A discourse of military discipline devided into three boockes, declaringe the partes and sufficiencie ordained in a private souldier, and in each officer; servinge in the infantery, till the election and office of the captaine generall; and the laste booke treatinge of fire-wourckes of rare executiones by sea and lande, as alsoe of firtifasions [sic]. Composed by Captaine Gerat Barry Irish.
Barry, Gerat.

THE SIXTHE CHAP. Treatinge of the election and office of a Sardgent mayor ente∣ringe withe his Regimente to Garison.

THE election of the Sardgente mayor of a Regimente is to be choysen and elected of suche as the Master de campe, or Coronel do name or putt in election to the Generall, in this election greate consideration oughte to be taken, and be no meanes the Generall is to give way or intrance to favor nor affection; but rather to vertue, valor, and sufficiēcie; for cause that this office is of suche emportance to his Ma∣jesties service, and beinge a Generall minister of a whole Regimente of many Companies, and Superientendente of all the Sardgentes of the same be whose prudence and industrie, the Master de campe or Co∣ronel doth give convenient orderes for the due govermente of his Regimente, in o cationes of marchinge, fightinge or imbattelinge, and in o ther matteres concerninge the same, whereby may be gathe∣red the aproved partes, valor, experience, care, and diligence wished in suche a person.

Who beinge chosen to this degree and office of such importance; we reade that in times paste the generales of the Romaines, and of o ther nationes trusted the execution of this office to none, but the Ge∣neralles them selves administred the same, concideringe that in day of battell the beautie and force therof consisteth in the well orderin∣ge and framinge of the same (be vvhich the victorie moste comonlie is vvon) for undeniable it is that those that are beste ordered and ex∣ercised in vvarr are masteres of the victorie, though they be lesser in Page  30 number: Where of theyre have beene to many examples of anciente and brave Auctores, and all a firminge the same, as did a peere in the laste and famouse jorney in vvhiche Haniball Carthagenense vvas overkome by Scipio Africano. Not vvith standinge Haniball havinge to his judgemente prevented and ordered all thinges as necessarie and fitt; neverthe less the sagacitie and prudence of Scipio vvas at that day soe greate, that it vvas inough to putt them all to flighte, vvith his singular and extraordinarie military prudence. Amongste the Frence and Dutche this office is more estimed then in o ther places, wherfore it shoulde be alwayes comended to the chardge of the mo∣re prudente experimented Captaine that can be had in the Regimen∣te, and togither with this office they have Companies; soe that they have the name of a Captaine and Sardgente mayor, and profitt togi∣ther, and in absence of theyre Coroneles or Master de campes to them by righte belongeth the govermente of the Regimente.

This election of all reason and justice shoulde be provided in one as before spoken, and the counsell of State and vvarr shoulde alwayes have a speciall care to see thies electiones soe prefered, and specially the Generall, rather then chosen by favor, frindsihip, and affection, as some times it falleth oute, recomended to unable bisones, of litle service, and less sufficiencie, Wherof resulteth to many inconvenien∣ces, and because that in them doth not o curr the aproved and pru∣dente partes and auctoritie required for executinge well this office, Captaines of the Regimente doe give them some times but litle re∣specte or creditt: For this election be all equitie and justice, and for many considerationes of importance, oughte to be earnestly soughte a Souldier of the beste o pinion and sufficiencie, that amongste the vvhole Regimente can be had, and that he be verie perfecte in Arith∣metick, for beinge the moste necessarie pointe for the executiones of this office, after havinge exercised much in the vvarr. And not elected be no meanes by favor, for beinge an office whoe requireth much abi∣litie.

Verie many can be founde who have spente theyre time in the war∣res who are not fitt for this chardge, rather by triall and examination made of his a proved sufficiencie, as with Doctores in winenge theyre chaire of dingnitie be triall of theyr a proved partes and sufficiencie. And he who in his examin representeth him with auctoritie, in givin∣ge the beste reasones, is firste prefered.

For by thies meanes douptless Souldieres shoulde be the more wil∣linge Page  31 to study to by perfecte for the optaininge of this soe honorable a chardge by triall of theyre vvoordie deserte. But vvee se it dayly given to persones vvho a plied them selves but litle, neyther in the Theorick or Practice of this arte, and whoe have seene verie feowe o cationes of importance, that by theyre goode and diligente aplica∣tiones they may be the sooner preferred and honored.

This office beinge o ther wise given, the Kinge and o cation is of∣fended; for some to dischardge them selves in this office doe truste to the dialoge of valdese or to the table or numerato of catanae novarae of the State of Venecia, who made a table from 100. to 2000. men to forme squadrones which table they vvere vvonte to carie in they∣re poketes, and if the numerato or table be loste, he remaines in darcknes; that besides it dothe not serve in yerie many o cationes nor for many sortes of squadrones. Soe none is to truste to itt, but rather leaarne diligently to shifer and thereinto to exercice him selfe, which is the true vvay for beinge once perfecte it can not be loste, and he shall with the greater auctoritie and respecte acomplish his obliga∣tiones.

He is to acomplish with the orderes of his Master de campe as a Superior head Governor and Conductor, and justice of his Regimen∣te, but the executiones a pertaineth to the Sardgent mayor, for bein∣ge the principall minister of the same in all ocationes, as well in cam∣pan̄a, as in garison, soe that in the profession of vvarr, it may of all righte by reputed fot an honorable office, and of greate preminiences and truste, and of righte he oughte to by of extraordinarie care at all times.

When o casion offereth he is to by freely permiited to come to speake to his generall, yea and to the verie Kinge beinge in the o ca∣tion, noe doore or intrie oughte to hinder or lett him from freelie co∣menge and goinge at all times, for it is soe required for the execution of his office, as well in receivinge orderes from the Generall, as in de∣liveringe tha same unto his Master de campe or Coronell, and alsoe in a complishinge and executinge his office. This office is of righte wourthie honeor, and reputation, but til the yeare 1500. amongste the Spanardes they had but smale payes, meaning twentie five crow∣nes a month, buth in the same yeare his Majestie encreased theyre pay with fifeine crownes, which in all is forthy, and togither with pa∣tentes of Captaines and Sardgente mayores, soe that they were equal in meanes with Captaines, and afterwardes they vvere augmented Page  32 with 25. crownes more vvhich in all is 65. crownes vvholie paied, soe that they pass Captaines in meanes and degree at this presente; and the o cation of murmuringe and equalitie betwexte them and the Captaines is set a side: Which of right oughte soe to by; and by them the order of the Generall and Master de campe is given to the Cap∣taines, and there executipnes acordingly acomplished.

