A discourse of military discipline devided into three boockes, declaringe the partes and sufficiencie ordained in a private souldier, and in each officer; servinge in the infantery, till the election and office of the captaine generall; and the laste booke treatinge of fire-wourckes of rare executiones by sea and lande, as alsoe of firtifasions [sic]. Composed by Captaine Gerat Barry Irish.
Barry, Gerat.
Page  51

THE SEAVENTE CHAP. Treatinge of the election and office of a Sardgente mayor, marchinge in campaina.

THE election of the Sardgent mayor moste comonlie is made by the Generall of such as the Coronelles or Masteres de campe doe name or give in relation, his of∣fice is to by a generall minister of a vvhole Regimente of sundrie Companies; And a Superintendente of all the Sardgentes of the same. By vvhouse, prudence, and brave condu∣ction the Coronell or Master de campe doth give him the orderes ne∣cessarie for the due govermente of his Regimente, in marchinge, or∣deringe, and embattellinge of the same, and of suche materes hereūto a pertayninge, be vvhose a proved goode partes may be gathered the brave conduction, valor, and prudence, required in a perfecte Soul∣dier, beinge chosen as a man who hathe the be fittinge partes required for this office of suche greate emportāce. Whiche in time of the Gree∣kes and Romaines vvas trusted to none, but the Generalles executed the same in there one persones for many rare respectes of importan∣ce. The firste thinge that he is to doe before he begines to march, is to consulte withe his Master de campe of all necessarie thinges for his jurney, and see such thinges befitinge prevented, and provided in due time; advertisinge all the Captaines of his Regimente to put them selves in order to marche, vvith as litle bagadge as may be possible, and within so many dayes to have all thinges in areadines, and given∣ge order to the Captaine de campana to prepare him selfe, and his sutleres, as alsoe to the Auditor, Furiell mayor, Surdgent mayor, Drom mayor, and that he be carefull that Dromes and Phifes by vvell pro∣vided in each Company.

The office of a Sardgent mayor is of higher degree then any or∣dinarie Captaine, for the Captaines doe receive the orderes from him, and follow this directiones, and the Sardgente mayor, from the Coronel, Master de campe, or Generall, or from the Kinge or Em∣peror him selfe if he be in the fielde, for he is barred no entrie gate nor other place but freelie sufered to pass into rhe Kinge or Empe∣ror Page  52 is chamber, for beinge a person of greate respecte and fidelitie: Wherefore theyre ought greate concideration and regarde to be ta∣ken in the election of this Officer. Which otherwise beinge chosen by favor, frindship, or affection of one of litle sufficiencie, resulteth ma∣ny enconveniences: It alsoe faleth oute often times that such perso∣nes so chosen, vvantinge the prudence, auctoritie, perfection, and brave conduction in him required, looseth often times his due respe∣cte, and reverence of the Captaines and other Officeres: Wherefore it vvere farr better for him to remaine a Captaine rather then inter∣middell in a matter vvhich requireth suche greate capacitie and per∣fecte experience in vvarr.

In occasiones of marchinge he is to consider the qualities and con∣ditiones of the countrie, if fertill or scante, if hilly or plaine, and not to permit to mounte a horsebacke but as feowe as can possible; Alsoe to consider the quantitie of bagadge, and provision, youe are to ca∣ry, and that to by as litle as may be possible as before spoken, rather onelie so much as neede shall require, and that the wantes therof can not be excused.

After that all thinges necessarie for youre marche are treated and consulteth of (and put in order) yove shall comaunde that all the Companies of youre Regimente shall joyne where voure Master de campe shall ordaine, and thincke moste fitt: Then bigen to make youre devitiones to marche as youre Superior shall comaunde. But if onelie one Regimente doe march by it selfe, the Sardgent mayor is to consulte with his Master de campe, never failenge if they marche in any place or countrie where yove shoulde chance, or feare to en∣counter your enemy to provide youre selfe vvith sertaine barreles of pouder, match, and bullettes, that alwayes yove carie of thies rather more then lesh; some pikes fearinge to wante, a quantitie of shoules bills, hatchetes, which is necessarie if neede or occasion require to make a way with trees boughes, and earth, in places where vvith dif∣ficultie the Infantery, and bagadge may pass, or to cutt tries to shutt up a pasadge of o sodaine, or to make even places when otherwise but with greate difficultie youe can pass them, thies are necessary per∣trechos, for not knowinge when occasion may offer to have neede of them, and speciallie pasinge troughe a foraine country.

In occasiones of marchinge the Sardgente mayor is to make the devitiones, and ordaine where each Captaine shall leade, and in such maner that each Captaine shall take his turne, meaninge that the Page  53 Captaine or Captaines that did leade this day the Musketteria shall to morowe leade the Arcabuseros, that did followe and another day the pikes, and another day the Arcabuseros of the rergarde, and soe fall a neowe and be his turne take possession of the vantegarde and reregarde as his turne shall fall: And it is inogh to ordaine this on∣ce, and let each one unconfusedlie be his turne take place of the van∣gard, rergard, and battell.

Pasinge trough any cittie or place where any danger mighte by su∣spected▪ In the devitiones of the shott and pikes greate industrie and consideration is to by used, youre shott are to marche in goode or∣der, and not confusedly, and be noe meanes to let none miss his ranc∣ke, givinge order to all the shott to lighte theyr matches, and to by redy of a sodaine if neede require, and otherwise where theyre is no∣thinge suspected, one or two matches in every ranck may serve, it vvere not amiss to have no more bagadge then neede shoulde re∣quire, and not to permitt the Souldieres to putt theyre musketes in vvagones as often times they doe, and in ofringe occasion to serve with them, it hapened that trough this bad custome many are of no service vvith the barreles, and lokes of theyr musketes brocken, soe that in time of moste neede they wante.

It is moste necessarie that the Sardgente mayor and Captaines by curiouse to see many faultes redresed, and that the Souldieres be well provided of all necessaries, in as muche as can by posible and speci∣ally the shott to by well furnished with bulletes, at least twenti five, and in no case to faile in this: The Captaines and Alferises, are to goe bravelie armed with complet corseletes, and let no Captaine not Alferis monte a horsebacke till all the devitiones of shot and pikes are well ordered, and when all the bagadge is readie, and that the Ma∣ster de campe doe pass to the Vangarde.

Then havinge all thinges in order; in amile distance from the quarter the Sardgente mayor shall step into the vangarde, and give order to the Captaines to goe a horsebake and not before, as alsoe the Alferises and other particular persones, the Alferises recomendinge theyre culoures to theyre a vanderadose, and the Captaine or Cap∣taines that are of the vangarde shall permitt noe Souldieres to pass but such as have order in vvritinge for the same from the Generall or Master de campe generall or ordinary Master de campe, and the Cap∣taine that goeth in the rerergarde shall take a speciall care to permitt none to tarie behende, but rather cause them to stepe forwarde to Page  54 theyre rankes. That alsoe no boyes nor sutleres by permitted to stay behinde for some of purpose doe stay to no goode entende, but to stea∣le robb and spoyle the poure enhabitantes goodes, vvhiche is a thin∣ge not to by permitted: And such sutleres and other unrulie factione∣res as are given to this base and odiouse acte, are to be severelie puni∣shed in publicke. Wherof speciall care oughte to be taken for many respectes.

Before youe marche the Captaine de campana and all the sutleres and amunition vagones are all to by drawen oute of the quarter, or∣dayninge those that shall garde them. And then consideration is to be taken of the maner who to march with the amunition and bagad∣ge vvhich is, that if it by knowen that the enemy is to by feared in the vangarde, on the way vvhere yove are to pass, let the bagadge by pla∣ced in the rerewarde, and if contratie yove have intelligence to feare the enemy in the rerewarde yove are to pass the bagadge to the van∣garde. And if on the righte side, to conducte it to the leefte, and if on the leifte side transporte it to the righte; And in this maner the army beinge smale or greate it shall be a vvall and defence to the a muni∣tion and bagadge. And this don by alwayes provided and ordered in due time, for otherwise it vvere a greate miss if sodaine occasion shoulde represente, and that the enemy of a sodaine shoulde fall up∣pon, and chardge on yove; Douptless it vvere a greate let and dan∣ger if yove were not provided and well ordered: To prevente the su∣daine incursiones and stratagemes of the enemy theyre oughte to by sente certaine lighte horse to scoute, and revewe before a certaine distance: soe beinge advertised before the enemy a proache, all thin∣ges necessarie may by prevented in due time.

The Furiell mayor or Quarter-master with the reste Furielles are to marche all at once and not otherwise, for to make the quarter in due time. For If otherwise they goe they may use fraude and villany in spoylinge the Villadges and poure enhabitantes, to whome all equi∣tie, justice, and goode examples are to be ministred, for many goo∣de respectes. Some Souldieres of litle honor and reputation some times in theyre marche to ease them selves doe breake theyre pikes or leave the same behinde, of suche base fellowes the Sardgent mayor is to take a speciall care to see them severelie punished in publike, ex∣cepte it be one that is sicke or hurte, of vvhich persones he is present∣lie to give enteligence to theyr Captaines, and see that order be tac∣ken to save them.

Page  55In ocasiones of marchinge, the Sardgent mayor is to order, and make his devitiones when he thincketh that all the Souldieres of his Regimente are gathered; and comenge to a conveniente place to fra∣me a squadron of them, of whate forme he thincketh beste. And when he cometh within a mile to the quarter vvhere he is to lodge with his Regimente, he is to step forwarde to see whiche is the fiteste place to frame a battell; As alsoe to revewe the sallies and entries of the quar∣ter.

The Quarter-master is to receive him, and sheowe howe and whe∣re the Regimente shall be lodged, As alsoe the fiteste place for the embattellinge of his Regimente, and after the squadron is framed, he is to a pointe the Companies that shall be on the watch that nigh∣te, if on the generall a munitiones, or Master de campe, or elsh whe∣re, let him see that ther by no empedimente in the place vvhere he choiseth to be more fit for the framinge of his squadron; Alsoe he is to be verie carefull and diligent in ordaininge the necessarie places for the watches, and he shall a pointe gardes a goode distance from the quarter; Soe that the enemy of a sodaine doe not fall uppon him, of which for many respectes greate consideration oughte to by taken and prudenrly prevented.

He is to procure with the Master de campe to cause avando or proclamatiō to by beaten for the observationes in passinge the wour∣de in march, battel, or eilsh where, and such as do not observe this van∣do to see them severelie punished for this beinge amatter of greate emportance, and wherof greate disorderes and inconvenienses doe resulte often times for not observinge the same: The wourde is to by given be foure persones, that is the Master de campe, Sardgent mayor, and from the Captaine that leadeth the Vangarde, and from him that leadeth the rergarde: And greate speede oughte to by tac∣ken from whence it came and the cause.

For it may be that the enemy shoulde of a suddaine chance to fall on the rergarde, or that some other ocation of emportance may offer; for whiche respectes and many more considerationes this order is to be inviollabbly observed: And let itt with greate speede pass from rancke to rancke in youre march or order.

It is moste necessarie nowe and then to make some altos, or standes to ease the Souldiores, and refresh them with suche sorte of vituales as they cary a longe with them, and specially where theyre is como∣ditie of water, and take a speciall care that some unruly fellowes by Page  56 not permitted to goe oute of the order, and fall aspoylinge the con∣try, neyther there boyes.

The Sardgent mayor is to oversee and informe of all thinges that paseth in his Regimente and give order to the Captaine de campan̄a or borachell to see that his sutleres by well provided with vituales and other necessaries therunto a pertaininge, and to take a speciall care that noe wronge by don unto them. But rather to see severelie punished suche as vvoulde presume to doe them wronge. That ther by they may vvithe amore willinge minde a complish theyre obliga∣tiones in furnishinge them selves with vituales and other comodities, and alsoe the Sardgente mayor is to see that they be well paied for otherwise beinge ill paied and seeinge that there is no justice mine∣stred they will run avvay and give a bad reporte, soe that noe other sutleres shall dare to come, and soe provicion will be vvantinge to the greate discomoditie of the Officeres and Souldiores.

The Captaine de campan̄a is to use discression and concience in seeinge that the sutleres doe fell there vituales with suche concidera∣tion that they may gaine and not overpress the poure Souldior trou∣ghe coveteousnes and griddie deceite, as often times they doe. In thies and many more ocationes if the Sardgente mayor be courious and carefull in a complisinge with his obligationes, hardlie can any thinge pass vvithoute discoverie and redress in due time, for he is a∣principall minister to oversee redresh and remedie many faultes, dis∣orderes and fraudes, and he is in conscience bounde to procure the goode of the poure Souldior, that noe fraude be permitted in decei∣vinge him of his poure meanes.

If the Sardgente mayor be in the filde with his Regimente alitle before the fallinge of the nighte he is to relive the watches soe that the enemy may not discover them cominge nor goinge: but in gari∣son the watches is to be sooner set. In campan̄a aspecial care oughte to be takē that the enemy for cause of oure negligence litle care and pru∣dence do not of asodain fall on us beinge un provided, for to preven∣te such soddaine ocationes it is necessarie that a corpe de garde volan∣te be ordained acertaine distāce towardes the enemy where yove mo∣ste suspecte theyre cominge, which is a greate securitie for that quar∣ter of the campe, but this muste be set at the fallinge of the nighte, and theyre can hardlie any fire be made that the enemy may not dis∣cover yove, they oughte to be verie readie varie and vigilante vvith there armes at hande to fall on the enemy if of asoddaine they be the∣runto Page  57 constrayned, and see if they can finde any conveniente shado∣woe to shelter them; And if perhapes the enemies spies doe knovve or discover vvho oure vvatches are set, and not knovvinge of this vvatch set soe late and soe secrett, it may fall oute that the enemy may fall into theyre handes, for not beinge advertised by there spies of the prevention taken; And fall of a sodaine on them, and give the a larme to the vvhole campe, soe that they may be ready in due time to pre∣vente the enemy his incursiones, and purpose, and at lenghte cause them to retire, in executinge nothinge of theyre designe or desire. For this purpose muste by chosen a Captaine vvho is vvell knovven to by prudente, vigilante, and valerouse, and of a brave and resolute de∣termination: And findinge the enemy brocken, let him in no cse fol∣lovve them any greate distance, for they may prevente him vvith a se∣crett ambuscado, and findinge them pass the ambuscado fall on them on bothe sides, before and behinde, and defeate him: Often times it happened that ravve Souldieres and men of litle consideration doe give a larme vvithoute any occasione, wherfore they are to by adver∣tised not to give any such till they by informed, and vvell assured that it is the enemy, for such as otherwise doe, they are estimed of litle con∣sideration and of a vveake spiritt findinge them selves presentlie a ma∣sed, trustinge to theyre inconsiderate imaginatiō of noe firme groun∣de nor reason figuringe in theyre imagination to have seene this, and that, and of no purpose nor firmenes; Advertisinge that if an alarme be given where occasion doth presente, it is not to pass all the campe in soundinge dromes and trumpetes, but rather verie secretly, and withoute any rumor nor voice and vvith greate silence, joyne, and speedilie put them selves in order; Which orderes the Master de cam∣pe, Generall, or the person that comaundeth shall comaunde to be observed all over: Soe that all thinges by preventeth with better or∣der, and with amore setled minde; and if otherwise the a larme be gi∣ven every vvhere it is harde to knowe in due time, vvhere the occa∣sion is.

The centerie oughte to by verie firme, and seeinge one come let him not stirr, but rather prepare him selfe till he be well informed, and knowinge that it is an enemy then in a prochinge neere and assured, to shoote at him, and to be assured in as muche as may possi∣ble not to miss; And beinge a pikeman he is to let him com under the puiesh of the pike, and then give the a larme, sheowinge him selfe with a valerouse determination, and kill the enemy, or take him, Page  58 and to learne the designe of the enemy, and to whate purpose he was emploied, and then to retire to the nexte adjoyninge cinterie, and from thence to the seconde, and soe from hande to hande till he be sente to the firste garde, and from thence presentlie to advertice the Sardgent mayor, advertisenge that everie cintery shall remaine in his a pointed place, and to be verie varie and vigilante fearinge that othe∣res shoulde followe, and inter of a soddaine findinge conveniente op∣portunitie for theyre purpose: Another thinge is to be considered that some times it doth happen that a spie favorable to us doth come from the enemyes campe to give us inteligence of whate occurreth, which spies are to be received and causinge him to stande or make al∣to till the Officer of the garde by advertised, who is to receive him and presentlie carrie him to the Sardgent mayor, who shall advertice his Master de campe, and withoute delay conducte him to the Superior to inform and sheow him the cause of his cominge.

If be chance the enemy shoulde fall on the pikeman standinge in cinterie, and seeinge that they are of such force, that he can not resi∣ste, let him retire to the nexte cintery shot that he may shoote at them, and give the alarme, and soe by litle and litell retire, and the pikeman shall with all speede goe to the firste watche and give inteligence of the occasion, that they may be readdie in time.

And this order oughte the Sardgente mayor to give that all thin∣ges may be don in order and in due time, givinge alsoe order to the watches and culoures, where they shall 'oyne, and whate they shall doe; soe that withoute delay they shall be founde to be putt in order to fighte as the situation of the place and occasion shall requi∣re.

In all places on the frontier of the enemy where greate suspicion may be feared of soddaine exploites and embuscados of the enemy. In such places, and occasiones, the Sardgente mayor is to give order in the morninge, that noe cintery doe retire till all places of suspicion by visited; and then the cinterie perdue shall retire a litle further in∣wardes: And he is to by examined to see if he did a complish the vigi∣lance, care, and truste referred to the exspectationes of his fidelitie; And findinge his reasones and proofes goode in a complishinge his obligationes, he is wourdie of thankes, and if the contrie be founde, and he beinge founde hiden in some sure place of no danger, nor servi∣ce to rewarde him a cordinge his merit with a publicke reprehension, for not a complishinge his obligation in a place of suche importance; Page  59 and soe shall he be rewarded and imputed be all brave Souldiores which doe hire of his doinges, and pusilanimitie. When inteligen¦ce is had that the enemy are readdie to fall on you, or that any suspicion or a peerance may by of the same, eaverie one oughte to be readdie with theyre armes in hande with a setled minde and brave determination, soe that with the firste alarme they may have no kinde of lett, but presentlie followe theyre leader withoute bea∣tinge Drom or phife or makinge any kinde of rumor, but rather with greate scilence fall in to theyre order.

And concideringe that this is not onelie for the obligationes they owe unto theyre kinge or Prince but alsoe for the safegard honor and securitie of theyre owne persones,

For thies and suche ocationes all honorable Souldiores oughte to by well prepared and specially the shot withe theyre peeces all in areadines with as muche pouder as theyre flaskes can houlde, and twentie five bulletes, soe that in offereinge ocation he shall not caule for pouder and led as some careles and covardlie fello∣wes are vvonte to doe, not beinge vvell provided before hande; litle regardinge the kinges service and theyre owne reputasion; to prevente thies, and suche faultes theyre Officeres ought all∣wayes to see all thinges prevented in due time. Soe that theyre be no escuse.

And suche as woulde not a complish the same in preparinge all necessaries befitinge as ordained for that purpose, to see them re∣prehended, and in case the souldier hase not wherwith to buy thies and other inescusable wantes the Captaine is to helpe him therun∣to, for beinge conveniente for his Majesties service, that the soul∣deres alwayes be well provided and suche as do not obey thies inescu∣sable wantes to give them publike afronte like, covardlie and disobe∣diente fellowes; such Souldieres as are of prudēte cariadge and have a speciall care in acomplishinge with punctualitie theyre obigationes, and in givinge goode examples to otheres to imitate them, unwourdie is the Captaine and Officeres that will not honor futher and assiste thē.

For in thies ocationes we see many brave and honorable Souldio∣res whiche, are wonte ordinarily to carri apice of extraordinary goo∣de match in there pocketes withe the two endes of the same in area∣dines, and rubbed in pouder, that without delay it may kindel fire, and alsoe with a fleaskillo in his pocket with fine and drie pouder for touch pouder, whiche if it were wett and afterwardes dried in aqua vite or in Page  60 gineper oyle or in bothe togither it were verie goode, which beinge well dried, can not miss; And suche Souldieres as are knowen to be cu∣riouse, and punctual in this and many more occasiones.

Theyre Captaines and Officers ought to have a speciall care to ho∣nor, and prefer them a cordinge to the trial of ther valor, care, pun∣ctualitie, and prudence, in givinge goode examples, and sheowinge them selves in all occasiones, and incounteres, vvith a brave and re∣solute determination, vvhiche is a vvonderfull cōforte to theyre Cap∣taine, and puteth him in greate hope of the victorie, and goode suc∣cess, unhappie is the Captaine, and unwourdie of the name that vvill not make knowen to his brave Souldieres his inclined affection towatdes them, and specially in time of moste neede.

