also lefte iuste so many more. Whiche shall observe the self same order in linenge the leifte flanke of the pikes. Page  114 Imeane 16. rankes of five musketes in eache for the girdelinge shott of the leifte flanke of the battell of pikes and 2. slives, of 19. rankes of 5. musketes in eache ranke, in whiche 6. divisiones are comprehended the full number of shott whiche was 540. musketes advertisinge that the firste three divisiones of shott shall marche before the pikes, and the other three divisiones of the rergarde and leifte flanke shall mar∣che after the pikes, as by the divisiones folowinge set downe in brife and shall be better understoode by suche as are not experte in this ar∣te: so that they may the sooner cōceiue and come to understande thee∣se divisiones, and howe oute of there marche they fall into battell wi∣the grace and brevity withoute any crossinge confusion or breakinge of rankes as many do, whiche are not expert in aritmetike nor in the severall sortes of divisiones of firy weapone.

The firste division of shott and firste winge of the vangarde is divided into 19. rankes of five musketes in eache ranke whiche conteines.95 musk.
The seconde winge and division of the vangarde is divided into 19 rankes of five musketes in eache ranke.95 musk.
The thirde division of shott of the vangarde for the girdelinge shott of the righte flanke of the battell of pi∣kes is divided into 16. rankes of five musketes in eache ranke comprehended the ranke of the coulores.80 musk.
After theabove 3. divisiones of shott of the vangarde shall marche the firste division of pikes of 15. rankes of 10. pikes in eache ranke.150 pikes.
The seconde division of pikes is also divided into 15. rankes of 10. pikes in eache.150 pikes.
The thirde division of pikes Idem.150 pikes.
The fourthe division of pikes is divided into 15. ran∣kes of 8. pikes in eache ranke whiche dothe cōtaine.120 pikes.
Or the coulores did remaine.006 pikes.
The firste division of shott of the rergarded that fol∣lowes the pikes and that shall line the leifte flanke is di∣vided into 16. rankes of 5. musketes in eache ranke monted.080 musk.
The seconde division and firste winge of mus∣ketes of the reregarde is divided into 19. rankes of 5. musketes in eache ranke whiche followes the girdlinge shott of the leifte flanke and conteines.95 musk.
Page  115The thirde division of shott of the rergarde is divided into another slive of 19. rankes of five musketes in eache ranke.95 mus.

The saied 1116. souldieres are divided into ten divi∣siones as before declared and who oute of there marche they shall fall in battell eyther in singell or double fiele as occasion shall require, and the situation and disposition of the grounde shall permit, advertisinge that there did remaine 6. pikes for to guarnishe the coulores, and that in the divisiones of the lininge shott and ranke of the coulores is comprehended 2. rankes of shott and that eache one of the 4. winges dothe conteine 3. rankes more then the divisiones of the girdelinge shott, and that for cause that ordinaryly the winges are augmented with 3.4. or 5. rankes more then the girdelinge shott.

〈 math 〉

Fronte of the Battell.

Table of the Battell.
570 p.Boddy of the battell of pikes.
6 p.Remainder of pikes.
95 m.Firste wing of musketes.
95 m.Seconde winge of musketes.
80 m.Lininge of the righte flanke.
80 m.Lininge shott of the leifte flanke.
95 m.Firste winge of musket. leifte flanke.
95 m.Seconde winge of mus. leifte flanke.

Page  116〈 math 〉

TO frame a Squadron square of grounde of 2782. 〈 math 〉 Souldieres of the whiche number 1050. are pikes, and 1732. musketes, to reduce this number into a Squadron square of grounde, whiche the Spanniarde caulle Quadro de terreno, firste take the propounded num∣ber of pikes whiche is 1050. and multiply it by 3. the pro∣ducte, wherof will by 3150. this producte divide by 7. and the number in the quotient will be 450. oute of this quotiente take the square roote whiche youe shall finde to be 21. and 9. remayninge, and say that 21. is the flan∣ke of the propounded number of pikes. Nowe to finde the fronte of the battell take the full number of pikes, whiche is 1050. whiche yove shall divide by 21. the flan∣ke, and the quotient will be 50. and remainethe nothin∣ge, and say that 50. is the fronte of the battell of pikes, and 21 the flanke.

Nowe for the division of youre shott suppose that yo∣ve woulde have the lininge shott not to contayne more then 4. in ranke, and that yove woulde have the battell of pikes, to be proportionally lined every way withe shot. To wourke the whiche, take 21. the flanke of the battell of pikes, and multiply it by 4. the producte wherof will by 84. and say that the firste division of shott is 84. mus∣kete▪ or 21. rankes of 4. musketes in eache ranke, whiche is the linenge shott of the righte flanke of the battell of pikes, and the seconde division of shott for the linenge of the leifte flanke shall containe juste so many more, no∣we to finde oute the nūber of shott that shall be in pro∣portion to guarnish the full fronte of the battell of pikes and of the two linenges, ad to 50. the fronte of the pro∣pounded number of pikes 8 the number of shott of the two linges whiche two aditiones will make 58. and say that 58 rankes of 4. mus∣ketes in eache ranke shall be the guarnison, or linenge shott of the fronte of the battell of pikes, and of the 2 linenges, and juste so ma∣ny Page  117 more for the guarnison of the rerewarde of the bat∣tell 〈 math 〉 of pikes, meaninge as before declared 58. rankes of 4. musketes in eache ranke, so the two flankes fronte and rerewarde of the battell of pikes is proportionally lined every way withe 640. musketes, and restethe 1092. musketes whiche i divide into 22. troupes or maniples, ordered and divided in the fronte, rergarde, and 4. angles of the battell of pikes, to skirmishe eyther in single or double fiele as tyme occasion and situation shall requi∣re, and permitt; all whiche divisiones youe may see by the figure folowinge, for the divisiones of shot let none be ingnoran∣te but that there are many considerationes, and curiosities to be had as time and occasion shall require, and especially if the enemy be su∣perior on horse.

Hire folowethe who the full number of pikes and shott is divided into 31. divisio∣nes and who oute of theyre marche they fall into battell.

THe firste division of shott that lines the righte flanke of the battell of pikes is 21. rankes of 4. mus∣ketes in eache ranke.84 musk.
The seconde division of shott for the linenge shott of the leifte flanke of the battell of pikes iuste so many mo∣re 21. rankes of 4 muskets.84 musk.
The thirde division of shot that guarnisheth the full fronte of the battell and 2. lininges is 58. rākes of 4. mus∣ketes in eache ranke.232 musk.
The fourthe divisiō of shott that dothe guarnishe the rerewarde of the battell of pikes and 2. lininges is 58. ran∣kes of 4. musketes in eache ranke.232 musk.
22. maniples of 50. musketes in eache, devided on the fronte rergarde, and 4. angles of the battell make∣the.1100 mus.
 1732 mus.

Advertisinge that of one of the troupes of musketes on the angles of the battell are to by taken 8. musketes which wantes to guarnish the culoures be reason no mus∣ketes did remaine in theire laste division, also be reason no pikes did reste in the division of the pikes y cut 21. pikes of the flanke to guarnishe the culoures so the fronte of the battel of pikes Page  118 shall by but 49. pikes. And by reason the divisiones are before shut upp thies 8 musketes difereth in the rekoninge, so that when acon∣v eniente number of pikes and shott doe not remaine oute of the di∣visiones suficiente to guarnish the culoures the above observation mu ste be kepte as ordered in the Table of the battell, so to confronte the divisiones with the propounded number yove are to by informed by the table for bienge infallible.