For to a complish vvell with the extraordinarie care and travaile of this office, it vvere verie necessary that he be provided with two or three goode nages stronge and well proportioned, and that can indu∣re greate travaile, and it is verie necessary that they goe with a faire pace for his more ease: Somtimes oceasiones doe offer that he weareth oute three or foure horses a day for the well acomplishinge of his office. For the vvell executinge of this office it is verie necessarie to have two ajudantes vvhich are to be chosen of men of longe exercice in vvarr, and of a prooved partes and sufficiencie, presentinge them selves with auctoritie, prudencie, and brave cariadge, and specially to be verie experte in Arithmeticke, many goode partes are required in thies persones; for some times it hapeneth that the Sardgent mayor is hurte or sicke. In the meane time his a judante may execute his offi∣ce; It is verie necessary they have goode meanes to intertaine them selves, and theyre horses; for it faleth oute moste comonly that he tra∣veleth and taketh greater paines then the Sardgent mayor. Wherefo∣re and o curinge in him thies befitinge partes, he is to by much estee∣med and furthered by the superior Officeres.

To acomplish vvell withe his office he muste bee moste vigilante and carefull, he oughte to knowe in memorie the names of all the Of∣ficeres of his Regimente, yea and besides of many Souldieres, and to knowe all the Ensignes by theyre coloures. He is alsoe to knowe the Officeres reformed and particular persones; As the Sardgente mayor is the principall minister in executinge the Master de campe is orde∣res, soe is he to by resolved in executinge the orderes given him by the Sardgente mayor, and that with moderation and love, he is to be verie carefull to acomplish in due time the orderes given by the Ma∣ster de campe, or Sardgente mayor; And by the entercession of none to omitt any faulte withoute reprehension or necessarie redress.

It is the Sardgente mayor is parte to diligently procure and sollici∣te with the Prince and Generall, and other superior Officeres for the providinge of armor munitiones, and all o ther necessaries for the Companies of his Regimente, as pouder, led, match, vituales, &c.

Page  33The which he shall cause to be vvell distributed betwexte the Sard∣gentes, and by them to be delivered to the Corporalles who are to di∣stribute the same betwexte the Souldieres withoute any fraude. He is alsoe to be an universall procurer of all thinges fit and necessarie for the Souldieres soules healthe, in severelie punishinge and banishin∣ge publicke and uglie crimes oute of the Companies of his Regiment as theeves, disordered persones of no feare nor shame, as dronckardes and all such as live enfamously, oute of hope of a mendemente; and specially blasphemeres, vvho like base and blinde factioneres withou∣te feare and conscience, doe highlie offende his Divine Majestie.

Suche as have a speciall care to see thies haynouse faultes and disor∣deres redressed, and justly punished, oughte and are moste comon∣lie to be reputed, fauored, and highlie recommended, and specially by his Divine Majestie for theyre affection and care in acomplishinge his vvill.

He is to be earneste that the Master de campe doe choyse the drom mayor of his Regiment of one that he knoweth to by able in well exe∣cutinge his office, and that he by noe meanes by elected by favor, but rather for one vvho knoweth to instructe all the dromeres of his Re∣gimente, for beinge one chosen for that effecte: He can assiste in ma∣ny occasiones in carienge and bringenge of orderes, as shall by more at lardge declared in his election and office. When he shall inter into any towne or place of defence, he is to use greate consideration in the devition of the gardes, and watch therof, and specially if it be a fron∣tier, or place where the enemy is to be muche feared. He shall in no case devide unto every Company the parte or place of the vvall whe∣re they ordinarilie shall assiste or keepe, for by cause townes and pla∣ces of importance have often times beene betrayed, and taken by treason.

The principall cause vvherof hath bene that the Officer and Soul∣dier which selleth that place knoweth the parte and quarter where; ordinarilie he is to watch. Wherefore the Sardgent mayor is to pru∣dently prevente thies haynous plottes and that no boddy may kno∣we vvhere he is to garde or vvatch: Som doe cause them to caste the deece otheres to drawe lottes or billettes, and otheres doe ordaine thies devitiones oute of theyre owne heades. And to observe such dis∣cipline and order that no Company may fore knowe theyre quarter nor any o ther boddy eyther litle or greate may knowe the parte of the wall which shall a pertaine unto him, untill the verie time that Page  34 the watche by set or a litle before. When occasion shall offer that he shall inter vvith his Regiment to lodge in any towne, he or his a ju∣dante is to revewe the place or market, to knowe vvhere he may fin∣de a comodiouse and fitt place to frame a squadron of his Regimen∣te, and presently after this, he is to revewe all the rampar and circui∣de of the towne, carienge a longe vvith him one of his ajudantes, and alsoe he is to revewe the gates and corpes de gardes, and a pointe the convenient place for the postes and roundes, and see that vvithin and vvithoute the circuide of the towne that he prevente in due time all thinges necessarie.

He is alsoe to revewe the Master de campe is lodginge, the store houses or magasenes and prison, and to a pointe the necessary gardes. After all he is to relate unto his Master de campe of all the difficulties he findes in; as vvell on the rampar, gardes, and circuide of the same, and vvithoute delay to prevente and redress eache particular vvith speede, and to consulte vvith his Master de campe to see vvho many Companies shall by required or necessarie to inter the vvatch each nighte, and then make his devitiones, and deliver the orderes to his a judante, that he may deliver them to the Sardgentes, and sheovve them the places a pointed for the centeries, and the corpes de garde, and at vvhate howre they are to sett the cinteries.

He is alsoe to a pointe the places conveniente, and fitt for the co∣loures, and give the Alferises necessarie instructiones. After that he causes the Drum mayor to joyne all the Dromes, and proclaime the orderes delivered by the Sardgente mayor, then naminge the Com∣panies that are to be that nighte on the watche, and soe shall he brea∣ke the squdron, leavinge the coloures that are on the vvatch, givinge order to the reste to retire to theyre quarteres; Then shall the a ju∣dante directe eache Company to theyre a pointed place, and shall make the divitiones of the gardes as ordained by the Sardgent ma∣yor, deliveringe them the orderes they shall observe, he shall a poin∣te and provide the garde of the Master de campe, and of the magase∣nes, or store houses, and alsoe the place of armes vvhere all the Com∣panies and coloures shall repaire unto when a larme or occasion shall be offered.

