The politicke and militarie discourses of the Lord de La Nouue VVhereunto are adioyned certaine obseruations of the same author, of things happened during the three late ciuill warres of France. With a true declaration of manie particulars touching the same. All faithfully translated out of the French by E.A.
La Noue, François de, 1531-1591., Aggas, Edward.

The second troubles.

Of the causes of the taking of armes in the second trou∣bles. Also how the purposes where vpon the Prote∣stants had built themselues proued vaine.

MAny are the writings that haue beene published in iustification of the leauie of * armes in the yeere 1507. as also o∣thers contrariwise to condemne them, whereof such histories as intreate of things passed haue at large discoursed, to the which all such as gladly woulde exactly search the particularities of all these publike actions are to hae re∣course. For my part I am content briefly vpon this point to touch Page  389 some such as are as true as the same that haue ben published, which I haue learned of those that on the one side had in part the conduct of the affaires. The edict of pacification concluded before Orleance had greatly satisfied almost all France, as well in appearance as in effect, because thereby all miseries ceasing, euerie man inioyed rest with safetie of bodie & libertie of minde. Howbeit the hatred & enuy of some, as also the mistrust of others was not quite extinguished, but lay hidden and vnperceiued. But as time doth commonly bring all things to perfection, so these seeds together with many worse, brought forth such fruit as returned vs into our former discords: the chiefe of the religion who looked to the safetie as well of thēselues as of other made a general collection of all that was wrought & stil practised against them, affirming that vndoubtedly their enemies endeuoured by little and little to vndermine them, & then euen at once to giue them their deaths wound. Of the causes that they al∣leaged some were manifest, and some secret. Concerning the first, they consisted in the razing of sundrie townes, and the building of Citadels in the places were they had their publike exercise: also in murthers in sundrie places cōmitted, & the slaughter of diuerse no∣table Gentlemen, whereof they could haue no iustice. In the ordi∣narie threats that shortly they should not lift their heads so high: & especially in ye comming of Suitzers, albeit the Duke of Alua was already passed into Flanders, vnder a cloked feare of whose passage they were leauied. And for the secret they propounded certaine in∣tercepted letters comming from Rome & Spaine, wherin the pur∣poses that should be put in execution were more plainly discouered: The resolution concluded with the Duke of Alua at Bayon to root out all the Huguenots in France, and the Rogues in Flaunders, whereof they were aduertised by such as were not doubted of. All these things with many more that I omit did greatly waken those that were loth to be taken sleeping: and I remember that the chiefe of the religiō met thrise at Vallery & Chastillon, whether came 10 or 12. of the notablest Gentlemen to determine vpon these present wars, also to seeke some lawfull & honest meanes of safetie among so many terrors without proceeding to the vttermost extremities. Howbeit rather by the counsaile of the L. Admirall than of anie o∣ther, euery one was desired a while to haue patience, for that in so waightie affaires as these, which brought with them many mis∣chiefes, men ought rather to be drawen by necessitie, than to runne headlong vpon will: withal that in short time they should see more. Page  390 But at thirde meeting which was within a moneth, their braines were better heat as well vpon the considerations aforesayde, as tho∣rough new aduices giuen them, namelie one which the Prince and Lord Admirall did affirme to proceede from a Courtier greatly af∣fected to the Protestants, who assured them that there had bene a se∣cret counsayle holden, wherin it was determined to seaze vpon them two, the one to be put to death, the other to be kept prisoner: at the same time to place 2000. Suitzers at Paris, two thousand at Orleance, & the rest to bee sent to Poictiers: Then to disanull the Edict of pacification, and to make an other vtterlie contrarie thereto: and not to doubte thereof. This was easie to be beleeued, and the rather for that al∣readie they see the Zuitzers, who they had beene so ofen promised should bee sent backe, march toward Paris. Wherevpon some more sensitiue and impatient than the rest grewe into these speeches▪ What? shall wee tarrie vntill they come and binde vs hande and foote and so drawe vs vnto their scaffoldes at Paris, there by our shamefull deaths to glutte others crueltie? What aduice shall wee yet expecte? Doe wee not alreadie see the foraine enemie march armed toward vs, and threaten to bee reuenged on vs, as well for so many iniuries done to them at Dreux, as also for those harms which in our defences we haue done to the Catholikes? Haue wee forgotten that aboue three thou∣sand of our religion haue since the peace endured violent deaths, for whome (whatsoeuer our complayntes) wee can haue no redresse but friuolous aunsweres and fraudulent delayes? Yet if it were our Kings will wee shoulde bee thus iniuried and contemned, wee might perad∣uenture the better beare it: But sith wee know that all this is wrought by those who shrouding themselues vnder his name doe purpose to debarre vs all accesse vnto his person, and to alienate his good will from vs, to the ende that beeing destitute of all ayde and supporte we may remayne theyr bonde men, and bee a praie vnto them: shall wee beare such insolencies? Our Fathers did patientlie for the space of fortie yeeres and more suffer, vppon whome they made proofe of all sortes of punishmentes for the name of Iesus, which cause our selues doe also defende. And now that non onelie families and bo∣roughes, but also whole townes haue vnder the authoritie and benefite of two royall edictes manefestly declared theyr fayth, wee shall make our selues vnworthie these two goodlie titles Christian and Gentle∣man, which wee esteeme to bee most honourable ornamentes, if tho∣rough our neglygence and cowardlynesse in loosing our selues▪ wee suf∣fer such a multitude of people to perish. Wherefore we beseech you that Page  391 haue taken vpon you the common defence to enter some speedie resolu∣tion, for the matter will heare no longer delayes. Other assistaunts at this counsayle were moued, not so much at the vehemencie, as truth of this speech.

