A discourse of military discipline devided into three boockes, declaringe the partes and sufficiencie ordained in a private souldier, and in each officer; servinge in the infantery, till the election and office of the captaine generall; and the laste booke treatinge of fire-wourckes of rare executiones by sea and lande, as alsoe of firtifasions [sic]. Composed by Captaine Gerat Barry Irish.
Barry, Gerat.

Treatinge of severall sortes of Squadrones.

BIgininge with the rule who to finde oute the square roote of any number, the table pitagorique, a table •• by put in memorie for the framinge of squadrones, for suche as are not experte in Arithmeticke, the table of the proportiones of unequall numberes, and who to frame severall sortes of squadrones, of severall sortes of weapones, and the industrie used for theyre due orderinge and de∣vidinge Page  62 in proportion, acordinge as time, occasion, and situation shall require and permitt.

A square roote is a digit or number whiche beinge multiplied in it self bringethe fourth a square number, as 2 beinge multiplied in it self make the 4. in sayinge two times two make the 4. and so from the number 1. to the number 9. yove shall understande in the table Pita∣gorique, the raise of 1. can not be but, 1. the rayes of 4. is 2. the raise of 9. is 3. the raies of 16. is 4. that of 25. is 5. and soe consequently as in the table folowinge yove may perceive.

To finde oute the square roote of any number be it 〈 math 〉 square or not square, yove muste wourke thus, firste ha∣vinge set downe the number propounded whiche at the leaste muste consiste of 3. figures. Set a prick under the firste digitt of the saied number on the righte hande, that donpricke every other digit or number therof towardes the leiftehande; Havinge alwayes one voyde space or chifer betwext every 2. prickes, as yove see heere don in the number folowinge 946. to finde oute the square roote of this propounded number, yove are to pricke the saied number 〈 math 〉 as before taughte, havinge so don seeke oute one of the 3. digites, whiche beinge multiplied in it self may take a way the chifer 9. that is on the lefte hande, or as muche therof as may by, in sayinge 3. times 3. maketh 9. soe that 3. is the rays of 9. firste chifer of youre propounded number, and restethe nothinge, whiche yove shall put right a bove the 9. soe that yove have wholy don withe the 9. that liethe on the le∣fte hande that don, doble the quotient whiche is 3. and it makethe 6. and set the same in the voide place righte under the figure 4. and seeke oute a digit or number, whiche beinge multiplied in it self may take a way the 4. and say how many times 6. can yove finde in 4. nullo; soe set downe 0. in the quotient right under the 6. that stand the on the righte hande, and say that in plasinge nullo in the quotient yove have don and there restethe 46. that remaineth, soe say that 30. is the square roote of 946. and there remainethe 46. that 〈 math 〉 is not comprehended in the square roote in sayinge mul∣tiply 30. the square roote of 946. by 30. and it will make 900. to whiche 900. a 46. that remaineth, and itt shall a monte the full some of youre propounded number of 946. as by the proofe yove plainely see. In all suche numberes to Page  67 knowe whether yove have dō well or no, multipliy the square roote by it self, to the producte of which multiplication yove are to ad if the∣re by any remainder, and if yove finde the summe therof to be like to youre firste propounded number, yove have don well, and if it be not like yove have errede.

But if suche number doe consiste of many numberes or figures in workēge wherof yove muste doble the quotiēt once, twece, or three∣ce, acordinge as the number dothe require, whiche yove shall more plainly perceive by this example followinge: Presupose that 37424 is the number wherof yove woulde knowe the square roote; to doe the whiche wourke as before taughte, firste prick the 4. that 〈 math 〉 standethe on the righte hande, then fall to pricke the other 4. towardes to lefte hande, and havinge so don pricke the digit 3. that standethe on the lefte hande of all, nowe seeke oute som digit or number, whiche beinge multiplied in it self, takethe a way the laste chifer on the lefte hande, whi∣che is 3. or the moste therof that can be, whiche yove shall finde to by 1. and havinge set downe the saied 1. in the quo∣tiēt say one time one is 1. whiche beinge substracted oute of 3. restethe 2. whiche is to be placed right over the 3. and conzeale the saied 3. that don, double the quotient 1. and it makethe 2. whiche yove are to place righte under the 7 of youre propounded numberin the seconde place towardes the lefte hande, that don say who many times 2 in 27. yove shall finde it to be 9. in sayinge 9 times 2. is 18. oute of 27 restethe 9. whiche yove shall place righte over, and above the 7. in the seconde place on the lefte hande, and in the quotient right under the pricke of the chifer 4 in the 3 place towardes the lefte hande yove shall place 9. havinge soe don, say 9. times 9. is 81. beinge substracted oute of 94. restethe 13. nowe double the 18 in the quotient, and it will be 38. whiche yove shall place under the 9. in the quotient towardes the righte hande, havinge soe don say how many times 38. in 132. that standethe right above it, yove shall finde it to be 3. whiche yove shall place in the quotient under the firste prike on the right hande under the chifer 4. that don say 3. times 3. maketh 9 oute of 13. 〈 math 〉 resteth 4. then say 3. times 8. makethe 24 oute of 42. re∣stethe 18 that don fall to the 3. in the quotiēt and multiply it in it self and it makethe 9. whiche yove shall substracte oute of the producte of youre laste division whiche was 184. and there shall remaine 175. soe that 193. is the square roote Page  68 of the firste number given whiche was 37424 whiche square beinge multiplied in it self is 37249. and the remainder is 175. whiche two partitiones beinge putt togither makethe the firste number of 37424. yove are alsoe to understande that if yove finde any number oute of whiche youre quotiēt beinge doubled and can not be substra∣cted, yove muste set downe a chifer in the quotiēt as yove do in divisiō.

Moste necessary it is for a Sardgent mayor, or who soever doth pretende to be curiouse in the profession of armes, that he be expert in Aritmeticke, and in knowinge who to finde oute the square roo∣te of any number, that he may withe the more facility order devide, and ranke his Souldieres, eyther of greate or smale numberes; yea and of whate soever forme a Sardgent mayor, oughte not to be ignorante, for some times occasion and situation offerethe that neyther of the 4. for∣mes of squadrones are to be used; Wherfore i will set downe the rules, firste for the framinge of the foure formes of squadrones moste a cu∣stomed and moste in use, as alsoe the rules to frame squadrones acor∣dinge to the situation and disposition of the place, and occasiones to fighte, as well of equalities as of inequalities. The 4. formes of squa∣drones moste acustomed and moste in use, is the square of men the square of grounde, bastarde square, and broade square, whiche the Spaniarde caule quadra de gente; quadra de tereno, prolongado, y gran frente.

Gentell Reader, understande that the firste thinge to by understoo∣de in framinge of squadrones, is that the principall boddies of thē are to be framed of pikes, to the whiche are required a certaine quantity of shot, which are to be devided as time situation and occasion shal-require, touchinge whiche divisiones greate consideration and indu∣stry is required in many occurantes of warlike affaires, and it is of grea∣te importance for who so ever takethe this chardge in hande to be per∣fecte in Aritmeticke to facilitate many rare occurrantes of this arte, and specially in the office of a Sardgent mayoyr.

It is to be understoode that the rule whiche is observed in setinge in order or array Souldieres, is that from the shoulder of the one to the shoulder of the other, is required 3. foote or at the moste three and haulf, and from ranke to ranke 7. foote, meaninge from the breaste of the one to the backe of the other. But when occasion shall offer to fighte 3. foote or 3 ½. is i noghe from ranke to ranke meaninge frō the breste of the owne to the backe of the other, and one for his one statiō, soe that he ocupies before and behinde, and for his person 7. foote.

Page  69To forme a squadron square of men, yove shall wourke, as before taughte in findinge oute the square roote which shall serve for fronte and flanke, as by the example folowinge yove shall more plainely un∣derstande, Suppose that yove are to frame a squadron square of men of 464. pikes, to finde oute the square roote of this nūber firste pric∣ke the laste chifer 4. towardes the righte hande, that don, pricke the o∣ther 4. towardes the lefte hande, so that the figure 6. standethe in the midel, nowe fall to the 4. that standethe on the lefte hande, and say the raise of 4. is 2. in sayinge two times two makethe 4. whiche 4 yove are to substracte oute of the 4 that standethe on the lefte hande then conzeale the 4. and plase azero above it, nowe fall to 2. that is in the quotient, and say two times two makethe 4. whiche yove shall place right under the 6. whiche liethe in the mideste of the number given, and say how many times 4 in 6. whiche can be but one, in sayinge 4. times 1. makethe 4. oute of 6. restethe but 2. which 2. yove shall place a bove the 6. and cāzeale the 6. that don fall to 1. that liethe in the quo∣tient under the chifer 4. on the righte hande, and say one time one is 1. oute of 4 that layethe on the righte hande there shall reste 3. whi∣che shall be plased righte over the 4. towardaes the righte hāde, then canzeale the 4. and there shall remaine 23. soe that 21. is youre fronte and flanke, and 23. remaininge whiche shall serve to guarnish the cu∣loures, to se if yove have don well, multiply 21. the square roote in it self, and the producte will by 441. to whiche producte ad 23. pikes, that did remaine, and the som therof wilbe like unto the firste number given which was 464. as by the figure folowinge yove may see.

[illustration]
A battel square of men of 464. pikes whose fronte and flancke is 21.

〈 math 〉

Page  70

Square roote.
11 502500
24 512600
39 522704
416 532809
525 542916
636 553025
749 563136
864 573249
981 583364
   593481
10100 603600
11121 613721
12144 623844
13169 633969
14196 644096
15225 654225
16256 664356
17289 674489
18324 684628
19361 694761
20400 704900
21441 715041
22484 725184
23529 735329
24576 745476
25625 755625
26676 765776
27729 775929
28784 786084
29841 796241
30900 806400
31961 816561
321024 826724
331089 836889
341156 847056
351225 857225
361296 867396
371369 877569
381444 887744
391521 897921
   908100
401600 918281
411681 928464
421764 938649
431849 948836
441936 959025
452025 969216
462116 979409
472209 989604
482304 999801
492401 10010000

Page  71For suche as are not expert in Aritmeticke i have set downe the a fore saied Table to finde the square roote of any nūber to then thou∣sande, whiche shall healpe muche suche as are not able in Aritmeti∣ke, but suche as are inclined to be perfecte in this noble arte of warr: i woulde wishe them not to wholy truste to this rule for the reasones be∣fore declared; but rather learne to be perfecte in Arithmetike, which is the sureste way.

A Squadron square of men of 361. Souldiers of the whiche 144. are pikes, and 217. musketes.

[illustration]
Fronte of the battel. Square of men.

〈 math 〉
  • 144 Pikes.
  • 48 Musk.
  • 36 Musk.
  • 76 Musk.
  • 57 Musk.
  • 361

Page  72Supose that yove are to frame a squadron square of men of 361. Souldiers of the whiche 144. are pikes and 217. are musketes and that yove woulde have the squadron proportionally lined, every way withe the shott. To wourke the whiche firste take the square roo∣te of the 144. pikes whiche yove shal finde to be 12. and say that 12. is the fronte and flanke of the squadron of pikes, that don take the who∣le number of shott and pikes whiche is 361. oute of the whiche alsoe take the square roote, whiche yove shall finde to be 19. oute of this 19 substracte 12. the square roote of the pikes, and there shall remai∣ne 7. and so yove finde the number that yove demaunde for the girdlinge shott, nowe devide the 7. into two partes and say that yove finde 4 in one parte and 3. in the other, and say that by youre devision yove finde that the firste maniple of musketes is to marche withe 12. rankes of 4. musketes in eache ranke, whiche is for the linenge shot of the right flanke of youre squadron. That don say that also by, youre laste devision yove finde 12. rankes of 3. musketes in eache ranke to guarinshe the liefte flanke of youre squadron, and say that the two flankes of youre squadron are linede, withe shott, meaninge 4. in eache ranke of the linenge of the righte flanke, and 3. in eache ran∣ke of the linenge of the liefte flanke; so the two flankes are lined.

That don, say that 12. the fronte of youre pikes adinge therunto 7. musketes of the linenges of the two flakes makethe 19 and say that in youre laste devision yove finde that 19. rankes of 4. musquetes in ea∣che ranke are to marche for the linenge shott of the vangarde, and al∣soe 19. rankes of 3. musketes are to marche in the laste devision of shott for the linenge of the rergarde of youre battell, as by the figure before and in the devisiones of the same yove see plainely declared, and so youre squadron of pikes is proportionally lined every way in as mu∣che as the devision and number can affourde.

Page  73
A squadron square of men of 576. Souldiers of the whiche 256. are pikes, and 320. musketes devided proportionally as by the figure folowinge yove see.

[illustration]
Fronte of the Battel.

〈 math 〉
  • 256 Pikes.
  • 64 Musq.
  • 64 Musq.
  • 96 Musq.
  • 96 Musq.
  • 576.

For the framinge of all suche squadrones eyther of greate or smale numberes, whiche yove woulde have to be proportionally lined withe shott yove shall wourke in this maner folowinge: Firste take the num∣ber Page  74 of pikes whiche is 256. oute of the whiche take the square roote, whiche is 16. and say that so many pikes shall the fronte and flanke of youre battell containe, and that it is of equall strenghte every way as well, to offende as to defende, and when yove woulde drawe them into squadron, for the more breuity yove may devide the fronte ther∣of into two maniples eache one contayninge 16. rankes of 8. pikes in eache ranke, nowe to proportionally guarnish the same withe the shot take youre full number of pikes, and shot whiche is 576. oute of whiche nūber take the square roote whiche yove shall finde to by 24. that don, substracte 16. the square roote of the pikes oute of 24. the square of the full number of pikes and shot, and there shall remaine 8. this digit devide into two equal partes, whiche is foure in eache par∣te, and say that the squadron of pikes is to be lined every way withe 4. shott as by the devision of the same yove see, meaninge that youre fir∣ste division of shott is to marche withe 16. rankes of 4. musketes in eache ranke, whiche is to line the righte flanke of youre squadron of pikes, and so many more rankes shall marche to line the lefte flanke of the squadron of pikes, meaninge 16. rankes of 4. musketes in every ranke, so the two flankes of youre squadron are lined. That don say that the fronte of youre squadron is 16. and therunto ad 8 the linen∣ge shott of the two flankes, and it wil a monte to 24. To line the fron∣te of youre battell, say that yove are to marche withe 24. rankes of 4. musketes in eache ranke, and so many more for the linenge of the rer∣warde of youre battell as the figure and divisiones shewethe, and soe shall yove finde youre squadron proportionally lined every way; whi∣che by the rule forme, and divisiones of the same yove may plainly un∣derstande This rule will serve to frame all suche sortes of squadrones eyther of greate or smale numberes, whiche yove woulde have to be proportionally lined withe shott, as plainely the figure and divisiones before sheowethe.

In many countries hardly can youe finde the one haulf of there pi∣kes armed withe complett corseletes, soe that this rule will sheowe yo∣ve how to guarnish the unarmed pikes, withe the complett corseletes proportionally every way, advertisinge that the culoures is to marche in the center.