In ordaininge the conveniente places for the cinteries both in the fielde and garison. The Sardgente mayor is to use greate discrestion, in oversienge all the circuide and entries of moste importance and danger, (and after viwenge all) he is to a pointe a conveniente place where eache cintery shall by placed a luenge twentie five or fortie pa∣ces betwexte every cintery, some times more, and some times less, as occasion shall require: But in the fielde is there to be a pointed a cin∣terie perdue, or rather call it the contrary (the securitie of the campe) this Cintinel is to be put doble meaninge a pike and a caliver, in a di∣stance of, som o honderth paces litle more or less towardes the ene∣my, and withoute all the other cinteries, in the place or places wher there is moste suspision of the enemy to come. Some houlde an opi∣nion, that this cinterie is not to get the wourde (not soe (for if they see or hire any rumor, or a peerance of the enemy cominge, the pikeman shall repaire vvith speede and tel the nexte cintery vvhate he hath ey∣ther seene or hearde, and if he have not the wourde or contrasena he shall not let him come neere, and this cinterie with speede is to let this pass to the nexte, and soe from hande to hande verie secret and scilent till it come to the nexte adioyninge vvatche or garde, that they may be prevented in time.

Thies cinteries of righte is to be caulled the securitie, of the campe rather then centerie perdue: They are to by chosen of valerouse and setled Souldieres, of goode judgemente and brave determinationes; And when the advise cometh vvith goode securitie to the watch, that the enemy are in armes, or approchinge neere, presentlie the Master de campe, and Sardgente mayor is to be advertised. And they are with speede to advertise the Master de campe generall, in findinge as Page  61 before true relation of the occasion to by suspected of any emportan∣ce. Thies outewarde cinteries are never to retire, but when urgente and assured accasion doe constraine them therunto, in seeinge the enemy a prochinge, (and not before) and untill they reviwe if it be foote or horse. Or if they come in order of squadron or marchinge in single file: After well reviwenge them, let them retire to the nexte cintery, and let the wourde pass very secretly from hande to hand til it come to the next watch, or let the pikeman goe forwarde with neo∣wes and the other stay vvith the firste cintinell til they be constrained to retire to the nexte, and soe retire be litle and a litle, observinge still the enemy, and with whate order they doe marche, and soe fall into theyre owne people, and informe of all of whate they have bothe see∣ne and hearde: And seeinge them come disordered, thinckinge to fall uppon oures of asoddaine beinge a sleepe or in provided. Then oures to turne uppon them with full resolution with the short Dro∣mes and Phises which douptlesse if as before they come, they shall finde them selves pusseled and amased: Thies exploites require pru∣dence, valeor, silence, and brave resolution.

It is necessarie that the Sardgent mayor give order that uppon pai∣ne of deathe none doe presume to give a false alarme vvithoute occa∣sion, excepte it be vvith order of the Superior. And in occasiones of encounteres, skirmises, or assaultes vvith the enemy let the Sardgent mayor give order that none call for pouder but verie silente; for it is a thinge moste odiouse and of litle discretion, that the enemy shoulde knowe of oure vvantes in such occasiones: If neede require the pikes and raperes vvill serve in goode steede, if the Souldiores vvithe brave resolution and determination doe a complish theyre obligationes, for vvhich extremities is required a prudent and brave conductor of a va∣lerouse and resolute determination.

In all occasiones in the filde where the enemy, is to be feared and suspected, the Sardgent mayor is to give order that the outewarde cinteries of oures nexte unto the enemy doe take a speciall care that none doe pass unto the enemy from oure campe; Which is rather to be suspected then if one of the enemy came into oures, for such as run unto the enemy they may be suspected, that they goe with some ad∣vise or secrett intelligence, if such persones can not be killed or tac∣ken, let theyre warninge by presently given to his Captaine, and then presently to the Sardgent mayor who at that instant shall comaund that noe Souldier of the watches who hath the wourde shall be per∣mitted Page  62 to leave the same that night wiche orderes he shall deliver the Sardgentes to deliver theyre Captaines to see the same executed; And in such occasiones the watche wourde is to by changed, and if any bod∣dy by founde absente, of those of the watch let theyre warninge, presēt∣lie be given to the Captaine, for it may be a villaine of a base minde, and that he did goe with some advise to the enemy, and within foure or five dayes after come into oure campe, and give faluse excuses, ho∣pinge to be pardoned, and comitt more villany: In thies occasiones goode heede oughte to be taken.

A verie necessarie thinge it is in a Sardgent mayor to by carefull in seeinge that all the Souldieres of his Regimente be well armed, and that there may be noe escuse in a complishinge theyre obligationes, in escusinge that theyr armes are brocken or a mindinge. All thies and many more may theyre Captaines, and Officeres prevente in time, wi∣thoute troublinge the Sardgente mayor theyrwithall, for he hathe to many other employmentes of greater momente, and as isay thies may be well prevented be theyre Officeres, beinge coriouse and care∣full.

When occasion shall require that the Sardgent mayor woulde have oute of certaine Companies of his Regimente a quantitie of Souldie∣res to be employed, this he is to demaunde of the Capitaines, who is to apointe and ordaine the number demaunded, and not to inter∣midle in takinge them otherwise, for the Captaine is he which is to gi∣ve a compte and reason of the Souldieres of his Company, and the Sardgentr mayor in noe case is to intermidel in takinge them but tho∣se which the Captaine shall apointe, for the Sardgente mayor hath no auctoritie to take them otherwise; Excepte they be on the watch, and that urgente occasion shoulde be offered which requireth greate spee∣de. And in such occasiones the Officer beinge not presente he may take them; and such Souldieres as the Sardgente mayor shall demaun∣de the Captaine is to make no acceptiones, of all such occasiones as a∣re necessarie for his Majesties service: But he is not to intermidle in takinge from any Officer any priviledge a pertaininge to the executi∣ones of his office, which if otherwise he shoulde presume itt is a sini∣ster and odiouse thinge in warr.

Some times it hapened that Pincioneres Gentelmen of the Artille∣rie, and other particular persones are emploied be the Master decā∣pe generall, and by the Generall of the Artillerie, and be otheres, whi∣che are to be permited to pass to deliver theyr mesadge in due time, Page  63 and none ought to trouble or moleste them in there voyadge, excep∣te they be suspected.

The Sardgent mayor is to take care that if his Regimēte in occasi∣ones which mighte happen they breake uppon the enemy, and follo∣we on the victorie, let none in paine of death fall a robbinge the hur∣temen, nor none of the slaughter, which if any Officer finde them in that base acte in such occasiones, may execute this sentence, beinge moste base and odiouse, but rather persue the victorie, and keepe his order as behooveth an honorable Souldier of resolute and noble minde to doe.

In like maner in occasiones to inter per force of armes into any towne citti or stronge place, the Sardgent mayor is to by verie, vigi∣lante, and carefull, that noe Souldier of whatesoever qualitie or con∣dition: be permitted to inter into any house, eyther ro robb or steale till such time as the enemy be wholie vanquised, that no danger nor execution of theyres might be feared, and that till all there furie be paste, and that uppon paine of death, for otherwise they incurr greate danger, some leavinge theyre armes hire and theyre in divers places; of vvhich if the enemy take pocession they may easilie Master them; Of suche blinde ingnorance and covetouse desire of gaine, greate di∣grace may resulte. If the enemy doe secretlie joyne in some secret pla∣ce, and fall unavare in masteringe theyre armes and murder them, which may well fall oute if prevencion be not used as before decla∣red, in suche sorte that the enemy may not come in possession of the honeor gained vvith the lives and losse of soe many brave Soul∣diores.

For the executiones of rare exploites and brave interprises in warr is required prudente and brave conduction, and specially that the Sardgent mayor be moste earneste to exercice the Officeres and Soul∣diores of his Regimente; whiche beinge soe practised in warr, greate expectationes mighte be hoped of them: Beinge exersised in well ma∣nadgeinge theyre armes, observinge theyr order and not stiringe oute of the same when they marche, in knowinge who to fall into squa∣dron, and observe the proclamationes given, and ordained be the Generall, nothinge soe dificill but that contuall use and exercice ma∣keth easie.

Who soever woulde faine be couriouse in the framinge of many sor∣tes of batteles, it is necessarie that he be exercised both in the theoric∣ke and pratike of this arte, and specially to be able in Aritmetick: Soe Page  64 shall he in time bringe his purpose to perfection with greate ease. And let him be carefull in knowinge who to give the orderes to each Officer of whate shall be comended to his chardge, and cause all thingss to be a complished as they were ordained withoute replie, he shall not recall any order given, excepte it be trough goode concide∣ration, neyther shall none be discomodated to put another in his place by favor or affection: Greate consideration oughte to be ta∣ken in choysinge one of befitinge partes for the well executinge of this office, and that be no meanes it be given be favor or affection for many considerationes of emportance. After those of perfection in this arte we loocke dayly and finde feowe, but those of imperfection in multitude.

Some houlde an opinion that in orderes of marchinge and framin∣ge of squadrones the number par, is beste, true it is that this number is good, but in the divitiones to fall oute of youvre march into squa∣dron, let none be ingnorante that they are to marche acordinge as the devition fauleth oute. And for beinge of number par or impar it importeth nothinge, and for the contrariethere is no rule, buth rather conforme vvith the divitiones as they shall fall oute, (which is the true way) for we finde no other reason to the contrarie, neyther had pirho. Kinge of the Epirotes the firste enventor of squadrons, neyther the Romaines, Greeckes, nor Macedonios nor any other na∣tion:

A Sardgent mayor ought not to by ingnorante in framinge and gi∣vinge reasones of all sortes of squadrones, at leaste all suche as ocatiō and situation shall require, of which the Sardgent mayor oughte to be curiouse, and not to err in any thinge that belongeth to his office, and specially in the devitiones and framinge of sundrie sortes of squa∣drones, though many do imagine and supose it needlesse (more then onelie the foure formes.) They are far deceived, for occasiones and situtationes shall offer where neyther of the foure formes will serve: In framinge of batteles the Sardgent mayor is to sheowe him selfe with a setled prudent and brave resolution, and by no meanes permitt any crosinge or confusion in the orderes be him apointed, nor wronge none to take him oute of his rancke for him that came late, soe hittin∣ge uppō the juste devitiones of his shot and pikes, he shal place an Of∣ficer or two as he thincketh beste in the head of each devitiō, and that the Sardgentes doe a complish theyre obligationes in letinge none to stragel, nor fall oute of theyre ranckes; Soe the Sardgent mayor shall Page  61 with ease and brevitie frame his squadron, and without any crossinge or confusion beinge so conveniente.

For each Companie of pikes shall take theyre turne on the watch and soe needeth no contraversie nor confusion. The Master de cam∣pe as a Superior of his Regimente is to choise to march where he pleaseth, and if ther by two Companies of Acabuseos the one is to march in the vangarde, and the other in the rergarde, it is inough that the Sardgente mayor giveth once thies orderes that each one be his turne shall come do optaine his right in occasiones of marchinge, withoute troublinge him any more. But if theyre be more then one Regimente eache of them shall take theyre torne acordinge as they have the vvatche, marchinge firste uppon the righte hande, and soe goe by turne, and shall alsoe be lodged firste, and the reste of the Companies withoute any crossinge or confusion as they come, yea if it were to frame a battell of the whole exercito.

Many goode partes are required in a Sardgent mayor and princi∣pally to be experte in well executinge his office, to observe goode or∣der in march, to prudently finish with expedition his affaires, to re∣prehende and redress disorderes in due time, with prudence and auctoritie, soe shall he be beloved and respected, and moste comon∣lie have goode successes. In the greatest dangeres he is ohcowe him selfe with asetled minde and brave couradge, animatinge the Souldie∣res, sheowinge him selfe with them in all dangeres and extremities, comfortinge, and givinge them goode instructiones and examples, and in the greateste dangeres that shall happen to presence him self with them with a brave and valerouse determination; soe douptles shall he by beloved, feared, and respected by thē. Let him by no mea∣nes be overcomed by disordered a petites but rather be moderate mylde, and faire condisioned, a beitinge o person of soe greate comaunde.

Treatinge of severall sortes of Squadrones.

BIgininge with the rule who to finde oute the square roote of any number, the table pitagorique, a table •• by put in memorie for the framinge of squadrones, for suche as are not experte in Arithmeticke, the table of the proportiones of unequall numberes, and who to frame severall sortes of squadrones, of severall sortes of weapones, and the industrie used for theyre due orderinge and de∣vidinge Page  62 in proportion, acordinge as time, occasion, and situation shall require and permitt.

A square roote is a digit or number whiche beinge multiplied in it self bringethe fourth a square number, as 2 beinge multiplied in it self make the 4. in sayinge two times two make the 4. and so from the number 1. to the number 9. yove shall understande in the table Pita∣gorique, the raise of 1. can not be but, 1. the rayes of 4. is 2. the raise of 9. is 3. the raies of 16. is 4. that of 25. is 5. and soe consequently as in the table folowinge yove may perceive.

To finde oute the square roote of any number be it 〈 math 〉 square or not square, yove muste wourke thus, firste ha∣vinge set downe the number propounded whiche at the leaste muste consiste of 3. figures. Set a prick under the firste digitt of the saied number on the righte hande, that donpricke every other digit or number therof towardes the leiftehande; Havinge alwayes one voyde space or chifer betwext every 2. prickes, as yove see heere don in the number folowinge 946. to finde oute the square roote of this propounded number, yove are to pricke the saied number 〈 math 〉 as before taughte, havinge so don seeke oute one of the 3. digites, whiche beinge multiplied in it self may take a way the chifer 9. that is on the lefte hande, or as muche therof as may by, in sayinge 3. times 3. maketh 9. soe that 3. is the rays of 9. firste chifer of youre propounded number, and restethe nothinge, whiche yove shall put right a bove the 9. soe that yove have wholy don withe the 9. that liethe on the le∣fte hande that don, doble the quotient whiche is 3. and it makethe 6. and set the same in the voide place righte under the figure 4. and seeke oute a digit or number, whiche beinge multiplied in it self may take a way the 4. and say how many times 6. can yove finde in 4. nullo; soe set downe 0. in the quotient right under the 6. that stand the on the righte hande, and say that in plasinge nullo in the quotient yove have don and there restethe 46. that remaineth, soe say that 30. is the square roote of 946. and there remainethe 46. that 〈 math 〉 is not comprehended in the square roote in sayinge mul∣tiply 30. the square roote of 946. by 30. and it will make 900. to whiche 900. a 46. that remaineth, and itt shall a monte the full some of youre propounded number of 946. as by the proofe yove plainely see. In all suche numberes to Page  67 knowe whether yove have dō well or no, multipliy the square roote by it self, to the producte of which multiplication yove are to ad if the∣re by any remainder, and if yove finde the summe therof to be like to youre firste propounded number, yove have don well, and if it be not like yove have errede.

But if suche number doe consiste of many numberes or figures in workēge wherof yove muste doble the quotiēt once, twece, or three∣ce, acordinge as the number dothe require, whiche yove shall more plainly perceive by this example followinge: Presupose that 37424 is the number wherof yove woulde knowe the square roote; to doe the whiche wourke as before taughte, firste prick the 4. that 〈 math 〉 standethe on the righte hande, then fall to pricke the other 4. towardes to lefte hande, and havinge so don pricke the digit 3. that standethe on the lefte hande of all, nowe seeke oute som digit or number, whiche beinge multiplied in it self, takethe a way the laste chifer on the lefte hande, whi∣che is 3. or the moste therof that can be, whiche yove shall finde to by 1. and havinge set downe the saied 1. in the quo∣tiēt say one time one is 1. whiche beinge substracted oute of 3. restethe 2. whiche is to be placed right over the 3. and conzeale the saied 3. that don, double the quotient 1. and it makethe 2. whiche yove are to place righte under the 7 of youre propounded numberin the seconde place towardes the lefte hande, that don say who many times 2 in 27. yove shall finde it to be 9. in sayinge 9 times 2. is 18. oute of 27 restethe 9. whiche yove shall place righte over, and above the 7. in the seconde place on the lefte hande, and in the quotient right under the pricke of the chifer 4 in the 3 place towardes the lefte hande yove shall place 9. havinge soe don, say 9. times 9. is 81. beinge substracted oute of 94. restethe 13. nowe double the 18 in the quotient, and it will be 38. whiche yove shall place under the 9. in the quotient towardes the righte hande, havinge soe don say how many times 38. in 132. that standethe right above it, yove shall finde it to be 3. whiche yove shall place in the quotient under the firste prike on the right hande under the chifer 4. that don say 3. times 3. maketh 9 oute of 13. 〈 math 〉 resteth 4. then say 3. times 8. makethe 24 oute of 42. re∣stethe 18 that don fall to the 3. in the quotiēt and multiply it in it self and it makethe 9. whiche yove shall substracte oute of the producte of youre laste division whiche was 184. and there shall remaine 175. soe that 193. is the square roote Page  68 of the firste number given whiche was 37424 whiche square beinge multiplied in it self is 37249. and the remainder is 175. whiche two partitiones beinge putt togither makethe the firste number of 37424. yove are alsoe to understande that if yove finde any number oute of whiche youre quotiēt beinge doubled and can not be substra∣cted, yove muste set downe a chifer in the quotiēt as yove do in divisiō.

Moste necessary it is for a Sardgent mayor, or who soever doth pretende to be curiouse in the profession of armes, that he be expert in Aritmeticke, and in knowinge who to finde oute the square roo∣te of any number, that he may withe the more facility order devide, and ranke his Souldieres, eyther of greate or smale numberes; yea and of whate soever forme a Sardgent mayor, oughte not to be ignorante, for some times occasion and situation offerethe that neyther of the 4. for∣mes of squadrones are to be used; Wherfore i will set downe the rules, firste for the framinge of the foure formes of squadrones moste a cu∣stomed and moste in use, as alsoe the rules to frame squadrones acor∣dinge to the situation and disposition of the place, and occasiones to fighte, as well of equalities as of inequalities. The 4. formes of squa∣drones moste acustomed and moste in use, is the square of men the square of grounde, bastarde square, and broade square, whiche the Spaniarde caule quadra de gente; quadra de tereno, prolongado, y gran frente.

Gentell Reader, understande that the firste thinge to by understoo∣de in framinge of squadrones, is that the principall boddies of thē are to be framed of pikes, to the whiche are required a certaine quantity of shot, which are to be devided as time situation and occasion shal-require, touchinge whiche divisiones greate consideration and indu∣stry is required in many occurantes of warlike affaires, and it is of grea∣te importance for who so ever takethe this chardge in hande to be per∣fecte in Aritmeticke to facilitate many rare occurrantes of this arte, and specially in the office of a Sardgent mayoyr.

It is to be understoode that the rule whiche is observed in setinge in order or array Souldieres, is that from the shoulder of the one to the shoulder of the other, is required 3. foote or at the moste three and haulf, and from ranke to ranke 7. foote, meaninge from the breaste of the one to the backe of the other. But when occasion shall offer to fighte 3. foote or 3 ½. is i noghe from ranke to ranke meaninge frō the breste of the owne to the backe of the other, and one for his one statiō, soe that he ocupies before and behinde, and for his person 7. foote.

Page  69To forme a squadron square of men, yove shall wourke, as before taughte in findinge oute the square roote which shall serve for fronte and flanke, as by the example folowinge yove shall more plainely un∣derstande, Suppose that yove are to frame a squadron square of men of 464. pikes, to finde oute the square roote of this nūber firste pric∣ke the laste chifer 4. towardes the righte hande, that don, pricke the o∣ther 4. towardes the lefte hande, so that the figure 6. standethe in the midel, nowe fall to the 4. that standethe on the lefte hande, and say the raise of 4. is 2. in sayinge two times two makethe 4. whiche 4 yove are to substracte oute of the 4 that standethe on the lefte hande then conzeale the 4. and plase azero above it, nowe fall to 2. that is in the quotient, and say two times two makethe 4. whiche yove shall place right under the 6. whiche liethe in the mideste of the number given, and say how many times 4 in 6. whiche can be but one, in sayinge 4. times 1. makethe 4. oute of 6. restethe but 2. which 2. yove shall place a bove the 6. and cāzeale the 6. that don fall to 1. that liethe in the quo∣tient under the chifer 4. on the righte hande, and say one time one is 1. oute of 4 that layethe on the righte hande there shall reste 3. whi∣che shall be plased righte over the 4. towardaes the righte hāde, then canzeale the 4. and there shall remaine 23. soe that 21. is youre fronte and flanke, and 23. remaininge whiche shall serve to guarnish the cu∣loures, to se if yove have don well, multiply 21. the square roote in it self, and the producte will by 441. to whiche producte ad 23. pikes, that did remaine, and the som therof wilbe like unto the firste number given which was 464. as by the figure folowinge yove may see.

[illustration]
A battel square of men of 464. pikes whose fronte and flancke is 21.