Havinge made the devitiones of the vvatch, and gardes as before spoken, he is to revewe all the circuide on the outewarde parte, and see if theyre by any fitt place for ambuscadose for the enemy, of hed∣ges vvoodes or gardines, and prevent itt vvith all diligence, and Page  35 all necessarie endustrie, so that the enemie may not prevaile in takin∣ge any advantadge, as often times itt faleth oute in the morninge at the openinge of the gates. To prevente this he is at the openinge of the gates to comaund foure or five lighte arcabuseros to revewe the campe withoute the gates for the better security, and the reaste of the garde in the meane time vvith theyre armes in theyre handes, and not to vvholy open the gates till thies returne, givinge them order to visit and revewe well all the circuid on the outerwarde side, some 300. pa∣ces more or less till he see that theyre is no suspicion. And if they spee∣the enemy they are all to shoote, and the cinterie above the gates shall presentlie advertice the garde or vvatch, and vvhen otherwise he seeth that they do not spee the enemy the gates may by opened by or∣der of the Officer, that theyre comaundes, and then shall he cause the centeries to be set on the gates and bridged as ocasion may be suspe∣cted, not failinge to be verie varie, and carefull in previntinge wha∣te might insue or mishappen, and specially to be carefull that the Souldieres doe not absent them selves from theyre vvatch, and for feare of stratagemes of treason, it is verie necessary that in each por∣te or gate vvhere any suspition may be feared, that theyre by two lon∣ge sharpe yrones like spittes, vvhich shall serve to pass trough from side to side vvagones of hay and strawe, for feare that any men may by secretlie hiden in them. And to lett no men armed pass into the towne, vvithoute order, and specially if it by a frontier or place to by feared much of the enemy. At the shutinge of the gates the Officer and Souldieres there a pointed to garde, shall by all in armes till the same be shutt, and the Officer of the vvatch shall looke vvell that the gates be vvell shutt: All beinge soe acomplished, the Officer shall sende the Souldieres he thinketh fitt to convoy the keayes to the Go∣vernor or cheefe Comaunderes lodginge.

The bagadge of the vvhole Regimente, interinge to garison is to march in the rergarde vvith a Companie of Souldieres guardinge the same, and the Sardgent mayor and a judante are to goe still a horse∣bake till all thinges by vvell ordered and provided, until suche time they see that all by lodged. For in the biginēge of such partisiones mo∣ste comonlie are many questiones and disputes vvhich ought vvith all care and haste to by redreste: In vvhich occasiones the Sardgent ma∣yor is to comaunde vvith resolute auctoritie, in ordaininge all thin∣gss to by pacified and redreste, ministringe justice and equitie, not ad∣mitenge any disorder vvithoute due redress; causinge his orderes wi∣thoute Page  36 repleee to be executed with obedience.

If otherwise it by not acomplished as he firste ordayned, his exe∣cutiones can not vvell prosper, but let him before hande looke that his orderes by prudently given, soe that with this resolution he shall vvell a complish all: And shal be reputed and respected for a man who knoweth vvho to governe and comaunde vvith prudence and auctoritie, and shall be both respected and feared by the Souldieres: When any vando or proclamation is to be given he is to procure with the Master de campe that it be put in vvritenge uppon the corpe de garde that the orderes may be observed and the better understoode be all.

After the proclamation is made, and that none may by ingnoran∣te in understandinge the penalties in the same mentioned, and the executiones acordinglie made, (for if otherwise not executed) it were far better not to sett it fourth, but in thies executiones consideration is to by used acordinge as the occasion shall require, after true infor∣macion by taken of the case.

All Officeres in vvarr are broughte into goode perfection vvith prudence, care, and templance, rather then sheowinge him selfe ri∣gourouse and licenciouse in speeches vvith a furiouse contenance, beinge not therunto constrayned, for the Souldier feeleth no punis∣mente almoste soe grivouse as this, vvhich seemeth to him to resulte trough ingnorance and envie, and of al the reste of the Officeres this bad custome is more odiouse in the Sardgent mayor, beinge the ma∣ster of vvhome they shoulde by righte learne good examples and in∣structiones, and in vvhome by reason the befittinge partes therunto necessary shoulde acurr; beinge a minister to see faultes redreste.

Such Officeres as doe sheowe them selves, vvith a furiouse and o∣diouse contenance doe opress theyre condition, vvhich doth not re∣sulte of a generouse minde, and moste comonlie they are hated. But suche as sheowe them selves with a prudent cariadge and amiable be∣haveure are muche esteemed, obeyed, honored, and respected, by the Souldieres, and doe binde them in obligatione and repose of minde: But for one contrarie another contrary, that if in case the Soul∣dier doe not acomplish his obligationes, as he is bounde to doe. And in doinge the contrarie in comitinge disorderes it is necessarie to pu∣nish him severely, yea and soe far that it may sticken into his harte if by faire meanes he dothe not a minde.

Some Officeres of prudente cariadge, and amiable behavior doe one∣lie Page  37 with a groomely contenance and goode reasones cause theyre Souldieres to tremble, and feare them vvithoute any o ther rigoure, and the Souldieres knowinge of ther Officers goode inclination, doe both obey love and feare them, findinge by experience that he love∣the them and assisteth in time of moste necessity and neede, sheowinge thē goode examples, and giuinge them goode instructiones, and kno∣winge that he hath noe rancor, envy, nor revenge in his harte, but ra∣ther to couradge them in al necessities, and equallinge him selfe with thē in all dangeres and travailes, and to be inclined to redress theyre wantes; in this case they both love and feare him, and indure all dan∣geres and necessities with him, and doe followe him in all perilles with a vvillinge mynde; soe that nothinge doth more contente an hono∣rable Souldier then a lovinge Officer, havinge in him the partes and qualities before declared.

The Sardgente mayor is to give order that if the rounde doe heere any rumor or stirr in the towne or any other place, that he with spee∣de advertice the nexte a dioyninge garde, and that he by no meanes give over his rounde, but continually with care and vigilance visite till his time by expired; And the corpe de garde or vvatche to vvho∣me he gave intelligence are bounde with greate speede to repayre to a comodate the occasion, as alsoe to give intelligence to the superior Of∣ficeres if the occasion be of suche importance.