But as there are alwayes some full of consideration, the same did replie that they perceiued the eminent daunger, howbe∣it that the safegard was from them hidden. For if we will (sayd they) flie to complaintes & supplications, it is most euident that the same do rather prouoke those to whome they be exhibited, than procure anie re∣medie. If likewise we take armes with how many reproches, slanders, & curses shall we bee ouerwhelmed by those who imputing vnto vs the blame of the miseries ensuing, when they cannot discharge their rage vppon vs, will ease their choller vppon our poore families dispear∣sed in diuerse places? howbeit in as much as among many mischiefes we must alwayes choose the least, it seemeth there is lesse inconuenience in suffering the first violences of our enemies, than in beginning with thē & so become guiltie of a publike & general cōmotion. Then spake the Lord of Andelot and sayd: Your opinion my maisters that spake last is grounded vpon some discretion and apparant equitie: But the prin∣cipall phisicall drugges, meete to purge this exceeding humour which now aboundeth in the vniuersall bodie of Fraunce, namely Fortitude and Magnanimitie doe therein want. I woulde therefore weete of you, if you carrie vntill wee bee banished into forraine Countries, lie bound in prisons, lurke in forrests, ouerrunne by the people, contemned by the souldiours, and condemned by the authoritie of the mightiest, (all which we are not farre fro) what will all our passed patience and humilitie stand vs in stead? What profite can wee reape in our inno∣cencie? To whome shal we complayne? Or who wil vouchsafe to heare vs? It is time to see that wee be no longer deceiued, and to haue re∣course to our defence which is as iust as necessarie, neither to care though they tearme vs the authours of the warre: for themselues are they that in so many sortes haue infringed the publike agreementes and couenants, and that haue brought euen into our bowels sixe thousande forraine souldiers, who in effect haue already proclaimed it against vs, so as if we giue them such aduantage as to strike vs first, our mischiefe will be past remedy.

Small speech was there afterwarde, other than an approba∣tion * to take force in hande, so to preuent the imminent destructi∣tion. Howbeit if there were any difficulties in the rosolution heere∣of, so was there no lesse in learning howe to proceede in this newe Page  392 approch. Some wished the Captaines to seaze vpon Orleance, & confederate towne, and then to certefie their maiesties that percei∣uing the approch of ye Suitzers, they were thether withdrewen with theyr friends for their safeties: also that by returuing them home, they would likewise depart euerie man to his owne house. Hereto it was aunswered, that these men had forgotten how that at Orle∣ance there was a great gate fortefied and kept by a sufficient num∣ber of Catholikes, whereby they might alwayes let in men of warre into the towne: also that nowe it was time to defend them∣selues with yron and steele, and not with wordes or writing. O∣thers thought it good abroade in the Prouinces to seaze vppon as many townes as they might, and then to stand vpon the defensiue, whose aduice was not admitted neyther, because that: (as it was sayde) in the first troubles of a hundred that the Protestants helde, within eight moneths they had not twelue lefte, for want of power to succour them. Finally, they concluded to take armes, & in the be∣ginning of this warre to obserue foure things. First to seaze vpon fewe townes, but the same to bee of importaunce: Secondlie, to frame a Iustie armie: Thirdlie, to cut in peeces the Suitzers, vnder whose fauour the Catholikes would alwayes bee the maisters of the field: Lastlie, to indeauour to banish the Cardinall of Loraine from the Court, as him whome many did imagine to bee a conti∣nua salliciour of the King to root out the Protestants. Great diffi∣culties were there propounded concerning the two last pointes. For, sayde some, the Cardinall and the Suitzers did continuallie march with the Kings person, so as assayling the one, and endea∣uouring to terrefie the other, euerie man woulde affirme their enterprise to be directlie agaynst the royall maiestie and no other: but they were decided by this aunswere: That the euent shoulde discouer their intentes, euen as they gaue testimonie of King Charles the seauenth, who beeing but Dolphine tooke armes, but neyther against his Father nor the Realme. Moreouer, that it was well knowen that the French in bodie had neuer attempted against their Princes person: Finallie, that if this theyr first successe fell out fauourable, it might cutte off the course of a long and ruinous warre, in that they shoulde haue opportunitie to open vnto the King the truth of matters, which yet was concealed from him, whereof might ensue a newe confirmation of the ediots, namelie, when they that purposed to preuent shoulde finde themselues pre∣uented.