A cross battell of 1416. Souldieres of the whiche 512. are pikes, and 904. musketes, whiche are to be divided into 4 batteles, and li∣ned proportionally on the two flankes, as by the figure and divisiones followinge are reasoned. Page  75 To wourke the whiche, firste take the number of pi∣kes, 〈 math 〉 for eache squadron of the 4. required for youre cross battell. Nowe to youre purpose take the square roote of 128. pikes of youre firste squadron, whiche will be 11. and 7. pikes remaininge, and say that 11. pikes is the fronte and flanke of youre firste battell of pikes, as alsoe of the other 3. batteles, and 7. pikes re∣maininge in eache battell, whiche shall serve to gua∣rinsh the culoures; soe that 11· is the fronte and flanke of eache one of youre 4. batteles of pikes, and 7. pikes remayninge for the linenge of the culoures of eache battell of the 4.

Nowe for the division of youre propounded num∣ber of shott. Double the one flanke of eache one of the 4. batteles of pikes, whiche double will by 88. this 88. the double flanke of the 4. batteles of pikes divide by 904. youre propounded number of musketes, and the number in the quotient will by 10. and 24 musketes remayninge, and say that the two flankes of eache of youre 4. batteles of pikes are to by lined withe 11. ran∣kes of ten musketes in eache ranke as by the figure, and deutiones folowenge yove may playnely see, and wi∣the the observation of this rule withe any other num∣ber eyther greate or smale yove shall withe facility kno∣we how to proportionably divide yovre shott for to guarinsh the two flankes of yovre squadron of pikes.

Thiese cross batteles are esteemed to be wonder∣full stronge consideringe well the framinge therof. It is also of wonderfull safegarde, for the security of the ba∣gadge amunitiones and hurte men, and if the enemy shoulde chance to charge the firste battel, or any of the other 3. whiche beinge a lone are but of litle force. Wherfore consideration oughte to be taken of the stratagemes of the enemy, and withe what order they do marche, and then yove may double or tribele yovre fronte acordinge as occasion shall require and the situation shall per∣mitt. And if the enemy are stronge on horse, regarde oughte to be ta∣ken in due time of the bagadge that it goe deposito, or be twexte the two laste batteles, and for theyr better security in suche ocationes, I woulde cut two rankes of eache of the two laste batteles and therwi∣the Page  76 guarnishe the fronte and regard of the bagadge and also withe shott under the shelter of this guarnison of pikes so that they may be shadowed and defended every way and give a triple fronte to the two laste batteles.

Cross Battell.

[illustration]
〈 math 〉

Severall sortes of armes are manadged in all coutries and in many places hardly can yove finde the one haulf of there pikes armed wi∣the complett corseletes. Wherfore i tought fitt to set downe the rules for the due orderinge in proportion of thiese severall sortes of armes, for beinge moste necessary in many occasiones in warrlike affaires: Put in case yove have 1112. souldieres, of the whiche 260. are unar∣med pikes 316. armed withe complett corseletes, 114. officeres refor∣med and particular persones who are armed withe gilted corseletes, Page  77 and for the linenge shott 422. musketes. Of the whiche number the campe master general, woulde have a squadron square of men to be framed, puttenge the unarmed pikes in the center, proportional∣ly lined every way withe the armed corseltes, and the armed pikes proportionally lined withe the gilted corseletes and officeres refor∣med, as also that the 4. sides of the full battell of pikes to be propor∣tionally guarinshed withe the 422. musketes.

To wourke the whiche firste take 260. whiche is the unarmed pikes oute of whiche take the square roote whiche is 16 and. 4 pikes re∣mayninge, and say that 16 pikes is the fronte and flanke of yovre cen∣ter of unarmed pikes. That don take the full number of unarmed and armed pikes whiche is 576. oute of whiche also take the square roote which will be 24. nowe deducte of this 24.16 the raise or square roote of the unarmed pikes, and there shall remaine 8. this 8. devide into two partes, and it is 4. in eache parte, and say that 16. rankes of 4. cor∣seletes in eche ranke is to guarnish the right flanke of yovre center of unarmed pikes, and so many more for the guarnision of the leifte flanke of the center of the unarmed pikes.

Nowe to proportionally line the fronte of the center say that to 16 the fronte of the center is to be aded 8 of the 2. lininges whiche make the 24. so say that the fronte is to be guarinshed withe 24. ran∣kes of 4. armed pikes in eache ranke, and so is the fronte of yovre cen∣ter and unarmed pikes lined, and the rerwarde is to be guarinshed withe the self same order, imeane 24. rankes of armed pikes of 4. pi∣kes in eache ranke, so the center of the unarmed pikes is proportio∣nally lined every way withe the complet corseletes.

Nowe to line the armed pikes withe the 114. gilted 〈 math 〉 corseletes take the full number of pikes as well armed as unarmed whiche is 690. oute of whiche take the square roote whiche is 26. oute of this 26. the laste rays deducte 24. the square roote of yovre armed and unarmed pikes and there shall reste 2. this 2. devide in∣to two partes whiche will be one, and say that the righ∣te flanke of the armed pikes are to be guarinshed wi∣the onely 24. gilted pikes which iuste ocupies place of one in eache ranke of the flāke and iuste so many more for to guarinshe the leifte flāke of the armed pikes, and say that the two flankes are guarinshed: Nowe youre fronte is 26. and iuste so many gilted pikes are to gua∣rinsh the outewarde side of the armed corseletes, and iuste so many Page  78 for the linenge of the rerwarde so youre squadron is proportionally guarinshed every way, imeane the center withe the armed pikes, and the armed pikes withe the gilted corseletes.

Nowe to devide youre 422. musketes, youe are to take the square roote of the propounded and full number of pikes and shott whiche is 1112. whiche square roote will. be 33. oute of this square deducte 26. the square roote that was of the full number of pikes and there shall remaine 7, this 7. devide into two partes, the one will be 4. and the other 3. and say that by youre devition youe finde that the right flanke of youre squadron of pikes is to be lined, withe 26. rankes of 4. musketes in eache ranke, (that don) say that for the linenge shot of the leifte flanke youre devition yealdethe 26. rankes of 3. musketes in ea∣che ranke so are youre two flankes of the squadron of pikes lined wi∣the shott, nowe withe the two linenges of shott youe finde the fronte to conteyne 33. and say that 33. rankes of 4. musketes is to line the full fronte of the battell of pikes and 33. rankes of 3. musketes in ea∣che ranke is to guarnish the full fronte of the rerewarde, for by the rule of divition and proportion it can not be other wise, so youre unarmed pikes are in the center, proportionally lined withe the cor∣seletes, and the corseletes withe the gilted armor, and the squadron of pikes proportionally lined every way withe the 422. musketes as youe shall see by the figure and devisiones folowinge, advertisinge that in youre devisiones there do remaine 4. unarmed pikes and 14. of the gilted corseletes and five musketes as in the devisiones folo winge youe may see, all whiche are comprehended in the 23. the re∣mainder of youre laste devision, as here folowth declared.

Page  79

[illustration]
A Squadron square of men.

  • 256 Pikes.
  • 64 Cors.
  • 64 Cors.
  • 96 Cors.
  • 96 Cors.
  • 24 Gilt. C.
  • 24 Gilt. C.
  • 26 Gilt. C.
  • 26 Gilt. C.
  • 104 Mus.
  • 78 Mus.
  • 132 Mus.
  • 99 Mus.
  • 4 Pik.
  • 14 Gilt.
  • 5 Mus.
  • 1112.
  • 16 Ran. 16
  • 16 Rank. 4
  • 16 Rank. 4
  • 24 Ran. 4
  • 24 Rank. 4
  • 24 Rank. 1
  • 24 Rank. 1
  • 26 Rank. 1
  • 26 Rank. 1
  • 26 Rank. 4
  • 26 Rank. 3
  • 33 Rank. 4
  • 33 Rank. 3

〈 math 〉

  • 260 Unarmed Pik.
  • 316 Armed Pik.
  • 114 Gilted Corsel.
  • 422 Musketes.
  • 1112
Page  80
Consideringe that many are ingnorante in knowinge the proportion of many sortes of squadrones and unequall numberes toughte necessary to put hire the tabel and rules for the same as hire foloweth.

I Woulde wishe allsuche as do pretende to step forwarde in the no∣ble profeshion of armes, troughe there prudēt cariadge, and goo∣de applicationes, to consider that many goode partes are requi∣red in them, amongste the which we finde it moste necessary that he be expert in aritmeticke, for otherwise hardly can he bringe unto per∣fection the rare curiosities required to the severall executions of the arte of warr. And especially the sundry devisiones of the severall sor∣tes of squadrones, which by dayly triall, and experience, we see that many who are not curiouse nor expert in aritmeticke do err in uerie many ocasiones, and can not compass, nor bringe to iuste perfection withe grace, many rare occurantes in warrlike affaires; and that for the moste parte resultinge of there litle aplicationes in imitatenge the vertouse prudent and approoved souldier; and also troughe the blynde consideration of som, who consideringe that nowe in oure la∣ter warres for the moste parte all electiones goes by favor frindship or affection: yea and uery many by meanes of enteres, so that very ma∣ny do not take the paines in aplieinge them selves in learninge the se∣verall rare curiosities of this arte but rather mocke, and floute at those of rare and curiouse iudgementes by cause that their skill and capa∣citie can not reache in resolvinge the rare and deepe secretes of this arte, after those of perfection in this arte we looke, for those of im∣perfection we finde on every foote: so none oughte to reprehende in absence wherof in presence he is ingnorante.

Proportiones of inequalities is that the battell may be more broade then longe or more in fronte then in flanke.

THiefe proportiones of inequalities is as 2. to 1. that is to say the battel to be two tymes more broade then longe, or more in fronte then in flanke, as is one to thre or 1. to 4. ett. or the bat∣tell to be three times or 4. tymes more broade then longe, or more in fronte then in flanke, or to be 2⅓. or 3¼. more broade then longe or any other suche like proportiones, to whiche effect i put this table and the rules thereunte apertaininge.

Page  81

is as—2to3
1⅔35
1 2/446
1⅔57
1 2/668
1 2/779
1 2/8810
1 2/911
2/38
411
205
2/1817
2⅔37
2 2/4410
2 1/7715
2 2/6614
2 3/7717
is as —2to7
3/3310
413
3⅕516
3 2/6620
3 1/7722
3 1/8825
3 2/9929
3 3/930
209
4⅓313
417
4⅕521
4⅙625
4 1/7729
4⅛833
4 1/9937
4 2/9938
is as —2to11
5⅓316
5/4421
5⅕526
5 /6631
5 1/7736
5 2/7737
5 2/841
5 1/9946
213
6⅓319
425
6⅖531
6 2/6637
6 2/7743
6 2/7744
6⅛849
6 1/9955

To reduce theese fractiones into whole numberes, and to knowe theyr proportion youe are to wourke in this maner folowinge. Firste multiply the whole number by the fractiones denominator, and ad therunto the numerator of the saied fraction, and the proportion is founde, as for example to have the battell to containe so muche and the one haulf more in front then in flanke whiche the 〈 math 〉 Spaniard call tanto i medio; seeke in the table 1½ wher of the whole number is. 1. and the fraction is ½ nowe multiply the whole number 1. by the fraction is De∣nominator 2. and it makethe 2. wherunto youe shallad the saied fractiones numerator which is 1. whiche two adisiones dothe amount 3. and the fractiones denominator is 2. so say it is in proportiō as is 2. to 3. and so muste yove wourke withe all suche num∣beres to knowe the proportion therof, or say that youe will have the battell to be 3 3/3. more in fronte then in flanke, and to 〈 math 〉 finde the proportion say it is as 3. to 10. as in the table yove shall see, and that yove may better understand it wourke as before taughte, firste in multiplienge the vvhole number 3. by 3. the fractiones denominator and it vvill be 9 to this 9. ad 1. vvhiche is the fractiones numerator and it vvill be 10 and say that it is in proportion as 3. to 10. and vvithe Page  82 this observation and rule youe shall knovve in vvhat proportion shall by anny number.

To frame a Battell of 819. Souldieres, whiche shall containe so muche and the one haulf more in fronte then in flanke, whiche the Spaniarde and Italian call de tanto y medio.

〈 math 〉

THe advantadge of grounde goode order, and Military discipli∣ne are suche that troughe the conduction of prudente and bra∣ve Comaūderes smale numberes offten times repulse far grea∣ter numberes, and some times the situatiō and disposition of ground-so faulethe oute, that neyther of the 4. formes of Squadrones can ser∣ve; Wherfore a Sardgent mayor▪ or whosoever undertakethe to by cu∣rious or perfect in this arte, ought to be expert in framinge all sortes of batteles, as well of equall and inequall numberes whatesoever, wherfore i tought fitt to set downe the rules for the framinge of suche batteles

Bigininge with a battell of so muche and one haulf more in front then in flanke, which the Italian calle tanto y metcho; which i supose to by framed of 507. armed pikes, and that the fronte therof containe so muche and the one haulf more in front 〈 math 〉 then in the flanke, to wourke the which put downe the number propounded whiche is 507. pikes, unto which number ad the one haulf of the self number, whiche will be 253 /2. that don, ad bothe numberes and it will a monthe to 760 2/1. oute of whiche take the square roote, which will by 27. and 21. remaininge, and say that 27. is the front of the battell.

To finde oute the flanke take 507. the number of pikes, and divide it by 27. the front, the quotient ther∣of wilbe 18. and 21. pikes remaininge, and say that 18. is the flanke; and the 21. pikes which did remaine oute of youre laste division will serve to guarnishe the culoures, soe that 27. is the front, and 18. the flanke, whiche comethe to the juste propor∣tion of the forme and number propounded, to see if yove have don, well multiply 27. the front by 18. the flanke the product of which Page  83 multiplication, and the 21. which did remaine in youre la∣ste 〈 math 〉 diuision, and if it agrie with the number of pikes pro∣pounded yove have don well, if not yove err, advertisinge that the proportion of the front and flanke muste be ob∣served, the forme wherof yove shall see here followinge, and lined proportionally every way withe the 312. muske∣tes, as yove more plainely may perceive by the figure fol∣lowenge, and by the divisiones of the same.

〈 math 〉

[illustration]
A Squadron of so muche and the one haulfe more in fronte then in flanke.

〈 math 〉
Pikes contained in the boddy of the battell.486 p.
Pikes remaininge to guarnish the culoures.021 p.
The lineng shott of the righte flanke.057 m.
The lininge shott of the leifte flanke.057 m.
The lininge shot of the full fronte.099 m.
The lininge shot of the front of the reere.099 m.
 819 m.

Page  84
A Squadron of so muche and one thirde parte more in fronte then in flanke.

[illustration]
〈 math 〉
  • 208 pikes.
  • 2 pikes.
  • 42 musk.
  • 42 musk.
  • 88 musk.
  • 66 musk.
  • 12 musk, remaininge.
  • 1 1/ 460.

SOme times occasion and situation may offer to frame a squadron of so muche and one thirde parte more in front then in flanke, whiche the Spaniarde Caule tanto y un tercio, whiche i supose to be of 460. Souldieres of the whiche 210. are pikes and 250 musketes, and consideringe that asargent mayor or any perfect souldier oughte not to be ingnorant in the framinge of all sortes of squadrones as tyme occasion and situation shall require, wherfor i tought Page  85 fitt to set downe the rules for the framinge of any suche or semblable sortes of batteles, nowe biginenge withe the aboue nūber. To wourke the whiche firste take the propounded number of 210. pikes, that don devide it by 3. the quotiente wherof will by 70. this 70. the 3 parte of the propounded number, ad to it the propounde nūber of pikes and it wilbe 280. oute of whiche take the square roote whiche wilbe 16. and 24. remainenge and say that 16. is the fronte of youre battell; that don, to finde oute the flanke devide 210. the propounded number of pi∣kes by 16. the fronte, the quotiente wherof will be 13. and two pikes remainenge, and say that 13. is the flanke and 16 the fronte and two pikes remayninge, to see of youe have don well, multiply the fronte by, the flanke addinge to the producte of youre multiplicatiō the remain∣der, and if it agrie withe youre propounded number of pikes it goes well.