He is alsoe to give order to the Officeres of his Regimente, that they have a speciall care, that theyre Souldieres doe not lende armes one to a nother for to inter the garde, for it is a bad custome, of which resulte noe goode, for often times a Musquetier lendeth his musket to one that shoulde carie a pike and if in that night doe offer ocasion of an a larme both are discomodiouselie provided. And besides when the Musketier is restored of his musket, and interinge with the same into the watche, not remembringe that he lente it, shooteth it freely thinckinge that theyre is no bullet, (as he chardged the same) and the other to whome it was lente leaveth a bullet in it, he shooteth thinc∣kinge no ill and killeth one of those before him (which often time ha∣pened) yea and sometimes beinge on the watch, often times the one caries the muskett or caliver of his fellowe, and puteth a bullet into the same, the other thinckinge of noe suche matter frily shooteth, and alsoe killeth another.

This bad sinister and dangerouse custom oughte to by prevented, and to severelie punish the Souldier that did lende his armes, for a re∣medie Page  38 of thies ingnorante careless and inconsiderate faultes: All pru∣dente and skilfull Souldieres oughte to be verie varie to prevente and dischardge thies dāgerouse chardges before they inter into the watch: Some base companiones and covardes dayes of feastes doe chardge theyre peeces vvith bullet and killeth vvith envie and revenge vvho pleaseth them; Wherfore a straighte order oughte to by given to all, that they shoulde be verie varie and in paine of death no Souldier shoulde be founde in suche an acte. Moste necessary it is for a Sard∣gent mayor to be carefull to exercice his Souldieres in manadginge of theyre armes, and in knowinge howe to serve vvith the same, as alsoe howe to observe theyre order in march and squadron, and fall withou∣te confusiō into theyre juste place in battell a ray. All vvhich the Sard∣gente mayor is bounde to instructe, for beinge the master vvho is to learne and leade them; for it belongeth to his chardge and office, and besides it importeth him muche that they be vvell instructed and exer∣cised in martial affaires, for soe vvith greate facilitie shal he execute his affaires, as did the Thesarios to vvhose chardge be the Romanies was re∣comended this office, as vvell in filde as in garison.

They instructed theyre Souldieres in the scoole they, exercised the Tirones which were the Bisones, or newe Souldieres two times a day, and the Veteranos vvhiche vvas theyre oulde Souldiers once a day: Soe they vvere very experte as vvell in knovvinge howe to manadge theyre ar∣mes, as to serve with the same, as alsoe in punctualy knowinge to ob∣serve order in march and squadron, as alsoe induringe greate travailes.

They alsoe vvere exercised in runinge, leapinge, shevvminge, and all other exercicee and vertues necessarie and fitenge for warr: They were constrained to march with theyre complet armor both foote, and those that wente a horssbake two dais in a month carienge alsoe with them on theyre backes al necessary foode for that jurney, fightinge as it vvere vvith the enemy, givenge and receivinge the chardge as if it vvere in a bloody vvarr, for the space of ten thousand pases in theyre vvhole yurney, cominge and goinge, and vvith this as customed ex∣ercice they were apte and nemble whensoever occasion of service or employmente did offer; Soe that vvith two thousande of these, grea∣ter exploytes and executiones vvere made, then with thirtie thousan∣de bisones or rawe mē, for vvhich cause they vvere victoriouse coun∣coringe with greate renoome till they vvere vvholie given to vice idelnes and regalitie.

Trough which meanes they begon to fall into decay; and of they∣re Page  39 longe repose and idel life, did resulte a bad and sorowfull ende, for beinge vvholie given to woomen, delicate meates, sleeepe, and ease, and of no care to exercice them selves in armes. They became to for∣get all vertue, to by covardes and fall into decay: Now see a plaine ex∣ample vvhich happened to one of the moste famouseste Captaines of the vvorlde vvhich was Anibal Cartagenes son to Amilcar beinge nine yeares oulde vvas broughte to the vvarres and vvas caused to swere to be enemy to the Romaines duringe life, and cominge to the adge to governe an army he marched from Spaine trough France into Italie, vvhere in passinge the river Rodane. The Romaines a tendinge him, where he had a moste sore incounter in pasinge the river; But Aniball with prudence and greate valeure with tables tember and greate tries made a bridge trough with dificultie and greate hasarde, that at lēgh∣te he paste his army over the river by force of armes, and vvith no lesh endustrie did he pass the hugie montaines of the Alpes, breakinge downe greate rokes and makinge them plaine, where he made a way that his army coulde pass; which contained 120000. of foote and hor∣se, and theyre bagadge on Elefantes and brute beastes, and pased to piamonte vvher he rejoysed of his safe a rivall trough such a trou∣ble some and dangerouse vvay, comfortinge and givinge his to under∣stande that they vvere oute of danger and trouble, and arived into a fertill countrie abondante of all necessaries befittinge.

Ther havinge reposed his army he touke his jurney towardes the river of Trevia in Plasintin, and met vvith the Romaines where he op∣tained the victorie, and from thence he touke his jurney, and paste by Perusa til he came to Trasimeno vvhere he gave an other overtrow to the Romaines, and kilth of them three and twenty thousande. And after this he paste with his army to Pulla in Canas which nowe is Bar∣leta, vvhere he alsoe foughte vvith the Romaines, and had the victo∣rie of them vvith the slaughter of fortie thousande of them, as Plinius and Francisco Petrarca Tuscano declareth. Soe that he had the bri∣dell vvith Italie sixtime yeares; poseste vvith that brave and prudente conductor skilfull and valerouse army: After this he came to Capua a pleasante country of vveomen, and other comodities, and theyre gave him self and his army to repose in garisones a longe time, vvhere he and they became idel and forgetfull of all military exercice, as thoughe they never had managed armes. Which vvas cause of the rui∣ne and perdition of all his army, as they say that Capua vvas a greater perdition to Anibal then to the Romaines the losh of Canas, and after Page  40 beinge constrained to pass unto Africa to soucour Cartago his coun∣trie, beinge informed that Cipio (that famouse Captaine) vvente thiter vvith his Romaine army be vvhome Aniball vvas overcome; so that his vice longe repose and neglectinge of armes vvas cause of his destru∣ction, as alsoe hapened to many other brave vvarrieres. But this of Aniball is a sufficiente example for those that followe the profession of armes, to alwayes houlde and keepe theyre Souldieres in exercice of armes, and that vvith greate care, for feare of destruction. Soe this is a goode and sufficiente example for a Sardgent mayor, to alwayes keepe his Souldieres in the exercice of armes, and to imitate still the Romai∣nes in theyre continuall practice; And in case that the moste parte of the Companies of his Regimente are not togither vvhere he is resi∣dente.