〈 math 〉

Page  70

Square roote.
11 502500
24 512600
39 522704
416 532809
525 542916
636 553025
749 563136
864 573249
981 583364
   593481
10100 603600
11121 613721
12144 623844
13169 633969
14196 644096
15225 654225
16256 664356
17289 674489
18324 684628
19361 694761
20400 704900
21441 715041
22484 725184
23529 735329
24576 745476
25625 755625
26676 765776
27729 775929
28784 786084
29841 796241
30900 806400
31961 816561
321024 826724
331089 836889
341156 847056
351225 857225
361296 867396
371369 877569
381444 887744
391521 897921
   908100
401600 918281
411681 928464
421764 938649
431849 948836
441936 959025
452025 969216
462116 979409
472209 989604
482304 999801
492401 10010000

Page  71For suche as are not expert in Aritmeticke i have set downe the a fore saied Table to finde the square roote of any nūber to then thou∣sande, whiche shall healpe muche suche as are not able in Aritmeti∣ke, but suche as are inclined to be perfecte in this noble arte of warr: i woulde wishe them not to wholy truste to this rule for the reasones be∣fore declared; but rather learne to be perfecte in Arithmetike, which is the sureste way.

A Squadron square of men of 361. Souldiers of the whiche 144. are pikes, and 217. musketes.

[illustration]
Fronte of the battel. Square of men.

〈 math 〉
  • 144 Pikes.
  • 48 Musk.
  • 36 Musk.
  • 76 Musk.
  • 57 Musk.
  • 361

Page  72Supose that yove are to frame a squadron square of men of 361. Souldiers of the whiche 144. are pikes and 217. are musketes and that yove woulde have the squadron proportionally lined, every way withe the shott. To wourke the whiche firste take the square roo∣te of the 144. pikes whiche yove shal finde to be 12. and say that 12. is the fronte and flanke of the squadron of pikes, that don take the who∣le number of shott and pikes whiche is 361. oute of the whiche alsoe take the square roote, whiche yove shall finde to be 19. oute of this 19 substracte 12. the square roote of the pikes, and there shall remai∣ne 7. and so yove finde the number that yove demaunde for the girdlinge shott, nowe devide the 7. into two partes and say that yove finde 4 in one parte and 3. in the other, and say that by youre devision yove finde that the firste maniple of musketes is to marche withe 12. rankes of 4. musketes in eache ranke, whiche is for the linenge shot of the right flanke of youre squadron. That don say that also by, youre laste devision yove finde 12. rankes of 3. musketes in eache ranke to guarinshe the liefte flanke of youre squadron, and say that the two flankes of youre squadron are linede, withe shott, meaninge 4. in eache ranke of the linenge of the righte flanke, and 3. in eache ran∣ke of the linenge of the liefte flanke; so the two flankes are lined.

That don, say that 12. the fronte of youre pikes adinge therunto 7. musketes of the linenges of the two flakes makethe 19 and say that in youre laste devision yove finde that 19. rankes of 4. musquetes in ea∣che ranke are to marche for the linenge shott of the vangarde, and al∣soe 19. rankes of 3. musketes are to marche in the laste devision of shott for the linenge of the rergarde of youre battell, as by the figure before and in the devisiones of the same yove see plainely declared, and so youre squadron of pikes is proportionally lined every way in as mu∣che as the devision and number can affourde.

Page  73
A squadron square of men of 576. Souldiers of the whiche 256. are pikes, and 320. musketes devided proportionally as by the figure folowinge yove see.

[illustration]
Fronte of the Battel.

〈 math 〉
  • 256 Pikes.
  • 64 Musq.
  • 64 Musq.
  • 96 Musq.
  • 96 Musq.
  • 576.

For the framinge of all suche squadrones eyther of greate or smale numberes, whiche yove woulde have to be proportionally lined withe shott yove shall wourke in this maner folowinge: Firste take the num∣ber Page  74 of pikes whiche is 256. oute of the whiche take the square roote, whiche is 16. and say that so many pikes shall the fronte and flanke of youre battell containe, and that it is of equall strenghte every way as well, to offende as to defende, and when yove woulde drawe them into squadron, for the more breuity yove may devide the fronte ther∣of into two maniples eache one contayninge 16. rankes of 8. pikes in eache ranke, nowe to proportionally guarnish the same withe the shot take youre full number of pikes, and shot whiche is 576. oute of whiche nūber take the square roote whiche yove shall finde to by 24. that don, substracte 16. the square roote of the pikes oute of 24. the square of the full number of pikes and shot, and there shall remaine 8. this digit devide into two equal partes, whiche is foure in eache par∣te, and say that the squadron of pikes is to be lined every way withe 4. shott as by the devision of the same yove see, meaninge that youre fir∣ste division of shott is to marche withe 16. rankes of 4. musketes in eache ranke, whiche is to line the righte flanke of youre squadron of pikes, and so many more rankes shall marche to line the lefte flanke of the squadron of pikes, meaninge 16. rankes of 4. musketes in every ranke, so the two flankes of youre squadron are lined. That don say that the fronte of youre squadron is 16. and therunto ad 8 the linen∣ge shott of the two flankes, and it wil a monte to 24. To line the fron∣te of youre battell, say that yove are to marche withe 24. rankes of 4. musketes in eache ranke, and so many more for the linenge of the rer∣warde of youre battell as the figure and divisiones shewethe, and soe shall yove finde youre squadron proportionally lined every way; whi∣che by the rule forme, and divisiones of the same yove may plainly un∣derstande This rule will serve to frame all suche sortes of squadrones eyther of greate or smale numberes, whiche yove woulde have to be proportionally lined withe shott, as plainely the figure and divisiones before sheowethe.

In many countries hardly can youe finde the one haulf of there pi∣kes armed withe complett corseletes, soe that this rule will sheowe yo∣ve how to guarnish the unarmed pikes, withe the complett corseletes proportionally every way, advertisinge that the culoures is to marche in the center.

A cross battell of 1416. Souldieres of the whiche 512. are pikes, and 904. musketes, whiche are to be divided into 4 batteles, and li∣ned proportionally on the two flankes, as by the figure and divisiones followinge are reasoned. Page  75 To wourke the whiche, firste take the number of pi∣kes, 〈 math 〉 for eache squadron of the 4. required for youre cross battell. Nowe to youre purpose take the square roote of 128. pikes of youre firste squadron, whiche will be 11. and 7. pikes remaininge, and say that 11. pikes is the fronte and flanke of youre firste battell of pikes, as alsoe of the other 3. batteles, and 7. pikes re∣maininge in eache battell, whiche shall serve to gua∣rinsh the culoures; soe that 11· is the fronte and flanke of eache one of youre 4. batteles of pikes, and 7. pikes remayninge for the linenge of the culoures of eache battell of the 4.

Nowe for the division of youre propounded num∣ber of shott. Double the one flanke of eache one of the 4. batteles of pikes, whiche double will by 88. this 88. the double flanke of the 4. batteles of pikes divide by 904. youre propounded number of musketes, and the number in the quotient will by 10. and 24 musketes remayninge, and say that the two flankes of eache of youre 4. batteles of pikes are to by lined withe 11. ran∣kes of ten musketes in eache ranke as by the figure, and deutiones folowenge yove may playnely see, and wi∣the the observation of this rule withe any other num∣ber eyther greate or smale yove shall withe facility kno∣we how to proportionably divide yovre shott for to guarinsh the two flankes of yovre squadron of pikes.

Thiese cross batteles are esteemed to be wonder∣full stronge consideringe well the framinge therof. It is also of wonderfull safegarde, for the security of the ba∣gadge amunitiones and hurte men, and if the enemy shoulde chance to charge the firste battel, or any of the other 3. whiche beinge a lone are but of litle force. Wherfore consideration oughte to be taken of the stratagemes of the enemy, and withe what order they do marche, and then yove may double or tribele yovre fronte acordinge as occasion shall require and the situation shall per∣mitt. And if the enemy are stronge on horse, regarde oughte to be ta∣ken in due time of the bagadge that it goe deposito, or be twexte the two laste batteles, and for theyr better security in suche ocationes, I woulde cut two rankes of eache of the two laste batteles and therwi∣the Page  76 guarnishe the fronte and regard of the bagadge and also withe shott under the shelter of this guarnison of pikes so that they may be shadowed and defended every way and give a triple fronte to the two laste batteles.

Cross Battell.

[illustration]
〈 math 〉

Severall sortes of armes are manadged in all coutries and in many places hardly can yove finde the one haulf of there pikes armed wi∣the complett corseletes. Wherfore i tought fitt to set downe the rules for the due orderinge in proportion of thiese severall sortes of armes, for beinge moste necessary in many occasiones in warrlike affaires: Put in case yove have 1112. souldieres, of the whiche 260. are unar∣med pikes 316. armed withe complett corseletes, 114. officeres refor∣med and particular persones who are armed withe gilted corseletes, Page  77 and for the linenge shott 422. musketes. Of the whiche number the campe master general, woulde have a squadron square of men to be framed, puttenge the unarmed pikes in the center, proportional∣ly lined every way withe the armed corseltes, and the armed pikes proportionally lined withe the gilted corseletes and officeres refor∣med, as also that the 4. sides of the full battell of pikes to be propor∣tionally guarinshed withe the 422. musketes.

To wourke the whiche firste take 260. whiche is the unarmed pikes oute of whiche take the square roote whiche is 16 and. 4 pikes re∣mayninge, and say that 16 pikes is the fronte and flanke of yovre cen∣ter of unarmed pikes. That don take the full number of unarmed and armed pikes whiche is 576. oute of whiche also take the square roote which will be 24. nowe deducte of this 24.16 the raise or square roote of the unarmed pikes, and there shall remaine 8. this 8. devide into two partes, and it is 4. in eache parte, and say that 16. rankes of 4. cor∣seletes in eche ranke is to guarnish the right flanke of yovre center of unarmed pikes, and so many more for the guarnision of the leifte flanke of the center of the unarmed pikes.

Nowe to proportionally line the fronte of the center say that to 16 the fronte of the center is to be aded 8 of the 2. lininges whiche make the 24. so say that the fronte is to be guarinshed withe 24. ran∣kes of 4. armed pikes in eache ranke, and so is the fronte of yovre cen∣ter and unarmed pikes lined, and the rerwarde is to be guarinshed withe the self same order, imeane 24. rankes of armed pikes of 4. pi∣kes in eache ranke, so the center of the unarmed pikes is proportio∣nally lined every way withe the complet corseletes.

Nowe to line the armed pikes withe the 114. gilted 〈 math 〉 corseletes take the full number of pikes as well armed as unarmed whiche is 690. oute of whiche take the square roote whiche is 26. oute of this 26. the laste rays deducte 24. the square roote of yovre armed and unarmed pikes and there shall reste 2. this 2. devide in∣to two partes whiche will be one, and say that the righ∣te flanke of the armed pikes are to be guarinshed wi∣the onely 24. gilted pikes which iuste ocupies place of one in eache ranke of the flāke and iuste so many more for to guarinshe the leifte flāke of the armed pikes, and say that the two flankes are guarinshed: Nowe youre fronte is 26. and iuste so many gilted pikes are to gua∣rinsh the outewarde side of the armed corseletes, and iuste so many Page  78 for the linenge of the rerwarde so youre squadron is proportionally guarinshed every way, imeane the center withe the armed pikes, and the armed pikes withe the gilted corseletes.

Nowe to devide youre 422. musketes, youe are to take the square roote of the propounded and full number of pikes and shott whiche is 1112. whiche square roote will. be 33. oute of this square deducte 26. the square roote that was of the full number of pikes and there shall remaine 7, this 7. devide into two partes, the one will be 4. and the other 3. and say that by youre devition youe finde that the right flanke of youre squadron of pikes is to be lined, withe 26. rankes of 4. musketes in eache ranke, (that don) say that for the linenge shot of the leifte flanke youre devition yealdethe 26. rankes of 3. musketes in ea∣che ranke so are youre two flankes of the squadron of pikes lined wi∣the shott, nowe withe the two linenges of shott youe finde the fronte to conteyne 33. and say that 33. rankes of 4. musketes is to line the full fronte of the battell of pikes and 33. rankes of 3. musketes in ea∣che ranke is to guarnish the full fronte of the rerewarde, for by the rule of divition and proportion it can not be other wise, so youre unarmed pikes are in the center, proportionally lined withe the cor∣seletes, and the corseletes withe the gilted armor, and the squadron of pikes proportionally lined every way withe the 422. musketes as youe shall see by the figure and devisiones folowinge, advertisinge that in youre devisiones there do remaine 4. unarmed pikes and 14. of the gilted corseletes and five musketes as in the devisiones folo winge youe may see, all whiche are comprehended in the 23. the re∣mainder of youre laste devision, as here folowth declared.

Page  79

[illustration]
A Squadron square of men.

  • 256 Pikes.
  • 64 Cors.
  • 64 Cors.
  • 96 Cors.
  • 96 Cors.
  • 24 Gilt. C.
  • 24 Gilt. C.
  • 26 Gilt. C.
  • 26 Gilt. C.
  • 104 Mus.
  • 78 Mus.
  • 132 Mus.
  • 99 Mus.
  • 4 Pik.
  • 14 Gilt.
  • 5 Mus.
  • 1112.
  • 16 Ran. 16
  • 16 Rank. 4
  • 16 Rank. 4
  • 24 Ran. 4
  • 24 Rank. 4
  • 24 Rank. 1
  • 24 Rank. 1
  • 26 Rank. 1
  • 26 Rank. 1
  • 26 Rank. 4
  • 26 Rank. 3
  • 33 Rank. 4
  • 33 Rank. 3

〈 math 〉

  • 260 Unarmed Pik.
  • 316 Armed Pik.
  • 114 Gilted Corsel.
  • 422 Musketes.
  • 1112
Page  80
Consideringe that many are ingnorante in knowinge the proportion of many sortes of squadrones and unequall numberes toughte necessary to put hire the tabel and rules for the same as hire foloweth.

I Woulde wishe allsuche as do pretende to step forwarde in the no∣ble profeshion of armes, troughe there prudēt cariadge, and goo∣de applicationes, to consider that many goode partes are requi∣red in them, amongste the which we finde it moste necessary that he be expert in aritmeticke, for otherwise hardly can he bringe unto per∣fection the rare curiosities required to the severall executions of the arte of warr. And especially the sundry devisiones of the severall sor∣tes of squadrones, which by dayly triall, and experience, we see that many who are not curiouse nor expert in aritmeticke do err in uerie many ocasiones, and can not compass, nor bringe to iuste perfection withe grace, many rare occurantes in warrlike affaires; and that for the moste parte resultinge of there litle aplicationes in imitatenge the vertouse prudent and approoved souldier; and also troughe the blynde consideration of som, who consideringe that nowe in oure la∣ter warres for the moste parte all electiones goes by favor frindship or affection: yea and uery many by meanes of enteres, so that very ma∣ny do not take the paines in aplieinge them selves in learninge the se∣verall rare curiosities of this arte but rather mocke, and floute at those of rare and curiouse iudgementes by cause that their skill and capa∣citie can not reache in resolvinge the rare and deepe secretes of this arte, after those of perfection in this arte we looke, for those of im∣perfection we finde on every foote: so none oughte to reprehende in absence wherof in presence he is ingnorante.

Proportiones of inequalities is that the battell may be more broade then longe or more in fronte then in flanke.

THiefe proportiones of inequalities is as 2. to 1. that is to say the battel to be two tymes more broade then longe, or more in fronte then in flanke, as is one to thre or 1. to 4. ett. or the bat∣tell to be three times or 4. tymes more broade then longe, or more in fronte then in flanke, or to be 2⅓. or 3¼. more broade then longe or any other suche like proportiones, to whiche effect i put this table and the rules thereunte apertaininge.

Page  81

is as—2to3
1⅔35
1 2/446
1⅔57
1 2/668
1 2/779
1 2/8810
1 2/911
2/38
411
205
2/1817
2⅔37
2 2/4410
2 1/7715
2 2/6614
2 3/7717
is as —2to7
3/3310
413
3⅕516
3 2/6620
3 1/7722
3 1/8825
3 2/9929
3 3/930
209
4⅓313
417
4⅕521
4⅙625
4 1/7729
4⅛833
4 1/9937
4 2/9938
is as —2to11
5⅓316
5/4421
5⅕526
5 /6631
5 1/7736
5 2/7737
5 2/841
5 1/9946
213
6⅓319
425
6⅖531
6 2/6637
6 2/7743
6 2/7744
6⅛849
6 1/9955

To reduce theese fractiones into whole numberes, and to knowe theyr proportion youe are to wourke in this maner folowinge. Firste multiply the whole number by the fractiones denominator, and ad therunto the numerator of the saied fraction, and the proportion is founde, as for example to have the battell to containe so muche and the one haulf more in front then in flanke whiche the 〈 math 〉 Spaniard call tanto i medio; seeke in the table 1½ wher of the whole number is. 1. and the fraction is ½ nowe multiply the whole number 1. by the fraction is De∣nominator 2. and it makethe 2. wherunto youe shallad the saied fractiones numerator which is 1. whiche two adisiones dothe amount 3. and the fractiones denominator is 2. so say it is in proportiō as is 2. to 3. and so muste yove wourke withe all suche num∣beres to knowe the proportion therof, or say that youe will have the battell to be 3 3/3. more in fronte then in flanke, and to 〈 math 〉 finde the proportion say it is as 3. to 10. as in the table yove shall see, and that yove may better understand it wourke as before taughte, firste in multiplienge the vvhole number 3. by 3. the fractiones denominator and it vvill be 9 to this 9. ad 1. vvhiche is the fractiones numerator and it vvill be 10 and say that it is in proportion as 3. to 10. and vvithe Page  82 this observation and rule youe shall knovve in vvhat proportion shall by anny number.

To frame a Battell of 819. Souldieres, whiche shall containe so muche and the one haulf more in fronte then in flanke, whiche the Spaniarde and Italian call de tanto y medio.

〈 math 〉

THe advantadge of grounde goode order, and Military discipli∣ne are suche that troughe the conduction of prudente and bra∣ve Comaūderes smale numberes offten times repulse far grea∣ter numberes, and some times the situatiō and disposition of ground-so faulethe oute, that neyther of the 4. formes of Squadrones can ser∣ve; Wherfore a Sardgent mayor▪ or whosoever undertakethe to by cu∣rious or perfect in this arte, ought to be expert in framinge all sortes of batteles, as well of equall and inequall numberes whatesoever, wherfore i tought fitt to set downe the rules for the framinge of suche batteles

Bigininge with a battell of so muche and one haulf more in front then in flanke, which the Italian calle tanto y metcho; which i supose to by framed of 507. armed pikes, and that the fronte therof containe so muche and the one haulf more in front 〈 math 〉 then in the flanke, to wourke the which put downe the number propounded whiche is 507. pikes, unto which number ad the one haulf of the self number, whiche will be 253 /2. that don, ad bothe numberes and it will a monthe to 760 2/1. oute of whiche take the square roote, which will by 27. and 21. remaininge, and say that 27. is the front of the battell.

To finde oute the flanke take 507. the number of pikes, and divide it by 27. the front, the quotient ther∣of wilbe 18. and 21. pikes remaininge, and say that 18. is the flanke; and the 21. pikes which did remaine oute of youre laste division will serve to guarnishe the culoures, soe that 27. is the front, and 18. the flanke, whiche comethe to the juste propor∣tion of the forme and number propounded, to see if yove have don, well multiply 27. the front by 18. the flanke the product of which Page  83 multiplication, and the 21. which did remaine in youre la∣ste 〈 math 〉 diuision, and if it agrie with the number of pikes pro∣pounded yove have don well, if not yove err, advertisinge that the proportion of the front and flanke muste be ob∣served, the forme wherof yove shall see here followinge, and lined proportionally every way withe the 312. muske∣tes, as yove more plainely may perceive by the figure fol∣lowenge, and by the divisiones of the same.

〈 math 〉

[illustration]
A Squadron of so muche and the one haulfe more in fronte then in flanke.

〈 math 〉
Pikes contained in the boddy of the battell.486 p.
Pikes remaininge to guarnish the culoures.021 p.
The lineng shott of the righte flanke.057 m.
The lininge shott of the leifte flanke.057 m.
The lininge shot of the full fronte.099 m.
The lininge shot of the front of the reere.099 m.
 819 m.

Page  84
A Squadron of so muche and one thirde parte more in fronte then in flanke.

[illustration]
〈 math 〉
  • 208 pikes.
  • 2 pikes.
  • 42 musk.
  • 42 musk.
  • 88 musk.
  • 66 musk.
  • 12 musk, remaininge.
  • 1 1/ 460.