Page  119〈 math 〉

A Battell of 2025. Souldieres divided into five battelles square of grounde, of the whiche number 945. are pikes, and 1080 mus∣ketes whiche are equally divided into five batteles, and propor∣tionally lined withe the propounded number of shott whiche is 1080. musketes as the divisiones and figure folowinge sheowethe.

To wourke the whiche firste take the propounded 〈 math 〉 number of pikes whiche is 945 and divide it into five par∣tes or by five, and the number in the quotiente will by 189. whiche is the iuste number of pikes youre division yealdethe for eache battell of the five, nowe to finde ou∣te the fronte, and flanke of eache battell take 189. pikes whiche youre division alowethe for eache battell of pikes, and multiply the same by 3. the producte wherof will by 567. this producte divide by 7. and the number in the quotient will by 81. oute of this 81. the quotiente take the square roote whiche will by 9. and say that 9. is the flanke of eache one of the five batteles of pikes, nowe to finde the fronte take the propounded number of pikes whiche youre division did alowe to eache battell of pikes whiche was 189. this 189 pikes divide by 9 the flanke, the quo∣tiente wherof will by 21. and nothinge remayninge, and say that 21. pikes is the fronte, and 9. the flanke of eache battell of pi∣kes before spoken of and when yove will have them fall into squadron lett them marche in 3. maniples of 9. rankes of 7. pikes in eache ran∣ke withe the coulors in the center of the midel maniple, and so shall they fall withe grace and brevity into battell, and withoute any cro∣singe or confushion. To guarnishe the coulors yove may cutt nine pikes of the flanke of eache battell, and so shall the fronte conteine but 20. pikes; nowe for the division of the propounded number of shott whiche was 1080. musketes supose that yove woulde have eache battell of pikes to be proportionally lined alowinge 3. musketes under the shelter or defence of the pike, firste say that the firste division of shott that shall girdel the right flanke of the firste battell of pikes shall conteine 9. rankes of 3. musketes in eache ranke, and iuste so ma∣ny more for the girdelinge shott of the leifte flanke, so is the 2. flan∣kes of the battell of pikes guarnished: Nowe to guarnishe the fronte Page  120 of the battell of pikes withe shott say that 21. is the frōte of the battell of pikes, and adinge thereūto the two lininges it makethe 27. and say that the third division of shott is to marche withe 27. rankes of 3. mus∣ketes in eache ranke, whiche shall guarnishe the full fronte of the bat∣tell of pikes, and two lininges; Nowe the two flākes and fronte of the battell of pikes are guarnished, and guarnish the rerwarde of the bat∣tell of pikes observe the self same order as yove did in guarnishinge the fronte of the battell of pikes whiche was 27. rankes of 3. musketes in eache ranke, so youre battell of pikes is proportionally lined every way as before declared. The selfe same order shall by observed for the linenge, and girdelinge shott of the other foure batteles of pikes as more plainely shall a peere by the divisiones and figure folowinge

The firste division of shott that dothe guarnishe the righte flanke of the battell of pikes is divided into nine rankes of 3. musketes in eache ranke.27 musk.
The seconde division of shott that guarnisheth the leifte flanke of the battell of pikes shall observe the self same order.27 musk.
The thirde division of shott that shall guarnishe the full fronte of the battell of pikes, and of the two linen∣ges is divided into 27. rankes of 3. musketes in eache ranke monted.81 musk.
The fourthe division that dothe guarnishe the rer∣warde of the battell of pikes shall observe the self same order Imeane 27. rankes of 3. musketes in eache ranke.81 musk.
 216 musk.

By the above mentioned foure divisiones yove see 〈 math 〉 who the firste battell of pikes is proporsionally guar∣nished withe shott, whiche 4. divisiones makethe 216. musketes, and the self same order shall be observed to guarnishe eache one of the other foure battelles of pikes whiche makethe up 1080 musketes the propounded number for the five batteles, as youe may plainely see by the figure folowinge howe they fall oute of there marche, and divisiones into battell as be∣fore declared, advertisinge that in the divisiones of the pikes and shott there did remaine nothinge.

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Page  121〈 math 〉

Fronte of the seconde Battell.
Fronte of the firste Battell.
Fronte of the thirde Battell.
Fronte of the fifthe Battell.
Fronte of the fourthe Battell.
Table of the five Batteles.
Divisiones of the firste Battell: Firste division is 9. r. of 7. pikes.63 pikes. 
Seconde division. Idem.63 pikes. 
The thirde division. Alsoe.63 pikes. 
 189 pikes. 
Multiplied by five.5. 
Pikes of the five Batteles.945 pikes. 
Lininge shott of the righte flanke of the firste battell of pikes, 9. rankes of musketes in eache ranke.27 musk. 
Lininge shot of the lieft flank 9. r. of 3. musketes.27 musk.945 musk.
Liningh shot of the front 28. r. of 3. m. in each ranke.81 musk.1080 pikes.
Guarnision of shot of the reregarde 28. r. of 3. musketes.81 musk.2025 men.
 216 musk. 
Multiplied by5. 
Lininge shott of the 5. battelles.1080. 

Advertisinge that no pikes nor shot did remaine oute of the divisiones to guarnishe the culoures, so that one ranke of pikes and shott may by cutt all a longeste, the fronte or flanke of each battell to guarnish the culoures.

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Page  121〈 math 〉

COnsideringe that crosse batteles are of wonderful force as well aganiste horse as foote as also for the safegarde of bagage amu∣nitiones, and hurtemē: i toughte necessary to put downe the ru∣le for the framinge of suche forte of batteles, put in case that youe have 2032. souldieres of the whiche 1000. are pikes and 1032. are musketes and that youe wouled have this number divided into foure battelles of broade fronte proporsionally lined every way withe the propounded number of shott. To wourke the whiche firste take the number of pikes whiche is 1000. and divide the same 〈 math 〉 by 4. or into foure partes and the quotiente will by 250. whiche is the number of pikes that youre division yeal∣deth for eache of the 4. batteles of pikes, nowe to frame the firste battell take 250. pikes, and divide the same by 3. the quotient will by 83. of whiche 83. take the square roote which is 9. and say that 9. is the flanke of the bat∣tell, nowe to finde oute the fronte take 250. the number of pikes and divide the same by 9. the flanke, the quo∣tient will by 27. and 7. pikes remayninge, and say that 27. is the fronte and 9. the flanke, and 7. pikes remayninge: so yove finde oute the fronte and flanke of eache battell of the 4. and 7. pikes remaininge in eache battell whiche shall serve to guarnishe the coulores, nowe for the di∣vision of youre shott take the propounded number of shott whiche is 1032 musketes, and divide the same by 4. or into 4. partes and the number in the quotiente will by 258. whiche is the iuste number of shott youre divi∣sion yealdethe for eache battell of the 4. of pikes: that done take the number of pikes, and shot that eache battell dothe conteine, whiche is 508. this full number, divide by 3. the quotient wherof wilbe 169. oute of whi∣che take the square roote which will by 13. the flanke: nowe to finde the fronte of the full number of pikes and shott take 508. and divide it by 13. the flanke, and the quotiente will be 39. and 1. remaininge nowe take 10. Page  122 the flanke of the pikes comprehendinge the linenge of 〈 math 〉 the culors, and substracte it oute of 13. the laste flanke of the full number of pikes and shott and there shall re∣maine 3. and say that the firste division of shott shall marche withe 10. rankes of 3. musketes in eache ranke whiche shall serve for the girdelinge shott of the right flanke of the firste battell of pikes, and iuste so many more for the linenge shott of the leifte flanke, so the two flankes of the battell of pikes are lined, nowe to guar∣nishe the fronte of the battell of pikes, ad 6 the 2. li∣nenges to 27. the fronte of the pikes whiche two aditio∣nes makethe 33. and say that the thirde division of shot 〈 math 〉 shall marche withe 33. rankes of 3. musketes in eache ranke, and iuste so many more rankes of musketes shall marche to guarnish the rerewarde of the battell of pi∣kes, and two linenges, so the foure sides of the battell of pikes are proportionally lined every way, and the selfe same order shall be observed for the divisiones of eache battell of the other three as the figure and divisiones followinge sheowethe, theese cross batte∣les are esteemed to be of wonderfull force, consideringe well the fra∣minge of them, and they are also of wonderfull safegarde for the ba∣gage, amunitiones and hurtemē, and if the enemy do come to charge on the firste battell or on any of the other outewarde batteles, whiche beinge alone are but of litle force, but the two outewarde batteles marchinge uppon bothe sides of the firste, then it is of triple force, and if the enemy doe charge on the rerewarde of the two alone bat∣teles they close to gither, and are of double force, and if the enemy be stronge on horse, and shoulde charge at once on the fronte and re∣rewarde then the bagage and hurtemen are to marche betwexte the two double batteles, of the uangarde and rerwarde and cut so many pikes as shall guarnish the same on bothe sides to kepe of the fury of the horse, so it is guarished every way as the divisiones and figure fo∣lowinge sheowethe, by reason the culoures are doble lined and that yove muste cut 6. musketes for eache battell in the rekoninge shall di∣fer so many, it importeth nothinge be reason yove are to observe the generall rule of the table whiche is infallible.