Let him advertice theyre Captaines that they be carefull to exerci∣ce theyre Souldieres, and it vvere not amiss that he in the ende of eve∣rie three or foure montes shoulde visite them all over, and vvith care exercice them in the ocasiones of marchinge and imbatelinge; Wher∣by he shall finde them apte and ready to his will not needinge over∣much paines nor disputes as alwayes muste by with rawe men litle ex∣erciced in armes.

In nothinge is he to be more curiouse then in learninge and instru∣ctinge them who to observe orderes of marchinge, and in framing with them all sortes of squadrones, and to cause them skirmish sundrie manner of wayes, and cause them to toss the pike, and to by apte in handelinge the same, beinge queene of armes and moste noble of all the reste. This office of a Sardgent mayor vvas in times paste cauled thesariouse or Master who is to instructe military discipline, he which is apte and skilfull in vvell a complishinge the aproved partes ordai∣ned for the execution of this office, is fitt for any other office in vvarr, to the verie office of a Master de campe generall, which of all the reste requireth greatesth care and sufficiencie.

Wheresoever the Sardgente mayor shall happen to by with his Re∣gimente or vvith parte of the same, (eyther in campana or garison) when the Companies of the same shall inter the watch he is to by pre∣sente and take care that the Captaines be vvell armed with faire and complet corseletes, and all peeces therunto a pertaininge, and vvith a faire peeke of sixtine or seventine foote longe, the Musquetier with a complet goode muskett, and that by no meanes it by permitted to cutt any peece of the barell, (as some doe) to lighten it, and such as are Page  41 founde gilthie in this soe greate a faulte oughte to by severlie puni∣shed.

They are to be provided vvith goode flaskes, and flaskillos▪ vvith faire and stronge cordes, and hurquillos of six foote vvith theyre yro∣nes on both endes as behooveth, and the Arcabuseros are to be pro∣vided with goode caliveres of a stronge and sure barrell fitt to recei∣ve a bullet of an once or verie litle less, and a faire frask fraskillo and cordones, the measure of the pouder all by at leaste a haulfe once or rather more, he is never to wante a bagg of leader with twentie fi∣ve bullettes, and an yron to strike fyre at all times vvhen occasion shall require, for oftentimes beinge in centery and other places his match is quite gon oute, and then if he can get no fire his pouder is to no purpose at that instante if occasion often: Some are wonte to ca∣rie heade peeces which in many occasiones are goode, but that they are to much trouble some in longe marchinges.

Both the Musketieres and Arcabuseres shoulde knowe howe to make match, for sometimes it hapeneth that theyre is no munition, and then is it verie necessarie that the Souldier knoweth to make matche, for hardelie can he ever faile to get flax, but otherwise the Souldier beinge un expert, and knowinge not to shifte, and alsoe fai∣lenge amunition they incurr greate dangers; soe that the Souldier ought allwayes to procure with greate care to by couriouse and ex∣perte in all thinges that apartaineth to his obligation, for it may well fall oute that he shoulde march in a countrie ingnorante in vvarres, where no match nor amunition is made; Wherefore the brave and carefull Souldier is to thincke alwayes before hande to prevente wha∣te mighte in sue after: Soe shall he be not fluted at, but rather much recomended for knowinge vvho with care and prudence to acom∣plish his obligation; vvhich shall give greate contentmente to his Captaine and reste Officceres.

Fiery weapons vvithoute theyre full necessaries are of no service, vvherfore the prudent, carefull, and honorable Souldier oughte to prevente in due time whate he is bounde unto, in as much as may by possible) soe shall he be highlie esteemed by his Captaine and Of∣ficeres. If the Kinge or Prince woulde faine take a veowe of the who∣le army Regimente be Regimente, and alsoe the Standartes of horse one after an other to pass before him, as did the Spanish army before Kinge Philip the II. and the queene Don̄a Anna in the plaine of Can∣tillana neere to badajoes where the whole army did pass before them, Page  42 and soe neere that they plainelie vived the visadge of everie one of them as they paste by, as well of the horse vvhich did firste pass, and afterwardes the Infanterie.

The firste that did pass was the Regiment of Lombardie, vvhich Don Pedro de Sotemayor did leade, a rivenge righte againste the pla∣ce where his Majestie stoode did vvith grace and speede arbolare his pike turninge his face righte o his Majestie, and made greate reve∣rence as to such a place of so ••gh dingnitie a pertaineth, and having acomplished his dutie and obligation withoute stiringe did shoul∣der his pike, and marched in his jurney, in the verie same place the firste rancke of pikes that did arive observed the self same order, and in the selfe same manner did all the other rankes of pikes pass. With him at this time vvas Duke de Alva present, and the prior Don Fer∣nando.

Necessarie it is for a Sardgent mayor to cary still aboute him a table booke or booke of memories, for hardly can be conceive and houlde all thinhes in memorie, and vvhate he vvritheth is sure, of o nely the Captaine generall Master de campe generall is he to recei∣ve the vvourde of Governores and other persones the ajudantes are wonte to receive the watch wourde, and other orderes, or the Sard∣gente that is on the vvatche in absence of the ajudantes, which at all times they can not be presenre, and specially in garison.