SOme times occasion and situation may offer to frame a squadron of so muche and one thirde parte more in front then in flanke, whiche the Spaniarde Caule tanto y un tercio, whiche i supose to be of 460. Souldieres of the whiche 210. are pikes and 250 musketes, and consideringe that asargent mayor or any perfect souldier oughte not to be ingnorant in the framinge of all sortes of squadrones as tyme occasion and situation shall require, wherfor i tought Page  85 fitt to set downe the rules for the framinge of any suche or semblable sortes of batteles, nowe biginenge withe the aboue nūber. To wourke the whiche firste take the propounded number of 210. pikes, that don devide it by 3. the quotiente wherof will by 70. this 70. the 3 parte of the propounded number, ad to it the propounde nūber of pikes and it wilbe 280. oute of whiche take the square roote whiche wilbe 16. and 24. remainenge and say that 16. is the fronte of youre battell; that don, to finde oute the flanke devide 210. the propounded number of pi∣kes by 16. the fronte, the quotiente wherof will be 13. and two pikes remainenge, and say that 13. is the flanke and 16 the fronte and two pikes remayninge, to see of youe have don well, multiply the fronte by, the flanke addinge to the producte of youre multiplicatiō the remain∣der, and if it agrie withe youre propounded number of pikes it goes well.

Nowe for the devition of youre propounded number of short whi∣che is 250. musketes take the whole number of short and 〈 math 〉 pikes, whiche is 460. and divide the same by 3. whiche quo∣tient youe shall finde to by 153. and one remaininge, nowe thiese 153. the quotiente of youre laste devision of the pro∣pounded number of 460. the producte of whiche 2. adi∣tiones wil by 613. that don take the square roote of 613. which will by 24. the fronte of the number, nowe to finde oute the flanke, take youre principall number of pikes and shott whiche is 460. whiche youe are to devide by 24. the square roote of 613. and the number in the quotiente will be 19 and 4. remayninge and say that 24. is the fronte and 9. the flanke, that don deducte 13. the flanke of youre squadron of pikes oute of 19 the laste flanke and there shall remaine 6. this 6. divide into two partes and yove shall fin∣de 3. in eache parte, and say that the firste division of shott is 14. ran∣kes of 3. musketes in eache ranke comprehended one ranke of 3. musketes for the lininge of the culoures of the righte flanke of youre squadron of pikes, and say that the leifte flanke or side of youre bat∣tell of pikes are to be lined withe the self same order i meane 14. ran∣kes of 3. musketes in eache ranke; soe is the two flankes of youre bat∣tell of pikes proportionally lined withe musketes. Nowe to finde oute the shot that will line the fronte and rerwarde of youre battell of pi∣kes deducte 84. musketes the lininge shott of the two flankes oute of 250. the full number of shott, and there will remaine 166. muske∣tes theese 166. divide by 22. the full fronte of youre pikes of the two Page  86 linges the quotient of whiche wilbe 7. this 7. divide into two partes the one will be 4. and the other of 3. and say that the guarnison of mus∣ketes that is to line the fronte is 22. rankes of 4 musketes in eache ranke, and 22 rankes of 3. musketes for the linenge of the rerwarde, so is youre battell proportionally guarnished or lined every way, ad. vertisinge that 12. musketes remainethe oute of youre division vvhi∣che vvill serve for to guarinsh the culoures, so vvithe this observation and rule youe may divide youre shott of any other suche semblable battelles.

Advertisinge that tvvo pikes, vvhiche dothe guarnish the culou∣res are above the number the devision of the battell yealdeth, vvhi∣che at leaste are to be taken oute of some ranke for that inescusable purpose to guarinsh the culoures, as also to be rekoned but once in theire firste division; so that in all squadrones when in the divisiones of theire pikes and shott, shall not reste the conueniente number re∣quired for the due lininge of the culoures, then of force must that number be taken oute of some parte of the battell, advertisinge that this number so taken is not to be rekened but once, and that is vvhe∣re theire first division sheovveth, as declared in the tabell of the bat∣tell, vvhich is the true observation, and explication of the divisiones bothe of the pikes and shott. So is it to by vnderstoode that the num∣ber takē oute of thies divisiones for the culours the battell shall con∣taine so many above the number alued in theire firste division, and so for not to err, the divisiones of the table are to be observed for bien∣ge infallible, and for cause that moste comonly of force order and ar∣ray muste be broken to orderly place the culors in the center as also to guarnish them vvithe the conveniente pikes and shott.

Page  87
A Squadron of two times more in fronte then in flanke.

〈 math 〉

TO finde oute the fronte and flanke of any number of pikes, whi∣che yove woulde have to be two times more broade then longe or more in fronte then in flanke, whiche i supose at this instant to be 1008. of the vvhiche 520. are pikes and 488. muske∣tes, 〈 math 〉 firste take the propounded number of pikes whiche is 520· and multiply the same by 2. the producte will by 1040. nowe oute of this producte take the square roote, whiche wilbe 32, and 16. remaininge, and say that 32. is the fronte of youre battell of pikes, nowe to finde oute the flanke, take the propounded number of pikes, whiche is 520. This 520. divide by 32. the fronte, and the number in the quotient will be 16. and 8. pikes remaininge so yove founde oute the fronte and flanke, meaninge that 32. is the fronte, and 16 the flanke, and 8. pikes remaininge, in youre laste division, whiche will serve to guarnish the culoures, withe the observation of this rule, yove may frame a bat∣tell of pikes eyther of smale or greate numberes, and of whate forme yove will have the same to conteine of 3. times 4. times or 5. times more in fronte then in flanke in multi∣plyinge the propounded number of pikes by the propor∣tion therof, if yove woulde have it containe 3. times more in fronte then in flanke multiply youre propounded number of pikes by 3. if yove woulde have it to containe 4. times more in fronte then in flan∣ke multiply it by 4. and in wourkinge as before taughte yove shall fin∣de oute the fronte and flanke, and there juste proportion; for the im∣palinge shott i have spoken of in other forme of squadrones, but for suche as woulde be curiouse and experte, is required greate considera∣tion to be had for the severall sortes of divisiones of shott, as time oc∣casion and situation shall require, and it is moste necessary for him that undertakethe this chardge in hāde to by expert in Arithmeticke, and so withe continuall practice shall he withe greate facility bringe to juste perfection all the divisiones befitenge for this purpose, and let none be ingnorante but that for the severall and rare curiosities of the divisiones of shott is required muche practice, and specially in Page  88 Aritmeticke, whiche is the principall fundament in reducenge thees devisiones into there iuste perfection, alwayes consideringe of tyme occasion and situation, as also of afore caste prevention againste the stratageames and orderes of youre enemy.

A Squadron square of men of 3024. Souldieres of 〈 math 〉 the whiche 1764. are pikes, and 1260. musketes divided into severall maniples, and troupes to marche that they may fall into battell presently when occasion is offered as by the figure and divisiones folowinge set dow∣ne, and for suche as have not intered into the deepe judgement and practice of this arte. I will here set downe the order of there divisio∣nes, firste take the propounded number of pikes, whiche is 1764. oute of the whiche take the square roote, whiche will by 42. the whiche is the fronte and flanke of youre pikes. That don take the full number of youre shott, whiche is 1260 and divide this by 42. the flanke of the propounded number of pikes, and the number in the quotient will by 30. That don divide 30 the quotient into two equall partes, and youe shall finde the haulfe therof to be 15 so say that 15. shot comes under the shelter of eache pike of youre flanke for the guarnison of the same, I meane to eache of the two flankes, for triall wherof multi∣ply 42. the flanke of the pikes by the quotient of youre laste devition whiche was 30. and the producte will by the iuste number of shott propounded, And that youe may the more easy perceive thiese devi∣siones I will set them downe in breefe as heere folowinge youe may see.

The firste division is 42. rankes of five musketes in eache ranke whiche shall marche in the vangarde of the divisiones of youre marchinge whiche mōted.210 musketes.
The seconde division of youre squadron is 42. ran∣kes of 7. pikes whiche folowes the firste division of mus∣ketes and monteth.294 pikes.
The thirde diuision that folowes the seconde shall marche withe 42 rankes of 7. pikes in eache ranke whi∣che monteth.294 pikes.
The fourthe division shall by of 42. rākes of mus∣ketes of 5. in eache ranke monteth.210 pikes.
The fifthe division shall marche withe 42. rankes of pikes of 7. pikes in eache ranke whiche monteth.294 pikes.
The sixte division is 42. rankes of musketes of 5. Page  89 musketes in eache ranke whiche is the laste division of shott of the vangarde and linenge shott of the right flanke of the squadron of pikes whiche monteth.210 musketes.

So are the pikes and shott of the vangarde divided and the reste of youre shott and pikes are divided as folowethe.

The firste division of the rergarde is divided into 42. rankes of 5. musketes in eache ranke whiche shall marche in fronte of the linēge shott of the liefte flan∣ke of youre battell whiche monted.210 musketes.
The seconde division of the reregarde is 42. rankes of 7. pikes in eache ranke whiche monted.294 pikes.
Vhe thirde division of the rergarde is divided into so many more rankes.294 pikes.
The fourthe division of the reregarde is 42. rankes of 5. musketes in eache ranke the firstwinge of shot of the lefte flanke of the battell of pikes.210 musketes.
The fifthe division is 42. rankes of 7. pikes in eache ranke monteth.294 pikes.
The sixte division of the rergarde is divided into 42. rankes of five musketes in eache ranke for the se∣conde winge of shott of the liefte flanke.210 musketes.
 3024.

If youe woulde have the one haulf of youre shot to marche by them selfes in the vangarde of the pikes as comonly many do, youe may withe ease and breuety in observinge the same divisiones and withoute breakinge of any rāke, in onely co∣mandinge that the firste 3. divisiones of shott do marche in the vant∣garde, and then cause all the divisiones of pikes to folowe, observen∣ge there order as before set downe, plasinge the culores in the cen∣ter, and after them in therergarde to marche the other 3. divisiones of shott which is for the lininge of the liefte flanke and observinge their order as before spoken of.

Page  90

[illustration]
  • 1764 pikes.
  • 1260 musk.
  • 3024. men.

〈 math 〉

Page  91
By the figure followinge youe see the saide divisiones fall oute of theire marche in to battell, and proporsionally lined on the two flankes with the 1260. mus∣ketes, as by the divisiones of the same, and the figure followinge youe may see as the table of the divisiones of the battell hire folowinge sheoweth.

YOue shall understande that in the division of the pikes there did remaine nothinge, and for bienge inescusable to guarinsh the culoures withe pikes and shott, i cutt of the fronte of the battell one ranke which containes 42. pikes and 30. musketes, of thies pikes 20. shall guarnishe the two flankes of the culoures and the other 22 pikes shall by imploied for other purposes, and the 30. mus∣ketes with other 30. that are to be taken oute of the battell shall gua∣rinsh the culoures, so for suche as for curiositie woulde confronte this rekoninge it is necessary they knowe the diference is that 60. mueketes are to by taken oute of the battell to guaruish the culoures as before declared. Which are to be rekoned but once for otherwise there shall by 30. musketes diference.

The pikes contained in the boddy of the battel.1722. p.
The pikes that doth guarinsh the culours.20. p.
Pikes employed in ocasiones of service.22. p.
 1764. p.

  • 1764 pikes.
  • 1260 musketes.
  • 3024 men.
    Table of the battell.
  • 210 musketes.
  • 294 pikes.
  • 294 pikes.
  • 210 musketes.
  • 294 pikes.
  • 210 musketes.
  • 210 musketes.
  • 294 pikes.
  • 294 pikes.
  • 210 musketes.
  • 294 pikes.
  • 210 musketes.
  • 3024 men.

Page  92

[illustration]
SQUARE OF MEN. 3024. men. FRONT OF THE BATTELL.

  • 1764 pikes.
  • 1260 musk.
  • 3024.
Page  93
A battell square of men whiche ocupies place of 694. men in which battell goes avoide center which ocupies oume of 49. men apointed for the safe∣tie of hurte men and amunitiones, or for vnarmed men and bagadge.

The emptie center.49 men.
Unarmed pikes.121 pik.
Armed pikes or Corseletes.172 Cors.
Musketes.352 mus.
 694.

THe emptie center for hurtemen amunition and bagadge ocu∣pies plase of 49. in fronte and allsoe in flancke whose fronte and flanke is 7.

The firste division of unarmed pikes that lines the right flanke of the uoide center shall be devided into 7. rankes of 3. unarmed pikes in each ranke.21 pikes.
The seconde division of the unarmed pikes shall al∣soe marche withe 7. rankes of 3. pikes in each, to guar∣nish the left flanke of the voide center.21 pikes.
The thirde maniple of unarmed pikes that shall line the front of the center shall be divided into 13. rankes of 3. pikes in eache39 pikes.
The fourthe maniple of the unarmed pikes that shall march to line the rergarde of the center divided into 13 rankes of 3. pikes in eache ranke.39 pikes.
The first division of armed pikes shall be divided in∣to 13. rankes of 3. corseletes to line the right flanke of the unarmed pikes.39 corselet.
The second division of corseletes that doe line the left flanke of the unarmed pikes is divided into 13. ran∣kes of 2. corseletes in each.26 corselet.
The thirde division of corseletes that shall line the front of the vnarmed pikes shall be divided into 18. rankes of 3. corseletes in eache.54 corselet.
The fourthe division or maniple of corseltes that shall line the rergarde of the unarmed pikes shall be di∣vided Page  94 into 18. rankes of 2. corseletes in eache ranke.36 cors.
In the divisiō of the armed and unarmed pikes there did remaine 18. pikes of the whiche 17. are corseletes.18
 293.

THe division of the 352 musketes of the siyed squadron to line the battell proportionally everie way shall be divided in this maner folowinge, the rules bothe for this division, as also for the divisiones of the drie pikes and corseletes. I will set downe af ter this.

The firste division of shott of the saide squadron shall march in the vangarde withe 18. rankes of 4. mus∣ketes in each ranke for the lininge of the right flanke of the battell of pikes monteth.72 mus.
The seconde division of the uangarde shall marche withe 18. rankes of 4. musketes in each ranke for the linenge shott of the lieft flanke of the squadron.72 mus.
The first division of shott of the rergarde shall be di∣vided into 26. rankes of 4. musketes in each ranke for to line the front of the battell.104 mus.
The second division of shott of the rergard shall be divided into 26. rankes of 4. musketes in each ranke which shall line the rergarde of the battell.104 mus.
 352 mus.

Table of the Battell.

〈 math 〉

Page  95I Do not doubpte but many who have not longe pra∣ctised 〈 math 〉 in the framinge of squadrones, and that are not skilfull in the severall divisiones of the same, and in particular suche as are not able in Arithmetike, will in the begining finde greate difficulte in well orderinge and dividinge in proportion thiese batteles withe centeres, and lined every way pro∣porsionally withe sundrie sortes of weapones. Wherfore i tought fit to set downe in writinge the maner of theyre severall divisiones. To wourke the whiche yove muste bigin withe the center; Then withe the divisiones of youre unarmed and armed pikes, and then withe the divisiones of youre shott to see how they fall to line the squadron of pikes in proportion as hire folowethe.

To wourke the whiche, firste bigin with 49. youre propounded number for the voide center, and demaunde for the square roote of 49. whiche is 7. so youe finde that 7. is the front and flanke of the void center, that don say that youre voide place or center ocupies 21. foote in front and 49. in flanke, then place downe 49. the center and 121. the unarmed pikes whiche two adisiones, will amont to 170. oute of whiche take the square roote which is 13. and say that 13. is the front of the vnarmed pikes withe the voide center, that 〈 math 〉 don substract 7. the front of the center oute of 13. the front of the center and unarmed, and youe shall finde that 6. remaniethe, this 6 divide by 2! and the quotient will be 3. so say that by youre division youe finde that 3. unarmed pi∣kes comes to the linenge of the center everie way, beginenge firste wi∣the the right flanke of the center which is 7. and say the linenge of pikes of that flanke is 7. rankes of 3 pikes in eache ranke, and iuste so many more rankes for the linenge of the leift flanke of the center, conteinenge 21. pikes in each linenge, so by youre division youe fouu∣de the 2. linenges of pikes of the 2. flankes of the center. Nowe say 7. the front of the center and 6 the 2. linenges of the same maketh. 13. the front of the center and 2. lininges, nowe say that the thirde mani∣ple of unarmed pikes that shall line the front of the center and the 2. linenges of the same, shall marche witth 13. rankes of 3. drie pikes in each ranke, so the 2. flankes and front of the center are linde: that don say that the 4. maniples of unarmed pikes are to be divided into 13. rankes of 3. pikes in each ranke for to line the rergarde of the Page  96 void center, and say that the center is proportionally lined everie way withe the unarmed pikes, and that one unarmed pike did remaine in youre laste division.

Nowe to divide the armed pikes, to line the unarmed proportio∣nally every way, take the full number of the center, of the unarmed, and armed pikes propounded, which 3. partisiones dothe amonthe 342. that don take the square roote of this number which wilbe 18. and resteth 18. of the which 17. are armed pikes and 1. 〈 math 〉 unarmed, nowe substract the square roote 13. oute of the square roote 18. and there shall reste 5. this 5. divide and say that 3 comes to line one way, and 2. armed pikes the other side of youre unarmed pikes; then say that the firste division of armed pikes that shall line the right flanke of the unarmed, muste march withe 13. rankes of 3. armed pikes in each ranke which dothe amonth to 39. so say that the right flanke of the unarmed is lined with corseletes, nowe in the seconde division of corseletes shall march 13. rankes of 2. armed pikes or cor∣seletes in each rancke to line the leifte flanke of the unarmed as by youre division so fallethe oute, nowe say that the 2 flankes of the unarmed pikes are lined with the corseletes. Then in the third division of the corseletes shall march 18. rankes of 3. corseletes in each ranke for the linenge of the full front of the unarmed pikes, and cēter. That don cause the fourth division or maniple of corseletes to marche wi∣the 18. rankes of 2. corseletes in each ranke for the linenge of the rer∣garde of the battell so say that the voide center is proportionally lined withe the unarmed pikes, and the unarmed withe the corseletes, and that there did reste 18. pikes whiche shall serve to guarinsh the cou∣lors in the center, advertisinge that 17. are corseletes and 1. unarmed pike all which diuisiones youe se ordered as by the figure followinge apeereth; nowe to divide youre propounded number of shott which was 352 musketes take the full number of the center of the armed and unarmed pikes, as also of the musketes whiche will amonte 694 oute of whiche take the square roote whiche will by 26. oute of whiche substracte 18 the square of the center of the armed and unarmed pikes, and there shall reste 8. this 8 divide into two par∣tes and eache parte will by 4 and say that to guarinshe the righte flan∣ke of the squadron of pikes youe are to marche withe 18. rankes of 4. musketes in eache ranke, and withe iuste so many more shall youe guarnishe or line the leifte flanke of the full number of pikes, nowe to Page  97 finde oute the lininge shott of the frōte and rerwarde, say that adinge to 18. the fronte of the pikes 8 of the two linenges of the two flan∣kes it makethe 26. and then say that to guarinshe the full fronte youe are to marche withe 26. rankes of 4 musketes in eache ranke, whiche is the lininge shott of the fronte, and iuste so many more rankes shall guarnishe the rerwarde of the battell of pikes meaninge 26. rankes of 4. musketes in eache ranke and so is youre battell proportionally lined every way as the figure and divisiones folowinge sheowethe.

Page  98

[illustration]
A Squadron square of men withe a voide center.

[illustration]
Front of the Battell.

Table of the Battell.

〈 math 〉

Page  99

 Pikes.Musketes.Soilderes.
Spaniardes.10408401880.
Italianes.08887801668.
Irishe.09467601706.
Englishe.08407401580.
Borgonones.08476941541.
Valones.09396861625.
 5500450010000.

A battel square of men framed of six nationes, and who they shall un confused∣lie fall into battell withe grace and brevitie, dividinge to each nasion his par∣te of the vangarde, acordinge the number of men they give in relasion, as by the figure folowinge are orderly divided, to fall into battell of a soddaine withoute any crossinge or cōfusion, with the ensignes of each nation in the center of their pikes.

THe enemy aproachinge and understandinge that they are resol∣ved to give battell, the campe Master generall knowinge of the prudent brave conduction, and resolute determination of the Spaniard, Italian, Irishe, Englishe, Borgonones, and Valones, comaun∣deth that there shoulde be chosen oute of thiese nationes to the num∣ber of 10000. of chosen men of tried valor and full resolution givenge order that a battell square of mē shoulde be framed of the saied 10000. men, and for feare of confusion or contrauersie in tyme of fallinge in∣to squadron, he give the order that the Italianes shoulde folowe the Spaniardes, the Irishe to folowe the Italianes, the Englishe to folo∣we the Irishe, the Borgonones after the Inglishe and the Valones to folowe, the Burgonones, and that eache natiō shoulde folowe one ano∣ther as before declared withe the fronte and flanke that toucheth eache nation acordinge to the number of men they give in ralation, that withe grace and brevity and withoute any crossinge or confusion eache nation may fall into squadron of a sodaine, and that eache na∣tion may have his parte of the vangarde acordinge to the number of men he givethe in relation. To wourke the whiche i tought fit to set downe the rules for the divisiones of theese nationes, as here foloweth.