Page  393 This was the resolution taken among those men that were then present, who albeit they were indued with great knowledge, expe∣rience, valour, and discretion, yet al that they had so diligentlie fore∣cast and examined, when it came to effecte, was wonderfull wide from their expectation, & other things almost vnthought of, as ac∣coūted eyther to sure or difficult, redoūded to their greatest benefit. Whereof it followeth that wee may heereby perceiue that good successe doth not alwayes followe good deliberatious. Howbeit all this haue I not heere spoken to the ende to controll those that I haue named, of whose vertue I haue euermore greatly admired, neither to cause men in their affaires to neglect discretion or dili∣gence, but onelie to aduertise them that the accomplishment of a∣nie our workes consisteth not in the purposes of man, but in Gods disposition.

Now let vs marke the successe of these enterprises. For the first * points which concerned the townes it was determined to surprise onelie three, viz. Lions, Tholouse, and Troy, and that for the com∣moditie in diuerse respects ensuing of the same. But the purposes of those that vndertooke the charge of seazing vpon them fell out to be in vaine. Concerning strength of the field, the Protestants were in the beginning stronger than the Catholikes, but within a mo∣neth and a halfe after the taking of armes the Catholikes were the mightier, whereby they forced them to haue recourse to straungers whom they had called to their succour. The execution of the Suit∣zers had as bad successe, as well for that this purpose was discoue∣red, as through want of power. Now rested no more but the fourth point, which beeing of smallest importaunce was brought to passe, and that was the parting of the Cardinall of Loraine from the Court, who notwithstanding was of as greate authoritie there as before time. But thereof grew another inconuenience to the Pro∣testantes. Which was, that they stirred vp the Kings hatred and indignation agaynst them, in that by theyr occasion hee was forced with feare and speed to retyre to Paris, so as euer after he bare them a grudge. This had beene but an vnhappie beginning of the warre vnto them if other effectes had not recompensed the first defaultes: which neuerthelesse happened rather by the motions of diuerse particular Gentlemen, together with the disposition of sundrie the inhabitants of townes, than through anie the great deli∣berations afore mēcioned, wherof ensued the seazure of sundry both good & had, of which the neerest were Orleāce, Auxerre & Soissōs.Page  394 True it is that secretly they were warned to shirre vpon one prefix∣ed daie, albeit there was no great account made of other than the afore rehearsed.

That the Prince of Condies attempt of three things for a proud face vpon the beginning of his enterprise, wher∣at the Catholikes at the first were astonied.