The Sardgente mayor as a generall procurer of his Regimente, ought to solicite and procure that the corpes de garde Garites or cen∣terie houses be well provided, and the corpes de garde withe a place made of tables or plankes wheron the Souldieres may sleepe, and this to be a foote and haulfe above grounde, and to see tat theyre by a conveniente place where the fyrie armes be sett, and alsoe for the pikes. He is to procure withe the townes men that they acomodate the way of the rounde, and that the Garitas be well acomodated that the Souldier may keepe him self and armes drie: That be no mea∣nes he be gridy inconsiderate or covetouse, neyther permit or give care to any but that the gardes by vvell provided of fire and lighte, for som Provinces are extraordinary and excessive coulde, vvher vve see many Souldieres not vvell a parreled that after acomplishinge theyre dutie, and standinge theyre poste som thre or foure houres (more or lesh) they come bake frissd full of snowe, and vvhen they∣re is no fire to comforte them they die. In conclusion there Officeres, and specially the Sardgente mayor is to by werie earneste in solici∣tenge Page  43 this particular for in wantinge this comoditie of fire and of ca∣potes vvhiche some times the Prince, and some times theyre Captai∣nes do provide them, if ohterwise, it is impossible for the Souldier to escape to frise, for vve see those well a parelled perish for coulde: This and many more occasiones of importance can prudente and brave Captaines remedy to theyre greate renoome, and that besides they sheowe theyre affection to his Majesties service; if theyre procure∣mente can not prosper in this, nor theyre abilitie reache in reme∣dienge the same they discharde theyr conscience and honor, vvhen they in devor vvith care and diligence to pittie theyre Souldieres in earnestly procuringe for them, vvherunto they are bounde.

If in garison occasion require as moste comonly it doth, to provide a rounde to visit all over, (if posible it vvere necessary) that an Officer or person of respecte by apointed for cavo of the same, and that Of∣ficer or cavo onely doe cary the watch wourde, for beinge necessary if accasion shoulde by offered that they shoulde be constrayned to co∣me to the wall to learne what the occasion was, or to pass trough the postes that is betwext them and the walles, or to pass by the postes of the corpes de garde, if occasion shoulde presente: It is necessary that the outeward centeries whiche are not under defence nor sure securi∣tie that the vvatch vvourde be not given them, and if by change suche postes shoulde be ingnorance or negligence permit to pass in vvar∣des any man; Let him not come to the courte de garde vvithoute an Officer firste to receive him, and informe of his cause.

Thies roundes are to goe very silente and secrett, vvithoute any rumor, and that they enter in no conversation nor other place, butt rather with greate care and vigilance acomplish theyre order, and still goe forwarde in visitēge the magasenes or store houses, churches, and church yardes, emptie greate houses, or any other place wher suspition mighte be feared (of joyninges and mutenies.) And he hee∣ringe or understandinge of any rumor or joyning, and beinge therof vvell informed and assured, he is to aquainte vvith greate speede the Sardgent mayor, with one or two as the Officer cavo shall thinke fit, and he shall continue in that place till the Sardgent mayor sende him order, or come him selfe in person in the meane time the rounde is to by verie vigilante and silente. Thies roundes moste comonly ha∣ve one thirde parte of Musketes and Arcabuseros, and if theyre be any suspicion they are rather to goe stronge then vveake to prevente the empetue of the enemy.

Page  44In vvarrlike affaires and exercices, all Comaunderes ought conti∣nually to be vigilante, varie, carefull, and fearefull in nott trustinge to manny, for vve see that in many places that townes and citties doe revolte, when lesh suspicion is of them; Soe that often times in truste is treason. Therefore the Professores of the noble arte of vvarr are bounde in all places to be varie and vigilante, and continually feare of sodaine improvided disgraces. Continuall exercice and practice in warr is of greate importance, vvherfore the Sardgent mayor beinge in garison or els where is never to permitt the Companies under his chardge betwexte vvatch and vvatch to sleepe at home above thre nightes, for soe the Souldieres shall by the more apte to indure when occasion shall presente, for douptles continuall use and exercise hel∣peth much to compass, and ease difficulte matteres. Whosoever shall be inclined to comitt disorderes, and give bad examples in the corpes de gardes ought to by severelie punished, for suche places are to be respected for reall houses, and he vvho vvithout honor, discipline, and shame doth comit disorderes in a place of such greate respecte, ough∣te not to escape vvithoute due punishmente.

The Sardgent mayor is to advertice the Captaines of his Regimen∣te not to give licence to anny of theyre Souldieres to pass unto an o∣ther Regimente, nor oute of the country by no meanes, because that it dothe not lie in his auctority, neyther to give him leave withoute beinge firmed of the Master de campe, or Governor that shall co∣maunde. Who shall apointe the dayes fitt to a complishe his jurney, and affaires, and in the Vedoria generall noe Souldieres place oughte to be changed unto another Company, vvithoute licence of his Captaine, or Master de campe, for som unrulie factioneres are desi∣rouse to have liberty to run the contry to comitt disorderes, and ne∣glecte theyre dutie and obligationes; Spoylinge the country, decea∣vinge the Kinge, and dishonoringe theyre nation, and dayly provoo∣kinge otheres to that base kinde of life, of no honor feare nor shame. Whosoever shall a sente his place amonghste the Infanterie, and vvho entreth in rancke with the observeres of true discipline, oughte not to be tollerated to lay hande in anny mecanicall trade, for it is not fitt that suche a one shoulde equall him self vvith honorable Soul∣dieres of noble and vertuese life.

Dayes of solme feastes kermishes or fayeres, the Sardgent mayor is to reforce the gardes or vvatches, for in suche time greate congrega∣tion of people of other places are wonte to joyne; And at suche times Page  45 may happen tumoltes and revoltes; findinge the men of armes unwa∣rie and unvigilante theyre enemyes may fall uppon them and optai∣ne theyre desire, vvherof both notable disgrace and loss may resulte, as by experience hath beene tried in diverses Provinces and places of importance.

When the Sardgent mayor seteth the vvatche he or one of his a ju∣dantes are to ride a horsbake▪ and visite all the gardes and rampar, to see if each garde be provided vvith the men apointed, for some times trough the litle care or forgethfulnes of some Sardgentes, and Cor∣porales they err in the orderes. Wherfore in such occasiones by righ∣te they shoulde by severelie reprehende, that they may be the more ca∣refull and vigilante, beinge refered to theyre care and truste the repo∣se, and safetie of all the reste.