Page  100Firste take the full number of pikes given in relation by the saide six Nationes, which is 5500. oute of whiche take the square roote, whiche is 74. the fronte and flanke of the battell, and 24. pikes remaininge, whiche shall serve to guarnishe the culoures. That done bigin to guarnishe or line the two flankes of the battell of pikes withe short aleowinge five shot under the shelter or defence of eache pike, whiche is the moste that can conveniently be defended under the same. To finde oute the linenge shott of the righte flanke of the battell of pi∣kes, as before ordained, multiply 74. the flanke by 5. and the produ∣cte will by 370. and say that the linenge shott of the right flanke is 74. rankes of 5 musketes in eache ranke, and say that the righte flanke of the battell of pikes is lined withe shott. To guarnishe or line the leifte flanke of the battell of pikes, also say that it is 74. rankes of 5. muske∣tes in eache ranke whiche makethe 370. musketes, and say that youre two flankes of the battell of pikes are lined, nowe to knowe the short that shal guarnishe the full fronte of the pikes, and of the two lininges of the 2. flankes, ad 10. the musketes of the 2. lininges to 74. the fronte of the pikes, and it makethe 84. the full fronte, then say that the divi∣sion of shott that shall line or guarnishe the full fronte is to mar∣che withe 84. rankes of five musketes in eache ranke, and 〈 math 〉 iuste so many more rankes shall marche in the fourte divi∣sion of shot that shall guarnish the full fronte of the rere∣warde, advertisinge that eache division of the two last that lines the fronte and rerwarde conteines 420. musketes in eache, so that the full number of shott of the afore saied 4. divisiones that shall line the two flankes fronte and rer∣warde dothe a mounte to 1590. musketes, comprehen∣ded 10. musketes for to guarnish the coloures, thiese 1590. musketes deducte oute of the propounded and full number of musketes whiche is 4500. and there shall re∣maine 2910. musketes whiche i divide into 30. troupes whiche comethe to 97. musketes in eache troupe, the whi∣che 30. troupes is divided in the 4. angles and two flankes of the battel as by the figure and divisiones folowinge youe may better perceive, where all is ordered and set downe, and withe as greate facility as the divisiones can affourde, that there by suche as are not experte in arit∣meticke nor in the theorike and practike of this arte may the sooner conceive the same.

Page  101

 Pikes.Musketes.Soilderes.
Spaniardes.10408401880.
Italianes.08887801668.
Irishe.09467601706.
Englishe.08407401580.
Borgonones.08476941541.
Valones.09396861625.
 5500450010000.

〈 math 〉

THe full number of shott of the saied six nationes monted. —

Oute of whiche is to be de∣ducted the divisiones of the 4. linenges.

So that after deductinge the linenge shott of the 4. frontes of the battell of pikes resteth 2910. m. Whiche is divided into 30. troupes at 97 m. in eache troupe, whiche are divided in the 4 angles and two flankes of the battell of pikes as by the fi∣gure and divisiones folowinge ordered and proportionally di∣vided. Advertisinge that oute of one of the troupes of mus∣ketes of the angles youe are to take 10. musketes to guarnishe the culores.

Page  102
The divisiones of the pikes and the order wherewithe each nation shall marche to fall into battell withe grace and brevety.

BY the divisiones of the pikes before spoken of in dividinge 74. the flanke of youre squadron of pikes be 1040. the number of pikes the Spa∣niardes gave, yove shall finde the number in the quo∣tiente to by 14. and 4. remayninge and say that the Spaniardes are to marche withe 74. rankes of 14. pi∣kes in eache ranke whiche is the order they are to ob∣serve when occasion offerethe to fall into squadron withe there coloures in the center of there pikes, ad∣vertisinge that there restethe 4. pikes oute of there division.14 front.- 4.
The Italianes who gave relation of 888. pikes is divided by the self same rule into 74. rankes of 12 pi∣kes in eache ranke, and in offeringe occasion withou∣te any crossing or confusion shall fall into battell wi∣the this order, and close uppon the leifte hande of the Spaniardes withe the culoures in the center, and con∣forme them selves with the Spaniardes in fronte and flanke.12 front.
The Irish who gave relation of 946. pikes, shall be divided into 74. rankes of 12. pikes in eache ranke withe theyr culoures in the center of theyr pikes, and restethe 58. pikes oute of there division, and they shal fall into battell withe this order, and close uppon the lefte hande of the Italianes.12 front. - 58.
The Englishe who gave relation of 847. pikes is divided into 74. rankes of aleaven pikes in eache ran∣ke withe there culoures in the center, and restethe 26. pikes.11 front. - 26.
The Borgonones who gave relation of 841. pikes are divided into 74. rankes of 11. pikes in eache ran∣ke, and 33. pikes remaininge, and withe there culou∣res in the center shall close uppon the lefte hande of the English, when occasion offereth.11 front. - 33.
The Valones who gave relation of 939. pikes is di∣vided Page  103 into 74. rankes of 12 pikes in eache ranke, and 51. pikes remaininge, and in offeringe occasion to fall into squadron shall observe this order, and ioyne up∣pon the leifte hande of the Borgonones withe there coulores in the center.12 front. - 51.
Advertisinge that of the 172. pikes that did remaine in the divisiones of the Spaniardes, Irishe, English, Borgonones, and Valones. They shall by divided into 74. rankes of two pikes in eache ranke and shall close upp on the leifte hande of the Valones when occa∣sion shall offer to fall into battell, and there shall reste 24 pikes.2 front. - 24.
 74 front. - 24.

The firste division of shott that shall guarnishe or line the righte flanke of the squadron of pikes is divi∣ded into 74 rankes of five musketes in eache ranke, consideringe that a pike can hardely defende under the shelter or defence of the same above five shott at the moste.370 musk.
The seconde division of shott that shall guarnishe the leifte flanke of the battell of pikes is divided into 74. rankes of five musketes in eache ranke.370 musk.
The thirde division of shott that is to guarnishe the full fronte of the battell of pikes, and the two li∣nenges of the same is divided into 84. rankes of five musketes in each rank.420 m.
The fourthe division of shott that is for to guar∣nishe the rerewarde of the battell of pikes, and the two linenge shott of the two flankes is divided into 84. rankes of five musketes in eache ranke.420 m.
In the division of the full number of shott there did remaine oute of the division 10. musketes that is to guarnishe the coulores as in the divisiones of the shott is set downe.10 m.
 1590 musk.

After lininge youre squadron of pikes proportio∣nally every way as before declared, the 4. guarnitio∣nes 〈 math 〉 of shott montes 1590. musketes whiche are to be substracted oute of the principall some or number of musketes whiche is 4500. there shall remaine 2910. musketes, this remainder divide into 30. troupes and Page  104 youe shall finde by youre division eache troupe to 〈 math 〉 containe 97. musketes ordered and divided in the foure angles and two flankes of the battell of pikes to skirmishe acordinge as tyme occasion, and situation shall require as by the figure folowinge youe may see who all thiefe divisiones do fall oute of there marche into aperfect squadron in the forme and maner as be∣fore declared and sett downe. Advertisinge that oute of the laste troupe of musketes on the liefte angle of the battell muste by taken 10. musketes for the linin∣ge shot of the culoures, so that troupe of musketes containes but 87. musketes and all the reste 97. so that 10. muskeths difereth.

Advertisinge that the culoures of eache division of pikes shall mar∣che in the center of the same, so that when occasion shall offer they may with grace and brevity fall into battell array, and withoute any crossinge or confusion nor cuttinge of rankes nor order as many do, but unconfusedly with grace, and brevetie fall into battell, as by the figure followinge youe may see, the 10. musketes youe take oute of one of the troupes of the angles for to guarnish the culoures are to by reckoned in theire due place as the divisiones of shott sheoweth, and youe are not to reken them in the battell by reason they were borowed oute of one of the troupes of musketes.

And let none by ignorante that when the conveniente number of pikes and shott do not remaine oute of the divisiones to guarnish the culoures, then of force order and array muste be broken, in cutin∣ge the shott and pikes necessary to guarnish them, and so for not to err in the rekeninge the divisiones of the table of the battell are to by observed (for beinge infalible) and for bienge the producte: of the generall rule of all the divisiones of the battell, so is it to be under stoode that theire is no better surer nor brifer rule for this purpose.

By the figure folowinge and by the table and divisiones of the same you may see who eache nation doth march with the fronte and flan∣ke acordinge the number of men they gave in relasion, advertisinge that the culoures of each nation are to march in the cinter of theire division of pikes, and the 74 rankes of pikes of 2 pikes in ranke that did remaine oute of the divisiones of the saide 6 nationes shall close upp on the leifte flanke of the battell of pikes as be the figure and di∣visiones followinge youe may plainely see who orderly oute of there march they fall unto battell with grace and brevity.

Page  105〈1 page duplicate〉

Page  105

[illustration]
FRONT OF THE BATTELL. SQUARE OF MEN.

Page  [unnumbered]TABLE OF THE BATTEL.
THe Spaniardes are divided into 74. rankes of 14 pikes in each ranke monted.1036 pikes.
The Italianes into 74. rankes of 12. pikes.0888 pikes.
The Irish into 74. rankes of 12. pikes.0888 pikes.
The English into 74. rankes of 11. pikes.0814 pikes.
The Borgonones 74. rankes of 11. pikes.0814 pikes.
The Valones into 74. rankes of 12. pikes.0888 pikes.
The remainder of pikes of the six nasiones di∣vided into 74. rākes of 2. pik. in each.0148 pikes.
Pikes remaininge oute of the divisiones.24 pikes.
 5500 pikes.
The lininge shott of the righte flanke of the battell of pikes.0370 musk.
The lininge shot of the leifte flanke.370 musk.
The guarnision shot of the fronte monted.420 musk.
The guarnision of the reregarde.420 musk.
Shot remaininge oute of the divisiones.020 musk.
2900. musketes divided into 30. troupes.2900 musk.
 4500 musk.

Advertisinge that oute of one of the troupes of musketes are to be taken 10. musketes with the other 10. that did re∣maine to guarnish the culoures; still observinge the divisio∣nes of the table for beinge infalible.

Page  [unnumbered]Page  105
The greate battell of 10000. men before spoken of, is nowe divi∣ded into three battelles square of men as by the figure folowing appeereth.

OF the then thousande men (before spoken of, and of whiche were framed abattell square of men, and all redused into one boddy as before set downe, and the forme of there divisiones. Nowe supose that the Campe-master generall woulde have the self same nūber of 10000. men to be divided into three batteles square of men and to observe suche goode order in there divisiones that withe grace, and brevity and withoute any crossinge or confusion they may fall oute of there marche into battell, as by the divisiones, and figure folowinge youe may see. Advertisinge that of the Spaniardes and Italianes there shall by framed one squadron, and of the Irishe and English another, and of the Borgonones and Valones an other.

 Pikes.Musketes.Soulderes
Spaniardes.10408401880.
Italianes.08887801668.
Irishe.09467601706.
Englishe.08407401580.
Borgonones.08476941541.
Valones.09396861625.
 5500450010000.

 Pikes.Musketes.Soulderes.
Spaniardes and Italianes.192816203548.
Irish and English.178615003286.
Burgonones and Valones.178613803176.
 5500450010000.

NOwe to oure pupose take the full number of pikes of the Spa∣niardes and Italianes whiche is 1928. pikes oute of whiche ta∣ke the square roote whiche will by 43. and 79. pikes remainen∣ge, consideringe that 79. pikes are muche to remayne oute of the Page  106 squadron divide 79 by 43. the square roote, and the number in the quotiente will by one, and 36. pikes yet remayninge, this one youe founde oute of 79. ad it to 43. and it will by 44. and 36. pikes remai∣ninge, and say that 44. is the fronte of the battell of pikes, and 43 the flanke, nowe consider that hardly aboue 4. shott can by, conveniently defended under the shelter and defence of the pike. And say that youe will line youre battell of pikes proportionally by 4. musketes every way. This resolution taken multiply 43. the flanke of the 〈 math 〉 battell of pikes by 4. musketes the linenge shott, the pro∣ducte wherof will by 172. musketes for the lininge shott of the righte flanke of youre battell of pikes, and iuste so ma∣ny more for the lininge shott of the leifte flanke of the bat∣tel of pikes. That don ad 8. the linenge shott of the two flankes to 44 the fronte of the battell of pikes whiche two aditiones makethe 52. the full fronte of the pikes and 2. linenges of the two 〈 math 〉 flankes, nowe to guarnishe the fronte of the battell of pi∣kes multiply 52. by 4. the producte wherof will by 208. musketes whiche is the number of shott that shall guar∣nishe the fronte of the battell, meaninge 52. rankes of 4. musketes in eache ranke. That done say that the two flankes and fronte of the battell are lined withe shott. Nowe to guarnishe the re∣rewarde of the battell, observe the self same order, and number whe∣re withe youe did guarnishe the fronte of the battell whiche was 52. rankes of 4. musketes in eache ranke, and withe so many shall youe guarnishe the re rewarde of the battell, and say that youre battell is proportionally lined every way withe shott.

Nowe for the division of the reste of youre shott take 〈 math 〉 1620. musketes the full number of shott propounded, oute of whiche deducte 760. musketes the girdelinge shott of the 4. frontes of youre battell, and there shall remaine 860. musketes. Whiche i divide into 14. troupes of 60. muske∣tes in each troupe, of the which one troupe shall conteine 74. mus∣ketes by reason the division so fallethe oute, and divided on the two flankes of the battell as by the divisiones, and figure followinge apere∣the, whiche is the firste battell of the three, and on the righte hande; advertisinge that in the laste division of shott there did remaine 6. musketes where withe youe may guarnish the coulores withe them, and withe the 36. pikes that did remaine oute of the division of youre pikes, so youre propounded number of pikes and shott are divided. Page  107 Advertisinge that the fronte of this battell is 44. and the flanke 43. multiplienge the one by the other and adinge there vnto 36 pikes that doe guarnishe the coulores makethe the propounded number of pikes, whiche was 1928. as by the divisiones followinge apeerethe, advertising that youe are to cut ten musketes that wantes for the guarnision of the culoures, oute of one of the troupes, which youe shall finde to muche in the battell, be reason they are borowed of one of the troupes so folowe the divisiones as they are set downe in the table which is the righte way, and infalible.

Table of the firste battell.

〈 math 〉

Page  108

 Pikes.Musketes.Souldieres.
Irishe.9467601706.
Englishe.8407401580.
 178615003286.

THE SECONDE BATTELL.

NOwe that yove have done withe the number of pikes and shott the Spaniardes and Italianes gave. Take the 3286 men whiche is given in relation be the Irishe and Englishe, of the whiche 1786 are pikes, and 1500. musketes. To reduce them into a perfecte squadron square of men, and to be proportionally lined and guar∣nished every way withe shott. To wourke the whiche, firste take the number of pikes whiche is 1786. oute of whiche take the square roote whiche will by 42 and there shall remaine 22. pikes whiche may be imployed to guarnishe the coullores, that don say that 42 is the fronte and flanke of the battell of pikes and 22. pikes remaininge. And supose, that occasion offerethe that youe finde necessary the lininge shott not to pass 3. in ranke under the shelter, and defence of apike. Nowe to finde oute the lininge shott of the righte flanke of youre battell of pikes multiply 42. the flanke of the pikes by 3. muske∣tes that is aleowed for the linenge shott, the producte wherof will by 126. or 42. rankes of 3. musketes in eache ranke, then say the righte flanke of the pikes are lined withe shott, and iuste so many more ran∣kes of shot shall serve for the lininge of the leifte flanke of the battel of pikes, observinge the self same number and order as did the linenge shott of the right flanke of the battell of pikes whiche is 〈 math 〉 42. rankes of 3. musketes in eache ranke whiche monteth to 126. musketes, nowe to guarnish the fronte of the bat∣tel of pikes whiche is 42. ad therunto the two lininges whiche 3. aditiones will by 48. the full fronte of the pikes, and of the two lininges whiche youe shall multiply by 3. the producte wherof will by 144. musketes or 48. rankes of 3. musketes in eache ranke, so the two flankes and fron∣te of the battell of pikes are proportionably lined.

Nowe to guarnish the reregarde of the battell of pikes withe shott, observe the self same order before set downe Page  109 for the lininge of the fronte of the pikes. That is to say 48. ran∣kes of 3. musketes in eache ranke, so youre battell of pikes is proportionally lined every way. That don substracte the 540. musketes the linenge shott of the two flankes fronte 〈 math 〉 and rerwarde oute of the principall number of shott whi∣che is 1500 and there shall reste 960. musketes whiche yo∣ue shall divide by 12. or into 12 troupes and the quo∣tiente of youre division alowethe 80. musketes in eache troupe, whiche yove may double when occasion require (that don) say that the reste of youre shott is divided into 12. trovpes of 80. mus∣ketes in eache troupe to be divided on the two flankes of the battell of pikes to squirmish in single or double siele as occasion and situation shall require, so al youre pikes and shot are divided, advertisinge that the 22. pikes that did remaine oute of the division of the pikes are to guarnish the coulores, as by the divisiones folowinge youe may see. Advertisenge that by reason no musketes did remaine oute of the di∣visiones, youe are to cutt of one of the troupes 12. musketes to guarnish the coulores whiche are not to be rekoned in the boddy of the battell (but for borowed) but where the divisiones fauleth and sheoweth whiche is the righte way as here under youe see in the ta∣ble which is unfalible.

Table of the seconde battell.

〈 math 〉

Page  110

 Pikes.Musketes.Souldieres.
Borgonones.8476941541.
Valones.9396861625.
 178613803166.

THE THIRDE BATTELL.

NOwe to frame the thirde Battell of the 3166. men the Borgo∣nones and Valones gave in relation meaninge 1786. pikes, and 1380. musketes, firste take the propounded number of pikes, whiche is 1786. oute of whiche take the square roote, whiche yove shall finde to be 42. soe that 42. is the fronte and flanke of the battell, and 22. pikes, remaininge whiche shall serve to guarnishe the culou∣res.

Put in case that occasion requirethe that youre linenge shott is to be no more then 3. musketes in ranke, and say that 42. rankes of 3. musketes in eache ranke shall guarnishe the righte flanke of the bat∣tell of pikes, and juste so many more for the linenge of the leifte flan∣ke, whiche two linenges makethe 252. musketes, that don take 42. the fronte of the pikes, and ad therunto 6. the linenge shott of the two flankes, whiche two aditiones will make 48. To guarnishe the fronte of youre battell of pikes, say that the thirde division of shott is 48. ran∣kes of 3. musketes in eache ranke, and juste so many more rankes for the linenge shott of the rerewarde of the battell of pikes, observinge the self same order as dothe the thirde division of shott, meaninge 148. rankes, of 3. musketes in eache ranke, whiche two divisiones for the linenge shott of the fronte and rerewarde makethe 288 musketes, and soe the 4. sides of youre battell of pikes are proportionally lined every way, the foure linenges importheth 540. musketes.

That don substracte 540. musketes oute of the full number of shot whiche is 1380. and there shall remaine 840. musketes, whiche yove shall divide as time occasion or situation shall require: whiche nowe i suppose conveniente to be divided into twenty troupes to be divided on the two flankes of the battell of pikes to skirmishe where occasion shall require in single or double fiele, as the situation shall permitt, and the occasion shall require, at 42. musketes in eache troupe, soe Page  111 all youre shott and pikas are divided, as before declared; Advertisinge that the culoures shall marche in the center guarnished withe the 22 pikes, that did remaine in the division of the pikes, and by reason no shott did remaine oute of the divisiones of youre shott yove may take 12. shott oute of the laste division of shott to guarnishe the culou∣res, soe youre three battelles are framed, and by the figure folowinge youe see howe oute of there divisiones they fall into battell. Greate consideration and curiosity is to by vnderstoode for the severall divi∣siones of shott, as tyme and occasion shall require, alwayes conside∣ringe the situation and disposition of the grounde, as also of the seve∣rall occasiones and advantadges in skirnmishenge withe greate or smale troupes withe single or double file and in whate distance (when, the enemy dothe abounde on horse, and when nott) and also in pre∣ventinge in due time the orderes and stratageames of the enemy.