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Page  123

Fronte of the first Battell.
Fronte of the thirde Battell.
Fronte of the seconde Battell.
Fronte of the fourthe Battell.
〈 math 〉
Page  [unnumbered]BY reason that by the divisiones the conveniente number of shott did not reste for the lininge of the culoures, the 6. shott that wantes for that purpose in each of the foure battelles, are to by taken oute of some of the divi∣siones; soe that thies 6. musketes borowed shall difer But for not to err in the rekeninge alwayes observe the 〈…〉 of the diisiones as set downe in the Table, for beinge infalible) and that moste comonly to muche or to litle pikes, and shott are wonte to remaine for the lininge of the culoures, soe that the firste divisiones ordered in the Table, is the righte way, for otherwise suche as are not curiouse and of rare judgement can not chuse but err in the rekeninge, and so for to prevente remedy of this confusion, and obscure rekeninge, allwayes observe the divivisiones of the Table, for beinge infalible, by reason that the convenient number of pikes, and shott did not re∣maine oute of the divisiones youe may cut one ranke alongste the flanke or fronte to guarnish the culoures▪
Table of the cross Battell.
〈 math 〉

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Page  123SEverall orderes are used for the repartinge and prudente orderin∣ge of an army into sundry battalones, as the occasiones and judi∣ciouse intendimente of the prudente and brave Comaunder shall finde conveniente, in devidinge them into or 16 battalo∣nes, whiche with facilitie are ordered by the prudente and experi∣mented Sardgente mayor.

An army of 19200. divided into 16. battalones of broade fronte, bienge di∣vided by 16. eache battell shall contai∣ne 1200. whos fronte is 60. and flanke 20. as by the figures folowinge yove see ordered.

The army divided into 16 batteles of broade fronte.

The selfe same army of 19200. is divided into 12. battalones of broade frōte: yove shall by youre division finde each battalon to con∣taine 1600. whos fronte is 69. and flanke 23. as the fi∣gures folowinge sheoweth.

The army divided into 12 bat∣teles of broade fronte.

Page  124
Three thousande men divided into six battelles of broade fronte ordered to figh∣te, as by the figure followinge yove see, the fronte of each battell is 41. and flanke 12. and 8. remaininge in the divisions of each battallon.


SEverall opiniones are for the divisiones and orderinge of the firy weapon, some use winges of 200. some 300. shott, but in my opi∣nion it were far better to divide them into smale troupes of 50.60.70. and so till a 100. for by experience i knowe the same to by of for greater execusion in ocasiones of service, and more ready eyther in plaine straighte or narowe places, for the more troupes of shott yove have beinge prudently ordered and conducted, the more shall the enemy by a plied, the one orderly secondinge the other, which questionless theire execution shall by far greater then if they were divided into greate troupes. When yove shall come to any narowe or straighte pasadges, consider whether the straighte by suche as will suffice that yove may pass trough the same with the order yove march, if not conforme the order with the pasadge, and let the order not by so broade in fronte but that it may convenientely marche wit∣houte breakinge order or array, nor lesher then the thirde parte of the fronte of the battell of pikes, if the situation so permit; for cau∣se Page  125 thatt all prevensiones posible to be had for the breefe framinge of battelles are to by more esteemed, rather then fall abreakinge often times order and array, as very many unable Sardgente mayores co∣monly do, but rather prudently with grace and brevitie, and withou∣te any crossinge or confusion or breakinge of any ranke fall into bat∣tell, thies and many more dificulties are with facilitie reduced into theire iuste perfection by prudente and brave conductores, and with grace and brevitie.

The rule to frame triangle battelles is to bigin withe one man in the firste ranke, 3. in the seconde, 5. in the thirde, seaven in the four∣the, and so consequenty augmentinge 2 in every ranke untill youe fi∣nish youre battell, this unused proporsion i put downe to contente those whiche woulde faine knowe the forme of suche battelles, and bisides that à Sardgente mayor oughte not to by ingnorante in any maner of forme or proporsiones of squadrones, and that withe facili∣tie and speede he may change the forme and proporsion, as time oca∣sion and situasion shall require, and that bisides ocasion may offer that situasion shoulde presente fit for suche formes, so that a Sargen∣te mayor oughte not to by ingnorante in no forme of squadrones.