Nowe for the devition of youre propounded number of short whi∣che is 250. musketes take the whole number of short and 〈 math 〉 pikes, whiche is 460. and divide the same by 3. whiche quo∣tient youe shall finde to by 153. and one remaininge, nowe thiese 153. the quotiente of youre laste devision of the pro∣pounded number of 460. the producte of whiche 2. adi∣tiones wil by 613. that don take the square roote of 613. which will by 24. the fronte of the number, nowe to finde oute the flanke, take youre principall number of pikes and shott whiche is 460. whiche youe are to devide by 24. the square roote of 613. and the number in the quotiente will be 19 and 4. remayninge and say that 24. is the fronte and 9. the flanke, that don deducte 13. the flanke of youre squadron of pikes oute of 19 the laste flanke and there shall remaine 6. this 6. divide into two partes and yove shall fin∣de 3. in eache parte, and say that the firste division of shott is 14. ran∣kes of 3. musketes in eache ranke comprehended one ranke of 3. musketes for the lininge of the culoures of the righte flanke of youre squadron of pikes, and say that the leifte flanke or side of youre bat∣tell of pikes are to be lined withe the self same order i meane 14. ran∣kes of 3. musketes in eache ranke; soe is the two flankes of youre bat∣tell of pikes proportionally lined withe musketes. Nowe to finde oute the shot that will line the fronte and rerwarde of youre battell of pi∣kes deducte 84. musketes the lininge shott of the two flankes oute of 250. the full number of shott, and there will remaine 166. muske∣tes theese 166. divide by 22. the full fronte of youre pikes of the two Page  86 linges the quotient of whiche wilbe 7. this 7. divide into two partes the one will be 4. and the other of 3. and say that the guarnison of mus∣ketes that is to line the fronte is 22. rankes of 4 musketes in eache ranke, and 22 rankes of 3. musketes for the linenge of the rerwarde, so is youre battell proportionally guarnished or lined every way, ad. vertisinge that 12. musketes remainethe oute of youre division vvhi∣che vvill serve for to guarinsh the culoures, so vvithe this observation and rule youe may divide youre shott of any other suche semblable battelles.

Advertisinge that tvvo pikes, vvhiche dothe guarnish the culou∣res are above the number the devision of the battell yealdeth, vvhi∣che at leaste are to be taken oute of some ranke for that inescusable purpose to guarinsh the culoures, as also to be rekoned but once in theire firste division; so that in all squadrones when in the divisiones of theire pikes and shott, shall not reste the conueniente number re∣quired for the due lininge of the culoures, then of force must that number be taken oute of some parte of the battell, advertisinge that this number so taken is not to be rekened but once, and that is vvhe∣re theire first division sheovveth, as declared in the tabell of the bat∣tell, vvhich is the true observation, and explication of the divisiones bothe of the pikes and shott. So is it to by vnderstoode that the num∣ber takē oute of thies divisiones for the culours the battell shall con∣taine so many above the number alued in theire firste division, and so for not to err, the divisiones of the table are to be observed for bien∣ge infallible, and for cause that moste comonly of force order and ar∣ray muste be broken to orderly place the culors in the center as also to guarnish them vvithe the conveniente pikes and shott.

Page  87
A Squadron of two times more in fronte then in flanke.

〈 math 〉

TO finde oute the fronte and flanke of any number of pikes, whi∣che yove woulde have to be two times more broade then longe or more in fronte then in flanke, whiche i supose at this instant to be 1008. of the vvhiche 520. are pikes and 488. muske∣tes, 〈 math 〉 firste take the propounded number of pikes whiche is 520· and multiply the same by 2. the producte will by 1040. nowe oute of this producte take the square roote, whiche wilbe 32, and 16. remaininge, and say that 32. is the fronte of youre battell of pikes, nowe to finde oute the flanke, take the propounded number of pikes, whiche is 520. This 520. divide by 32. the fronte, and the number in the quotient will be 16. and 8. pikes remaininge so yove founde oute the fronte and flanke, meaninge that 32. is the fronte, and 16 the flanke, and 8. pikes remaininge, in youre laste division, whiche will serve to guarnish the culoures, withe the observation of this rule, yove may frame a bat∣tell of pikes eyther of smale or greate numberes, and of whate forme yove will have the same to conteine of 3. times 4. times or 5. times more in fronte then in flanke in multi∣plyinge the propounded number of pikes by the propor∣tion therof, if yove woulde have it containe 3. times more in fronte then in flanke multiply youre propounded number of pikes by 3. if yove woulde have it to containe 4. times more in fronte then in flan∣ke multiply it by 4. and in wourkinge as before taughte yove shall fin∣de oute the fronte and flanke, and there juste proportion; for the im∣palinge shott i have spoken of in other forme of squadrones, but for suche as woulde be curiouse and experte, is required greate considera∣tion to be had for the severall sortes of divisiones of shott, as time oc∣casion and situation shall require, and it is moste necessary for him that undertakethe this chardge in hāde to by expert in Arithmeticke, and so withe continuall practice shall he withe greate facility bringe to juste perfection all the divisiones befitenge for this purpose, and let none be ingnorante but that for the severall and rare curiosities of the divisiones of shott is required muche practice, and specially in Page  88 Aritmeticke, whiche is the principall fundament in reducenge thees devisiones into there iuste perfection, alwayes consideringe of tyme occasion and situation, as also of afore caste prevention againste the stratageames and orderes of youre enemy.

A Squadron square of men of 3024. Souldieres of 〈 math 〉 the whiche 1764. are pikes, and 1260. musketes divided into severall maniples, and troupes to marche that they may fall into battell presently when occasion is offered as by the figure and divisiones folowinge set dow∣ne, and for suche as have not intered into the deepe judgement and practice of this arte. I will here set downe the order of there divisio∣nes, firste take the propounded number of pikes, whiche is 1764. oute of the whiche take the square roote, whiche will by 42. the whiche is the fronte and flanke of youre pikes. That don take the full number of youre shott, whiche is 1260 and divide this by 42. the flanke of the propounded number of pikes, and the number in the quotient will by 30. That don divide 30 the quotient into two equall partes, and youe shall finde the haulfe therof to be 15 so say that 15. shot comes under the shelter of eache pike of youre flanke for the guarnison of the same, I meane to eache of the two flankes, for triall wherof multi∣ply 42. the flanke of the pikes by the quotient of youre laste devition whiche was 30. and the producte will by the iuste number of shott propounded, And that youe may the more easy perceive thiese devi∣siones I will set them downe in breefe as heere folowinge youe may see.

The firste division is 42. rankes of five musketes in eache ranke whiche shall marche in the vangarde of the divisiones of youre marchinge whiche mōted.210 musketes.
The seconde division of youre squadron is 42. ran∣kes of 7. pikes whiche folowes the firste division of mus∣ketes and monteth.294 pikes.
The thirde diuision that folowes the seconde shall marche withe 42 rankes of 7. pikes in eache ranke whi∣che monteth.294 pikes.
The fourthe division shall by of 42. rākes of mus∣ketes of 5. in eache ranke monteth.210 pikes.
The fifthe division shall marche withe 42. rankes of pikes of 7. pikes in eache ranke whiche monteth.294 pikes.
The sixte division is 42. rankes of musketes of 5. Page  89 musketes in eache ranke whiche is the laste division of shott of the vangarde and linenge shott of the right flanke of the squadron of pikes whiche monteth.210 musketes.

So are the pikes and shott of the vangarde divided and the reste of youre shott and pikes are divided as folowethe.

The firste division of the rergarde is divided into 42. rankes of 5. musketes in eache ranke whiche shall marche in fronte of the linēge shott of the liefte flan∣ke of youre battell whiche monted.210 musketes.
The seconde division of the reregarde is 42. rankes of 7. pikes in eache ranke whiche monted.294 pikes.
Vhe thirde division of the rergarde is divided into so many more rankes.294 pikes.
The fourthe division of the reregarde is 42. rankes of 5. musketes in eache ranke the firstwinge of shot of the lefte flanke of the battell of pikes.210 musketes.
The fifthe division is 42. rankes of 7. pikes in eache ranke monteth.294 pikes.
The sixte division of the rergarde is divided into 42. rankes of five musketes in eache ranke for the se∣conde winge of shott of the liefte flanke.210 musketes.
 3024.

If youe woulde have the one haulf of youre shot to marche by them selfes in the vangarde of the pikes as comonly many do, youe may withe ease and breuety in observinge the same divisiones and withoute breakinge of any rāke, in onely co∣mandinge that the firste 3. divisiones of shott do marche in the vant∣garde, and then cause all the divisiones of pikes to folowe, observen∣ge there order as before set downe, plasinge the culores in the cen∣ter, and after them in therergarde to marche the other 3. divisiones of shott which is for the lininge of the liefte flanke and observinge their order as before spoken of.

Page  90

[illustration]
  • 1764 pikes.
  • 1260 musk.
  • 3024. men.

〈 math 〉

Page  91
By the figure followinge youe see the saide divisiones fall oute of theire marche in to battell, and proporsionally lined on the two flankes with the 1260. mus∣ketes, as by the divisiones of the same, and the figure followinge youe may see as the table of the divisiones of the battell hire folowinge sheoweth.

YOue shall understande that in the division of the pikes there did remaine nothinge, and for bienge inescusable to guarinsh the culoures withe pikes and shott, i cutt of the fronte of the battell one ranke which containes 42. pikes and 30. musketes, of thies pikes 20. shall guarnishe the two flankes of the culoures and the other 22 pikes shall by imploied for other purposes, and the 30. mus∣ketes with other 30. that are to be taken oute of the battell shall gua∣rinsh the culoures, so for suche as for curiositie woulde confronte this rekoninge it is necessary they knowe the diference is that 60. mueketes are to by taken oute of the battell to guaruish the culoures as before declared. Which are to be rekoned but once for otherwise there shall by 30. musketes diference.

The pikes contained in the boddy of the battel.1722. p.
The pikes that doth guarinsh the culours.20. p.
Pikes employed in ocasiones of service.22. p.
 1764. p.

  • 1764 pikes.
  • 1260 musketes.
  • 3024 men.
    Table of the battell.
  • 210 musketes.
  • 294 pikes.
  • 294 pikes.
  • 210 musketes.
  • 294 pikes.
  • 210 musketes.
  • 210 musketes.
  • 294 pikes.
  • 294 pikes.
  • 210 musketes.
  • 294 pikes.
  • 210 musketes.
  • 3024 men.

Page  92

[illustration]
SQUARE OF MEN. 3024. men. FRONT OF THE BATTELL.

  • 1764 pikes.
  • 1260 musk.
  • 3024.
Page  93
A battell square of men whiche ocupies place of 694. men in which battell goes avoide center which ocupies oume of 49. men apointed for the safe∣tie of hurte men and amunitiones, or for vnarmed men and bagadge.

The emptie center.49 men.
Unarmed pikes.121 pik.
Armed pikes or Corseletes.172 Cors.
Musketes.352 mus.
 694.

THe emptie center for hurtemen amunition and bagadge ocu∣pies plase of 49. in fronte and allsoe in flancke whose fronte and flanke is 7.

The firste division of unarmed pikes that lines the right flanke of the uoide center shall be devided into 7. rankes of 3. unarmed pikes in each ranke.21 pikes.
The seconde division of the unarmed pikes shall al∣soe marche withe 7. rankes of 3. pikes in each, to guar∣nish the left flanke of the voide center.21 pikes.
The thirde maniple of unarmed pikes that shall line the front of the center shall be divided into 13. rankes of 3. pikes in eache39 pikes.
The fourthe maniple of the unarmed pikes that shall march to line the rergarde of the center divided into 13 rankes of 3. pikes in eache ranke.39 pikes.
The first division of armed pikes shall be divided in∣to 13. rankes of 3. corseletes to line the right flanke of the unarmed pikes.39 corselet.
The second division of corseletes that doe line the left flanke of the unarmed pikes is divided into 13. ran∣kes of 2. corseletes in each.26 corselet.
The thirde division of corseletes that shall line the front of the vnarmed pikes shall be divided into 18. rankes of 3. corseletes in eache.54 corselet.
The fourthe division or maniple of corseltes that shall line the rergarde of the unarmed pikes shall be di∣vided Page  94 into 18. rankes of 2. corseletes in eache ranke.36 cors.
In the divisiō of the armed and unarmed pikes there did remaine 18. pikes of the whiche 17. are corseletes.18
 293.

THe division of the 352 musketes of the siyed squadron to line the battell proportionally everie way shall be divided in this maner folowinge, the rules bothe for this division, as also for the divisiones of the drie pikes and corseletes. I will set downe af ter this.

The firste division of shott of the saide squadron shall march in the vangarde withe 18. rankes of 4. mus∣ketes in each ranke for the lininge of the right flanke of the battell of pikes monteth.72 mus.
The seconde division of the uangarde shall marche withe 18. rankes of 4. musketes in each ranke for the linenge shott of the lieft flanke of the squadron.72 mus.
The first division of shott of the rergarde shall be di∣vided into 26. rankes of 4. musketes in each ranke for to line the front of the battell.104 mus.
The second division of shott of the rergard shall be divided into 26. rankes of 4. musketes in each ranke which shall line the rergarde of the battell.104 mus.
 352 mus.

Table of the Battell.

〈 math 〉

Page  95I Do not doubpte but many who have not longe pra∣ctised 〈 math 〉 in the framinge of squadrones, and that are not skilfull in the severall divisiones of the same, and in particular suche as are not able in Arithmetike, will in the begining finde greate difficulte in well orderinge and dividinge in proportion thiese batteles withe centeres, and lined every way pro∣porsionally withe sundrie sortes of weapones. Wherfore i tought fit to set downe in writinge the maner of theyre severall divisiones. To wourke the whiche yove muste bigin withe the center; Then withe the divisiones of youre unarmed and armed pikes, and then withe the divisiones of youre shott to see how they fall to line the squadron of pikes in proportion as hire folowethe.

To wourke the whiche, firste bigin with 49. youre propounded number for the voide center, and demaunde for the square roote of 49. whiche is 7. so youe finde that 7. is the front and flanke of the void center, that don say that youre voide place or center ocupies 21. foote in front and 49. in flanke, then place downe 49. the center and 121. the unarmed pikes whiche two adisiones, will amont to 170. oute of whiche take the square roote which is 13. and say that 13. is the front of the vnarmed pikes withe the voide center, that 〈 math 〉 don substract 7. the front of the center oute of 13. the front of the center and unarmed, and youe shall finde that 6. remaniethe, this 6 divide by 2! and the quotient will be 3. so say that by youre division youe finde that 3. unarmed pi∣kes comes to the linenge of the center everie way, beginenge firste wi∣the the right flanke of the center which is 7. and say the linenge of pikes of that flanke is 7. rankes of 3 pikes in eache ranke, and iuste so many more rankes for the linenge of the leift flanke of the center, conteinenge 21. pikes in each linenge, so by youre division youe fouu∣de the 2. linenges of pikes of the 2. flankes of the center. Nowe say 7. the front of the center and 6 the 2. linenges of the same maketh. 13. the front of the center and 2. lininges, nowe say that the thirde mani∣ple of unarmed pikes that shall line the front of the center and the 2. linenges of the same, shall marche witth 13. rankes of 3. drie pikes in each ranke, so the 2. flankes and front of the center are linde: that don say that the 4. maniples of unarmed pikes are to be divided into 13. rankes of 3. pikes in each ranke for to line the rergarde of the Page  96 void center, and say that the center is proportionally lined everie way withe the unarmed pikes, and that one unarmed pike did remaine in youre laste division.