If need require he is to advertice the Captaines of his Regimente, that in suche places where they are with the Master de campe they can give no order to sound the Drom, excepte it by for extreame necessi∣tie, or in time of the watche withoute order of the Master de campe: When occasion shall offer that armes, or any sorte of amunitiones shall be received from the Kinge it apertaines the Furiell mayor to re∣ceive the same, and to yealde a compte to the Kinges ministeres (when it shall besought for) thies amunitiones are to be devided be∣twext the Companies by the Sardgent mayor, causinge to deliver ea∣che Sardgente whate belongeth to his Company, as he shall thincke conveniente, and fitt for his Majesties service. He is earnestelie to procure to see severelie punished such as are inclined to vices and bad examples, and alsoe to advertice the Captaines of his Regimente, that they a siste in whate toucheth theyre Companies, touchinge this particular for beinge therunto bounde; Soe that all factioneres of ba¦se life, as theeves quarleres, mutineres, dronkardes, and suche as are vvholie given to vice may by driven a way, soe that those of good life may live at reste; Beinge in garison with his Regimente, or with parte therof he is to apointe, and ordaine where shall eache Company re∣paire when occation of alarme doth represente to frame his squa∣dron, and he is alsoe to apointe each Company of those on the vvatch whate place of the rampar they are to defende, and alsoe he is to give chardge to his ajudante, where they shall asiste that they may acom∣plish with care, diligence, and perfection, vvhate is refered to theyre chardge, and those orderes beinge once given eache one with greate speede and care shall repaire to acomplish his obligation; soe that du∣ringe Page  46 the time he is framinge his squadron the reste doe repaire to theyre apointed places, that of a sodaine all thinges may be preven∣ted in due time, advertisinge that he is to choise the moste convenien∣test and fiteste place for the framinge of his squadron, and of less em∣pedimentes of casteles, towres, or offencive places nexte adjoyninge.

The Company or Companies that are of the vvatch he is not to permit them to departe the same till firste other Companies doe reli∣ve them, and take possession of the place, but stande in array till the other Companies doe inter, and take posession, and then they are to marche towardes theyre quarter, in this manner shall he perceiue tho∣se that intred the garde, and those that doe departe from it.

He is not to give the wourde till the gates are shutt, he is to be care∣full to see all thinges well ordered and acomplished, and see that the Corporalles them selves in person doe acompany the Souldieres till he leave them in theyre centeries, where he is to give them the vvourde, bringinge backe along vvith him those that were relived to the cor∣pe de garde, where he is to keepe them that nighte for respecte of the watche wourde, sometimes it happeneth that Corporales of litle disci∣pline and honor, do give the vvourde to those that goeth to relive the postes, vvhich resulte of pure ingnorance, and for theyre ovvne ease, not thincking of the sore reprehension they may have of theyre supe∣rior Officeres for that badd and sinister custome: Thies disorderes in no case are to by permitted, for beinge verie dangerouse. In this par∣ticular the high dutch is to be comended (for at nighte they cause the Drom to by beaten againste every relife,) and the Corporalles doe a company the Souldieres til they leave them in theyre postes, and brin∣ge those that are relived a longe with them to the corpe de garde; but in garison and other places nowe a dayes they use it diferente withou∣te the sounde of Drom, not failenge in the reste, and the Corporall yealdeth goode a compte of all that a pertaineth to his chardge, and trusteth the care therof to none but to him selfe, to by the more asu∣red.

Greate and speciall care ought to by taken dayes of the watch that no Souldier of the same doe absente him selfe excepte it by to eate, and the Officer therin oughte to take a goode course in licencinge them orderly by comarades, one after another, givinge thē straigh∣te comaunde to returne vvith all speede. And if they be founde lon∣ge absent eyther, drinckinge, pleainge, or pasinge a way the time idell, to severelie see them punished, and to repeehende the Sardgen∣te Page  47 or Corporall that shall licence them beinge in seperated gardes, and specially dayes of greate feastes and fayres.

Let no Souldier absente him selfe from his vvatch, you if it vvere but to change a shurte or bande, beinge bounde such dayes to o cu∣pie him selfe in nothinge but in a tendinge his vvatch: Some times gamesteres who beinge therunto much inclined not findinge pleain∣ge in theyre ovvne garde do goe unto other vvatches to play, vvho oughte to by severely punished, for the redresinge of thies faultes, and many more, the a judantes oughte nowe and then to visitt the courte de gardes, rampares, and centeries, to see many faultes redre∣sed.

When occasion is offered in pasinge of muster it hapeneth, that some times the Veedor generall, or Contador is sente to see that mu∣ster by order of the Generall, In which occasiones the Sardgent ma∣yor is to asiste, in sheowinge and instructinge the more conveniente∣ste places for the same. As alsoe of all other necessaries therunto aper∣taininge, and he is to repaire and comunicate with his Master de cam∣pe, and receive the necessary orderes for the same, and at the faulinge of the nighte to camaunde the Drom mayor, and all the Dromeres to joyne in the place or principall corpe de garde, givinge order to the Drom mayor to beate a vando of the muster, not advertisinge the a pointed place for the same, for sertaine respectes, but rather pasinge the same in severall places that none may knowe where till the verie instant they marche, givinge order to the Drom mayor that he pro∣claime thatt all Companies be readdy, at the breake of the day to pass muster, and to be carefull to observe the instructiones of the Vee∣dor generall touchinge the muster, for duringe that time he hase ful auctority for ministringe vvell his office, or vvhosoever is apointed by him for that purpose, givinge firste order to the Company of the Master de campe to marche and after the same if theyre be Compa∣nies of Arcabuseros, and after thos vvhiche he thinketh beste, and in pasenge muster they are to be cauled in the self fame maner, one after another as they did formerly enter, advertisinge that the Company or Companies that are on the watch shall marche laste to muster, and the firste that shall pass muster.

The ajudante at this time shall cause the gates of the towne to be shutt; And presentlie after at leaste one of the Companies of the watche shall pass muster, and then the Company of the Master de campe, and after the reste Companies that are ••inter the watche, Page  48 and the reste shall pass muster as they have intered, the muster bein∣ge paste, and the listes confronted, the Sardgent mayor is to get a re∣lation of the number of Souldieres that shall be conteined in each Company, and bringe the same to the Master de campe to knovve the full number of the muster of the Companies of his Regimente. Wherof the Sardgent mayor is to have a copie for many respectes: A Sardgente mayor who woulde with prudence and auctoritie have his office vvell executed, it is verie necessarie that he knoweth the quali∣ties and conditiones of eache Captaine of his Regimente, that he may employ eache one with discretion, as time and occasion shall re∣quire, consideringe the partes and suficiencie of eache one, that the∣reby he may employ each one acordinge to the partes that in him doth o curr: When his Captaine generall, or Master de campe gene∣rall, or ordinary Master de campe giveth order for any execution of emportance. Some are goode for all executiones vvhiche are estee∣med for perfecte Souldieres, some to fighte with a valerouse determi∣nation, others thoughe valiante of unhappie proceedinges, and that resultinge for the moste parte of theyre litle prudence, som otheres doe o bey and carefully acomplish with whate they are comaunded by theyre Superiores; of whiche often times happie proceedinges doe resulte; otheres with prudence, valor, auctoritie, and brave con∣duction.