Page  126〈 math 〉

A Battell of broade square of 6000. men of the whi∣che 〈 math 〉 1930. are complet corseletes and 4070. musketiers, ordered and divided as folowethe: firste take the propounded number of pikes whiche is 1930. this number divide be 3 the quotiente wherof will by 643. oute of this quotiente take the square roote whi∣che will by 25. whiche is the flanke of the battell of pi∣kes. That don to finde oute the fronte of the battell take the propounded number of pikes, and divide the same by 25 the flanke; whiche quotient wil by 76. and 30. pikes remaininge, and say that 76. is the fronte and 25. the flanke of the battell of pikes, and that the 30. pi∣kes shall be to guarnishe the coulores, nowe for the divi∣sion of the 4070. musketes put in case that yove woulde have the battell to be proporsionally lined every way wi∣the shott, consideringe that five shott is the moste that can be conueniently defended under the shelter or de∣fence of the pike, and say that yove will have the battell to by guarnished withe five musketes in ranke, to wour∣ke the whiche take 27. the flanke comprehended: the two rankes of the coulores and say that the firste divi∣sion of shott is 27. rankes of five musketes in eache ran∣ke whiche is the girdelinge shott of the righte flanke and iuste so many for the linenge of the liefte flanke, no∣we to finde oute the shott that shall guarnishe the full fronte of the battell of pikes and the two linenges, take 10. the linenges of the two flankes, and ad it to 76. the fronte whiche two aditiones makethe 86. and say that the guarnision of shott of the fronte of the battell of pi∣kes, and two linenges shall marche withe 86. rankes of five musketes in eache ranke; nowe for the linenge shott of the rerewarde of the battell of pikes observe the self sa∣me order meaninge 86. rankes of five musketes in eache ranke, so the two flankes, fronte, and rerwarde of the bat∣tell Page  127 of pikes is proportionally lined whiche 4. divisiones 〈 math 〉 of shott makethe 1130 musketes nowe for the division of the reste of the shott substracte 1130. the 4 lininges oute of 4070. musketes the principall some, and there shall reste 2940. musketes whiche can not come under the shelter nor defence of the pikes, whiche i divide into 40. maniples of 74. musketes in eache maniple, exepte one troupe that conteines but 54. musketes whiche i divide on the flankes of the battell of pikes to skirmishe in singell or double fiele as tyme, ocasion, and disposi∣tion of the grounde shall permit, so all youre shott are divided as before set downe, and as by the divisiones, and figure folowinge ordered, and howe oute of there marche they fall into squadron advertisinge that the coulores shall marche in the center and midele mani∣ple of pikes, and the 30. pikes that remainethe for to guarnishe the coulors shall also marche in the same maniple all whiche divisiones are plainly ordered as by the figure folowinge yove may see, who oute of there marche they fall into battell withe grace and brevity, in observinge the divisiones ordai∣ned when of a sodaine yove woulde have the pikes oute of there mar∣che to fall withe grace and brevity into battell, cause the firste divi∣sion of pikes to marche withe 25. rankes of 16. pikes in eache ranke, then another maniple of 25. rankes of 15 pikes in eache ranke then another maniple withe the self same order withe the coulores in the center guarnished withe the 30. pikes that did remaine, after the ma∣niple of the coulors shall marche two other maniples of 15. rankes of 5. pikes in eache ranke as hire folowēge yove shall see.

The firste division of pikes is divided into 25. rankes of 16. pikes in eache ranke maketh.400 pikes.
The seconde division of pikes is divided into 25. ran∣kes of 15. pikes in eache ranke whiche shall folowe the firste monted.375 pikes.
The thirde division in whiche center the coulores are to marche is divided into 25. rankes of 15. pikes in eache ranke and dothe conteine in all the some of.375 pikes.
The fourthe division and maniple of pikes is divi∣ded into 25. rankes of 15. pikes in eache ranke whiche dothe conteine.375 pikes.
Page  128The fifthe and laste division also.375 pikes.
And 30. pikes that did remaine for the coloures.30 pikes.
 1930 pikes.

FOr the framinge of batteles bastarde square whi∣che 〈 math 〉 the Spaniarde and Italian call prolongado, that is to say longe in flanke, the rule whiche is used for the framinge of theese sortes of batteles is the self same of the broade square, and the diference is, that the fron∣te of the one is flanke of the other, as for example supo∣se yove woulde have abattell bastarde square to be fra∣med of 700. pikes. To wourke the whiche, do as yove did in framinge the batteles of broade fronte, in divi∣dinge the saied number of 700. pikes by 3 the quotien∣te wherof will be 233. oute of whiche quotiente take the square roote whiche will by 15. whiche is the fronte of the bastarde square, nowe to finde the flanke take 700. the propounded number of pikes, and divide the same by 15. the fronte, the quotient wherof will by 46. the flanke of the bastarde square, and restethe 10. pikes. And if of this self same number of 700. pikes yove woul∣de frame asquadron of broade square the flanke of the bastarde square will by the fronte of the broade square, so that the rule whiche is used for the one will serve for the other. The diference is that the fronte of the one wil serve for the flanke of the other.

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〈 math 〉

Table of the Battell.

25 rankes of 16 pikes.400 pikes.
25 rankes of 15 pikes.375 pikes.
25 rankes of 15 pikes.375 pikes.
25 rankes of 15 pikes.375 pikes.
25 rankes of 15 pikes.375 pikes.
Pikes remaininge30 pikes.
 1930 pik.

27 rankes of 5 musketes.135 musketes.
27 rankes of 5 musketes.135 musketes.
86 rankes of 5. musketes.430 musketes.
86 rankes of 5 musketes.430 musetes.
50 troupes conteininge2940 musketes.
 4070 musk.

Advertisinge that the 20 musketes for the lininge shott of the culoures are comprehended in the divisiones of the lininge shot of the two flankes; which 20 muskees were cut of the laste troupe on the liefte flanke, whiche troupe remaines with 54 musketes, and all the reste 74 musketes.

Page  [unnumbered]

Page  129No souldier (i hope) oughte to be ingnorante but that the squa∣dron of pikes being framed, it is to be empaled and girdeled withe shott as many rankes of shott as pikes. But the righte and naturall girdelinge shott indeede oughte to be no more shott in ranke, then that the pike may well cover and defende, espesially where the ene∣my are stronge of horse, and so under the favor of the pike, there can nott conveniently be defended but one ranke of three or foure shott at the moste, and so many in my opinion shoule the girdelinge shott containe and knelinge upon one knee under the coverte of the cou∣ched pikes, shoulde at the charginge of the horsemen discharge there voley in there face, and bosome; whiche woulde be no smale gallinge unto them, butt when this danger of horse is not to by feared, then the impalement may be made of more shot in a ranke, acordinge to the quantity of shott, and the reste of the shott into smale slives or trou∣pes to troupe rounde aboute the battell in reasonable distance from the same, the whiche divisiones of smale troupes, i esteeme to be far better then the greate inproportionate winges, whiche many do use, containinge far greater numberes, and are muche more ready to be broughte to skirmishe eyther in single or double fiele, and every seve∣rall troupe to be led by a Sargente or Corporall, and some Captaines to oversee the whole, and at every angle of the battell it were not a misse to a pointe certaine troupes of shott, whiche woulde flanker itt every way even as the Cavallero or Travessos do the curtine of a for∣te.