Nowe to divide the armed pikes, to line the unarmed proportio∣nally every way, take the full number of the center, of the unarmed, and armed pikes propounded, which 3. partisiones dothe amonthe 342. that don take the square roote of this number which wilbe 18. and resteth 18. of the which 17. are armed pikes and 1. 〈 math 〉 unarmed, nowe substract the square roote 13. oute of the square roote 18. and there shall reste 5. this 5. divide and say that 3 comes to line one way, and 2. armed pikes the other side of youre unarmed pikes; then say that the firste division of armed pikes that shall line the right flanke of the unarmed, muste march withe 13. rankes of 3. armed pikes in each ranke which dothe amonth to 39. so say that the right flanke of the unarmed is lined with corseletes, nowe in the seconde division of corseletes shall march 13. rankes of 2. armed pikes or cor∣seletes in each rancke to line the leifte flanke of the unarmed as by youre division so fallethe oute, nowe say that the 2 flankes of the unarmed pikes are lined with the corseletes. Then in the third division of the corseletes shall march 18. rankes of 3. corseletes in each ranke for the linenge of the full front of the unarmed pikes, and cēter. That don cause the fourth division or maniple of corseletes to marche wi∣the 18. rankes of 2. corseletes in each ranke for the linenge of the rer∣garde of the battell so say that the voide center is proportionally lined withe the unarmed pikes, and the unarmed withe the corseletes, and that there did reste 18. pikes whiche shall serve to guarinsh the cou∣lors in the center, advertisinge that 17. are corseletes and 1. unarmed pike all which diuisiones youe se ordered as by the figure followinge apeereth; nowe to divide youre propounded number of shott which was 352 musketes take the full number of the center of the armed and unarmed pikes, as also of the musketes whiche will amonte 694 oute of whiche take the square roote whiche will by 26. oute of whiche substracte 18 the square of the center of the armed and unarmed pikes, and there shall reste 8. this 8 divide into two par∣tes and eache parte will by 4 and say that to guarinshe the righte flan∣ke of the squadron of pikes youe are to marche withe 18. rankes of 4. musketes in eache ranke, and withe iuste so many more shall youe guarnishe or line the leifte flanke of the full number of pikes, nowe to Page  97 finde oute the lininge shott of the frōte and rerwarde, say that adinge to 18. the fronte of the pikes 8 of the two linenges of the two flan∣kes it makethe 26. and then say that to guarinshe the full fronte youe are to marche withe 26. rankes of 4 musketes in eache ranke, whiche is the lininge shott of the fronte, and iuste so many more rankes shall guarnishe the rerwarde of the battell of pikes meaninge 26. rankes of 4. musketes in eache ranke and so is youre battell proportionally lined every way as the figure and divisiones folowinge sheowethe.

Page  98

[illustration]
A Squadron square of men withe a voide center.

[illustration]
Front of the Battell.

Table of the Battell.

〈 math 〉

Page  99

 Pikes.Musketes.Soilderes.
Spaniardes.10408401880.
Italianes.08887801668.
Irishe.09467601706.
Englishe.08407401580.
Borgonones.08476941541.
Valones.09396861625.
 5500450010000.

A battel square of men framed of six nationes, and who they shall un confused∣lie fall into battell withe grace and brevitie, dividinge to each nasion his par∣te of the vangarde, acordinge the number of men they give in relasion, as by the figure folowinge are orderly divided, to fall into battell of a soddaine withoute any crossinge or cōfusion, with the ensignes of each nation in the center of their pikes.

THe enemy aproachinge and understandinge that they are resol∣ved to give battell, the campe Master generall knowinge of the prudent brave conduction, and resolute determination of the Spaniard, Italian, Irishe, Englishe, Borgonones, and Valones, comaun∣deth that there shoulde be chosen oute of thiese nationes to the num∣ber of 10000. of chosen men of tried valor and full resolution givenge order that a battell square of mē shoulde be framed of the saied 10000. men, and for feare of confusion or contrauersie in tyme of fallinge in∣to squadron, he give the order that the Italianes shoulde folowe the Spaniardes, the Irishe to folowe the Italianes, the Englishe to folo∣we the Irishe, the Borgonones after the Inglishe and the Valones to folowe, the Burgonones, and that eache natiō shoulde folowe one ano∣ther as before declared withe the fronte and flanke that toucheth eache nation acordinge to the number of men they give in ralation, that withe grace and brevity and withoute any crossinge or confusion eache nation may fall into squadron of a sodaine, and that eache na∣tion may have his parte of the vangarde acordinge to the number of men he givethe in relation. To wourke the whiche i tought fit to set downe the rules for the divisiones of theese nationes, as here foloweth.

Page  100Firste take the full number of pikes given in relation by the saide six Nationes, which is 5500. oute of whiche take the square roote, whiche is 74. the fronte and flanke of the battell, and 24. pikes remaininge, whiche shall serve to guarnishe the culoures. That done bigin to guarnishe or line the two flankes of the battell of pikes withe short aleowinge five shot under the shelter or defence of eache pike, whiche is the moste that can conveniently be defended under the same. To finde oute the linenge shott of the righte flanke of the battell of pi∣kes, as before ordained, multiply 74. the flanke by 5. and the produ∣cte will by 370. and say that the linenge shott of the right flanke is 74. rankes of 5 musketes in eache ranke, and say that the righte flanke of the battell of pikes is lined withe shott. To guarnishe or line the leifte flanke of the battell of pikes, also say that it is 74. rankes of 5. muske∣tes in eache ranke whiche makethe 370. musketes, and say that youre two flankes of the battell of pikes are lined, nowe to knowe the short that shal guarnishe the full fronte of the pikes, and of the two lininges of the 2. flankes, ad 10. the musketes of the 2. lininges to 74. the fronte of the pikes, and it makethe 84. the full fronte, then say that the divi∣sion of shott that shall line or guarnishe the full fronte is to mar∣che withe 84. rankes of five musketes in eache ranke, and 〈 math 〉 iuste so many more rankes shall marche in the fourte divi∣sion of shot that shall guarnish the full fronte of the rere∣warde, advertisinge that eache division of the two last that lines the fronte and rerwarde conteines 420. musketes in eache, so that the full number of shott of the afore saied 4. divisiones that shall line the two flankes fronte and rer∣warde dothe a mounte to 1590. musketes, comprehen∣ded 10. musketes for to guarnish the coloures, thiese 1590. musketes deducte oute of the propounded and full number of musketes whiche is 4500. and there shall re∣maine 2910. musketes whiche i divide into 30. troupes whiche comethe to 97. musketes in eache troupe, the whi∣che 30. troupes is divided in the 4. angles and two flankes of the battel as by the figure and divisiones folowinge youe may better perceive, where all is ordered and set downe, and withe as greate facility as the divisiones can affourde, that there by suche as are not experte in arit∣meticke nor in the theorike and practike of this arte may the sooner conceive the same.

Page  101

 Pikes.Musketes.Soilderes.
Spaniardes.10408401880.
Italianes.08887801668.
Irishe.09467601706.
Englishe.08407401580.
Borgonones.08476941541.
Valones.09396861625.
 5500450010000.

〈 math 〉

THe full number of shott of the saied six nationes monted. —

Oute of whiche is to be de∣ducted the divisiones of the 4. linenges.

So that after deductinge the linenge shott of the 4. frontes of the battell of pikes resteth 2910. m. Whiche is divided into 30. troupes at 97 m. in eache troupe, whiche are divided in the 4 angles and two flankes of the battell of pikes as by the fi∣gure and divisiones folowinge ordered and proportionally di∣vided. Advertisinge that oute of one of the troupes of mus∣ketes of the angles youe are to take 10. musketes to guarnishe the culores.

Page  102
The divisiones of the pikes and the order wherewithe each nation shall marche to fall into battell withe grace and brevety.

BY the divisiones of the pikes before spoken of in dividinge 74. the flanke of youre squadron of pikes be 1040. the number of pikes the Spa∣niardes gave, yove shall finde the number in the quo∣tiente to by 14. and 4. remayninge and say that the Spaniardes are to marche withe 74. rankes of 14. pi∣kes in eache ranke whiche is the order they are to ob∣serve when occasion offerethe to fall into squadron withe there coloures in the center of there pikes, ad∣vertisinge that there restethe 4. pikes oute of there division.14 front.- 4.
The Italianes who gave relation of 888. pikes is divided by the self same rule into 74. rankes of 12 pi∣kes in eache ranke, and in offeringe occasion withou∣te any crossing or confusion shall fall into battell wi∣the this order, and close uppon the leifte hande of the Spaniardes withe the culoures in the center, and con∣forme them selves with the Spaniardes in fronte and flanke.12 front.
The Irish who gave relation of 946. pikes, shall be divided into 74. rankes of 12. pikes in eache ranke withe theyr culoures in the center of theyr pikes, and restethe 58. pikes oute of there division, and they shal fall into battell withe this order, and close uppon the lefte hande of the Italianes.12 front. - 58.
The Englishe who gave relation of 847. pikes is divided into 74. rankes of aleaven pikes in eache ran∣ke withe there culoures in the center, and restethe 26. pikes.11 front. - 26.
The Borgonones who gave relation of 841. pikes are divided into 74. rankes of 11. pikes in eache ran∣ke, and 33. pikes remaininge, and withe there culou∣res in the center shall close uppon the lefte hande of the English, when occasion offereth.11 front. - 33.
The Valones who gave relation of 939. pikes is di∣vided Page  103 into 74. rankes of 12 pikes in eache ranke, and 51. pikes remaininge, and in offeringe occasion to fall into squadron shall observe this order, and ioyne up∣pon the leifte hande of the Borgonones withe there coulores in the center.12 front. - 51.
Advertisinge that of the 172. pikes that did remaine in the divisiones of the Spaniardes, Irishe, English, Borgonones, and Valones. They shall by divided into 74. rankes of two pikes in eache ranke and shall close upp on the leifte hande of the Valones when occa∣sion shall offer to fall into battell, and there shall reste 24 pikes.2 front. - 24.
 74 front. - 24.

The firste division of shott that shall guarnishe or line the righte flanke of the squadron of pikes is divi∣ded into 74 rankes of five musketes in eache ranke, consideringe that a pike can hardely defende under the shelter or defence of the same above five shott at the moste.370 musk.
The seconde division of shott that shall guarnishe the leifte flanke of the battell of pikes is divided into 74. rankes of five musketes in eache ranke.370 musk.
The thirde division of shott that is to guarnishe the full fronte of the battell of pikes, and the two li∣nenges of the same is divided into 84. rankes of five musketes in each rank.420 m.
The fourthe division of shott that is for to guar∣nishe the rerewarde of the battell of pikes, and the two linenge shott of the two flankes is divided into 84. rankes of five musketes in eache ranke.420 m.
In the division of the full number of shott there did remaine oute of the division 10. musketes that is to guarnishe the coulores as in the divisiones of the shott is set downe.10 m.
 1590 musk.

After lininge youre squadron of pikes proportio∣nally every way as before declared, the 4. guarnitio∣nes 〈 math 〉 of shott montes 1590. musketes whiche are to be substracted oute of the principall some or number of musketes whiche is 4500. there shall remaine 2910. musketes, this remainder divide into 30. troupes and Page  104 youe shall finde by youre division eache troupe to 〈 math 〉 containe 97. musketes ordered and divided in the foure angles and two flankes of the battell of pikes to skirmishe acordinge as tyme occasion, and situation shall require as by the figure folowinge youe may see who all thiefe divisiones do fall oute of there marche into aperfect squadron in the forme and maner as be∣fore declared and sett downe. Advertisinge that oute of the laste troupe of musketes on the liefte angle of the battell muste by taken 10. musketes for the linin∣ge shot of the culoures, so that troupe of musketes containes but 87. musketes and all the reste 97. so that 10. muskeths difereth.

Advertisinge that the culoures of eache division of pikes shall mar∣che in the center of the same, so that when occasion shall offer they may with grace and brevity fall into battell array, and withoute any crossinge or confusion nor cuttinge of rankes nor order as many do, but unconfusedly with grace, and brevetie fall into battell, as by the figure followinge youe may see, the 10. musketes youe take oute of one of the troupes of the angles for to guarnish the culoures are to by reckoned in theire due place as the divisiones of shott sheoweth, and youe are not to reken them in the battell by reason they were borowed oute of one of the troupes of musketes.

And let none by ignorante that when the conveniente number of pikes and shott do not remaine oute of the divisiones to guarnish the culoures, then of force order and array muste be broken, in cutin∣ge the shott and pikes necessary to guarnish them, and so for not to err in the rekeninge the divisiones of the table of the battell are to by observed (for beinge infalible) and for bienge the producte: of the generall rule of all the divisiones of the battell, so is it to be under stoode that theire is no better surer nor brifer rule for this purpose.

By the figure folowinge and by the table and divisiones of the same you may see who eache nation doth march with the fronte and flan∣ke acordinge the number of men they gave in relasion, advertisinge that the culoures of each nation are to march in the cinter of theire division of pikes, and the 74 rankes of pikes of 2 pikes in ranke that did remaine oute of the divisiones of the saide 6 nationes shall close upp on the leifte flanke of the battell of pikes as be the figure and di∣visiones followinge youe may plainely see who orderly oute of there march they fall unto battell with grace and brevity.

Page  105〈1 page duplicate〉

Page  105

[illustration]
FRONT OF THE BATTELL. SQUARE OF MEN.

Page  [unnumbered]TABLE OF THE BATTEL.
THe Spaniardes are divided into 74. rankes of 14 pikes in each ranke monted.1036 pikes.
The Italianes into 74. rankes of 12. pikes.0888 pikes.
The Irish into 74. rankes of 12. pikes.0888 pikes.
The English into 74. rankes of 11. pikes.0814 pikes.
The Borgonones 74. rankes of 11. pikes.0814 pikes.
The Valones into 74. rankes of 12. pikes.0888 pikes.
The remainder of pikes of the six nasiones di∣vided into 74. rākes of 2. pik. in each.0148 pikes.
Pikes remaininge oute of the divisiones.24 pikes.
 5500 pikes.
The lininge shott of the righte flanke of the battell of pikes.0370 musk.
The lininge shot of the leifte flanke.370 musk.
The guarnision shot of the fronte monted.420 musk.
The guarnision of the reregarde.420 musk.
Shot remaininge oute of the divisiones.020 musk.
2900. musketes divided into 30. troupes.2900 musk.
 4500 musk.

Advertisinge that oute of one of the troupes of musketes are to be taken 10. musketes with the other 10. that did re∣maine to guarnish the culoures; still observinge the divisio∣nes of the table for beinge infalible.

Page  [unnumbered]Page  105
The greate battell of 10000. men before spoken of, is nowe divi∣ded into three battelles square of men as by the figure folowing appeereth.