Let none by ingnorante that when in the divisiones of pikes and shott theire resteth not inough to guarnish the culoures, of force the necessary shott and pikes required for that purpose are to be cutt of the winges or troupes of the flankes, and are to be rekoned where theire firste divisiones did fall, as declared in the table of the battelles for if youe reken them in the battell and where their firste division did fall, it can not confronte with the divisiones, so observe still the rule of the divisiones as set downe and declared in breefe in the table of the battelles, which is the righte way and generall rule. This table is neowlie invented for that purpose, where presentlie withoute any paines or trouble youe shall finde the reasones, and proportion of all the divisiones of the batteles in breefe (as well of the shott as of the pikes) as also whate remaineth oute of the divisiones, whiche table is of rare importance for the breefe explicatinge and orderinge of all the divisiones of battelles. And besides for cause that many auctores do leaue the same in obscuritie to avoide prolixity, as also to disperte the ingeniouse understandinge of those of perfection in this arte.

Page  112Table of the thirde battell.
Pikes contained in the boddy of the battell.1764 pikes.
Pikes remaininge to guarnish the culors.022 pikes.
Lininge shott of the righte flanke.126 musketes.
Lininge shott of the leifte flanck.126 musketes.
Lininge shott of the fronte of the battell144 musketes.
Lininge shott of the fronte of the rergarde144 musketes.
Musketes divided into 20. troupes on the flankes of the battell.828 musketes.
Musketes deducted to guarnish the culours.012 musketes.
 3166 men.

Page  [unnumbered]〈1 page duplicate〉

Page  [unnumbered]

[illustration]
SQUARE OF MEN.

Fronte of the seconde Battell.

Fronte of the firste Battell.

Page  [unnumbered]Fronte of the thirde Battell.

Page  [unnumbered]

Page  113〈 math 〉

A Squadron square of grounde of 1116. souldieres of 〈 math 〉 the whiche 576. are pikes, and 540. musketes, to re∣duce them into aperfecte squadron square of grounde firste take the propounded number of pikes whi∣che is 576. whiche youe shall multiply by 3. the producte wherof will be 1728 this producte divide by 7. and the number in the quotient will by 246. oute of this 246. take the square roote whiche will by 15. and say that youe foun∣de oute the flanke of the battell of pikes, nowe to finde oute the fronte of the battell, take the propounded num∣ber of pikes whiche was 576. whiche youe shall divide by 15. the flanke, the quotiente wherof will by 38. whiche is the fronte of the battell of pikes and there restethe 6. pi∣kes whiche shall serve to guarnish the coulores, so that 38. is the fronte and 15. the flanke. Nowe for the division of youre 540. musketes firste say that for the girdelinge shott of the righte flanke of the battell of pikes muste marche 16. rankes of 5. musketes in eache ranke comprehended the ranke of the culors, so the firste division of shott of the van garde is divided into 16. rankes of five musketes in ea∣cheranke. And the seconde division of shott of the van∣garde and firste winge of the right flanke of the battell of pikes is divided into 19. rankes of 5. musketes in eache ran∣ke. The thirde division or winge of the vāgarde is also divi∣ded into 19. rankes of 5. musketes in eache ranke whiche shall serve for the seconde winge of shott of the vangarde and righte flanke of the battell of pikes, so that 270. mus∣ketes, the iuste haulf of the propounded number of shott, are comprehended in the saied 3. divisiones of shott of the vangarde and righte flanke of the battel of pikes.

And for the girdelinge shott and two winges of the leifte flanke of the battell of pikes are also lefte iuste so many more. Whiche shall observe the self same order in linenge the leifte flanke of the pikes. Page  114 Imeane 16. rankes of five musketes in eache for the girdelinge shott of the leifte flanke of the battell of pikes and 2. slives, of 19. rankes of 5. musketes in eache ranke, in whiche 6. divisiones are comprehended the full number of shott whiche was 540. musketes advertisinge that the firste three divisiones of shott shall marche before the pikes, and the other three divisiones of the rergarde and leifte flanke shall mar∣che after the pikes, as by the divisiones folowinge set downe in brife and shall be better understoode by suche as are not experte in this ar∣te: so that they may the sooner cōceiue and come to understande thee∣se divisiones, and howe oute of there marche they fall into battell wi∣the grace and brevity withoute any crossinge confusion or breakinge of rankes as many do, whiche are not expert in aritmetike nor in the severall sortes of divisiones of firy weapone.

The firste division of shott and firste winge of the vangarde is divided into 19. rankes of five musketes in eache ranke whiche conteines.95 musk.
The seconde winge and division of the vangarde is divided into 19 rankes of five musketes in eache ranke.95 musk.
The thirde division of shott of the vangarde for the girdelinge shott of the righte flanke of the battell of pi∣kes is divided into 16. rankes of five musketes in eache ranke comprehended the ranke of the coulores.80 musk.
After theabove 3. divisiones of shott of the vangarde shall marche the firste division of pikes of 15. rankes of 10. pikes in eache ranke.150 pikes.
The seconde division of pikes is also divided into 15. rankes of 10. pikes in eache.150 pikes.
The thirde division of pikes Idem.150 pikes.
The fourthe division of pikes is divided into 15. ran∣kes of 8. pikes in eache ranke whiche dothe cōtaine.120 pikes.
Or the coulores did remaine.006 pikes.
The firste division of shott of the rergarded that fol∣lowes the pikes and that shall line the leifte flanke is di∣vided into 16. rankes of 5. musketes in eache ranke monted.080 musk.
The seconde division and firste winge of mus∣ketes of the reregarde is divided into 19. rankes of 5. musketes in eache ranke whiche followes the girdlinge shott of the leifte flanke and conteines.95 musk.
Page  115The thirde division of shott of the rergarde is divided into another slive of 19. rankes of five musketes in eache ranke.95 mus.
 1116.

The saied 1116. souldieres are divided into ten divi∣siones as before declared and who oute of there marche they shall fall in battell eyther in singell or double fiele as occasion shall require, and the situation and disposition of the grounde shall permit, advertisinge that there did remaine 6. pikes for to guarnishe the coulores, and that in the divisiones of the lininge shott and ranke of the coulores is comprehended 2. rankes of shott and that eache one of the 4. winges dothe conteine 3. rankes more then the divisiones of the girdelinge shott, and that for cause that ordinaryly the winges are augmented with 3.4. or 5. rankes more then the girdelinge shott.

〈 math 〉

[illustration]
Fronte of the Battell.

Table of the Battell.
570 p.Boddy of the battell of pikes.
6 p.Remainder of pikes.
95 m.Firste wing of musketes.
95 m.Seconde winge of musketes.
80 m.Lininge of the righte flanke.
80 m.Lininge shott of the leifte flanke.
95 m.Firste winge of musket. leifte flanke.
95 m.Seconde winge of mus. leifte flanke.
1116. 

Page  116〈 math 〉

TO frame a Squadron square of grounde of 2782. 〈 math 〉 Souldieres of the whiche number 1050. are pikes, and 1732. musketes, to reduce this number into a Squadron square of grounde, whiche the Spanniarde caulle Quadro de terreno, firste take the propounded num∣ber of pikes whiche is 1050. and multiply it by 3. the pro∣ducte, wherof will by 3150. this producte divide by 7. and the number in the quotient will be 450. oute of this quotiente take the square roote whiche youe shall finde to be 21. and 9. remayninge, and say that 21. is the flan∣ke of the propounded number of pikes. Nowe to finde the fronte of the battell take the full number of pikes, whiche is 1050. whiche yove shall divide by 21. the flan∣ke, and the quotient will be 50. and remainethe nothin∣ge, and say that 50. is the fronte of the battell of pikes, and 21 the flanke.

Nowe for the division of youre shott suppose that yo∣ve woulde have the lininge shott not to contayne more then 4. in ranke, and that yove woulde have the battell of pikes, to be proportionally lined every way withe shot. To wourke the whiche, take 21. the flanke of the battell of pikes, and multiply it by 4. the producte wherof will by 84. and say that the firste division of shott is 84. mus∣kete▪ or 21. rankes of 4. musketes in eache ranke, whiche is the linenge shott of the righte flanke of the battell of pikes, and the seconde division of shott for the linenge of the leifte flanke shall containe juste so many more, no∣we to finde oute the nūber of shott that shall be in pro∣portion to guarnish the full fronte of the battell of pikes and of the two linenges, ad to 50. the fronte of the pro∣pounded number of pikes 8 the number of shott of the two linges whiche two aditiones will make 58. and say that 58 rankes of 4. mus∣ketes in eache ranke shall be the guarnison, or linenge shott of the fronte of the battell of pikes, and of the 2 linenges, and juste so ma∣ny Page  117 more for the guarnison of the rerewarde of the bat∣tell 〈 math 〉 of pikes, meaninge as before declared 58. rankes of 4. musketes in eache ranke, so the two flankes fronte and rerewarde of the battell of pikes is proportionally lined every way withe 640. musketes, and restethe 1092. musketes whiche i divide into 22. troupes or maniples, ordered and divided in the fronte, rergarde, and 4. angles of the battell of pikes, to skirmishe eyther in single or double fiele as tyme occasion and situation shall requi∣re, and permitt; all whiche divisiones youe may see by the figure folowinge, for the divisiones of shot let none be ingnoran∣te but that there are many considerationes, and curiosities to be had as time and occasion shall require, and especially if the enemy be su∣perior on horse.

Hire folowethe who the full number of pikes and shott is divided into 31. divisio∣nes and who oute of theyre marche they fall into battell.

THe firste division of shott that lines the righte flanke of the battell of pikes is 21. rankes of 4. mus∣ketes in eache ranke.84 musk.
The seconde division of shott for the linenge shott of the leifte flanke of the battell of pikes iuste so many mo∣re 21. rankes of 4 muskets.84 musk.
The thirde division of shot that guarnisheth the full fronte of the battell and 2. lininges is 58. rākes of 4. mus∣ketes in eache ranke.232 musk.
The fourthe divisiō of shott that dothe guarnishe the rerewarde of the battell of pikes and 2. lininges is 58. ran∣kes of 4. musketes in eache ranke.232 musk.
22. maniples of 50. musketes in eache, devided on the fronte rergarde, and 4. angles of the battell make∣the.1100 mus.
 1732 mus.

Advertisinge that of one of the troupes of musketes on the angles of the battell are to by taken 8. musketes which wantes to guarnish the culoures be reason no mus∣ketes did remaine in theire laste division, also be reason no pikes did reste in the division of the pikes y cut 21. pikes of the flanke to guarnishe the culoures so the fronte of the battel of pikes Page  118 shall by but 49. pikes. And by reason the divisiones are before shut upp thies 8 musketes difereth in the rekoninge, so that when acon∣v eniente number of pikes and shott doe not remaine oute of the di∣visiones suficiente to guarnish the culoures the above observation mu ste be kepte as ordered in the Table of the battell, so to confronte the divisiones with the propounded number yove are to by informed by the table for bienge infallible.

Page  119〈 math 〉

A Battell of 2025. Souldieres divided into five battelles square of grounde, of the whiche number 945. are pikes, and 1080 mus∣ketes whiche are equally divided into five batteles, and propor∣tionally lined withe the propounded number of shott whiche is 1080. musketes as the divisiones and figure folowinge sheowethe.

To wourke the whiche firste take the propounded 〈 math 〉 number of pikes whiche is 945 and divide it into five par∣tes or by five, and the number in the quotiente will by 189. whiche is the iuste number of pikes youre division yealdethe for eache battell of the five, nowe to finde ou∣te the fronte, and flanke of eache battell take 189. pikes whiche youre division alowethe for eache battell of pikes, and multiply the same by 3. the producte wherof will by 567. this producte divide by 7. and the number in the quotient will by 81. oute of this 81. the quotiente take the square roote whiche will by 9. and say that 9. is the flanke of eache one of the five batteles of pikes, nowe to finde the fronte take the propounded number of pikes whiche youre division did alowe to eache battell of pikes whiche was 189. this 189 pikes divide by 9 the flanke, the quo∣tiente wherof will by 21. and nothinge remayninge, and say that 21. pikes is the fronte, and 9. the flanke of eache battell of pi∣kes before spoken of and when yove will have them fall into squadron lett them marche in 3. maniples of 9. rankes of 7. pikes in eache ran∣ke withe the coulors in the center of the midel maniple, and so shall they fall withe grace and brevity into battell, and withoute any cro∣singe or confushion. To guarnishe the coulors yove may cutt nine pikes of the flanke of eache battell, and so shall the fronte conteine but 20. pikes; nowe for the division of the propounded number of shott whiche was 1080. musketes supose that yove woulde have eache battell of pikes to be proportionally lined alowinge 3. musketes under the shelter or defence of the pike, firste say that the firste division of shott that shall girdel the right flanke of the firste battell of pikes shall conteine 9. rankes of 3. musketes in eache ranke, and iuste so ma∣ny more for the girdelinge shott of the leifte flanke, so is the 2. flan∣kes of the battell of pikes guarnished: Nowe to guarnishe the fronte Page  120 of the battell of pikes withe shott say that 21. is the frōte of the battell of pikes, and adinge thereūto the two lininges it makethe 27. and say that the third division of shott is to marche withe 27. rankes of 3. mus∣ketes in eache ranke, whiche shall guarnishe the full fronte of the bat∣tell of pikes, and two lininges; Nowe the two flākes and fronte of the battell of pikes are guarnished, and guarnish the rerwarde of the bat∣tell of pikes observe the self same order as yove did in guarnishinge the fronte of the battell of pikes whiche was 27. rankes of 3. musketes in eache ranke, so youre battell of pikes is proportionally lined every way as before declared. The selfe same order shall by observed for the linenge, and girdelinge shott of the other foure batteles of pikes as more plainely shall a peere by the divisiones and figure folowinge

The firste division of shott that dothe guarnishe the righte flanke of the battell of pikes is divided into nine rankes of 3. musketes in eache ranke.27 musk.
The seconde division of shott that guarnisheth the leifte flanke of the battell of pikes shall observe the self same order.27 musk.
The thirde division of shott that shall guarnishe the full fronte of the battell of pikes, and of the two linen∣ges is divided into 27. rankes of 3. musketes in eache ranke monted.81 musk.
The fourthe division that dothe guarnishe the rer∣warde of the battell of pikes shall observe the self same order Imeane 27. rankes of 3. musketes in eache ranke.81 musk.
 216 musk.

By the above mentioned foure divisiones yove see 〈 math 〉 who the firste battell of pikes is proporsionally guar∣nished withe shott, whiche 4. divisiones makethe 216. musketes, and the self same order shall be observed to guarnishe eache one of the other foure battelles of pikes whiche makethe up 1080 musketes the propounded number for the five batteles, as youe may plainely see by the figure folowinge howe they fall oute of there marche, and divisiones into battell as be∣fore declared, advertisinge that in the divisiones of the pikes and shott there did remaine nothinge.

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Page  121〈 math 〉

[illustration]
Fronte of the seconde Battell.
Fronte of the firste Battell.
Fronte of the thirde Battell.
Fronte of the fifthe Battell.
Fronte of the fourthe Battell.
Table of the five Batteles.
Divisiones of the firste Battell: Firste division is 9. r. of 7. pikes.63 pikes. 
Seconde division. Idem.63 pikes. 
The thirde division. Alsoe.63 pikes. 
 189 pikes. 
Multiplied by five.5. 
Pikes of the five Batteles.945 pikes. 
Lininge shott of the righte flanke of the firste battell of pikes, 9. rankes of musketes in eache ranke.27 musk. 
Lininge shot of the lieft flank 9. r. of 3. musketes.27 musk.945 musk.
Liningh shot of the front 28. r. of 3. m. in each ranke.81 musk.1080 pikes.
Guarnision of shot of the reregarde 28. r. of 3. musketes.81 musk.2025 men.
 216 musk. 
Multiplied by5. 
Lininge shott of the 5. battelles.1080. 

Advertisinge that no pikes nor shot did remaine oute of the divisiones to guarnishe the culoures, so that one ranke of pikes and shott may by cutt all a longeste, the fronte or flanke of each battell to guarnish the culoures.

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Page  121〈 math 〉

COnsideringe that crosse batteles are of wonderful force as well aganiste horse as foote as also for the safegarde of bagage amu∣nitiones, and hurtemē: i toughte necessary to put downe the ru∣le for the framinge of suche forte of batteles, put in case that youe have 2032. souldieres of the whiche 1000. are pikes and 1032. are musketes and that youe wouled have this number divided into foure battelles of broade fronte proporsionally lined every way withe the propounded number of shott. To wourke the whiche firste take the number of pikes whiche is 1000. and divide the same 〈 math 〉 by 4. or into foure partes and the quotiente will by 250. whiche is the number of pikes that youre division yeal∣deth for eache of the 4. batteles of pikes, nowe to frame the firste battell take 250. pikes, and divide the same by 3. the quotient will by 83. of whiche 83. take the square roote which is 9. and say that 9. is the flanke of the bat∣tell, nowe to finde oute the fronte take 250. the number of pikes and divide the same by 9. the flanke, the quo∣tient will by 27. and 7. pikes remayninge, and say that 27. is the fronte and 9. the flanke, and 7. pikes remayninge: so yove finde oute the fronte and flanke of eache battell of the 4. and 7. pikes remaininge in eache battell whiche shall serve to guarnishe the coulores, nowe for the di∣vision of youre shott take the propounded number of shott whiche is 1032 musketes, and divide the same by 4. or into 4. partes and the number in the quotiente will by 258. whiche is the iuste number of shott youre divi∣sion yealdethe for eache battell of the 4. of pikes: that done take the number of pikes, and shot that eache battell dothe conteine, whiche is 508. this full number, divide by 3. the quotient wherof wilbe 169. oute of whi∣che take the square roote which will by 13. the flanke: nowe to finde the fronte of the full number of pikes and shott take 508. and divide it by 13. the flanke, and the quotiente will be 39. and 1. remaininge nowe take 10. Page  122 the flanke of the pikes comprehendinge the linenge of 〈 math 〉 the culors, and substracte it oute of 13. the laste flanke of the full number of pikes and shott and there shall re∣maine 3. and say that the firste division of shott shall marche withe 10. rankes of 3. musketes in eache ranke whiche shall serve for the girdelinge shott of the right flanke of the firste battell of pikes, and iuste so many more for the linenge shott of the leifte flanke, so the two flankes of the battell of pikes are lined, nowe to guar∣nishe the fronte of the battell of pikes, ad 6 the 2. li∣nenges to 27. the fronte of the pikes whiche two aditio∣nes makethe 33. and say that the thirde division of shot 〈 math 〉 shall marche withe 33. rankes of 3. musketes in eache ranke, and iuste so many more rankes of musketes shall marche to guarnish the rerewarde of the battell of pi∣kes, and two linenges, so the foure sides of the battell of pikes are proportionally lined every way, and the selfe same order shall be observed for the divisiones of eache battell of the other three as the figure and divisiones followinge sheowethe, theese cross batte∣les are esteemed to be of wonderfull force, consideringe well the fra∣minge of them, and they are also of wonderfull safegarde for the ba∣gage, amunitiones and hurtemē, and if the enemy do come to charge on the firste battell or on any of the other outewarde batteles, whiche beinge alone are but of litle force, but the two outewarde batteles marchinge uppon bothe sides of the firste, then it is of triple force, and if the enemy doe charge on the rerewarde of the two alone bat∣teles they close to gither, and are of double force, and if the enemy be stronge on horse, and shoulde charge at once on the fronte and re∣rewarde then the bagage and hurtemen are to marche betwexte the two double batteles, of the uangarde and rerwarde and cut so many pikes as shall guarnish the same on bothe sides to kepe of the fury of the horse, so it is guarished every way as the divisiones and figure fo∣lowinge sheowethe, by reason the culoures are doble lined and that yove muste cut 6. musketes for eache battell in the rekoninge shall di∣fer so many, it importeth nothinge be reason yove are to observe the generall rule of the table whiche is infallible.

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Page  123

[illustration]
Fronte of the first Battell.
Fronte of the thirde Battell.
Fronte of the seconde Battell.
Fronte of the fourthe Battell.
〈 math 〉
Page  [unnumbered]BY reason that by the divisiones the conveniente number of shott did not reste for the lininge of the culoures, the 6. shott that wantes for that purpose in each of the foure battelles, are to by taken oute of some of the divi∣siones; soe that thies 6. musketes borowed shall difer But for not to err in the rekeninge alwayes observe the 〈…〉 of the diisiones as set downe in the Table, for beinge infalible) and that moste comonly to muche or to litle pikes, and shott are wonte to remaine for the lininge of the culoures, soe that the firste divisiones ordered in the Table, is the righte way, for otherwise suche as are not curiouse and of rare judgement can not chuse but err in the rekeninge, and so for to prevente remedy of this confusion, and obscure rekeninge, allwayes observe the divivisiones of the Table, for beinge infalible, by reason that the convenient number of pikes, and shott did not re∣maine oute of the divisiones youe may cut one ranke alongste the flanke or fronte to guarnish the culoures▪
Table of the cross Battell.
〈 math 〉

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Page  123SEverall orderes are used for the repartinge and prudente orderin∣ge of an army into sundry battalones, as the occasiones and judi∣ciouse intendimente of the prudente and brave Comaunder shall finde conveniente, in devidinge them into 3.6.8.12. or 16 battalo∣nes, whiche with facilitie are ordered by the prudente and experi∣mented Sardgente mayor.