Let none be ingnorante but that for the severall divisiones of pikes and shott is required greate considerationes, as time, occasion, and si∣tuation shall require; continuall application in the theoricke and pra∣cticke of warr togither withe perfection in arithmeticke makethe easy many difficulties of deepe judgemente, and rare importance in warlike affaires, all whiche cōtinuall use and exercice make the easy, for the se∣verall divisiones of shott many considerationes are to be had acordin∣ge as occasion shall require, and the situation and disposition of groū∣de shall permitt, for the girdelinge shott some use three some 4. and five is the moste that can conveniently be defended under the shelter or defence of the pike, and specially when the enemy are stronge on horse, so that for the righte guarnision of shott oughte not to be mo∣re then the pike can defende, but in suche occasiones as the enemy is not to be feared on horse the divisiones of shot can be ordered of grea∣ter numberes to skirmishe, acordinge to the judgemente of the Sard∣gente Page  130 mayor, dividinge them in wings or maniples, as he shall thinc∣ke moste conveniente, observinge theyr juste proportion in theyre di∣visiones, some use greate wings of shott, whiche are not comendable in occasiones of fighte, for the smale troupes are more apte and easieste to by governed, and of a sodaine youe can skirmishe withe them ey∣ther in single or double fiele, and that bisides they bringe more men to fighte at once, but when the enemy are superior on horse, and wee feo∣we or none it is goode to gett the 4. frontes of the battell of equal re∣sistance bothe to offende and defende, so that the enemy may not take advantage of one place more then of the other. The wings or mani∣ples of shotte are not to go any greate distāce from the battell of pi∣kes; and specially when the enemy are stronge on horse, but rather un∣der the shelter, and defence of the pikes, that therby the squadron may by the stronger and more safe in receiuynge any domage when theyr force is united in one boddy as happened to don Alvaro de Sandy in the journey of caruan in barbery when the exercito of Ciderfa Kin∣ge of the moores charged on him, one of his Captaines named Luis Bravo de Laguna seinge a winge of shott a goode distāce from the squa∣drō cried on don Alvaro wishinge him withe spede to tourne and recei∣ue that winge for freare that for loosinge the same he shoulde incur danger to loose the body, by dayly experience we see that smale num∣beres doe repulse far greater, and that the army whiche is beste orde∣red, and disciplined moste comonly is master of the victory, wherof there are verie many examples in writinge of famouse and antiente au∣ctores, so that theese happy proceedinges resulte of the goode order, prudence, and approoved experience of the chefe and brave Comaun∣deres and of the resolute valor of the Souldieres, as Vegetio de re militari give the reason how the antiente Romaines came to Master all other Nationes, sayinge that they were not so greate as the Germaines, nor so greate in number as the Frence, nor so prudente as the Greeckes, nor so many in nūber as the Spanardes nor so subtill as the Africanes, nor so fu∣riouse as the Britanes, butt by theyre continuall practice and experi∣ence in warr they overcomed al theese difficulties, by onely mantayin∣ge there people wel exercised in armes and practice of warr, when a re∣gimente dothe marche some times greate disorderes are comited, the Souldieres runinge away from there culoures, robinge and spoylinge the country, and poore inhabitantes litle regardinge in not acompli∣shinge there obligationes, in beinge absent from there culoures; litle respectinge or fearninge there Officeres, and no respecte to milita∣ry Page  131 discipline, wherof resulteth greate ruines and revoltes in many countries, some superiore and inferiore Officeres, are culpable in thiese intolerable disorderes offencive to the lawes of god and comon wealth in not procuringe, sollicitinge and dayly instructinge theyre Souldieres as a father is bounde to doe for his children, and that as farr as his ability and power can reach, and not to be inclined to steale or wronge the poore Souldier, in keepinge any thinge wronge∣fully from him, but rather sheowinge him self very, lovinge and kinde to them.

In equalinge him self in all dangeres and travayles withe them, in cōtinually, givinge them goode instructiones, and comfortinge them in all necessities, yea and in assistinge them to his ability, in ministrin∣ge equitie and goode justice a mongste them, in honoringe and pre∣ferenge those of brave cariage, and goode examples, that otheres may imitate thē, in redresinge in due time disorderes, in seinge severely pu∣nished factioneres wholy given to vice and bad examples; whiche are more dangerouse then the divell, so shall he bothe by beloved and fea∣red by the Souldieres, in knowinge that he is carefull in ministringe and procuringe justice to eache one acordinge his deserte, and spe∣cially to se base factioneres banished, and severly punished, when there is no hope of there amendmente.

In occasiones of marchinge the Sardgent mayor is to take a speciall care to procure all thinges to be in a readines to bigin his jurney verie early that the Souldieres may come in goode time to theyr quarter for many considerationes to theyr comodity and ease, and in theyre mar∣che not to opress them, but keepe an ordinary pace, for otherwise verie many shall stay behinde: To make al to nowe, and then where he shall hit uppon good water, and he ought to have aregarde in pasinge naro∣we pasadges, and make alto a distance of till they all have paste and fal into there former divisiones and rankes, a Sardgente oughte to be leif∣te in eache division of the Regimente, that he may yealde acompte of them at all times, and observe the order as it was ordained by the Sar∣gente mayor, withe so many rankes and the self number, so that withe facility oute of there marche they may fall into squadron, when occa∣sion shall require, and suche a Sardgente or Sardgentes as troughe ne∣gligence shall not acomplish his obligation, to reprehende him in pu∣blike. In time of the Romaines suche as were inclined to disobedience in not acomplishinge there order and obligation, they were so severly punished, that no Souldier durste by absente from his ranke, and the Page  132 Sardgentes and Officeres of eache division of theyre marchinges had suche care in acomplishinge whate was referred to there charge withe suche punctuality, that full satisfaction was yealded.

In extraordinary heate weather in somer when the Sardgente ma∣yor marchethe withe his Regimente greate consideration oughte to be taken as before spoken of, by cause of the extraordinary heate, and heavy burden of the Souldier, some times they are chockte, and bur∣ned with heate, and for shame, and regarde of there honor they ra∣ther try danger of deathe then stay behinde there culoures.

When the Sardgente mayor shall marche withe his Regimente in any place or contry where the enemy is to be feared the divisiones ought not to by greater then that they may comodiously marche, nor lesse thē the thirde parte of the squadrō of pikes, some times withe the one haulfe, and some times in battell, allwayes takeng regarde ofthe situation and occasion.

The Master de campe in marchinge withe his Regimente as chee∣fe of the same is to marche in the vangarde nexte to whose person is to assiste the Sardgente mayor as a principall minister to whome he deliveres the orderes of his Regimente, but if the enemy shoulde chance to charge on the reregarde he as a cheefe conductor of his Regimente is to assiste in the place moste to be feared of the enemy, to comaunde and execute in due time whate is moste fitt.

The Sardgente mayor beinge in campiana, and beinge informed that his Regimente is to marche the nexte morow, he is to repaire to the Captaine generall of whome he is to demaunde order where his Regimente shall marche in the vangarde battell of reregarde, and he is to advertice, and give order to the Captaine de campania to gett all the bagadge charged uppon the a poincted houre ordained, and not to faile in acomplshinge the same, and if the vangarde belonges to him he is to comaunde the Captaine de campania to get all thinges in a redineshe at the breake of day, and to give order that the culoures and companies of his Regimēte, withe speede drawe oute of the quar∣ter, and to marche on to the place of armes, and there to frame his squadron, givinge order to eache Captaine, where he shall marche that day, and divide the Sargentes and sheowe each one his division, and givinge thē straighte charge that they acomplishe there obligatiō withe care and punctuality, and that no Souldier doe misse his ranke, nor breake the order given, if the narownes of the pasadge do not constraine him, and let no Souldier pass to spoyle the poore inhabi∣tantes, Page  133 and if he wante any Souldier of those of his division, or if any come unto them more then the order given to adverice the Sardgent mayor, and for recompence of his punctualitie and care in acompli∣shinge his obligation he shall gaine the benevolence of his Master de campe and Sardgent mayor, and in reason they oughte to have a me∣mory of his punctuall care, and to prefer him into a greater office for his obedience and punctuallitie a monghste other Sardgentes, and not once nor twice but still makinge knowen his aproved partes, care and diligence in acomplishinge the orderes of his Superiores, soe can he not by forgotten by the superior officers till he by advāced for his undeniable care and obedience.

Moste necessary it is for a Sargent mayor to be couriouse and ex∣perte in executinge well his office, for in tyme of framinge of squa∣drones the Judges of his errores are many, in time of framinge of squadrones, some Sardgēts mayores do fall into many errores, by rea∣son of there litle exercice, and specially for not appliēge them selves withe care and diligence bothe in the theorike and practike of this ar∣te, and specially to by skilfull in Arithmeticke, whiche withe practice makethe easy many rare occurrantes in warrlike affaires, and suche as are not curiouse in well appleinge them selves in learninge the rare and deepe curiosities of this arte do some times finde them selves pu∣sled and amased before there enemy in time of moste neede: A mo∣ste unfitinge thinge it is for one to be ingnorante and unhabele in his office, soe i supose that suche as do not diligently apply them selves, can hardly reduce into perfection that, wherof he is ingnoran∣te and knowethe not the arte, by dayly experience, we see that favor▪ frendshipp, enteres, and affection, hinderethe muche prosperity and goode successes, and specially in this noble arte of warr.