OF the then thousande men (before spoken of, and of whiche were framed abattell square of men, and all redused into one boddy as before set downe, and the forme of there divisiones. Nowe supose that the Campe-master generall woulde have the self same nūber of 10000. men to be divided into three batteles square of men and to observe suche goode order in there divisiones that withe grace, and brevity and withoute any crossinge or confusion they may fall oute of there marche into battell, as by the divisiones, and figure folowinge youe may see. Advertisinge that of the Spaniardes and Italianes there shall by framed one squadron, and of the Irishe and English another, and of the Borgonones and Valones an other.

 Pikes.Musketes.Soulderes
Spaniardes.10408401880.
Italianes.08887801668.
Irishe.09467601706.
Englishe.08407401580.
Borgonones.08476941541.
Valones.09396861625.
 5500450010000.

 Pikes.Musketes.Soulderes.
Spaniardes and Italianes.192816203548.
Irish and English.178615003286.
Burgonones and Valones.178613803176.
 5500450010000.

NOwe to oure pupose take the full number of pikes of the Spa∣niardes and Italianes whiche is 1928. pikes oute of whiche ta∣ke the square roote whiche will by 43. and 79. pikes remainen∣ge, consideringe that 79. pikes are muche to remayne oute of the Page  106 squadron divide 79 by 43. the square roote, and the number in the quotiente will by one, and 36. pikes yet remayninge, this one youe founde oute of 79. ad it to 43. and it will by 44. and 36. pikes remai∣ninge, and say that 44. is the fronte of the battell of pikes, and 43 the flanke, nowe consider that hardly aboue 4. shott can by, conveniently defended under the shelter and defence of the pike. And say that youe will line youre battell of pikes proportionally by 4. musketes every way. This resolution taken multiply 43. the flanke of the 〈 math 〉 battell of pikes by 4. musketes the linenge shott, the pro∣ducte wherof will by 172. musketes for the lininge shott of the righte flanke of youre battell of pikes, and iuste so ma∣ny more for the lininge shott of the leifte flanke of the bat∣tel of pikes. That don ad 8. the linenge shott of the two flankes to 44 the fronte of the battell of pikes whiche two aditiones makethe 52. the full fronte of the pikes and 2. linenges of the two 〈 math 〉 flankes, nowe to guarnishe the fronte of the battell of pi∣kes multiply 52. by 4. the producte wherof will by 208. musketes whiche is the number of shott that shall guar∣nishe the fronte of the battell, meaninge 52. rankes of 4. musketes in eache ranke. That done say that the two flankes and fronte of the battell are lined withe shott. Nowe to guarnishe the re∣rewarde of the battell, observe the self same order, and number whe∣re withe youe did guarnishe the fronte of the battell whiche was 52. rankes of 4. musketes in eache ranke, and withe so many shall youe guarnishe the re rewarde of the battell, and say that youre battell is proportionally lined every way withe shott.

Nowe for the division of the reste of youre shott take 〈 math 〉 1620. musketes the full number of shott propounded, oute of whiche deducte 760. musketes the girdelinge shott of the 4. frontes of youre battell, and there shall remaine 860. musketes. Whiche i divide into 14. troupes of 60. muske∣tes in each troupe, of the which one troupe shall conteine 74. mus∣ketes by reason the division so fallethe oute, and divided on the two flankes of the battell as by the divisiones, and figure followinge apere∣the, whiche is the firste battell of the three, and on the righte hande; advertisinge that in the laste division of shott there did remaine 6. musketes where withe youe may guarnish the coulores withe them, and withe the 36. pikes that did remaine oute of the division of youre pikes, so youre propounded number of pikes and shott are divided. Page  107 Advertisinge that the fronte of this battell is 44. and the flanke 43. multiplienge the one by the other and adinge there vnto 36 pikes that doe guarnishe the coulores makethe the propounded number of pikes, whiche was 1928. as by the divisiones followinge apeerethe, advertising that youe are to cut ten musketes that wantes for the guarnision of the culoures, oute of one of the troupes, which youe shall finde to muche in the battell, be reason they are borowed of one of the troupes so folowe the divisiones as they are set downe in the table which is the righte way, and infalible.

Table of the firste battell.

〈 math 〉

Page  108

 Pikes.Musketes.Souldieres.
Irishe.9467601706.
Englishe.8407401580.
 178615003286.

THE SECONDE BATTELL.

NOwe that yove have done withe the number of pikes and shott the Spaniardes and Italianes gave. Take the 3286 men whiche is given in relation be the Irishe and Englishe, of the whiche 1786 are pikes, and 1500. musketes. To reduce them into a perfecte squadron square of men, and to be proportionally lined and guar∣nished every way withe shott. To wourke the whiche, firste take the number of pikes whiche is 1786. oute of whiche take the square roote whiche will by 42 and there shall remaine 22. pikes whiche may be imployed to guarnishe the coullores, that don say that 42 is the fronte and flanke of the battell of pikes and 22. pikes remaininge. And supose, that occasion offerethe that youe finde necessary the lininge shott not to pass 3. in ranke under the shelter, and defence of apike. Nowe to finde oute the lininge shott of the righte flanke of youre battell of pikes multiply 42. the flanke of the pikes by 3. muske∣tes that is aleowed for the linenge shott, the producte wherof will by 126. or 42. rankes of 3. musketes in eache ranke, then say the righte flanke of the pikes are lined withe shott, and iuste so many more ran∣kes of shot shall serve for the lininge of the leifte flanke of the battel of pikes, observinge the self same number and order as did the linenge shott of the right flanke of the battell of pikes whiche is 〈 math 〉 42. rankes of 3. musketes in eache ranke whiche monteth to 126. musketes, nowe to guarnish the fronte of the bat∣tel of pikes whiche is 42. ad therunto the two lininges whiche 3. aditiones will by 48. the full fronte of the pikes, and of the two lininges whiche youe shall multiply by 3. the producte wherof will by 144. musketes or 48. rankes of 3. musketes in eache ranke, so the two flankes and fron∣te of the battell of pikes are proportionably lined.

Nowe to guarnish the reregarde of the battell of pikes withe shott, observe the self same order before set downe Page  109 for the lininge of the fronte of the pikes. That is to say 48. ran∣kes of 3. musketes in eache ranke, so youre battell of pikes is proportionally lined every way. That don substracte the 540. musketes the linenge shott of the two flankes fronte 〈 math 〉 and rerwarde oute of the principall number of shott whi∣che is 1500 and there shall reste 960. musketes whiche yo∣ue shall divide by 12. or into 12 troupes and the quo∣tiente of youre division alowethe 80. musketes in eache troupe, whiche yove may double when occasion require (that don) say that the reste of youre shott is divided into 12. trovpes of 80. mus∣ketes in eache troupe to be divided on the two flankes of the battell of pikes to squirmish in single or double siele as occasion and situation shall require, so al youre pikes and shot are divided, advertisinge that the 22. pikes that did remaine oute of the division of the pikes are to guarnish the coulores, as by the divisiones folowinge youe may see. Advertisenge that by reason no musketes did remaine oute of the di∣visiones, youe are to cutt of one of the troupes 12. musketes to guarnish the coulores whiche are not to be rekoned in the boddy of the battell (but for borowed) but where the divisiones fauleth and sheoweth whiche is the righte way as here under youe see in the ta∣ble which is unfalible.

Table of the seconde battell.

〈 math 〉

Page  110

 Pikes.Musketes.Souldieres.
Borgonones.8476941541.
Valones.9396861625.
 178613803166.

THE THIRDE BATTELL.

NOwe to frame the thirde Battell of the 3166. men the Borgo∣nones and Valones gave in relation meaninge 1786. pikes, and 1380. musketes, firste take the propounded number of pikes, whiche is 1786. oute of whiche take the square roote, whiche yove shall finde to be 42. soe that 42. is the fronte and flanke of the battell, and 22. pikes, remaininge whiche shall serve to guarnishe the culou∣res.

Put in case that occasion requirethe that youre linenge shott is to be no more then 3. musketes in ranke, and say that 42. rankes of 3. musketes in eache ranke shall guarnishe the righte flanke of the bat∣tell of pikes, and juste so many more for the linenge of the leifte flan∣ke, whiche two linenges makethe 252. musketes, that don take 42. the fronte of the pikes, and ad therunto 6. the linenge shott of the two flankes, whiche two aditiones will make 48. To guarnishe the fronte of youre battell of pikes, say that the thirde division of shott is 48. ran∣kes of 3. musketes in eache ranke, and juste so many more rankes for the linenge shott of the rerewarde of the battell of pikes, observinge the self same order as dothe the thirde division of shott, meaninge 148. rankes, of 3. musketes in eache ranke, whiche two divisiones for the linenge shott of the fronte and rerewarde makethe 288 musketes, and soe the 4. sides of youre battell of pikes are proportionally lined every way, the foure linenges importheth 540. musketes.

That don substracte 540. musketes oute of the full number of shot whiche is 1380. and there shall remaine 840. musketes, whiche yove shall divide as time occasion or situation shall require: whiche nowe i suppose conveniente to be divided into twenty troupes to be divided on the two flankes of the battell of pikes to skirmishe where occasion shall require in single or double fiele, as the situation shall permitt, and the occasion shall require, at 42. musketes in eache troupe, soe Page  111 all youre shott and pikas are divided, as before declared; Advertisinge that the culoures shall marche in the center guarnished withe the 22 pikes, that did remaine in the division of the pikes, and by reason no shott did remaine oute of the divisiones of youre shott yove may take 12. shott oute of the laste division of shott to guarnishe the culou∣res, soe youre three battelles are framed, and by the figure folowinge youe see howe oute of there divisiones they fall into battell. Greate consideration and curiosity is to by vnderstoode for the severall divi∣siones of shott, as tyme and occasion shall require, alwayes conside∣ringe the situation and disposition of the grounde, as also of the seve∣rall occasiones and advantadges in skirnmishenge withe greate or smale troupes withe single or double file and in whate distance (when, the enemy dothe abounde on horse, and when nott) and also in pre∣ventinge in due time the orderes and stratageames of the enemy.

Let none by ingnorante that when in the divisiones of pikes and shott theire resteth not inough to guarnish the culoures, of force the necessary shott and pikes required for that purpose are to be cutt of the winges or troupes of the flankes, and are to be rekoned where theire firste divisiones did fall, as declared in the table of the battelles for if youe reken them in the battell and where their firste division did fall, it can not confronte with the divisiones, so observe still the rule of the divisiones as set downe and declared in breefe in the table of the battelles, which is the righte way and generall rule. This table is neowlie invented for that purpose, where presentlie withoute any paines or trouble youe shall finde the reasones, and proportion of all the divisiones of the batteles in breefe (as well of the shott as of the pikes) as also whate remaineth oute of the divisiones, whiche table is of rare importance for the breefe explicatinge and orderinge of all the divisiones of battelles. And besides for cause that many auctores do leaue the same in obscuritie to avoide prolixity, as also to disperte the ingeniouse understandinge of those of perfection in this arte.

Page  112Table of the thirde battell.
Pikes contained in the boddy of the battell.1764 pikes.
Pikes remaininge to guarnish the culors.022 pikes.
Lininge shott of the righte flanke.126 musketes.
Lininge shott of the leifte flanck.126 musketes.
Lininge shott of the fronte of the battell144 musketes.
Lininge shott of the fronte of the rergarde144 musketes.
Musketes divided into 20. troupes on the flankes of the battell.828 musketes.
Musketes deducted to guarnish the culours.012 musketes.
 3166 men.

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[illustration]
SQUARE OF MEN.

Fronte of the seconde Battell.

Fronte of the firste Battell.

Page  [unnumbered]Fronte of the thirde Battell.

Page  [unnumbered]

Page  113〈 math 〉

A Squadron square of grounde of 1116. souldieres of 〈 math 〉 the whiche 576. are pikes, and 540. musketes, to re∣duce them into aperfecte squadron square of grounde firste take the propounded number of pikes whi∣che is 576. whiche youe shall multiply by 3. the producte wherof will be 1728 this producte divide by 7. and the number in the quotient will by 246. oute of this 246. take the square roote whiche will by 15. and say that youe foun∣de oute the flanke of the battell of pikes, nowe to finde oute the fronte of the battell, take the propounded num∣ber of pikes whiche was 576. whiche youe shall divide by 15. the flanke, the quotiente wherof will by 38. whiche is the fronte of the battell of pikes and there restethe 6. pi∣kes whiche shall serve to guarnish the coulores, so that 38. is the fronte and 15. the flanke. Nowe for the division of youre 540. musketes firste say that for the girdelinge shott of the righte flanke of the battell of pikes muste marche 16. rankes of 5. musketes in eache ranke comprehended the ranke of the culors, so the firste division of shott of the van garde is divided into 16. rankes of five musketes in ea∣cheranke. And the seconde division of shott of the van∣garde and firste winge of the right flanke of the battell of pikes is divided into 19. rankes of 5. musketes in eache ran∣ke. The thirde division or winge of the vāgarde is also divi∣ded into 19. rankes of 5. musketes in eache ranke whiche shall serve for the seconde winge of shott of the vangarde and righte flanke of the battell of pikes, so that 270. mus∣ketes, the iuste haulf of the propounded number of shott, are comprehended in the saied 3. divisiones of shott of the vangarde and righte flanke of the battel of pikes.

And for the girdelinge shott and two winges of the leifte flanke of the battell of pikes are also lefte iuste so many more. Whiche shall observe the self same order in linenge the leifte flanke of the pikes. Page  114 Imeane 16. rankes of five musketes in eache for the girdelinge shott of the leifte flanke of the battell of pikes and 2. slives, of 19. rankes of 5. musketes in eache ranke, in whiche 6. divisiones are comprehended the full number of shott whiche was 540. musketes advertisinge that the firste three divisiones of shott shall marche before the pikes, and the other three divisiones of the rergarde and leifte flanke shall mar∣che after the pikes, as by the divisiones folowinge set downe in brife and shall be better understoode by suche as are not experte in this ar∣te: so that they may the sooner cōceiue and come to understande thee∣se divisiones, and howe oute of there marche they fall into battell wi∣the grace and brevity withoute any crossinge confusion or breakinge of rankes as many do, whiche are not expert in aritmetike nor in the severall sortes of divisiones of firy weapone.

The firste division of shott and firste winge of the vangarde is divided into 19. rankes of five musketes in eache ranke whiche conteines.95 musk.
The seconde winge and division of the vangarde is divided into 19 rankes of five musketes in eache ranke.95 musk.
The thirde division of shott of the vangarde for the girdelinge shott of the righte flanke of the battell of pi∣kes is divided into 16. rankes of five musketes in eache ranke comprehended the ranke of the coulores.80 musk.
After theabove 3. divisiones of shott of the vangarde shall marche the firste division of pikes of 15. rankes of 10. pikes in eache ranke.150 pikes.
The seconde division of pikes is also divided into 15. rankes of 10. pikes in eache.150 pikes.
The thirde division of pikes Idem.150 pikes.
The fourthe division of pikes is divided into 15. ran∣kes of 8. pikes in eache ranke whiche dothe cōtaine.120 pikes.
Or the coulores did remaine.006 pikes.
The firste division of shott of the rergarded that fol∣lowes the pikes and that shall line the leifte flanke is di∣vided into 16. rankes of 5. musketes in eache ranke monted.080 musk.
The seconde division and firste winge of mus∣ketes of the reregarde is divided into 19. rankes of 5. musketes in eache ranke whiche followes the girdlinge shott of the leifte flanke and conteines.95 musk.
Page  115The thirde division of shott of the rergarde is divided into another slive of 19. rankes of five musketes in eache ranke.95 mus.
 1116.