It is moste necessarie that the Sardgente mayor doe knowe the o∣ne, and the other that he may vvith the more securitie employ each one acordinge as the emportance requireth of eache execution; he is alsoe to knowe the qualitie and condition of the inferior Office∣res, vvho are to assiste and who are to by employed acordinge to the partes and sufficiencie in them: He is to presente him selfe with aucto∣ritie and brave resolution, reprehendiges faultes and disorderes with discretion, vvhiche shall oblidge them to obey and acomplish they∣re obligationes vvith love, he is to instructe them and sheowe them goode examples, as vvell in the exercice of theyr armes, as in acom∣plishinge theyre obligationes with punctualitie, he is to comaunde vvithe prudence and greate resolution for beinge soe moste required for the executiones of his office, but with prudente consideration, for vvhich it is required that he be of a sober and gentle mynde for o therwise hardely can he bringe to pass his obligation in this, and specially in vvinenge the love of the Souldiers. The Sardgente ma∣yor is to visite novve and then the postes or centeries, instructinge Page  49 them who to handel theyre armes and comaundinge them to let no∣ne pass by nighte tyme, nor permit none come nere him, withoute fir∣ste givinge the wourde, though it were his Captaine or Master de campe, and the Souldier that otherwise permitethe any to pass is to be reprehended, for ocation may be invented at nighte of greate em∣portance, and soe it is verie necessary that none be permitted to come neere the centerie, withoute firste givinge the vvourde, and that for many respectes. Yea and if it were his Officer presuminge that he kno∣vveth him, and intreating and repleeinge to lett him pass, he is to answer, vvith aresolute determination, and say i knovve none but he that giveth the vvourde for soe doth he vvell acomplish his obliga∣tion. In garison he shall comaunde the maner and vvho the roun∣des shall be distributed, whiche is the moste and sureste securitie of the place, and whē he him selfe shall rounde by night tyme to discover re∣dress and reprehende the faultes and negligences of the roundes and cinteries; he is to hid him selfe and aproache verie secretlie to perceive the care and punctualitie of the rounde, and if otherwise he finde him still, or vvith rumor in theyre jurney not attendinge the outewarde as the inwarde side of the vvall, he is to severely reprehēde them. For the more securitie of a place dependeth on the care and prudence of the rounde: Alsoe if he findes the centeries negligente and careles in not acomplishinge theyr obligation, let him see them severelie punished, that therby it may be an exemple both for them and otheres to com∣plish vvith greate vigilance and care theyre obligationes: Some Sard∣gent mayores for theyre better securitie doe carie at nighte a target, because that often tymes unruly factioneres doe pass at nighte and comittt many disgraces; Soe it is not amiss he goeth vvell provided to prevente theyre unruly tached inclinasiones, he is to use greate dis∣cressiō, and moderatiō vvith the cinteries in goenge the rounde. The ajudante is to rounde alsoe novve and then to seconde the Sardgente mayor in differente nightes as ordained by the Sardgent mayor, imi∣tatenge the steppes and order of his Master, and he is to informe of the cinteries if they hearde any rumor or ocation eyther vvithoute or vvithin, givinge the cinteries goode instructiones, as alsoe in the corrpes de garde or vvatches, and sheowe him selfe amiable to the Souldieres, and reprehindinge theyre faultes vvith prudente reaso∣nes. Soe shall he by both feared and beloved.

The Officeres of the vvatches are alsoe to asiste in visitenge the cin∣teries as ordayned by the Sardgent mayor, and that with scilence and Page  50 Vigilance demaundinge the cinteries if they have hearde any thinge, soe that remedy mighte be prevented in due time if ocation requi∣re.

And specially the Corporall, in givinge eache Souldier to understā∣de who he shall handel or manadge his armes, and who he is to take the wourde, and to be alerto, let him not be given nor muche credible to uncertayne shadowes, as many bisones and rawe men doe, givenge many alarmes withoute o cation; And when the round a procheth the cintery is to terciar his pike and demaund quin Viene alla and if he houldeth his peace, let him turne againe in demaundinge with much severitie with an angrie and furiouse contenance, if he answere amigo which is to say afrende, then let him demaunde the vvatche vvourde, preparinge and makinge ready him selfe for that purpose; And if it were soe that he Shoulde suspecte of the rounde that it were an enemy, thoughe they give the vvourde let them not pass, aleadginge that they have not the righte vvourde: but otherwise knowinge the rounde and givinge the vvourde he is to lett them freely pass.

The cinteries are alvvayes to by moste carefull and Vigilante, for some tymes it may happen that the enemy shoulde steale the wourde, and fall of a sodaine on the cinterie and kill him, vvherefore he is al∣vvayes to by alerto and verie varie, and if he suspecte the rounde to be an enemy as before spoken let him be no meanes come neere to Master his armes, and specially if they replee let him cause them to retire, if not, presently he is to caule alarme vvith great furie and high voice that he may by vvell hearde, and if neede require lett him by a litle and litle retire, defendinge him selfe the beste he may beinge therunto constrayned but not otherwise, vvheresoever the Sardgent mayor shall asiste vvith his Regimente or parte therof he shall comaunde the co∣mon table ordained for gamesteres to be putt on the principall courte de garde, and the barata of thies gamesteres he shall a pointe one to oversee the same, vvhiche barata shall be to sheovve his horses. He is not to permitt to putt this table in other places nor permitt any joyin∣ge of gamesteres oute of that a pointed place, for many respectes, and specially to avoyde quareles disputes joyninges and rumores of some that are given to thies vicees, but rather in the corpe de garde as a pla∣ce of respecte and vvhere each one shall not presume so muche to co∣mitt disorderes, for knovvinge of the severe punishmente for suche as comit errores, and loose respecte to a place of soe greate priviledge.