Many opiniones there are for the divisiones of shott, and specially when the enemy are stronge on horse, and that youe have two thirde partes of shott, unto one of pikes, youre battell beinge empaled and girdeled proportionally withe shott, there will yett remayne goode store of shott. The question is how they shall be bestowed to be safe from the fury of the horse, the sureste and beste way is to put them into the center of the battell of pikes, where they are more safe, and if any shott be killed or hurte youe can take at all times oute of the center as many as youe shall neede of.

For the framinge of thiese battelles withe centeres i have already declared howe they oughte to be framed, and proporsionolly lined, Page  134 and if the enemy horse shoulde chance of a sodaine to chardge on yove, and that youe have no tyme to place the overplusse of youre shott in the center divide them betwixte the rankes of pikes all alon∣gste from the fronte to the reare warde, so they shall by safe and yove can use them at any tyme when ocasion shall require, but havinge in∣teligence that the enemy are stronge in horse, and we feowe or none in suche ocasiones i woule firste bigin in framinge the cener of the overplusse of the shott, havinge oportunity for the same, and also lea∣ve place for hurtemen in the cēter and divide them into so many ma∣niples that they may of a sodaine fall into squadron square of men in the center, withoute any crossinge aluēge there iuste fronte and flanke and then divide the pikes into maniples to proportionally guarnishe the center on every side or fronte of the same, and then divide in pro∣portion the girdlinge shott that is lefte to guarnish the 4 frontes of the battell of pikes, and center, this is the perfecte and right way, but when urgent necessity requireth the overplusse of shott may be pla∣sed and divided betwexte the rankes of pikes as before sett downe, ad∣vertisinge that the coulores is to goe in the center.

As the battell dothe marche on towardes the enemy and cominge once within reache of the musket then the firste rankes of the win∣ges of musketes are to marche in this maner; the firste rankes step∣pinge some two or three paces, forwarde havinge in the meane ty∣me made them selves ready, and cocked there matches, then with rea∣dines and expedition all those of the firste rankes (there musketes byenge uppon there restes or forkes) to discharge at once, permiten∣ge other rankes to proceede, then presently those of the seconde ranke to stepe upp before the firste ranke, as the battell or batallon do marche, and so to discharge as theyre former followes had don before, and then the thirde ranke before the seconde, and the four. the before the thirde, and soe all the other rankes consequently wi∣the this kinde of double marche and at the traine of the laste ranke those of the firste to folowe upp a gaine, and so consequently the re∣ste. But if chance that the squadron of pikes be distresed, or con∣strained to retire, they are to discharge at the enemy, retiring bac∣ke uppon a counter marche eache feele or ranke, consequently, and withe expedition one after a nother, and withe speede fall bake into there ranke, to give place to the nexte rankes, that no time be idell, employed.

Sundry opiniones there are of comparisones betwext the Infan∣tery, Page  135 and Cavallery, whiche of them is moste utill in the warres, the one and the other are moste necessary in occurantes of warlicke affai∣res, but in my opinion the Infantery is to be preferred firste beinge well disciplined in the arte of war, never the lesse the cavalleria bein∣ge well monted and armed and beinge experimente, souldieres, beinge conducted by prudent and brave conductores douptlesse theyr executiones and resolutiō is to be feared, but they are not com∣parable to deale, withe resolute foote, excepte uppon manifeste and greate advantages and in place or grounde of greate favor for them. For beinge well knowen that a resolute stande of pikes well ordered, and girdeled withe shott, will give them sore stoppes, and retournes as plainely apeered when Marques de Pescara withe 800 short aptay∣ned the victory of Charles de noy then Visroy of Napoles, withe his Cavallery at the battell of Pavia, a nother example wee have of the Conte Francisco Carmognolla, beinge Captaine generall of Filip Viconte Duke of Millanes army, goinge withe 6000. horse a gainste the Swishe∣res army, was by them repulsed by the valeure, and lenghte of there pikes, who havinge regathered this disordered troupes, consideringe from whence there disadvantage greowe, turned head againe uppon the enemy: and he him self and his companies disamounted on foo∣te, and withe there lances in hande framed afoote squadron, and charged the enemy afresh, and brake and overthrewe them in num∣ber above fifteene thousande when by force of horse coulde not by removed, imitatinge herin Marcus, Valerius, Cornelius, who beinge consull and Captaine againste the samnites in the firste punny war∣res, and in theyr laste battell not able to enter uppon them by reason of there lōge pikes where withe they defended them selves, comaun∣ded his horsemen to disamounte, and on foote they arived as they were withe there lances, to fighte withe there enemy, and over threwe them and putt them to flighte optaininge the victory, and remay∣ninge withe there baggadge, and in the battell given by Constantine Roxianus Captaine generall to Sigismund Kinge of Polonia withe Basilius the greate Duke of Moscovia by the river Brisva, who surmoun∣ted him on horse backe, three thousande foote men; onely, he had in his army, won him that day the honor and victory, also as did apee∣re by the memorable batteles of the Inglishe againste the provde cavallery of the frence at agincourte fielde and other places, many more examples mighte be recited bothe antient and moderne, re∣membringe that amonge the antiente Romaines there foote was al∣wayes Page  136 of more estimation then there horse, allwayes houldinge a true opinion, that the Infanterie well disciplined is the right sinue of the warr, the walles of the citty and fortress of the realme.

I have hearde say that in thies warres of the netherlande after that the grand Comendador died that Don Alvaro de Vergas, who at that time comaunded the Spanish Cavallerie, did greate exploictes in en∣counteres, he had withe the states foote and horse, but it muste by considered that those were oulde and experimented Souldiers, resten∣ge uppon a resolute and valerouse determination.

The otheres for the moste patre Bisones, and rawe people raised up∣pon a sodaine conceipte, in whiche actiones is marvelouse to be mar∣ked the diference betwene men of experience, and rawe Bisones the prudent cariadge, resolute valor and goode conduction of the one, and litle practice, and experience of the otheres, as did apeere in the reincounter at tilmonte, and at the souckeringe of monts-dog beinge Taken by them of Mastricke, and moste notable in the sacke of An∣twerpe where lesse then withe the number of 5000. Spaniards inclo∣sed within the sitadel gave the overthrowe and foile unto 16000 of the Anturpianes. Bravely armed and incamped within theyre owne towne. In like sorte at the overthrowe of Gibleo where not above 600. horse, of don Iohn de Austria his troopes defeated above 15000 of the states, (moste strange and wonderfull) onely for wante of goo∣de conductores and the enemy spyinge theese advantages resultin∣ge of there simple conduction founde them selves amased.

And for as muche as i have spoken muche of this office, i will con∣clude in sayenge that he oughte nowe and then to visite and revisite at diveres and differente houres all thinges by him provided and a pointed, and see that they be prudently ordered and performed, re∣prehendinge whate he shall finde wourdie of punishmente, but that to be don prudently and in curtouse sorte, and presentinge good rea∣sones withe amiable and gentle wourdes, with gravitie and naturall grace, and not with puffinge inconciderate pride and bad examples, so shall he by obeyd in such sorte that when he woulde determine to execute his designes and orderes of his superior comaunderes, all of∣ficeres and souldieres mighte beare him that due respecte and obe∣dience, whiche shoulde by required to bringe his purpose to effecte, and let not griddy couetousnes overcome him in wronginge or per∣mitinge to by wronged the poure souldieres of theire righte, and spe∣cially in tyme of extreame necessitie, but rather make knowen his Page  137 gentle inclinationes and true love, soe shall he by beloved feared and respected.