The saied 1116. souldieres are divided into ten divi∣siones as before declared and who oute of there marche they shall fall in battell eyther in singell or double fiele as occasion shall require, and the situation and disposition of the grounde shall permit, advertisinge that there did remaine 6. pikes for to guarnishe the coulores, and that in the divisiones of the lininge shott and ranke of the coulores is comprehended 2. rankes of shott and that eache one of the 4. winges dothe conteine 3. rankes more then the divisiones of the girdelinge shott, and that for cause that ordinaryly the winges are augmented with 3.4. or 5. rankes more then the girdelinge shott.

〈 math 〉

[illustration]
Fronte of the Battell.

Table of the Battell.
570 p.Boddy of the battell of pikes.
6 p.Remainder of pikes.
95 m.Firste wing of musketes.
95 m.Seconde winge of musketes.
80 m.Lininge of the righte flanke.
80 m.Lininge shott of the leifte flanke.
95 m.Firste winge of musket. leifte flanke.
95 m.Seconde winge of mus. leifte flanke.
1116. 

Page  116〈 math 〉

TO frame a Squadron square of grounde of 2782. 〈 math 〉 Souldieres of the whiche number 1050. are pikes, and 1732. musketes, to reduce this number into a Squadron square of grounde, whiche the Spanniarde caulle Quadro de terreno, firste take the propounded num∣ber of pikes whiche is 1050. and multiply it by 3. the pro∣ducte, wherof will by 3150. this producte divide by 7. and the number in the quotient will be 450. oute of this quotiente take the square roote whiche youe shall finde to be 21. and 9. remayninge, and say that 21. is the flan∣ke of the propounded number of pikes. Nowe to finde the fronte of the battell take the full number of pikes, whiche is 1050. whiche yove shall divide by 21. the flan∣ke, and the quotient will be 50. and remainethe nothin∣ge, and say that 50. is the fronte of the battell of pikes, and 21 the flanke.

Nowe for the division of youre shott suppose that yo∣ve woulde have the lininge shott not to contayne more then 4. in ranke, and that yove woulde have the battell of pikes, to be proportionally lined every way withe shot. To wourke the whiche, take 21. the flanke of the battell of pikes, and multiply it by 4. the producte wherof will by 84. and say that the firste division of shott is 84. mus∣kete▪ or 21. rankes of 4. musketes in eache ranke, whiche is the linenge shott of the righte flanke of the battell of pikes, and the seconde division of shott for the linenge of the leifte flanke shall containe juste so many more, no∣we to finde oute the nūber of shott that shall be in pro∣portion to guarnish the full fronte of the battell of pikes and of the two linenges, ad to 50. the fronte of the pro∣pounded number of pikes 8 the number of shott of the two linges whiche two aditiones will make 58. and say that 58 rankes of 4. mus∣ketes in eache ranke shall be the guarnison, or linenge shott of the fronte of the battell of pikes, and of the 2 linenges, and juste so ma∣ny Page  117 more for the guarnison of the rerewarde of the bat∣tell 〈 math 〉 of pikes, meaninge as before declared 58. rankes of 4. musketes in eache ranke, so the two flankes fronte and rerewarde of the battell of pikes is proportionally lined every way withe 640. musketes, and restethe 1092. musketes whiche i divide into 22. troupes or maniples, ordered and divided in the fronte, rergarde, and 4. angles of the battell of pikes, to skirmishe eyther in single or double fiele as tyme occasion and situation shall requi∣re, and permitt; all whiche divisiones youe may see by the figure folowinge, for the divisiones of shot let none be ingnoran∣te but that there are many considerationes, and curiosities to be had as time and occasion shall require, and especially if the enemy be su∣perior on horse.

Hire folowethe who the full number of pikes and shott is divided into 31. divisio∣nes and who oute of theyre marche they fall into battell.

THe firste division of shott that lines the righte flanke of the battell of pikes is 21. rankes of 4. mus∣ketes in eache ranke.84 musk.
The seconde division of shott for the linenge shott of the leifte flanke of the battell of pikes iuste so many mo∣re 21. rankes of 4 muskets.84 musk.
The thirde division of shot that guarnisheth the full fronte of the battell and 2. lininges is 58. rākes of 4. mus∣ketes in eache ranke.232 musk.
The fourthe divisiō of shott that dothe guarnishe the rerewarde of the battell of pikes and 2. lininges is 58. ran∣kes of 4. musketes in eache ranke.232 musk.
22. maniples of 50. musketes in eache, devided on the fronte rergarde, and 4. angles of the battell make∣the.1100 mus.
 1732 mus.

Advertisinge that of one of the troupes of musketes on the angles of the battell are to by taken 8. musketes which wantes to guarnish the culoures be reason no mus∣ketes did remaine in theire laste division, also be reason no pikes did reste in the division of the pikes y cut 21. pikes of the flanke to guarnishe the culoures so the fronte of the battel of pikes Page  118 shall by but 49. pikes. And by reason the divisiones are before shut upp thies 8 musketes difereth in the rekoninge, so that when acon∣v eniente number of pikes and shott doe not remaine oute of the di∣visiones suficiente to guarnish the culoures the above observation mu ste be kepte as ordered in the Table of the battell, so to confronte the divisiones with the propounded number yove are to by informed by the table for bienge infallible.

Page  119〈 math 〉

A Battell of 2025. Souldieres divided into five battelles square of grounde, of the whiche number 945. are pikes, and 1080 mus∣ketes whiche are equally divided into five batteles, and propor∣tionally lined withe the propounded number of shott whiche is 1080. musketes as the divisiones and figure folowinge sheowethe.

To wourke the whiche firste take the propounded 〈 math 〉 number of pikes whiche is 945 and divide it into five par∣tes or by five, and the number in the quotiente will by 189. whiche is the iuste number of pikes youre division yealdethe for eache battell of the five, nowe to finde ou∣te the fronte, and flanke of eache battell take 189. pikes whiche youre division alowethe for eache battell of pikes, and multiply the same by 3. the producte wherof will by 567. this producte divide by 7. and the number in the quotient will by 81. oute of this 81. the quotiente take the square roote whiche will by 9. and say that 9. is the flanke of eache one of the five batteles of pikes, nowe to finde the fronte take the propounded number of pikes whiche youre division did alowe to eache battell of pikes whiche was 189. this 189 pikes divide by 9 the flanke, the quo∣tiente wherof will by 21. and nothinge remayninge, and say that 21. pikes is the fronte, and 9. the flanke of eache battell of pi∣kes before spoken of and when yove will have them fall into squadron lett them marche in 3. maniples of 9. rankes of 7. pikes in eache ran∣ke withe the coulors in the center of the midel maniple, and so shall they fall withe grace and brevity into battell, and withoute any cro∣singe or confushion. To guarnishe the coulors yove may cutt nine pikes of the flanke of eache battell, and so shall the fronte conteine but 20. pikes; nowe for the division of the propounded number of shott whiche was 1080. musketes supose that yove woulde have eache battell of pikes to be proportionally lined alowinge 3. musketes under the shelter or defence of the pike, firste say that the firste division of shott that shall girdel the right flanke of the firste battell of pikes shall conteine 9. rankes of 3. musketes in eache ranke, and iuste so ma∣ny more for the girdelinge shott of the leifte flanke, so is the 2. flan∣kes of the battell of pikes guarnished: Nowe to guarnishe the fronte Page  120 of the battell of pikes withe shott say that 21. is the frōte of the battell of pikes, and adinge thereūto the two lininges it makethe 27. and say that the third division of shott is to marche withe 27. rankes of 3. mus∣ketes in eache ranke, whiche shall guarnishe the full fronte of the bat∣tell of pikes, and two lininges; Nowe the two flākes and fronte of the battell of pikes are guarnished, and guarnish the rerwarde of the bat∣tell of pikes observe the self same order as yove did in guarnishinge the fronte of the battell of pikes whiche was 27. rankes of 3. musketes in eache ranke, so youre battell of pikes is proportionally lined every way as before declared. The selfe same order shall by observed for the linenge, and girdelinge shott of the other foure batteles of pikes as more plainely shall a peere by the divisiones and figure folowinge

The firste division of shott that dothe guarnishe the righte flanke of the battell of pikes is divided into nine rankes of 3. musketes in eache ranke.27 musk.
The seconde division of shott that guarnisheth the leifte flanke of the battell of pikes shall observe the self same order.27 musk.
The thirde division of shott that shall guarnishe the full fronte of the battell of pikes, and of the two linen∣ges is divided into 27. rankes of 3. musketes in eache ranke monted.81 musk.
The fourthe division that dothe guarnishe the rer∣warde of the battell of pikes shall observe the self same order Imeane 27. rankes of 3. musketes in eache ranke.81 musk.
 216 musk.

By the above mentioned foure divisiones yove see 〈 math 〉 who the firste battell of pikes is proporsionally guar∣nished withe shott, whiche 4. divisiones makethe 216. musketes, and the self same order shall be observed to guarnishe eache one of the other foure battelles of pikes whiche makethe up 1080 musketes the propounded number for the five batteles, as youe may plainely see by the figure folowinge howe they fall oute of there marche, and divisiones into battell as be∣fore declared, advertisinge that in the divisiones of the pikes and shott there did remaine nothinge.

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Page  121〈 math 〉

[illustration]
Fronte of the seconde Battell.
Fronte of the firste Battell.
Fronte of the thirde Battell.
Fronte of the fifthe Battell.
Fronte of the fourthe Battell.
Table of the five Batteles.
Divisiones of the firste Battell: Firste division is 9. r. of 7. pikes.63 pikes. 
Seconde division. Idem.63 pikes. 
The thirde division. Alsoe.63 pikes. 
 189 pikes. 
Multiplied by five.5. 
Pikes of the five Batteles.945 pikes. 
Lininge shott of the righte flanke of the firste battell of pikes, 9. rankes of musketes in eache ranke.27 musk. 
Lininge shot of the lieft flank 9. r. of 3. musketes.27 musk.945 musk.
Liningh shot of the front 28. r. of 3. m. in each ranke.81 musk.1080 pikes.
Guarnision of shot of the reregarde 28. r. of 3. musketes.81 musk.2025 men.
 216 musk. 
Multiplied by5. 
Lininge shott of the 5. battelles.1080. 

Advertisinge that no pikes nor shot did remaine oute of the divisiones to guarnishe the culoures, so that one ranke of pikes and shott may by cutt all a longeste, the fronte or flanke of each battell to guarnish the culoures.

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Page  121〈 math 〉

COnsideringe that crosse batteles are of wonderful force as well aganiste horse as foote as also for the safegarde of bagage amu∣nitiones, and hurtemē: i toughte necessary to put downe the ru∣le for the framinge of suche forte of batteles, put in case that youe have 2032. souldieres of the whiche 1000. are pikes and 1032. are musketes and that youe wouled have this number divided into foure battelles of broade fronte proporsionally lined every way withe the propounded number of shott. To wourke the whiche firste take the number of pikes whiche is 1000. and divide the same 〈 math 〉 by 4. or into foure partes and the quotiente will by 250. whiche is the number of pikes that youre division yeal∣deth for eache of the 4. batteles of pikes, nowe to frame the firste battell take 250. pikes, and divide the same by 3. the quotient will by 83. of whiche 83. take the square roote which is 9. and say that 9. is the flanke of the bat∣tell, nowe to finde oute the fronte take 250. the number of pikes and divide the same by 9. the flanke, the quo∣tient will by 27. and 7. pikes remayninge, and say that 27. is the fronte and 9. the flanke, and 7. pikes remayninge: so yove finde oute the fronte and flanke of eache battell of the 4. and 7. pikes remaininge in eache battell whiche shall serve to guarnishe the coulores, nowe for the di∣vision of youre shott take the propounded number of shott whiche is 1032 musketes, and divide the same by 4. or into 4. partes and the number in the quotiente will by 258. whiche is the iuste number of shott youre divi∣sion yealdethe for eache battell of the 4. of pikes: that done take the number of pikes, and shot that eache battell dothe conteine, whiche is 508. this full number, divide by 3. the quotient wherof wilbe 169. oute of whi∣che take the square roote which will by 13. the flanke: nowe to finde the fronte of the full number of pikes and shott take 508. and divide it by 13. the flanke, and the quotiente will be 39. and 1. remaininge nowe take 10. Page  122 the flanke of the pikes comprehendinge the linenge of 〈 math 〉 the culors, and substracte it oute of 13. the laste flanke of the full number of pikes and shott and there shall re∣maine 3. and say that the firste division of shott shall marche withe 10. rankes of 3. musketes in eache ranke whiche shall serve for the girdelinge shott of the right flanke of the firste battell of pikes, and iuste so many more for the linenge shott of the leifte flanke, so the two flankes of the battell of pikes are lined, nowe to guar∣nishe the fronte of the battell of pikes, ad 6 the 2. li∣nenges to 27. the fronte of the pikes whiche two aditio∣nes makethe 33. and say that the thirde division of shot 〈 math 〉 shall marche withe 33. rankes of 3. musketes in eache ranke, and iuste so many more rankes of musketes shall marche to guarnish the rerewarde of the battell of pi∣kes, and two linenges, so the foure sides of the battell of pikes are proportionally lined every way, and the selfe same order shall be observed for the divisiones of eache battell of the other three as the figure and divisiones followinge sheowethe, theese cross batte∣les are esteemed to be of wonderfull force, consideringe well the fra∣minge of them, and they are also of wonderfull safegarde for the ba∣gage, amunitiones and hurtemē, and if the enemy do come to charge on the firste battell or on any of the other outewarde batteles, whiche beinge alone are but of litle force, but the two outewarde batteles marchinge uppon bothe sides of the firste, then it is of triple force, and if the enemy doe charge on the rerewarde of the two alone bat∣teles they close to gither, and are of double force, and if the enemy be stronge on horse, and shoulde charge at once on the fronte and re∣rewarde then the bagage and hurtemen are to marche betwexte the two double batteles, of the uangarde and rerwarde and cut so many pikes as shall guarnish the same on bothe sides to kepe of the fury of the horse, so it is guarished every way as the divisiones and figure fo∣lowinge sheowethe, by reason the culoures are doble lined and that yove muste cut 6. musketes for eache battell in the rekoninge shall di∣fer so many, it importeth nothinge be reason yove are to observe the generall rule of the table whiche is infallible.

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Page  123

[illustration]
Fronte of the first Battell.
Fronte of the thirde Battell.
Fronte of the seconde Battell.
Fronte of the fourthe Battell.
〈 math 〉
Page  [unnumbered]BY reason that by the divisiones the conveniente number of shott did not reste for the lininge of the culoures, the 6. shott that wantes for that purpose in each of the foure battelles, are to by taken oute of some of the divi∣siones; soe that thies 6. musketes borowed shall difer But for not to err in the rekeninge alwayes observe the 〈…〉 of the diisiones as set downe in the Table, for beinge infalible) and that moste comonly to muche or to litle pikes, and shott are wonte to remaine for the lininge of the culoures, soe that the firste divisiones ordered in the Table, is the righte way, for otherwise suche as are not curiouse and of rare judgement can not chuse but err in the rekeninge, and so for to prevente remedy of this confusion, and obscure rekeninge, allwayes observe the divivisiones of the Table, for beinge infalible, by reason that the convenient number of pikes, and shott did not re∣maine oute of the divisiones youe may cut one ranke alongste the flanke or fronte to guarnish the culoures▪
Table of the cross Battell.
〈 math 〉

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Page  123SEverall orderes are used for the repartinge and prudente orderin∣ge of an army into sundry battalones, as the occasiones and judi∣ciouse intendimente of the prudente and brave Comaunder shall finde conveniente, in devidinge them into 3.6.8.12. or 16 battalo∣nes, whiche with facilitie are ordered by the prudente and experi∣mented Sardgente mayor.