An army of 19200. divided into 16. battalones of broade fronte, bienge di∣vided by 16. eache battell shall contai∣ne 1200. whos fronte is 60. and flanke 20. as by the figures folowinge yove see ordered.

[illustration]
The army divided into 16 batteles of broade fronte.
16. BATTELES.

The selfe same army of 19200. is divided into 12. battalones of broade frōte: yove shall by youre division finde each battalon to con∣taine 1600. whos fronte is 69. and flanke 23. as the fi∣gures folowinge sheoweth.

[illustration]
The army divided into 12 bat∣teles of broade fronte.
12. BATTELES.

Page  124
Three thousande men divided into six battelles of broade fronte ordered to figh∣te, as by the figure followinge yove see, the fronte of each battell is 41. and flanke 12. and 8. remaininge in the divisions of each battallon.

[illustration]

SEverall opiniones are for the divisiones and orderinge of the firy weapon, some use winges of 200. some 300. shott, but in my opi∣nion it were far better to divide them into smale troupes of 50.60.70. and so till a 100. for by experience i knowe the same to by of for greater execusion in ocasiones of service, and more ready eyther in plaine straighte or narowe places, for the more troupes of shott yove have beinge prudently ordered and conducted, the more shall the enemy by a plied, the one orderly secondinge the other, which questionless theire execution shall by far greater then if they were divided into greate troupes. When yove shall come to any narowe or straighte pasadges, consider whether the straighte by suche as will suffice that yove may pass trough the same with the order yove march, if not conforme the order with the pasadge, and let the order not by so broade in fronte but that it may convenientely marche wit∣houte breakinge order or array, nor lesher then the thirde parte of the fronte of the battell of pikes, if the situation so permit; for cau∣se Page  125 thatt all prevensiones posible to be had for the breefe framinge of battelles are to by more esteemed, rather then fall abreakinge often times order and array, as very many unable Sardgente mayores co∣monly do, but rather prudently with grace and brevitie, and withou∣te any crossinge or confusion or breakinge of any ranke fall into bat∣tell, thies and many more dificulties are with facilitie reduced into theire iuste perfection by prudente and brave conductores, and with grace and brevitie.

The rule to frame triangle battelles is to bigin withe one man in the firste ranke, 3. in the seconde, 5. in the thirde, seaven in the four∣the, and so consequenty augmentinge 2 in every ranke untill youe fi∣nish youre battell, this unused proporsion i put downe to contente those whiche woulde faine knowe the forme of suche battelles, and bisides that à Sardgente mayor oughte not to by ingnorante in any maner of forme or proporsiones of squadrones, and that withe facili∣tie and speede he may change the forme and proporsion, as time oca∣sion and situasion shall require, and that bisides ocasion may offer that situasion shoulde presente fit for suche formes, so that a Sargen∣te mayor oughte not to by ingnorante in no forme of squadrones.

[illustration]
Fronte.

Page  126〈 math 〉

A Battell of broade square of 6000. men of the whi∣che 〈 math 〉 1930. are complet corseletes and 4070. musketiers, ordered and divided as folowethe: firste take the propounded number of pikes whiche is 1930. this number divide be 3 the quotiente wherof will by 643. oute of this quotiente take the square roote whi∣che will by 25. whiche is the flanke of the battell of pi∣kes. That don to finde oute the fronte of the battell take the propounded number of pikes, and divide the same by 25 the flanke; whiche quotient wil by 76. and 30. pikes remaininge, and say that 76. is the fronte and 25. the flanke of the battell of pikes, and that the 30. pi∣kes shall be to guarnishe the coulores, nowe for the divi∣sion of the 4070. musketes put in case that yove woulde have the battell to be proporsionally lined every way wi∣the shott, consideringe that five shott is the moste that can be conueniently defended under the shelter or de∣fence of the pike, and say that yove will have the battell to by guarnished withe five musketes in ranke, to wour∣ke the whiche take 27. the flanke comprehended: the two rankes of the coulores and say that the firste divi∣sion of shott is 27. rankes of five musketes in eache ran∣ke whiche is the girdelinge shott of the righte flanke and iuste so many for the linenge of the liefte flanke, no∣we to finde oute the shott that shall guarnishe the full fronte of the battell of pikes and the two linenges, take 10. the linenges of the two flankes, and ad it to 76. the fronte whiche two aditiones makethe 86. and say that the guarnision of shott of the fronte of the battell of pi∣kes, and two linenges shall marche withe 86. rankes of five musketes in eache ranke; nowe for the linenge shott of the rerewarde of the battell of pikes observe the self sa∣me order meaninge 86. rankes of five musketes in eache ranke, so the two flankes, fronte, and rerwarde of the bat∣tell Page  127 of pikes is proportionally lined whiche 4. divisiones 〈 math 〉 of shott makethe 1130 musketes nowe for the division of the reste of the shott substracte 1130. the 4 lininges oute of 4070. musketes the principall some, and there shall reste 2940. musketes whiche can not come under the shelter nor defence of the pikes, whiche i divide into 40. maniples of 74. musketes in eache maniple, exepte one troupe that conteines but 54. musketes whiche i divide on the flankes of the battell of pikes to skirmishe in singell or double fiele as tyme, ocasion, and disposi∣tion of the grounde shall permit, so all youre shott are divided as before set downe, and as by the divisiones, and figure folowinge ordered, and howe oute of there marche they fall into squadron advertisinge that the coulores shall marche in the center and midele mani∣ple of pikes, and the 30. pikes that remainethe for to guarnishe the coulors shall also marche in the same maniple all whiche divisiones are plainly ordered as by the figure folowinge yove may see, who oute of there marche they fall into battell withe grace and brevity, in observinge the divisiones ordai∣ned when of a sodaine yove woulde have the pikes oute of there mar∣che to fall withe grace and brevity into battell, cause the firste divi∣sion of pikes to marche withe 25. rankes of 16. pikes in eache ranke, then another maniple of 25. rankes of 15 pikes in eache ranke then another maniple withe the self same order withe the coulores in the center guarnished withe the 30. pikes that did remaine, after the ma∣niple of the coulors shall marche two other maniples of 15. rankes of 5. pikes in eache ranke as hire folowēge yove shall see.

The firste division of pikes is divided into 25. rankes of 16. pikes in eache ranke maketh.400 pikes.
The seconde division of pikes is divided into 25. ran∣kes of 15. pikes in eache ranke whiche shall folowe the firste monted.375 pikes.
The thirde division in whiche center the coulores are to marche is divided into 25. rankes of 15. pikes in eache ranke and dothe conteine in all the some of.375 pikes.
The fourthe division and maniple of pikes is divi∣ded into 25. rankes of 15. pikes in eache ranke whiche dothe conteine.375 pikes.
Page  128The fifthe and laste division also.375 pikes.
And 30. pikes that did remaine for the coloures.30 pikes.
 1930 pikes.

FOr the framinge of batteles bastarde square whi∣che 〈 math 〉 the Spaniarde and Italian call prolongado, that is to say longe in flanke, the rule whiche is used for the framinge of theese sortes of batteles is the self same of the broade square, and the diference is, that the fron∣te of the one is flanke of the other, as for example supo∣se yove woulde have abattell bastarde square to be fra∣med of 700. pikes. To wourke the whiche, do as yove did in framinge the batteles of broade fronte, in divi∣dinge the saied number of 700. pikes by 3 the quotien∣te wherof will be 233. oute of whiche quotiente take the square roote whiche will by 15. whiche is the fronte of the bastarde square, nowe to finde the flanke take 700. the propounded number of pikes, and divide the same by 15. the fronte, the quotient wherof will by 46. the flanke of the bastarde square, and restethe 10. pikes. And if of this self same number of 700. pikes yove woul∣de frame asquadron of broade square the flanke of the bastarde square will by the fronte of the broade square, so that the rule whiche is used for the one will serve for the other. The diference is that the fronte of the one wil serve for the flanke of the other.

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[illustration]
A SQUADRON OF BROADE FRONTE. FRONTE OF THE BATTELL.

〈 math 〉

Table of the Battell.

25 rankes of 16 pikes.400 pikes.
25 rankes of 15 pikes.375 pikes.
25 rankes of 15 pikes.375 pikes.
25 rankes of 15 pikes.375 pikes.
25 rankes of 15 pikes.375 pikes.
Pikes remaininge30 pikes.
 1930 pik.

27 rankes of 5 musketes.135 musketes.
27 rankes of 5 musketes.135 musketes.
86 rankes of 5. musketes.430 musketes.
86 rankes of 5 musketes.430 musetes.
50 troupes conteininge2940 musketes.
 4070 musk.

Advertisinge that the 20 musketes for the lininge shott of the culoures are comprehended in the divisiones of the lininge shot of the two flankes; which 20 muskees were cut of the laste troupe on the liefte flanke, whiche troupe remaines with 54 musketes, and all the reste 74 musketes.

Page  [unnumbered]

Page  129No souldier (i hope) oughte to be ingnorante but that the squa∣dron of pikes being framed, it is to be empaled and girdeled withe shott as many rankes of shott as pikes. But the righte and naturall girdelinge shott indeede oughte to be no more shott in ranke, then that the pike may well cover and defende, espesially where the ene∣my are stronge of horse, and so under the favor of the pike, there can nott conveniently be defended but one ranke of three or foure shott at the moste, and so many in my opinion shoule the girdelinge shott containe and knelinge upon one knee under the coverte of the cou∣ched pikes, shoulde at the charginge of the horsemen discharge there voley in there face, and bosome; whiche woulde be no smale gallinge unto them, butt when this danger of horse is not to by feared, then the impalement may be made of more shot in a ranke, acordinge to the quantity of shott, and the reste of the shott into smale slives or trou∣pes to troupe rounde aboute the battell in reasonable distance from the same, the whiche divisiones of smale troupes, i esteeme to be far better then the greate inproportionate winges, whiche many do use, containinge far greater numberes, and are muche more ready to be broughte to skirmishe eyther in single or double fiele, and every seve∣rall troupe to be led by a Sargente or Corporall, and some Captaines to oversee the whole, and at every angle of the battell it were not a misse to a pointe certaine troupes of shott, whiche woulde flanker itt every way even as the Cavallero or Travessos do the curtine of a for∣te.

Let none be ingnorante but that for the severall divisiones of pikes and shott is required greate considerationes, as time, occasion, and si∣tuation shall require; continuall application in the theoricke and pra∣cticke of warr togither withe perfection in arithmeticke makethe easy many difficulties of deepe judgemente, and rare importance in warlike affaires, all whiche cōtinuall use and exercice make the easy, for the se∣verall divisiones of shott many considerationes are to be had acordin∣ge as occasion shall require, and the situation and disposition of groū∣de shall permitt, for the girdelinge shott some use three some 4. and five is the moste that can conveniently be defended under the shelter or defence of the pike, and specially when the enemy are stronge on horse, so that for the righte guarnision of shott oughte not to be mo∣re then the pike can defende, but in suche occasiones as the enemy is not to be feared on horse the divisiones of shot can be ordered of grea∣ter numberes to skirmishe, acordinge to the judgemente of the Sard∣gente Page  130 mayor, dividinge them in wings or maniples, as he shall thinc∣ke moste conveniente, observinge theyr juste proportion in theyre di∣visiones, some use greate wings of shott, whiche are not comendable in occasiones of fighte, for the smale troupes are more apte and easieste to by governed, and of a sodaine youe can skirmishe withe them ey∣ther in single or double fiele, and that bisides they bringe more men to fighte at once, but when the enemy are superior on horse, and wee feo∣we or none it is goode to gett the 4. frontes of the battell of equal re∣sistance bothe to offende and defende, so that the enemy may not take advantage of one place more then of the other. The wings or mani∣ples of shotte are not to go any greate distāce from the battell of pi∣kes; and specially when the enemy are stronge on horse, but rather un∣der the shelter, and defence of the pikes, that therby the squadron may by the stronger and more safe in receiuynge any domage when theyr force is united in one boddy as happened to don Alvaro de Sandy in the journey of caruan in barbery when the exercito of Ciderfa Kin∣ge of the moores charged on him, one of his Captaines named Luis Bravo de Laguna seinge a winge of shott a goode distāce from the squa∣drō cried on don Alvaro wishinge him withe spede to tourne and recei∣ue that winge for freare that for loosinge the same he shoulde incur danger to loose the body, by dayly experience we see that smale num∣beres doe repulse far greater, and that the army whiche is beste orde∣red, and disciplined moste comonly is master of the victory, wherof there are verie many examples in writinge of famouse and antiente au∣ctores, so that theese happy proceedinges resulte of the goode order, prudence, and approoved experience of the chefe and brave Comaun∣deres and of the resolute valor of the Souldieres, as Vegetio de re militari give the reason how the antiente Romaines came to Master all other Nationes, sayinge that they were not so greate as the Germaines, nor so greate in number as the Frence, nor so prudente as the Greeckes, nor so many in nūber as the Spanardes nor so subtill as the Africanes, nor so fu∣riouse as the Britanes, butt by theyre continuall practice and experi∣ence in warr they overcomed al theese difficulties, by onely mantayin∣ge there people wel exercised in armes and practice of warr, when a re∣gimente dothe marche some times greate disorderes are comited, the Souldieres runinge away from there culoures, robinge and spoylinge the country, and poore inhabitantes litle regardinge in not acompli∣shinge there obligationes, in beinge absent from there culoures; litle respectinge or fearninge there Officeres, and no respecte to milita∣ry Page  131 discipline, wherof resulteth greate ruines and revoltes in many countries, some superiore and inferiore Officeres, are culpable in thiese intolerable disorderes offencive to the lawes of god and comon wealth in not procuringe, sollicitinge and dayly instructinge theyre Souldieres as a father is bounde to doe for his children, and that as farr as his ability and power can reach, and not to be inclined to steale or wronge the poore Souldier, in keepinge any thinge wronge∣fully from him, but rather sheowinge him self very, lovinge and kinde to them.

In equalinge him self in all dangeres and travayles withe them, in cōtinually, givinge them goode instructiones, and comfortinge them in all necessities, yea and in assistinge them to his ability, in ministrin∣ge equitie and goode justice a mongste them, in honoringe and pre∣ferenge those of brave cariage, and goode examples, that otheres may imitate thē, in redresinge in due time disorderes, in seinge severely pu∣nished factioneres wholy given to vice and bad examples; whiche are more dangerouse then the divell, so shall he bothe by beloved and fea∣red by the Souldieres, in knowinge that he is carefull in ministringe and procuringe justice to eache one acordinge his deserte, and spe∣cially to se base factioneres banished, and severly punished, when there is no hope of there amendmente.

In occasiones of marchinge the Sardgent mayor is to take a speciall care to procure all thinges to be in a readines to bigin his jurney verie early that the Souldieres may come in goode time to theyr quarter for many considerationes to theyr comodity and ease, and in theyre mar∣che not to opress them, but keepe an ordinary pace, for otherwise verie many shall stay behinde: To make al to nowe, and then where he shall hit uppon good water, and he ought to have aregarde in pasinge naro∣we pasadges, and make alto a distance of till they all have paste and fal into there former divisiones and rankes, a Sardgente oughte to be leif∣te in eache division of the Regimente, that he may yealde acompte of them at all times, and observe the order as it was ordained by the Sar∣gente mayor, withe so many rankes and the self number, so that withe facility oute of there marche they may fall into squadron, when occa∣sion shall require, and suche a Sardgente or Sardgentes as troughe ne∣gligence shall not acomplish his obligation, to reprehende him in pu∣blike. In time of the Romaines suche as were inclined to disobedience in not acomplishinge there order and obligation, they were so severly punished, that no Souldier durste by absente from his ranke, and the Page  132 Sardgentes and Officeres of eache division of theyre marchinges had suche care in acomplishinge whate was referred to there charge withe suche punctuality, that full satisfaction was yealded.

In extraordinary heate weather in somer when the Sardgente ma∣yor marchethe withe his Regimente greate consideration oughte to be taken as before spoken of, by cause of the extraordinary heate, and heavy burden of the Souldier, some times they are chockte, and bur∣ned with heate, and for shame, and regarde of there honor they ra∣ther try danger of deathe then stay behinde there culoures.

When the Sardgente mayor shall marche withe his Regimente in any place or contry where the enemy is to be feared the divisiones ought not to by greater then that they may comodiously marche, nor lesse thē the thirde parte of the squadrō of pikes, some times withe the one haulfe, and some times in battell, allwayes takeng regarde ofthe situation and occasion.

The Master de campe in marchinge withe his Regimente as chee∣fe of the same is to marche in the vangarde nexte to whose person is to assiste the Sardgente mayor as a principall minister to whome he deliveres the orderes of his Regimente, but if the enemy shoulde chance to charge on the reregarde he as a cheefe conductor of his Regimente is to assiste in the place moste to be feared of the enemy, to comaunde and execute in due time whate is moste fitt.

The Sardgente mayor beinge in campiana, and beinge informed that his Regimente is to marche the nexte morow, he is to repaire to the Captaine generall of whome he is to demaunde order where his Regimente shall marche in the vangarde battell of reregarde, and he is to advertice, and give order to the Captaine de campania to gett all the bagadge charged uppon the a poincted houre ordained, and not to faile in acomplshinge the same, and if the vangarde belonges to him he is to comaunde the Captaine de campania to get all thinges in a redineshe at the breake of day, and to give order that the culoures and companies of his Regimēte, withe speede drawe oute of the quar∣ter, and to marche on to the place of armes, and there to frame his squadron, givinge order to eache Captaine, where he shall marche that day, and divide the Sargentes and sheowe each one his division, and givinge thē straighte charge that they acomplishe there obligatiō withe care and punctuality, and that no Souldier doe misse his ranke, nor breake the order given, if the narownes of the pasadge do not constraine him, and let no Souldier pass to spoyle the poore inhabi∣tantes, Page  133 and if he wante any Souldier of those of his division, or if any come unto them more then the order given to adverice the Sardgent mayor, and for recompence of his punctualitie and care in acompli∣shinge his obligation he shall gaine the benevolence of his Master de campe and Sardgent mayor, and in reason they oughte to have a me∣mory of his punctuall care, and to prefer him into a greater office for his obedience and punctuallitie a monghste other Sardgentes, and not once nor twice but still makinge knowen his aproved partes, care and diligence in acomplishinge the orderes of his Superiores, soe can he not by forgotten by the superior officers till he by advāced for his undeniable care and obedience.

Moste necessary it is for a Sargent mayor to be couriouse and ex∣perte in executinge well his office, for in tyme of framinge of squa∣drones the Judges of his errores are many, in time of framinge of squadrones, some Sardgēts mayores do fall into many errores, by rea∣son of there litle exercice, and specially for not appliēge them selves withe care and diligence bothe in the theorike and practike of this ar∣te, and specially to by skilfull in Arithmeticke, whiche withe practice makethe easy many rare occurrantes in warrlike affaires, and suche as are not curiouse in well appleinge them selves in learninge the rare and deepe curiosities of this arte do some times finde them selves pu∣sled and amased before there enemy in time of moste neede: A mo∣ste unfitinge thinge it is for one to be ingnorante and unhabele in his office, soe i supose that suche as do not diligently apply them selves, can hardly reduce into perfection that, wherof he is ingnoran∣te and knowethe not the arte, by dayly experience, we see that favor▪ frendshipp, enteres, and affection, hinderethe muche prosperity and goode successes, and specially in this noble arte of warr.

Many opiniones there are for the divisiones of shott, and specially when the enemy are stronge on horse, and that youe have two thirde partes of shott, unto one of pikes, youre battell beinge empaled and girdeled proportionally withe shott, there will yett remayne goode store of shott. The question is how they shall be bestowed to be safe from the fury of the horse, the sureste and beste way is to put them into the center of the battell of pikes, where they are more safe, and if any shott be killed or hurte youe can take at all times oute of the center as many as youe shall neede of.

For the framinge of thiese battelles withe centeres i have already declared howe they oughte to be framed, and proporsionolly lined, Page  134 and if the enemy horse shoulde chance of a sodaine to chardge on yove, and that youe have no tyme to place the overplusse of youre shott in the center divide them betwixte the rankes of pikes all alon∣gste from the fronte to the reare warde, so they shall by safe and yove can use them at any tyme when ocasion shall require, but havinge in∣teligence that the enemy are stronge in horse, and we feowe or none in suche ocasiones i woule firste bigin in framinge the cener of the overplusse of the shott, havinge oportunity for the same, and also lea∣ve place for hurtemen in the cēter and divide them into so many ma∣niples that they may of a sodaine fall into squadron square of men in the center, withoute any crossinge aluēge there iuste fronte and flanke and then divide the pikes into maniples to proportionally guarnishe the center on every side or fronte of the same, and then divide in pro∣portion the girdlinge shott that is lefte to guarnish the 4 frontes of the battell of pikes, and center, this is the perfecte and right way, but when urgent necessity requireth the overplusse of shott may be pla∣sed and divided betwexte the rankes of pikes as before sett downe, ad∣vertisinge that the coulores is to goe in the center.