Let him not by inclined to any odiouse rancor nor malice in wai∣tinge oportunitie of revenge of some wourdes or disputes, whiche ha∣pened betwexte him, and some Officeres or Souldieres of his Regi∣mente for defindinge theyre honour and righte, and findinge that he be so inclined is signe of aloe unconsiderate and base minde. All Officeres and Souldieres of his Regimense oughte to have a speciall care in not loosinge him his due respecte, and suche as do not a complish with theire obligationes hirein are righte wourthy of re∣prehension, soe all thinges don with moderation and justice is lauda∣ble.

Page  138An army of 11200. men divided into five batteles Squa∣re 〈 math 〉 of grounde ordered to fighte, as by the figures folowinge youe see. The fronte of eache battell is 72 and 31. the flan∣ke, and 8. remaininge oute of the division of eache battell; eache battell containes 2240.

The army divided into five battelles.

SQUARE OF GROVNDE, by the rule of proportion.

The saiede army of 11200. divided into seaven battelles. Square of grounde, eache bat∣tell shall conteine 1600. and the fronte of eache battell is 61. and flanke 26. and 14. pikes remaininge oute of eache battell to guarnish the culoures, the which 7. battelles are ordered as by the figure folowinge youe see. — 1600. men in each battell.

〈 math 〉

The army divided into 7. battelles.

SQVARE OF GROVNDE, By the rule of proportion.

Page  139A Battell square of men, withe a center of Arcabuseros, which can not by defended under the shelter of the couched pike, when the ene∣my doe a bounde on horse, and wee feowe or none, in suche ocasiones the sureste way for the overpluse of shot is to by putt into the center, and proportionally guarnised with the pikes and musketes, as by the fi∣gure folowinge youe see, and howe they are diuided by the rule of pro∣portion.

  • 276 Arcabuses.
  • 360 Pikes.
  • 364 musketes.
  • 1000.


〈 math 〉

Table of the battell and center of Arcabuseros deposito.
BY the division of the center of Arcabuseros the square route of the same num∣ber yealdeth 16. Arcabuses in fronte and flanke of the center, and 20. remai∣ninge oute of the division, monteth256 arcab.
The firste division of pikes that guarnisheth the righte flanke of the center, divided into 16. rankes of 5. pikes in each, monteth80 pikes.
The secōde division of p. that guarnisheth the liefte flāke of the center divided into 16. r. of 4. p. in each.64 pikes.
The thirde division that guarnisheth the full fronte, and the two linenges of the center is divided into 25. rankes of 5. pikes in each ranke, monteth125 pikes.
The fourthe division of pikes that guarnisheth the full fronte of the rewarde is divided into 25. ran∣ke of 4. pikes in each ranke, monteth100 pikes.
The lining of musk. that guarnisheth the right flank of the pikes is divided into 25. r. of 3. m. in each.75 musk.
The seconde lining of mus. that guarnisheth the liefte flank of the p. divided into 25. r. of 3. m. in each.75 musk.
The thirde division of musketse that guarnisheth the full fronte of the pikes and center, is divided into 31. rankes of 3. musketes in each ranke.53 musk.
The fourthe division of musketes that guarnisheth the rewarde of the pikes and center is divided into 31. rankes of 3. musketes in each ranke, monteth93 musk.
The remainder of musketes, that do guarnish the culoures.8 musk.
Of the 20. arcabuseres, that did remaine goes to guarnish the culoures.4 arcab.
The 11. pikes that did remaine oute of the division of pikes are employed to guarnish the culours.11 pikes.
Of the remainder of arcabuseros their remaineth oute of the battell.16 arcab.

Page  140

The election and office of a Master de Campe of a Regi∣mente of Infanterie.

THe office of the Master de campe of a Regimente of Infanterie is an office of greate reputation, which by all reason oughte to be recomended to one of greate prudence, brave conduction, and skillfull in martiall affaires, for beinge the heade, leader, and or∣dinarie justice af all the Companies a pointed under his chardge.

He be all reason oughte to by one of greate consideration, because that by him are all the orderes, and necessarie prevensiones for the generall goode and utilititie of his regiment delivered to the Sargen∣te mayor, alsoe to the Captaines, Souldieres, and other Officeres of his Regimente, as alsoe to all sorte of people, whiche do followe and depende on the same: To him apertaineth the ministringe of justice, and reprehendinge of faultes, and unrulie factes comitted in his Re∣gimente, in suche places, as his Master de campe, Generall, or Cap∣taine generall, are not in presence, to whome he is to presente many matteres whiche doe ocurr, Whiche by right in suche places as they are presente muste governe all.

But as an ordinarie justice the Master de campe is to by comuni∣cated withall, in all matteres whiche ocurr in his Regimente; the exa∣minationes of thies causes are to be taken, and examined by his Au∣tor, and if occasiones of appellation shoulde represente they are to be remitted to the campe master generall.

This election of a Master de campe, or Coronell is made by the Prince, with the advice of his Counsell of state and warr; And in this election greate consideration oughte to be taken. For beinge suche an honorable chardge of highe degree; as chieftaine or head above all the Captaines, and other Officeres of his Regimente, havinge do∣minion and jurisdiction over them all: By whiche may by perceived the highe dingnitie and degree of suche a person, and the a proved partes brave conduction, valeoure, and goode examples, whiche of him is to be expected, (to the ende that the Captaines may imitate his prudente perfection and brave govermente.) In suche places whe∣re the Captaines of his Regimente do assiste with him, of all occurran∣ces and occasiones of warr they are to advertice theyre Master de cā∣pe, Page  141 and if any Officer or Souldier by a prehended, for faultes comit∣ted, they can not by put at libertie, withoute the Master de campes order, beinge in his jurisdiction.

In time of the Romaines Polybe writeth that this name we call Co∣lonell or Master de campe was then cauled Tribunus, and they cauled Legion, of that whiche we call a Regimente, theyr legion was of 4200 foote men, whiche they divided into 10. partes, as if it were betwex∣te 10. Captaines, eache division they cauled Cohortes, which we call a Companie, each legion had 300. horse, theyre Captaines Cintu∣riones, some of 150. and some of 200. Otheres were Centenarios, whi∣che had but 100. men. For the ministringe of equitie and justice, and reprehendinge of faultes and disorderes, and that military discipline may by duely, observed with infalible punctualitie; he is to choyse an Auditor of a man well learned and of goode judgemente, withe his Clearke and Augusill, whiche are used a monghste the Spanish and Italian Regimentes, to take informationes of suche injuries, and dis∣orderes as are comitted, this Auditor is to give the sentence, but no auctoritie to execute the same, withoute consultinge firste with the Master de campe, and getinge his firme to the sentence, for other wise he hath no auctoritie to execute nor dispatche the same, the A∣gusill serves to assiste the executiones of the Auditores a faires, and alsoe to by imployed, and sollicite many other thinges, that doe pass trough the Auditor is handes.

For makinge or dividinge of quarteres marchinge in campaina or garison, he is to get a skillfull Quarter-master able in readinge and writinge, and specially perfecte in Arithmeticke, for to him apertai∣neth, the receavinge of all sortes of amunitiones and armes given, and delivered by the Prince, but the distributinge of the same belongeth to the Sargēt mayor, to see that all thinges by duly and equally distri∣buted. Of al sortes of amunitiones received of the Kinge, the furiell mayor is to yealde a cōpte, when it is soughte for, for bienge his office and dutie. The furielles of the Companies are to assiste him in all oc∣casiones in marchinge, and to receive theyre orderes from the furiell mayor, and he from the Quarter-master generall; and the from the general. Greate care oughte to be taken in seinge that the Sutleres be well provided with all necessaries, and to see that they by well paiede; A speciall care oughte to by taken that they do not deceive the Soul∣dieres with faulce weighte and measure, nor nothinge above the pri∣ce ordained by the Master de campe.