MAns courage vrged by necessitie doth in∣crease,* as also his former apprehensions beeing some what quailed, he standeth in the lesse feare to hazarde himselfe vnto whatsoeuer difficult and dangerous at∣tempts, as it then happened to the Pro∣testants. For they seeing the naked swoord threatning of them, resolued to saue themselues rather with the arme than the legge and therefore winking at sundrie respects thought it best valiantlie to beginne. Their first and principall act was a gene∣rall taking of armes vppon one selfe daie, which bred great astonish∣ment euen to some of their owne parte, who were ignoraunt of the matter, & much terrour to the Catholiks, who peraduenture 〈◊〉 if they had begun first, haue dealt more rigorously thā ye Protestants did: neuerthelesse in the meane time it grieued them to see so many townes taken, which they dissembled: albeit some of them sayde, The brethren haue now taken vs tardie, but the daie will come that wee shall haue our reuenge, wherein they shewed themselues as good as their wordes: For before the yeere was ouer, they gaue them to weete that they had, sayde but the truth. Some helde opinion that so many aduertisementes as were to bee giuen to the Prouinces, woulde breede the discouerie of the enterprise, ho wheit that happe∣ned in fewe places, neuerthelesse in those of most importaunce: much more vnpossible is it in these dayes so to proceede in re∣specte of mannes indiscretion, the which is such as it can con∣ceale nothing. Wee may note in auncient time examples in manner much lyke vnto this (excepte that the one did ende Page  395 to offend, the other to defend, as when Mithridates within his do∣minions vpon a lyke daie procured the slaughter of fortie thousand Romaines. Likewise when three score townes of Greece were by a certayne daie appointed by the Romaine Consul seazed & sacked by his legions without anie fore knowledge or perceuerance of one or other vntill the verie time of the execution thereof. But such acti∣ons happen but seldome, by reason that they which haue once beene caught and scaped agayne, doe grow so vigilant and suspitious that euen the wagging of euery leafe doth waken them, and each shadow make them to start.

The second notable action consisted in that with lesse than fiue * hundred horse, they durst aduenture vpon six thousand Suitzers, and make them to retyre. True it is that according to their platforme * they should haue bene more, viz. a certayn number of harquebuziers on horsebacke, who fayled them, not in comming into the fielde, but of comming in time to the place appoynted, so as in respect of theyr small power the Captaines of the Protestants stayed and duist not aduenture vpon a generall charge against this greate troope which seemed a forrest. Moreouer, theyr great race that they had runne, had almost tyred all their horses, and yet haue I heard them affirme that had their troope of Picardie which consisted of an hundred and fiftie horse come in time they would haue hazarded the field, in making their harquebuziers to alight, and charging with their squadrons on three sides. Howbeit although they had so done, yet had the euent bene doubtfull. All passed in skirmishes, wherin some of each part were slaine and wounded. I haue heard that this great battayle set a countenance worthie Suitzers: for without any feare they stood fast a while, and then retyred close still turning their head as dooth the wilde Bore whome the hunters doe pursue, vntill that seeing no lykelyhoode to force them, they gaue them ouer.

The third deed was the occupying of the towne of Saint Denis, and two other small villages at hande which the Prince of Condie* caused to be entrenched, where he planted himselfe with al his pow∣er to laie siege to that side of Paris. All these effects comming into consideration euen of the best Captaines of the Catholikes, they grew astonied, as imagining that the Prince did spedely expect some great force, and had verie good intelligences as well in Paris as in the Court. Otherwise (sayd they) being so weake, he neuer durst come so boldly to lodge so neere vs, neither would the Admirall (being a most warie and good warriour) without some hidden groundes haue coun∣sayled Page  396 it. This made them to forbeare vntill they had assembled their power. Diuerse there were that thought it hard (conside∣ring that theyr strength was good as consisting of almost ten thou∣sand men) to suffer this small handfull of people by theyr dailie and continuall skirmishes to face them euen to their gates, thinking it a great shame that an Ant shoulde besege an Elephant. But in my opinion the others considerations were the wiser, who affir∣med it to be a manifest token of follie, by a battayle which is vncer∣tayne agayust fooles (for so they tearmed vs) who nowe haue no counsayle but despayre, or treasure, but their horse and armour, to hazarde the whole bodie of the state, which is as it were enclosed within the walles of Paris: also that hauing in their handes so sa∣cred a matter as the kings person, they must doe all things surelie: and that shortly they shoulde perceiue most honourable fruites pro∣ceede of this aduice. Thus betweene the wisedome of some and the rashnesse of others, there was as it were a discordant concorde be∣tweene them for a fewe daies, yea, euen vntill the greate game was playde, which was so rude, that the Protestants were forced to for∣sake theyr lodgings: He therefore yt vpon this example shoulde goe about to builde auie greate or aduenturous purposes might perad∣uenture commit an incurable errour: For the matters which wee would compare doe not alwayes in euerie parte resemble: besides that these accidents are such as it is much if a whole age bringeth forth two or three.

Of the most notable occurrences happened at the departure from Saint Denis.