An army of 19200. divided into 16. battalones of broade fronte, bienge di∣vided by 16. eache battell shall contai∣ne 1200. whos fronte is 60. and flanke 20. as by the figures folowinge yove see ordered.

[illustration]
The army divided into 16 batteles of broade fronte.
16. BATTELES.

The selfe same army of 19200. is divided into 12. battalones of broade frōte: yove shall by youre division finde each battalon to con∣taine 1600. whos fronte is 69. and flanke 23. as the fi∣gures folowinge sheoweth.

[illustration]
The army divided into 12 bat∣teles of broade fronte.
12. BATTELES.

Page  124
Three thousande men divided into six battelles of broade fronte ordered to figh∣te, as by the figure followinge yove see, the fronte of each battell is 41. and flanke 12. and 8. remaininge in the divisions of each battallon.

[illustration]

SEverall opiniones are for the divisiones and orderinge of the firy weapon, some use winges of 200. some 300. shott, but in my opi∣nion it were far better to divide them into smale troupes of 50.60.70. and so till a 100. for by experience i knowe the same to by of for greater execusion in ocasiones of service, and more ready eyther in plaine straighte or narowe places, for the more troupes of shott yove have beinge prudently ordered and conducted, the more shall the enemy by a plied, the one orderly secondinge the other, which questionless theire execution shall by far greater then if they were divided into greate troupes. When yove shall come to any narowe or straighte pasadges, consider whether the straighte by suche as will suffice that yove may pass trough the same with the order yove march, if not conforme the order with the pasadge, and let the order not by so broade in fronte but that it may convenientely marche wit∣houte breakinge order or array, nor lesher then the thirde parte of the fronte of the battell of pikes, if the situation so permit; for cau∣se Page  125 thatt all prevensiones posible to be had for the breefe framinge of battelles are to by more esteemed, rather then fall abreakinge often times order and array, as very many unable Sardgente mayores co∣monly do, but rather prudently with grace and brevitie, and withou∣te any crossinge or confusion or breakinge of any ranke fall into bat∣tell, thies and many more dificulties are with facilitie reduced into theire iuste perfection by prudente and brave conductores, and with grace and brevitie.

The rule to frame triangle battelles is to bigin withe one man in the firste ranke, 3. in the seconde, 5. in the thirde, seaven in the four∣the, and so consequenty augmentinge 2 in every ranke untill youe fi∣nish youre battell, this unused proporsion i put downe to contente those whiche woulde faine knowe the forme of suche battelles, and bisides that à Sardgente mayor oughte not to by ingnorante in any maner of forme or proporsiones of squadrones, and that withe facili∣tie and speede he may change the forme and proporsion, as time oca∣sion and situasion shall require, and that bisides ocasion may offer that situasion shoulde presente fit for suche formes, so that a Sargen∣te mayor oughte not to by ingnorante in no forme of squadrones.

[illustration]
Fronte.

Page  126〈 math 〉

A Battell of broade square of 6000. men of the whi∣che 〈 math 〉 1930. are complet corseletes and 4070. musketiers, ordered and divided as folowethe: firste take the propounded number of pikes whiche is 1930. this number divide be 3 the quotiente wherof will by 643. oute of this quotiente take the square roote whi∣che will by 25. whiche is the flanke of the battell of pi∣kes. That don to finde oute the fronte of the battell take the propounded number of pikes, and divide the same by 25 the flanke; whiche quotient wil by 76. and 30. pikes remaininge, and say that 76. is the fronte and 25. the flanke of the battell of pikes, and that the 30. pi∣kes shall be to guarnishe the coulores, nowe for the divi∣sion of the 4070. musketes put in case that yove woulde have the battell to be proporsionally lined every way wi∣the shott, consideringe that five shott is the moste that can be conueniently defended under the shelter or de∣fence of the pike, and say that yove will have the battell to by guarnished withe five musketes in ranke, to wour∣ke the whiche take 27. the flanke comprehended: the two rankes of the coulores and say that the firste divi∣sion of shott is 27. rankes of five musketes in eache ran∣ke whiche is the girdelinge shott of the righte flanke and iuste so many for the linenge of the liefte flanke, no∣we to finde oute the shott that shall guarnishe the full fronte of the battell of pikes and the two linenges, take 10. the linenges of the two flankes, and ad it to 76. the fronte whiche two aditiones makethe 86. and say that the guarnision of shott of the fronte of the battell of pi∣kes, and two linenges shall marche withe 86. rankes of five musketes in eache ranke; nowe for the linenge shott of the rerewarde of the battell of pikes observe the self sa∣me order meaninge 86. rankes of five musketes in eache ranke, so the two flankes, fronte, and rerwarde of the bat∣tell Page  127 of pikes is proportionally lined whiche 4. divisiones 〈 math 〉 of shott makethe 1130 musketes nowe for the division of the reste of the shott substracte 1130. the 4 lininges oute of 4070. musketes the principall some, and there shall reste 2940. musketes whiche can not come under the shelter nor defence of the pikes, whiche i divide into 40. maniples of 74. musketes in eache maniple, exepte one troupe that conteines but 54. musketes whiche i divide on the flankes of the battell of pikes to skirmishe in singell or double fiele as tyme, ocasion, and disposi∣tion of the grounde shall permit, so all youre shott are divided as before set downe, and as by the divisiones, and figure folowinge ordered, and howe oute of there marche they fall into squadron advertisinge that the coulores shall marche in the center and midele mani∣ple of pikes, and the 30. pikes that remainethe for to guarnishe the coulors shall also marche in the same maniple all whiche divisiones are plainly ordered as by the figure folowinge yove may see, who oute of there marche they fall into battell withe grace and brevity, in observinge the divisiones ordai∣ned when of a sodaine yove woulde have the pikes oute of there mar∣che to fall withe grace and brevity into battell, cause the firste divi∣sion of pikes to marche withe 25. rankes of 16. pikes in eache ranke, then another maniple of 25. rankes of 15 pikes in eache ranke then another maniple withe the self same order withe the coulores in the center guarnished withe the 30. pikes that did remaine, after the ma∣niple of the coulors shall marche two other maniples of 15. rankes of 5. pikes in eache ranke as hire folowēge yove shall see.

The firste division of pikes is divided into 25. rankes of 16. pikes in eache ranke maketh.400 pikes.
The seconde division of pikes is divided into 25. ran∣kes of 15. pikes in eache ranke whiche shall folowe the firste monted.375 pikes.
The thirde division in whiche center the coulores are to marche is divided into 25. rankes of 15. pikes in eache ranke and dothe conteine in all the some of.375 pikes.
The fourthe division and maniple of pikes is divi∣ded into 25. rankes of 15. pikes in eache ranke whiche dothe conteine.375 pikes.
Page  128The fifthe and laste division also.375 pikes.
And 30. pikes that did remaine for the coloures.30 pikes.
 1930 pikes.

FOr the framinge of batteles bastarde square whi∣che 〈 math 〉 the Spaniarde and Italian call prolongado, that is to say longe in flanke, the rule whiche is used for the framinge of theese sortes of batteles is the self same of the broade square, and the diference is, that the fron∣te of the one is flanke of the other, as for example supo∣se yove woulde have abattell bastarde square to be fra∣med of 700. pikes. To wourke the whiche, do as yove did in framinge the batteles of broade fronte, in divi∣dinge the saied number of 700. pikes by 3 the quotien∣te wherof will be 233. oute of whiche quotiente take the square roote whiche will by 15. whiche is the fronte of the bastarde square, nowe to finde the flanke take 700. the propounded number of pikes, and divide the same by 15. the fronte, the quotient wherof will by 46. the flanke of the bastarde square, and restethe 10. pikes. And if of this self same number of 700. pikes yove woul∣de frame asquadron of broade square the flanke of the bastarde square will by the fronte of the broade square, so that the rule whiche is used for the one will serve for the other. The diference is that the fronte of the one wil serve for the flanke of the other.

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[illustration]
A SQUADRON OF BROADE FRONTE. FRONTE OF THE BATTELL.

〈 math 〉

Table of the Battell.

25 rankes of 16 pikes.400 pikes.
25 rankes of 15 pikes.375 pikes.
25 rankes of 15 pikes.375 pikes.
25 rankes of 15 pikes.375 pikes.
25 rankes of 15 pikes.375 pikes.
Pikes remaininge30 pikes.
 1930 pik.

27 rankes of 5 musketes.135 musketes.
27 rankes of 5 musketes.135 musketes.
86 rankes of 5. musketes.430 musketes.
86 rankes of 5 musketes.430 musetes.
50 troupes conteininge2940 musketes.
 4070 musk.

Advertisinge that the 20 musketes for the lininge shott of the culoures are comprehended in the divisiones of the lininge shot of the two flankes; which 20 muskees were cut of the laste troupe on the liefte flanke, whiche troupe remaines with 54 musketes, and all the reste 74 musketes.

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Page  129No souldier (i hope) oughte to be ingnorante but that the squa∣dron of pikes being framed, it is to be empaled and girdeled withe shott as many rankes of shott as pikes. But the righte and naturall girdelinge shott indeede oughte to be no more shott in ranke, then that the pike may well cover and defende, espesially where the ene∣my are stronge of horse, and so under the favor of the pike, there can nott conveniently be defended but one ranke of three or foure shott at the moste, and so many in my opinion shoule the girdelinge shott containe and knelinge upon one knee under the coverte of the cou∣ched pikes, shoulde at the charginge of the horsemen discharge there voley in there face, and bosome; whiche woulde be no smale gallinge unto them, butt when this danger of horse is not to by feared, then the impalement may be made of more shot in a ranke, acordinge to the quantity of shott, and the reste of the shott into smale slives or trou∣pes to troupe rounde aboute the battell in reasonable distance from the same, the whiche divisiones of smale troupes, i esteeme to be far better then the greate inproportionate winges, whiche many do use, containinge far greater numberes, and are muche more ready to be broughte to skirmishe eyther in single or double fiele, and every seve∣rall troupe to be led by a Sargente or Corporall, and some Captaines to oversee the whole, and at every angle of the battell it were not a misse to a pointe certaine troupes of shott, whiche woulde flanker itt every way even as the Cavallero or Travessos do the curtine of a for∣te.

Let none be ingnorante but that for the severall divisiones of pikes and shott is required greate considerationes, as time, occasion, and si∣tuation shall require; continuall application in the theoricke and pra∣cticke of warr togither withe perfection in arithmeticke makethe easy many difficulties of deepe judgemente, and rare importance in warlike affaires, all whiche cōtinuall use and exercice make the easy, for the se∣verall divisiones of shott many considerationes are to be had acordin∣ge as occasion shall require, and the situation and disposition of groū∣de shall permitt, for the girdelinge shott some use three some 4. and five is the moste that can conveniently be defended under the shelter or defence of the pike, and specially when the enemy are stronge on horse, so that for the righte guarnision of shott oughte not to be mo∣re then the pike can defende, but in suche occasiones as the enemy is not to be feared on horse the divisiones of shot can be ordered of grea∣ter numberes to skirmishe, acordinge to the judgemente of the Sard∣gente Page  130 mayor, dividinge them in wings or maniples, as he shall thinc∣ke moste conveniente, observinge theyr juste proportion in theyre di∣visiones, some use greate wings of shott, whiche are not comendable in occasiones of fighte, for the smale troupes are more apte and easieste to by governed, and of a sodaine youe can skirmishe withe them ey∣ther in single or double fiele, and that bisides they bringe more men to fighte at once, but when the enemy are superior on horse, and wee feo∣we or none it is goode to gett the 4. frontes of the battell of equal re∣sistance bothe to offende and defende, so that the enemy may not take advantage of one place more then of the other. The wings or mani∣ples of shotte are not to go any greate distāce from the battell of pi∣kes; and specially when the enemy are stronge on horse, but rather un∣der the shelter, and defence of the pikes, that therby the squadron may by the stronger and more safe in receiuynge any domage when theyr force is united in one boddy as happened to don Alvaro de Sandy in the journey of caruan in barbery when the exercito of Ciderfa Kin∣ge of the moores charged on him, one of his Captaines named Luis Bravo de Laguna seinge a winge of shott a goode distāce from the squa∣drō cried on don Alvaro wishinge him withe spede to tourne and recei∣ue that winge for freare that for loosinge the same he shoulde incur danger to loose the body, by dayly experience we see that smale num∣beres doe repulse far greater, and that the army whiche is beste orde∣red, and disciplined moste comonly is master of the victory, wherof there are verie many examples in writinge of famouse and antiente au∣ctores, so that theese happy proceedinges resulte of the goode order, prudence, and approoved experience of the chefe and brave Comaun∣deres and of the resolute valor of the Souldieres, as Vegetio de re militari give the reason how the antiente Romaines came to Master all other Nationes, sayinge that they were not so greate as the Germaines, nor so greate in number as the Frence, nor so prudente as the Greeckes, nor so many in nūber as the Spanardes nor so subtill as the Africanes, nor so fu∣riouse as the Britanes, butt by theyre continuall practice and experi∣ence in warr they overcomed al theese difficulties, by onely mantayin∣ge there people wel exercised in armes and practice of warr, when a re∣gimente dothe marche some times greate disorderes are comited, the Souldieres runinge away from there culoures, robinge and spoylinge the country, and poore inhabitantes litle regardinge in not acompli∣shinge there obligationes, in beinge absent from there culoures; litle respectinge or fearninge there Officeres, and no respecte to milita∣ry Page  131 discipline, wherof resulteth greate ruines and revoltes in many countries, some superiore and inferiore Officeres, are culpable in thiese intolerable disorderes offencive to the lawes of god and comon wealth in not procuringe, sollicitinge and dayly instructinge theyre Souldieres as a father is bounde to doe for his children, and that as farr as his ability and power can reach, and not to be inclined to steale or wronge the poore Souldier, in keepinge any thinge wronge∣fully from him, but rather sheowinge him self very, lovinge and kinde to them.

In equalinge him self in all dangeres and travayles withe them, in cōtinually, givinge them goode instructiones, and comfortinge them in all necessities, yea and in assistinge them to his ability, in ministrin∣ge equitie and goode justice a mongste them, in honoringe and pre∣ferenge those of brave cariage, and goode examples, that otheres may imitate thē, in redresinge in due time disorderes, in seinge severely pu∣nished factioneres wholy given to vice and bad examples; whiche are more dangerouse then the divell, so shall he bothe by beloved and fea∣red by the Souldieres, in knowinge that he is carefull in ministringe and procuringe justice to eache one acordinge his deserte, and spe∣cially to se base factioneres banished, and severly punished, when there is no hope of there amendmente.