Page  142It is necessarie that the Sutleres and Marchantes, whiche doe fol∣lowe the Regimente, that they be well garded, that theyr vituales and wares may depende uppon goode securitie, for thies affaires the Ca∣ptaine de campaina and his Leuetenante oughte with care to assiste in executinge his dutie and office.

In occasiones of marchinge he and his teniente and men are to by verie vigilante and carefull, in not permitenge the Sutleres nor they∣re boyes to stragle, or fall a spoylinge the countrie and povre inhabi∣tances, nor to take perforce any thinge that cometh to by soulde in the campe, as alsoe to have a speciall care to lett no Souldieres pass, causinge them to fall into theyre rankes, rather then to be permited to run straglinge and spoylinge the countrie; And suche as are found gilthi in breakinge the proclamation to see them presentlie executed. Soe beinge earneste and carefull in thies affaires shall he oblidge all suche Souldieres as are inclined to minester goode justice and exam∣ples, and esteemed for a true father and brave conductor. A necessa∣rie thinge it is alsoe to have a goode Doctor of Physicke well learned and of longe practice, as alsoe a Surdgente mayor one well knowen to have had longe practice in handelinge of woundes and other dis∣ceaces, suche a one chosen by favor or affection (and not havinge the partes befitinge) causeth the death of many Souldieres trough his lit∣le skill, to the disgrace of him that made choyse of suche a one.

Verie necessarie it were that in his Regimente doe assiste a Chaplen mayor, and preacher to over see all the Chaplenes, that all thinges touchinge there obligationes, may by observed and ministred in due time, givinge goode examples, and still assistinge with gravitie and vertueuse cariadge, alsoe to be carefull that the Captaines of his Re∣gimente give goode examples for it importeth for many respectes.

In the election of a Drom mayor he is to by verie well informed that he be one of goode fufficiencie, for beinge an instrumente very necessarie in warr, who is to instructe, and give goode examples to all the Dromes of the Regimente, whiche beinge chosen of one who hath the goode partes and sufficiencie in him required, is an instru∣mente of greate importance in a Regimente, and specially to the Sardgente mayor, in carieng orderes, and beatinge of the proclama∣tiones, he is to by skillfull in beating the drom, or at leaste in under∣standing all sorte of marchinges, to beate an a larme, a call, a retire, a disafie, a battell, to knowe who to carie him selfe verie discret in ca∣rienge any mesadge to a campe, towne, cittie, or castell, and knowe Page  143 howe discretly to deliver his mesadge, and answer many demaundes, as alsoe in understandinge, and well relatinge his answer, and to in∣forme him selfe in as muche as he may posible of whate occurreth, if he be permited in takinge a viewe of the walles ditches, and if the dit∣ches be dry or with water, and who deepe, and whate place or places of the walles or fosses may by won with moreease, as also of the necessi∣tie or plintie of vituales, if by faire meanes he may spie the same oute it is necessarie that he speakes many languadges, to beate afuriouse a larme, and battell when ocasion shall require, as alsoe a presumed reti∣re. A necessarie thinge not to be permited (but rather defended) that no officer nor souldior by given to winchinge, and that for many goo∣de respectes, but som publicke woomen are wonte to be permited in eache company, some three or foure for a 100 men, which are to be in a separated quarter, and specially if in garison lett them be in as se∣cret and as hidden a place as can by posible, for by reason it impor∣teth to honeste men and negboures, and the cause why this is permi∣ted and tolerated, is to shun greater danger: In the oulde lawes or statutes six or eighte woomen were a lued for everie 100, men, to thies is wonte to be given lodginges and service as to the souldieres, all whiche is thoughte profitable to the negboures, that the lesh sus∣pision and ocasion of scandall may by of theire shisteres wifes and children, and for many respectes it oughte not to by permited that a ny souldier doe sleepe withe thies woomen oute of his quarter uppon paine of severe punishmente, alsoe suche weemen as doe nott obser∣ve thies constitusiones to punish hir in the purse, whiche will grive hir moste, for this busines is wonte one to by a pointed to ouersee if thies lawes by observed or no. For it importeth muche the souldiores health, wher fore the barber mayor is wonte to uisitt nowe and then. The Captaine de campana is to tak aspeciall care to see that thies or∣deres by dulie observed.

The Master de campe is to be earneste in informinge him selfe well of his regimente, as well of secret as of publike matteres, that he may prevente and remedy in due tyme all, and cause to be severely pu∣nished such as doe breake the proclamationes by him comaunded, and suche as are inclined to base factes, as theives, quarleres, disho∣neste dronkardes and base mutineres, of litle pascience and lesh ho∣noure, of no discression, feare, nor love, nyther of god nor of theire prince, suche base fellowes are to by severelie punished in publick, and to by driven a way like men tatched with uglie crimes, unwour∣die Page  144 to equall themselves withe brave souldiores, of honeste life, ful of pacience, obedience, feare and goode examples; of which perso∣nes, the master de campe Sardgente mayor, and Captaines, are to ta∣ke notice, and have a speciall care in honoringe and preferinge them, sheowinge them a faire and lovinge countenance, and givinge them greate hope of avancemente, and let triall of time and ocasiones ve∣rifie the same with deedes, whiche shall by a greate comforte to suche as are inclined to uertue, and greate greefe to those given to vices and unrulie factes and bad exemples, whiche oughte to a mende theire li∣ves, and imitate the steppes of those of honeste life, prudente and ver∣tuse cariadge, full of love, feare and obedience, given to continuall goode applicationes, shuninge idelnes and bad company, which of righte oughte, by there Superiores to by highlie estimed, (whereunto they are bounde in conscience) For the securitie of ocasiones in mar∣chinge and in preventinge of sodaine and unprovided incursiones, ambuscados, and stratagemes of the enemy: A necessarie thinge it were to imitate the Romaines, in a luenge fiftine horses to everie 100 foote, so that in many plases in marchinge where theyre may by any suspicion of the enemy, the Master de campe, then shoulde a pointe a conductor to leade and governe thies horsemen, and in offeringe time or occasion, to divide them into as many partes, as the occasion shall require, (apointinge a leader for each division) and for the inter∣tainemente of thies horsemen they shoulde inioy so much meanes as other horsemen; so that in ocasiones of marchinge, the Infanterie may goe with far greater securitie, beinge divided into thre or foure par∣tes, to recnoledge the places of moste suspicion of ambuish, and other secret stratagemes of the enemy, whiche beinge recnoledged and dis∣covered, necessarie prevention may by taken in due time, thies men may serve bothe for horse and foote acordinge as ocasion shall requi∣re: Of eache division or parte of thies horse it is necessarie to name a Comaunder or leader, who shall take care to governe them, forbidin∣ge and comaundinge that by no meanes they lende thies horses, but get them alwaies readie to by imploied, when or where occasion shall require. Thies horses may serve for many goode purposes, in pasinge the Infanterie over riveres, in recnoledginge pasadges, as alsoe in co∣minge in possession of pasadges, whiche beinge feared that the enemy shoulde come to posess the same before oures.

The Ende of the firste Booke.