IT doth many times fall out yt〈◊〉 mightie Cap∣taine * albeit he cannot attaine to his purposed intents, doth neuerthelesse in his proceedings shew forth such valour, yt men cannot but com∣mend him as they did the Prince of Condie for his braue exploits during his aboade at S. Denis. Due of his purposes tended to bring Page  397 the Parisians into such want of victuals, & other wise so to moest thē yt as well themselues as such others as were thether retired, should he forced to hearen to peace, Here of grew the enterprises of Cha∣renton bridge, S. Claude & Poyssy, whereby to bridle the riuer, which neuerthelsse were to small purpose, & was like to haue bred the destruction of the Protestants. Some would metuaile how such excellent Captaines, who could not be ignorant what great armies had afore time (w〈…〉ning to performe the like attempt) lost their la∣bore, as did that of Duke Charles of Burgundie, which I thinke they had not quite forgottē, wold vndertake such an enterprise. But they did it, as finding themselues in place where occasion inuited them to attempt that which the cōmon voice cried vpon them to do. Moreouer, they supposed that to lie stil & enterprise nothing would be a great diminishing of their credit: besides that, seeing their peo∣ple so well disposed; they accompted most difficult enterprises, easie to be compassed.

The Prince of Condies second intent was to draw the army that * layin closed in Paris to battel, in hope that the same being won the warre would be at end, which his purpose spedde no better than the former. As for the third, he made account that albeit he were forced to abandon S. Denis, yet the townes which should be seazed as well vpon the riuer of Marne as of Seine, might faour & support him in the placing of his power vntil the comming of his Germaines whō he had sēt for for to assist him. But this purpose also in respect they could surprise but two, viz. Lagny & Montereau, as the rest vauish∣ed in smoke. The L. Constables attempts were brought to better effect. His first purpose was after the refreshing of his power to force the Protestants to battaile thinking that he must needs ouer∣come them in respect of the aduantages he had them at, which hee had almost done. He also made account to disappoint them of their lodgings, and to send them farther from the Parisians, who had no great onlight that such good husbands & so diligent to cleere them shoulde looke to their accomptes: But death debarred him that benefite: and to saie roth if hee had liued and had his health, hee would haue made them to haue made more hast than they did. Tru∣ly as wel the one as the other bare themselues as great Captaines but tending to diuerse endes, viz. to defend and offend, theyr acti∣tions likewise were in parte different.

It well be seemed the Protestants to bee oft on horsebacke, to * enterprise sometimes to some purpose, sometimes desperatelie,

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Page  400 him that their heartes or hope were not yet daunted: and there∣fore bringing their small armie well resolued into the fielde, they shewed themselues before the suburbs of the citie, burning a village and some windmilles within view of the towne, so to testifie them that all the Protestants were not all deade: also that there was yet some exercise prouided: but no man issued by reason (as it is to be presumed) of the losse of the Lorde Constable. This the Prote∣stants bragge preserued their credit: how be it perceiuing that their soiourning there would be their ouerthrow, the next morrowe they raised their campe and marched toward Montereau, whither they sent for the rest of their power that Iay at Estampes & Orleance, to come to them, which greatly increased their armie.

Of the voiages of both the armies toward Lorraine, but to se∣uerall intents.

SO soone as the French power which ye P. of Condie expected were ioyned * wt him the contrary armie wherof the D. of Aniow was generall, dailie in∣creasing, followed him at the heeles. Diuers Catholiks my good friends haue assured me that vpon anie fit oc∣casion he meant to haue fought: for the olde Captaines that counsayled him therto, very wel foreseeing that if the Protestants should ioyne with their Reisters (who were alreadie setting forward) the war would grow long, or els they must fight an vncertaine battayle, were vpon these considerations earnestly princ∣ked thereto. But withall when they beheld the importance of their Generalls person who rested vnder their weapons, also the dispaire of their aduersaries, the same did somewhat stay them. They vsed two cunning pollicies as well to stay them as to surprise thē: for in warre such subtilties are allowed, at the lest they are practised: The first was a parley of peace, wherein ye most notable of the Ptotestāts (as the Car. of Chastillon) were imploied: which stil cooled the heat of the battell. The other was two abstinences from wars each for 2 or 3. daies, to the end, as it was said, the better to confer of the arti∣cles Page  401 propounded. The one was neere to Montereau, the other by Chaalons: but the last had like to haue ben verie preiudicial vnto ye Protestants, by reasō the P. of Condy staied in a very bad lodginge & sore scattered while the Catholiks armie did approch, & had it not ben for the County Brissacks enterprise against certaine cornets of harquebuziers on horseback whō he ouerthrew, the said Prince had still soiourned there 2. daies, where vndoubtedly he had bene fought withal, & peraduenture surprised by his aduersaries who were very strong, the rather through the ariual of 1500. Burguignion speres, who under the conduct of the Earl of Arem bergue, one of the fa∣mousest Captains of the low countries, were ioyned vnto him. But when during the abstinence he see such slaughter, hee thought it no greate safetie to trust to wordes, & therefore in 3. daies space mar∣ched aboue 20. leagues through the rain, & so bad waies, that it was to be wondered how the carriages and artillerie could follow, for there was nothing lost either in the one or the other, so good was ye order & so greate the diligence. Monsieur his armie seeing this departure pursued no farther: yea, some of them boasted that they had driuen the Protestants out of the realme: others hauing better foresight perceiuing that they could no longer be stopped from ioy∣ning with their Germains thought it best to let them go & then to seeke how to keepe them from comming in again. But there were some likewise, & they no small number that laide great fault in di∣uerse of Monsieurs counsailors for suffring them so to escape with out battaile, saying that the Admirall had secret intelligence with them, which was a very false imagination, wherat himselfe vsed to scorne, & many times he assured me there was no such matter, ne∣uerthelesse he would endeuour still to maintaine thē in ye suspition.