In occasiones of marchinge the Sardgent mayor is to take a speciall care to procure all thinges to be in a readines to bigin his jurney verie early that the Souldieres may come in goode time to theyr quarter for many considerationes to theyr comodity and ease, and in theyre mar∣che not to opress them, but keepe an ordinary pace, for otherwise verie many shall stay behinde: To make al to nowe, and then where he shall hit uppon good water, and he ought to have aregarde in pasinge naro∣we pasadges, and make alto a distance of till they all have paste and fal into there former divisiones and rankes, a Sardgente oughte to be leif∣te in eache division of the Regimente, that he may yealde acompte of them at all times, and observe the order as it was ordained by the Sar∣gente mayor, withe so many rankes and the self number, so that withe facility oute of there marche they may fall into squadron, when occa∣sion shall require, and suche a Sardgente or Sardgentes as troughe ne∣gligence shall not acomplish his obligation, to reprehende him in pu∣blike. In time of the Romaines suche as were inclined to disobedience in not acomplishinge there order and obligation, they were so severly punished, that no Souldier durste by absente from his ranke, and the Page  132 Sardgentes and Officeres of eache division of theyre marchinges had suche care in acomplishinge whate was referred to there charge withe suche punctuality, that full satisfaction was yealded.

In extraordinary heate weather in somer when the Sardgente ma∣yor marchethe withe his Regimente greate consideration oughte to be taken as before spoken of, by cause of the extraordinary heate, and heavy burden of the Souldier, some times they are chockte, and bur∣ned with heate, and for shame, and regarde of there honor they ra∣ther try danger of deathe then stay behinde there culoures.

When the Sardgente mayor shall marche withe his Regimente in any place or contry where the enemy is to be feared the divisiones ought not to by greater then that they may comodiously marche, nor lesse thē the thirde parte of the squadrō of pikes, some times withe the one haulfe, and some times in battell, allwayes takeng regarde ofthe situation and occasion.

The Master de campe in marchinge withe his Regimente as chee∣fe of the same is to marche in the vangarde nexte to whose person is to assiste the Sardgente mayor as a principall minister to whome he deliveres the orderes of his Regimente, but if the enemy shoulde chance to charge on the reregarde he as a cheefe conductor of his Regimente is to assiste in the place moste to be feared of the enemy, to comaunde and execute in due time whate is moste fitt.

The Sardgente mayor beinge in campiana, and beinge informed that his Regimente is to marche the nexte morow, he is to repaire to the Captaine generall of whome he is to demaunde order where his Regimente shall marche in the vangarde battell of reregarde, and he is to advertice, and give order to the Captaine de campania to gett all the bagadge charged uppon the a poincted houre ordained, and not to faile in acomplshinge the same, and if the vangarde belonges to him he is to comaunde the Captaine de campania to get all thinges in a redineshe at the breake of day, and to give order that the culoures and companies of his Regimēte, withe speede drawe oute of the quar∣ter, and to marche on to the place of armes, and there to frame his squadron, givinge order to eache Captaine, where he shall marche that day, and divide the Sargentes and sheowe each one his division, and givinge thē straighte charge that they acomplishe there obligatiō withe care and punctuality, and that no Souldier doe misse his ranke, nor breake the order given, if the narownes of the pasadge do not constraine him, and let no Souldier pass to spoyle the poore inhabi∣tantes, Page  133 and if he wante any Souldier of those of his division, or if any come unto them more then the order given to adverice the Sardgent mayor, and for recompence of his punctualitie and care in acompli∣shinge his obligation he shall gaine the benevolence of his Master de campe and Sardgent mayor, and in reason they oughte to have a me∣mory of his punctuall care, and to prefer him into a greater office for his obedience and punctuallitie a monghste other Sardgentes, and not once nor twice but still makinge knowen his aproved partes, care and diligence in acomplishinge the orderes of his Superiores, soe can he not by forgotten by the superior officers till he by advāced for his undeniable care and obedience.

Moste necessary it is for a Sargent mayor to be couriouse and ex∣perte in executinge well his office, for in tyme of framinge of squa∣drones the Judges of his errores are many, in time of framinge of squadrones, some Sardgēts mayores do fall into many errores, by rea∣son of there litle exercice, and specially for not appliēge them selves withe care and diligence bothe in the theorike and practike of this ar∣te, and specially to by skilfull in Arithmeticke, whiche withe practice makethe easy many rare occurrantes in warrlike affaires, and suche as are not curiouse in well appleinge them selves in learninge the rare and deepe curiosities of this arte do some times finde them selves pu∣sled and amased before there enemy in time of moste neede: A mo∣ste unfitinge thinge it is for one to be ingnorante and unhabele in his office, soe i supose that suche as do not diligently apply them selves, can hardly reduce into perfection that, wherof he is ingnoran∣te and knowethe not the arte, by dayly experience, we see that favor▪ frendshipp, enteres, and affection, hinderethe muche prosperity and goode successes, and specially in this noble arte of warr.

Many opiniones there are for the divisiones of shott, and specially when the enemy are stronge on horse, and that youe have two thirde partes of shott, unto one of pikes, youre battell beinge empaled and girdeled proportionally withe shott, there will yett remayne goode store of shott. The question is how they shall be bestowed to be safe from the fury of the horse, the sureste and beste way is to put them into the center of the battell of pikes, where they are more safe, and if any shott be killed or hurte youe can take at all times oute of the center as many as youe shall neede of.

For the framinge of thiese battelles withe centeres i have already declared howe they oughte to be framed, and proporsionolly lined, Page  134 and if the enemy horse shoulde chance of a sodaine to chardge on yove, and that youe have no tyme to place the overplusse of youre shott in the center divide them betwixte the rankes of pikes all alon∣gste from the fronte to the reare warde, so they shall by safe and yove can use them at any tyme when ocasion shall require, but havinge in∣teligence that the enemy are stronge in horse, and we feowe or none in suche ocasiones i woule firste bigin in framinge the cener of the overplusse of the shott, havinge oportunity for the same, and also lea∣ve place for hurtemen in the cēter and divide them into so many ma∣niples that they may of a sodaine fall into squadron square of men in the center, withoute any crossinge aluēge there iuste fronte and flanke and then divide the pikes into maniples to proportionally guarnishe the center on every side or fronte of the same, and then divide in pro∣portion the girdlinge shott that is lefte to guarnish the 4 frontes of the battell of pikes, and center, this is the perfecte and right way, but when urgent necessity requireth the overplusse of shott may be pla∣sed and divided betwexte the rankes of pikes as before sett downe, ad∣vertisinge that the coulores is to goe in the center.

As the battell dothe marche on towardes the enemy and cominge once within reache of the musket then the firste rankes of the win∣ges of musketes are to marche in this maner; the firste rankes step∣pinge some two or three paces, forwarde havinge in the meane ty∣me made them selves ready, and cocked there matches, then with rea∣dines and expedition all those of the firste rankes (there musketes byenge uppon there restes or forkes) to discharge at once, permiten∣ge other rankes to proceede, then presently those of the seconde ranke to stepe upp before the firste ranke, as the battell or batallon do marche, and so to discharge as theyre former followes had don before, and then the thirde ranke before the seconde, and the four. the before the thirde, and soe all the other rankes consequently wi∣the this kinde of double marche and at the traine of the laste ranke those of the firste to folowe upp a gaine, and so consequently the re∣ste. But if chance that the squadron of pikes be distresed, or con∣strained to retire, they are to discharge at the enemy, retiring bac∣ke uppon a counter marche eache feele or ranke, consequently, and withe expedition one after a nother, and withe speede fall bake into there ranke, to give place to the nexte rankes, that no time be idell, employed.

Sundry opiniones there are of comparisones betwext the Infan∣tery, Page  135 and Cavallery, whiche of them is moste utill in the warres, the one and the other are moste necessary in occurantes of warlicke affai∣res, but in my opinion the Infantery is to be preferred firste beinge well disciplined in the arte of war, never the lesse the cavalleria bein∣ge well monted and armed and beinge experimente, souldieres, beinge conducted by prudent and brave conductores douptlesse theyr executiones and resolutiō is to be feared, but they are not com∣parable to deale, withe resolute foote, excepte uppon manifeste and greate advantages and in place or grounde of greate favor for them. For beinge well knowen that a resolute stande of pikes well ordered, and girdeled withe shott, will give them sore stoppes, and retournes as plainely apeered when Marques de Pescara withe 800 short aptay∣ned the victory of Charles de noy then Visroy of Napoles, withe his Cavallery at the battell of Pavia, a nother example wee have of the Conte Francisco Carmognolla, beinge Captaine generall of Filip Viconte Duke of Millanes army, goinge withe 6000. horse a gainste the Swishe∣res army, was by them repulsed by the valeure, and lenghte of there pikes, who havinge regathered this disordered troupes, consideringe from whence there disadvantage greowe, turned head againe uppon the enemy: and he him self and his companies disamounted on foo∣te, and withe there lances in hande framed afoote squadron, and charged the enemy afresh, and brake and overthrewe them in num∣ber above fifteene thousande when by force of horse coulde not by removed, imitatinge herin Marcus, Valerius, Cornelius, who beinge consull and Captaine againste the samnites in the firste punny war∣res, and in theyr laste battell not able to enter uppon them by reason of there lōge pikes where withe they defended them selves, comaun∣ded his horsemen to disamounte, and on foote they arived as they were withe there lances, to fighte withe there enemy, and over threwe them and putt them to flighte optaininge the victory, and remay∣ninge withe there baggadge, and in the battell given by Constantine Roxianus Captaine generall to Sigismund Kinge of Polonia withe Basilius the greate Duke of Moscovia by the river Brisva, who surmoun∣ted him on horse backe, three thousande foote men; onely, he had in his army, won him that day the honor and victory, also as did apee∣re by the memorable batteles of the Inglishe againste the provde cavallery of the frence at agincourte fielde and other places, many more examples mighte be recited bothe antient and moderne, re∣membringe that amonge the antiente Romaines there foote was al∣wayes Page  136 of more estimation then there horse, allwayes houldinge a true opinion, that the Infanterie well disciplined is the right sinue of the warr, the walles of the citty and fortress of the realme.

I have hearde say that in thies warres of the netherlande after that the grand Comendador died that Don Alvaro de Vergas, who at that time comaunded the Spanish Cavallerie, did greate exploictes in en∣counteres, he had withe the states foote and horse, but it muste by considered that those were oulde and experimented Souldiers, resten∣ge uppon a resolute and valerouse determination.

The otheres for the moste patre Bisones, and rawe people raised up∣pon a sodaine conceipte, in whiche actiones is marvelouse to be mar∣ked the diference betwene men of experience, and rawe Bisones the prudent cariadge, resolute valor and goode conduction of the one, and litle practice, and experience of the otheres, as did apeere in the reincounter at tilmonte, and at the souckeringe of monts-dog beinge Taken by them of Mastricke, and moste notable in the sacke of An∣twerpe where lesse then withe the number of 5000. Spaniards inclo∣sed within the sitadel gave the overthrowe and foile unto 16000 of the Anturpianes. Bravely armed and incamped within theyre owne towne. In like sorte at the overthrowe of Gibleo where not above 600. horse, of don Iohn de Austria his troopes defeated above 15000 of the states, (moste strange and wonderfull) onely for wante of goo∣de conductores and the enemy spyinge theese advantages resultin∣ge of there simple conduction founde them selves amased.

And for as muche as i have spoken muche of this office, i will con∣clude in sayenge that he oughte nowe and then to visite and revisite at diveres and differente houres all thinges by him provided and a pointed, and see that they be prudently ordered and performed, re∣prehendinge whate he shall finde wourdie of punishmente, but that to be don prudently and in curtouse sorte, and presentinge good rea∣sones withe amiable and gentle wourdes, with gravitie and naturall grace, and not with puffinge inconciderate pride and bad examples, so shall he by obeyd in such sorte that when he woulde determine to execute his designes and orderes of his superior comaunderes, all of∣ficeres and souldieres mighte beare him that due respecte and obe∣dience, whiche shoulde by required to bringe his purpose to effecte, and let not griddy couetousnes overcome him in wronginge or per∣mitinge to by wronged the poure souldieres of theire righte, and spe∣cially in tyme of extreame necessitie, but rather make knowen his Page  137 gentle inclinationes and true love, soe shall he by beloved feared and respected.

Let him not by inclined to any odiouse rancor nor malice in wai∣tinge oportunitie of revenge of some wourdes or disputes, whiche ha∣pened betwexte him, and some Officeres or Souldieres of his Regi∣mente for defindinge theyre honour and righte, and findinge that he be so inclined is signe of aloe unconsiderate and base minde. All Officeres and Souldieres of his Regimense oughte to have a speciall care in not loosinge him his due respecte, and suche as do not a complish with theire obligationes hirein are righte wourthy of re∣prehension, soe all thinges don with moderation and justice is lauda∣ble.

Page  138An army of 11200. men divided into five batteles Squa∣re 〈 math 〉 of grounde ordered to fighte, as by the figures folowinge youe see. The fronte of eache battell is 72 and 31. the flan∣ke, and 8. remaininge oute of the division of eache battell; eache battell containes 2240.

[illustration]
The army divided into five battelles.

SQUARE OF GROVNDE, by the rule of proportion.

The saiede army of 11200. divided into seaven battelles. Square of grounde, eache bat∣tell shall conteine 1600. and the fronte of eache battell is 61. and flanke 26. and 14. pikes remaininge oute of eache battell to guarnish the culoures, the which 7. battelles are ordered as by the figure folowinge youe see. — 1600. men in each battell.

〈 math 〉

[illustration]
The army divided into 7. battelles.

SQVARE OF GROVNDE, By the rule of proportion.

Page  139A Battell square of men, withe a center of Arcabuseros, which can not by defended under the shelter of the couched pike, when the ene∣my doe a bounde on horse, and wee feowe or none, in suche ocasiones the sureste way for the overpluse of shot is to by putt into the center, and proportionally guarnised with the pikes and musketes, as by the fi∣gure folowinge youe see, and howe they are diuided by the rule of pro∣portion.

  • 276 Arcabuses.
  • 360 Pikes.
  • 364 musketes.
  • 1000.

[illustration]

〈 math 〉

Table of the battell and center of Arcabuseros deposito.
BY the division of the center of Arcabuseros the square route of the same num∣ber yealdeth 16. Arcabuses in fronte and flanke of the center, and 20. remai∣ninge oute of the division, monteth256 arcab.
The firste division of pikes that guarnisheth the righte flanke of the center, divided into 16. rankes of 5. pikes in each, monteth80 pikes.
The secōde division of p. that guarnisheth the liefte flāke of the center divided into 16. r. of 4. p. in each.64 pikes.
The thirde division that guarnisheth the full fronte, and the two linenges of the center is divided into 25. rankes of 5. pikes in each ranke, monteth125 pikes.
The fourthe division of pikes that guarnisheth the full fronte of the rewarde is divided into 25. ran∣ke of 4. pikes in each ranke, monteth100 pikes.
The lining of musk. that guarnisheth the right flank of the pikes is divided into 25. r. of 3. m. in each.75 musk.
The seconde lining of mus. that guarnisheth the liefte flank of the p. divided into 25. r. of 3. m. in each.75 musk.
The thirde division of musketse that guarnisheth the full fronte of the pikes and center, is divided into 31. rankes of 3. musketes in each ranke.53 musk.
The fourthe division of musketes that guarnisheth the rewarde of the pikes and center is divided into 31. rankes of 3. musketes in each ranke, monteth93 musk.
The remainder of musketes, that do guarnish the culoures.8 musk.
Of the 20. arcabuseres, that did remaine goes to guarnish the culoures.4 arcab.
The 11. pikes that did remaine oute of the division of pikes are employed to guarnish the culours.11 pikes.
Of the remainder of arcabuseros their remaineth oute of the battell.16 arcab.
 1000.