As the battell dothe marche on towardes the enemy and cominge once within reache of the musket then the firste rankes of the win∣ges of musketes are to marche in this maner; the firste rankes step∣pinge some two or three paces, forwarde havinge in the meane ty∣me made them selves ready, and cocked there matches, then with rea∣dines and expedition all those of the firste rankes (there musketes byenge uppon there restes or forkes) to discharge at once, permiten∣ge other rankes to proceede, then presently those of the seconde ranke to stepe upp before the firste ranke, as the battell or batallon do marche, and so to discharge as theyre former followes had don before, and then the thirde ranke before the seconde, and the four. the before the thirde, and soe all the other rankes consequently wi∣the this kinde of double marche and at the traine of the laste ranke those of the firste to folowe upp a gaine, and so consequently the re∣ste. But if chance that the squadron of pikes be distresed, or con∣strained to retire, they are to discharge at the enemy, retiring bac∣ke uppon a counter marche eache feele or ranke, consequently, and withe expedition one after a nother, and withe speede fall bake into there ranke, to give place to the nexte rankes, that no time be idell, employed.

Sundry opiniones there are of comparisones betwext the Infan∣tery, Page  135 and Cavallery, whiche of them is moste utill in the warres, the one and the other are moste necessary in occurantes of warlicke affai∣res, but in my opinion the Infantery is to be preferred firste beinge well disciplined in the arte of war, never the lesse the cavalleria bein∣ge well monted and armed and beinge experimente, souldieres, beinge conducted by prudent and brave conductores douptlesse theyr executiones and resolutiō is to be feared, but they are not com∣parable to deale, withe resolute foote, excepte uppon manifeste and greate advantages and in place or grounde of greate favor for them. For beinge well knowen that a resolute stande of pikes well ordered, and girdeled withe shott, will give them sore stoppes, and retournes as plainely apeered when Marques de Pescara withe 800 short aptay∣ned the victory of Charles de noy then Visroy of Napoles, withe his Cavallery at the battell of Pavia, a nother example wee have of the Conte Francisco Carmognolla, beinge Captaine generall of Filip Viconte Duke of Millanes army, goinge withe 6000. horse a gainste the Swishe∣res army, was by them repulsed by the valeure, and lenghte of there pikes, who havinge regathered this disordered troupes, consideringe from whence there disadvantage greowe, turned head againe uppon the enemy: and he him self and his companies disamounted on foo∣te, and withe there lances in hande framed afoote squadron, and charged the enemy afresh, and brake and overthrewe them in num∣ber above fifteene thousande when by force of horse coulde not by removed, imitatinge herin Marcus, Valerius, Cornelius, who beinge consull and Captaine againste the samnites in the firste punny war∣res, and in theyr laste battell not able to enter uppon them by reason of there lōge pikes where withe they defended them selves, comaun∣ded his horsemen to disamounte, and on foote they arived as they were withe there lances, to fighte withe there enemy, and over threwe them and putt them to flighte optaininge the victory, and remay∣ninge withe there baggadge, and in the battell given by Constantine Roxianus Captaine generall to Sigismund Kinge of Polonia withe Basilius the greate Duke of Moscovia by the river Brisva, who surmoun∣ted him on horse backe, three thousande foote men; onely, he had in his army, won him that day the honor and victory, also as did apee∣re by the memorable batteles of the Inglishe againste the provde cavallery of the frence at agincourte fielde and other places, many more examples mighte be recited bothe antient and moderne, re∣membringe that amonge the antiente Romaines there foote was al∣wayes Page  136 of more estimation then there horse, allwayes houldinge a true opinion, that the Infanterie well disciplined is the right sinue of the warr, the walles of the citty and fortress of the realme.

I have hearde say that in thies warres of the netherlande after that the grand Comendador died that Don Alvaro de Vergas, who at that time comaunded the Spanish Cavallerie, did greate exploictes in en∣counteres, he had withe the states foote and horse, but it muste by considered that those were oulde and experimented Souldiers, resten∣ge uppon a resolute and valerouse determination.

The otheres for the moste patre Bisones, and rawe people raised up∣pon a sodaine conceipte, in whiche actiones is marvelouse to be mar∣ked the diference betwene men of experience, and rawe Bisones the prudent cariadge, resolute valor and goode conduction of the one, and litle practice, and experience of the otheres, as did apeere in the reincounter at tilmonte, and at the souckeringe of monts-dog beinge Taken by them of Mastricke, and moste notable in the sacke of An∣twerpe where lesse then withe the number of 5000. Spaniards inclo∣sed within the sitadel gave the overthrowe and foile unto 16000 of the Anturpianes. Bravely armed and incamped within theyre owne towne. In like sorte at the overthrowe of Gibleo where not above 600. horse, of don Iohn de Austria his troopes defeated above 15000 of the states, (moste strange and wonderfull) onely for wante of goo∣de conductores and the enemy spyinge theese advantages resultin∣ge of there simple conduction founde them selves amased.

And for as muche as i have spoken muche of this office, i will con∣clude in sayenge that he oughte nowe and then to visite and revisite at diveres and differente houres all thinges by him provided and a pointed, and see that they be prudently ordered and performed, re∣prehendinge whate he shall finde wourdie of punishmente, but that to be don prudently and in curtouse sorte, and presentinge good rea∣sones withe amiable and gentle wourdes, with gravitie and naturall grace, and not with puffinge inconciderate pride and bad examples, so shall he by obeyd in such sorte that when he woulde determine to execute his designes and orderes of his superior comaunderes, all of∣ficeres and souldieres mighte beare him that due respecte and obe∣dience, whiche shoulde by required to bringe his purpose to effecte, and let not griddy couetousnes overcome him in wronginge or per∣mitinge to by wronged the poure souldieres of theire righte, and spe∣cially in tyme of extreame necessitie, but rather make knowen his Page  137 gentle inclinationes and true love, soe shall he by beloved feared and respected.

Let him not by inclined to any odiouse rancor nor malice in wai∣tinge oportunitie of revenge of some wourdes or disputes, whiche ha∣pened betwexte him, and some Officeres or Souldieres of his Regi∣mente for defindinge theyre honour and righte, and findinge that he be so inclined is signe of aloe unconsiderate and base minde. All Officeres and Souldieres of his Regimense oughte to have a speciall care in not loosinge him his due respecte, and suche as do not a complish with theire obligationes hirein are righte wourthy of re∣prehension, soe all thinges don with moderation and justice is lauda∣ble.

Page  138An army of 11200. men divided into five batteles Squa∣re 〈 math 〉 of grounde ordered to fighte, as by the figures folowinge youe see. The fronte of eache battell is 72 and 31. the flan∣ke, and 8. remaininge oute of the division of eache battell; eache battell containes 2240.

[illustration]
The army divided into five battelles.

SQUARE OF GROVNDE, by the rule of proportion.

The saiede army of 11200. divided into seaven battelles. Square of grounde, eache bat∣tell shall conteine 1600. and the fronte of eache battell is 61. and flanke 26. and 14. pikes remaininge oute of eache battell to guarnish the culoures, the which 7. battelles are ordered as by the figure folowinge youe see. — 1600. men in each battell.

〈 math 〉

[illustration]
The army divided into 7. battelles.

SQVARE OF GROVNDE, By the rule of proportion.

Page  139A Battell square of men, withe a center of Arcabuseros, which can not by defended under the shelter of the couched pike, when the ene∣my doe a bounde on horse, and wee feowe or none, in suche ocasiones the sureste way for the overpluse of shot is to by putt into the center, and proportionally guarnised with the pikes and musketes, as by the fi∣gure folowinge youe see, and howe they are diuided by the rule of pro∣portion.

  • 276 Arcabuses.
  • 360 Pikes.
  • 364 musketes.
  • 1000.

[illustration]

〈 math 〉

Table of the battell and center of Arcabuseros deposito.
BY the division of the center of Arcabuseros the square route of the same num∣ber yealdeth 16. Arcabuses in fronte and flanke of the center, and 20. remai∣ninge oute of the division, monteth256 arcab.
The firste division of pikes that guarnisheth the righte flanke of the center, divided into 16. rankes of 5. pikes in each, monteth80 pikes.
The secōde division of p. that guarnisheth the liefte flāke of the center divided into 16. r. of 4. p. in each.64 pikes.
The thirde division that guarnisheth the full fronte, and the two linenges of the center is divided into 25. rankes of 5. pikes in each ranke, monteth125 pikes.
The fourthe division of pikes that guarnisheth the full fronte of the rewarde is divided into 25. ran∣ke of 4. pikes in each ranke, monteth100 pikes.
The lining of musk. that guarnisheth the right flank of the pikes is divided into 25. r. of 3. m. in each.75 musk.
The seconde lining of mus. that guarnisheth the liefte flank of the p. divided into 25. r. of 3. m. in each.75 musk.
The thirde division of musketse that guarnisheth the full fronte of the pikes and center, is divided into 31. rankes of 3. musketes in each ranke.53 musk.
The fourthe division of musketes that guarnisheth the rewarde of the pikes and center is divided into 31. rankes of 3. musketes in each ranke, monteth93 musk.
The remainder of musketes, that do guarnish the culoures.8 musk.
Of the 20. arcabuseres, that did remaine goes to guarnish the culoures.4 arcab.
The 11. pikes that did remaine oute of the division of pikes are employed to guarnish the culours.11 pikes.
Of the remainder of arcabuseros their remaineth oute of the battell.16 arcab.
 1000.

Page  140

The election and office of a Master de Campe of a Regi∣mente of Infanterie.

THe office of the Master de campe of a Regimente of Infanterie is an office of greate reputation, which by all reason oughte to be recomended to one of greate prudence, brave conduction, and skillfull in martiall affaires, for beinge the heade, leader, and or∣dinarie justice af all the Companies a pointed under his chardge.

He be all reason oughte to by one of greate consideration, because that by him are all the orderes, and necessarie prevensiones for the generall goode and utilititie of his regiment delivered to the Sargen∣te mayor, alsoe to the Captaines, Souldieres, and other Officeres of his Regimente, as alsoe to all sorte of people, whiche do followe and depende on the same: To him apertaineth the ministringe of justice, and reprehendinge of faultes, and unrulie factes comitted in his Re∣gimente, in suche places, as his Master de campe, Generall, or Cap∣taine generall, are not in presence, to whome he is to presente many matteres whiche doe ocurr, Whiche by right in suche places as they are presente muste governe all.

But as an ordinarie justice the Master de campe is to by comuni∣cated withall, in all matteres whiche ocurr in his Regimente; the exa∣minationes of thies causes are to be taken, and examined by his Au∣tor, and if occasiones of appellation shoulde represente they are to be remitted to the campe master generall.

This election of a Master de campe, or Coronell is made by the Prince, with the advice of his Counsell of state and warr; And in this election greate consideration oughte to be taken. For beinge suche an honorable chardge of highe degree; as chieftaine or head above all the Captaines, and other Officeres of his Regimente, havinge do∣minion and jurisdiction over them all: By whiche may by perceived the highe dingnitie and degree of suche a person, and the a proved partes brave conduction, valeoure, and goode examples, whiche of him is to be expected, (to the ende that the Captaines may imitate his prudente perfection and brave govermente.) In suche places whe∣re the Captaines of his Regimente do assiste with him, of all occurran∣ces and occasiones of warr they are to advertice theyre Master de cā∣pe, Page  141 and if any Officer or Souldier by a prehended, for faultes comit∣ted, they can not by put at libertie, withoute the Master de campes order, beinge in his jurisdiction.

In time of the Romaines Polybe writeth that this name we call Co∣lonell or Master de campe was then cauled Tribunus, and they cauled Legion, of that whiche we call a Regimente, theyr legion was of 4200 foote men, whiche they divided into 10. partes, as if it were betwex∣te 10. Captaines, eache division they cauled Cohortes, which we call a Companie, each legion had 300. horse, theyre Captaines Cintu∣riones, some of 150. and some of 200. Otheres were Centenarios, whi∣che had but 100. men. For the ministringe of equitie and justice, and reprehendinge of faultes and disorderes, and that military discipline may by duely, observed with infalible punctualitie; he is to choyse an Auditor of a man well learned and of goode judgemente, withe his Clearke and Augusill, whiche are used a monghste the Spanish and Italian Regimentes, to take informationes of suche injuries, and dis∣orderes as are comitted, this Auditor is to give the sentence, but no auctoritie to execute the same, withoute consultinge firste with the Master de campe, and getinge his firme to the sentence, for other wise he hath no auctoritie to execute nor dispatche the same, the A∣gusill serves to assiste the executiones of the Auditores a faires, and alsoe to by imployed, and sollicite many other thinges, that doe pass trough the Auditor is handes.

For makinge or dividinge of quarteres marchinge in campaina or garison, he is to get a skillfull Quarter-master able in readinge and writinge, and specially perfecte in Arithmeticke, for to him apertai∣neth, the receavinge of all sortes of amunitiones and armes given, and delivered by the Prince, but the distributinge of the same belongeth to the Sargēt mayor, to see that all thinges by duly and equally distri∣buted. Of al sortes of amunitiones received of the Kinge, the furiell mayor is to yealde a cōpte, when it is soughte for, for bienge his office and dutie. The furielles of the Companies are to assiste him in all oc∣casiones in marchinge, and to receive theyre orderes from the furiell mayor, and he from the Quarter-master generall; and the from the general. Greate care oughte to be taken in seinge that the Sutleres be well provided with all necessaries, and to see that they by well paiede; A speciall care oughte to by taken that they do not deceive the Soul∣dieres with faulce weighte and measure, nor nothinge above the pri∣ce ordained by the Master de campe.

Page  142It is necessarie that the Sutleres and Marchantes, whiche doe fol∣lowe the Regimente, that they be well garded, that theyr vituales and wares may depende uppon goode securitie, for thies affaires the Ca∣ptaine de campaina and his Leuetenante oughte with care to assiste in executinge his dutie and office.

In occasiones of marchinge he and his teniente and men are to by verie vigilante and carefull, in not permitenge the Sutleres nor they∣re boyes to stragle, or fall a spoylinge the countrie and povre inhabi∣tances, nor to take perforce any thinge that cometh to by soulde in the campe, as alsoe to have a speciall care to lett no Souldieres pass, causinge them to fall into theyre rankes, rather then to be permited to run straglinge and spoylinge the countrie; And suche as are found gilthi in breakinge the proclamation to see them presentlie executed. Soe beinge earneste and carefull in thies affaires shall he oblidge all suche Souldieres as are inclined to minester goode justice and exam∣ples, and esteemed for a true father and brave conductor. A necessa∣rie thinge it is alsoe to have a goode Doctor of Physicke well learned and of longe practice, as alsoe a Surdgente mayor one well knowen to have had longe practice in handelinge of woundes and other dis∣ceaces, suche a one chosen by favor or affection (and not havinge the partes befitinge) causeth the death of many Souldieres trough his lit∣le skill, to the disgrace of him that made choyse of suche a one.

Verie necessarie it were that in his Regimente doe assiste a Chaplen mayor, and preacher to over see all the Chaplenes, that all thinges touchinge there obligationes, may by observed and ministred in due time, givinge goode examples, and still assistinge with gravitie and vertueuse cariadge, alsoe to be carefull that the Captaines of his Re∣gimente give goode examples for it importeth for many respectes.

In the election of a Drom mayor he is to by verie well informed that he be one of goode fufficiencie, for beinge an instrumente very necessarie in warr, who is to instructe, and give goode examples to all the Dromes of the Regimente, whiche beinge chosen of one who hath the goode partes and sufficiencie in him required, is an instru∣mente of greate importance in a Regimente, and specially to the Sardgente mayor, in carieng orderes, and beatinge of the proclama∣tiones, he is to by skillfull in beating the drom, or at leaste in under∣standing all sorte of marchinges, to beate an a larme, a call, a retire, a disafie, a battell, to knowe who to carie him selfe verie discret in ca∣rienge any mesadge to a campe, towne, cittie, or castell, and knowe Page  143 howe discretly to deliver his mesadge, and answer many demaundes, as alsoe in understandinge, and well relatinge his answer, and to in∣forme him selfe in as muche as he may posible of whate occurreth, if he be permited in takinge a viewe of the walles ditches, and if the dit∣ches be dry or with water, and who deepe, and whate place or places of the walles or fosses may by won with moreease, as also of the necessi∣tie or plintie of vituales, if by faire meanes he may spie the same oute it is necessarie that he speakes many languadges, to beate afuriouse a larme, and battell when ocasion shall require, as alsoe a presumed reti∣re. A necessarie thinge not to be permited (but rather defended) that no officer nor souldior by given to winchinge, and that for many goo∣de respectes, but som publicke woomen are wonte to be permited in eache company, some three or foure for a 100 men, which are to be in a separated quarter, and specially if in garison lett them be in as se∣cret and as hidden a place as can by posible, for by reason it impor∣teth to honeste men and negboures, and the cause why this is permi∣ted and tolerated, is to shun greater danger: In the oulde lawes or statutes six or eighte woomen were a lued for everie 100, men, to thies is wonte to be given lodginges and service as to the souldieres, all whiche is thoughte profitable to the negboures, that the lesh sus∣pision and ocasion of scandall may by of theire shisteres wifes and children, and for many respectes it oughte not to by permited that a ny souldier doe sleepe withe thies woomen oute of his quarter uppon paine of severe punishmente, alsoe suche weemen as doe nott obser∣ve thies constitusiones to punish hir in the purse, whiche will grive hir moste, for this busines is wonte one to by a pointed to ouersee if thies lawes by observed or no. For it importeth muche the souldiores health, wher fore the barber mayor is wonte to uisitt nowe and then. The Captaine de campana is to tak aspeciall care to see that thies or∣deres by dulie observed.

The Master de campe is to be earneste in informinge him selfe well of his regimente, as well of secret as of publike matteres, that he may prevente and remedy in due tyme all, and cause to be severely pu∣nished such as doe breake the proclamationes by him comaunded, and suche as are inclined to base factes, as theives, quarleres, disho∣neste dronkardes and base mutineres, of litle pascience and lesh ho∣noure, of no discression, feare, nor love, nyther of god nor of theire prince, suche base fellowes are to by severelie punished in publick, and to by driven a way like men tatched with uglie crimes, unwour∣die Page  144 to equall themselves withe brave souldiores, of honeste life, ful of pacience, obedience, feare and goode examples; of which perso∣nes, the master de campe Sardgente mayor, and Captaines, are to ta∣ke notice, and have a speciall care in honoringe and preferinge them, sheowinge them a faire and lovinge countenance, and givinge them greate hope of avancemente, and let triall of time and ocasiones ve∣rifie the same with deedes, whiche shall by a greate comforte to suche as are inclined to uertue, and greate greefe to those given to vices and unrulie factes and bad exemples, whiche oughte to a mende theire li∣ves, and imitate the steppes of those of honeste life, prudente and ver∣tuse cariadge, full of love, feare and obedience, given to continuall goode applicationes, shuninge idelnes and bad company, which of righte oughte, by there Superiores to by highlie estimed, (whereunto they are bounde in conscience) For the securitie of ocasiones in mar∣chinge and in preventinge of sodaine and unprovided incursiones, ambuscados, and stratagemes of the enemy: A necessarie thinge it were to imitate the Romaines, in a luenge fiftine horses to everie 100 foote, so that in many plases in marchinge where theyre may by any suspicion of the enemy, the Master de campe, then shoulde a pointe a conductor to leade and governe thies horsemen, and in offeringe time or occasion, to divide them into as many partes, as the occasion shall require, (apointinge a leader for each division) and for the inter∣tainemente of thies horsemen they shoulde inioy so much meanes as other horsemen; so that in ocasiones of marchinge, the Infanterie may goe with far greater securitie, beinge divided into thre or foure par∣tes, to recnoledge the places of moste suspicion of ambuish, and other secret stratagemes of the enemy, whiche beinge recnoledged and dis∣covered, necessarie prevention may by taken in due time, thies men may serve bothe for horse and foote acordinge as ocasion shall requi∣re: Of eache division or parte of thies horse it is necessarie to name a Comaunder or leader, who shall take care to governe them, forbidin∣ge and comaundinge that by no meanes they lende thies horses, but get them alwaies readie to by imploied, when or where occasion shall require. Thies horses may serve for many goode purposes, in pasinge the Infanterie over riveres, in recnoledginge pasadges, as alsoe in co∣minge in possession of pasadges, whiche beinge feared that the enemy shoulde come to posess the same before oures.