Now will I rehearse some stirs & follies of the Protestants du∣ring their small abode in Lorraine: as also the voluntarie liberali∣tie * whereof they made demonstration in the middest of all their po∣uertie that there inuironed them: an action which I take in these daies to be vnpractiseable. Many were persuaded (as also the voice so went) that they could not set foot in Lorrain but they should heare the Reisters cockes sing: but hauing there soiourned 4. or 5. daies they had no more speech of them than when they were before Paris, which bred sundrie mutinies, euē among some of the nobilitie, who in their ordinarie speeches did somewhat rudclie gird at their Ge∣nerals: so great is the impaciencie of our nation: But they vnder∣standing hereof endeuoured to remedie it. Page  402 Likewise as men can hardlie abandon their naturall inclinations, so the perswasions which their heads vsed were different: for the P. of Condie beeing of a pleasant disposition did so conuenient∣lie gird these chollerike and busie persons that hee made euen those that most exceeded either in the one or the other to laugh. On the other side the Admirall with his graue speeches did so shame them that in the end they were forced to appease and quiet themselues. At the same time my selfe asked him of his best counsayle in case Monsieur should followe vs? We would march, sayd he, towarde Bacchara, where the Reisters should make their assemblie: also that it were not for vs to fight without them, and that after the enimies first heat was somwhat quailed: But, what if the Reisters were not there, would some man saie, what coulde the Protestants then doe? I thinke they coulde haue blowen theyr fingers, for the weather was verie colde. Now was all the Towne soone conuerted into mirth when as they vnderstoode certainelie that Duke Iohn Casimire, (a Prince endued with all Christian vertues, and one to whome the Protestants are highlie bound) did march and was at hande. Then was there nothing but singing and leaping, yea, they that had most cried out did leape highest. These their behauiours did verie wel verefie the saying of Titus Liuius, that ye Gauls are soone an∣grie, and so consequently soone merrie againe, which passions if they be not, after the imitation of the sages, moderated by reason do easilie exceede.

The Prince of Condie vnderstanding by his agents in Ger∣manie that the Reisters looked vppon theyr ioyning with him to * finger at the lest 100000. crowns, was in greater care than before he had bene for his mennes mutinies, because hee had not 2000. There was it expedient for him to make of necessitie vertue: and as well himselfe as the L. Admiral being in great credice with the Protestants, employed all their cunning, credite, and eloquence to perswade euerie man to depart with whatsoeuer his abilitie would beare toward this so necessarie contribution, wherevppon depended the contentation of those whome so diligently they had waited for. Hereof thēselues gaue the first example in giuing their own siluer vessel: The ministers in their Sermons exhorted heereto, and the most zealous Captaines prepared their men: for in so extra∣ordinarie a matter they had neede to vse all kindes of instru∣ments. There did sundrie of the Gentry shewe a greate readinesse to discharge themselues loyallie: But the chiefe brunt of this Page  403 battaile appeared whē they came to vrge the scholers of Lady Pico∣ree, whose propertie it was to be readie to take, and slacklie to for∣goe: howbeit partly by loue & partly by feare they quit themselues better than men looked for: yea, this liberalitie was so generall, that euen the souldiours lackies and boies gaue euerie one some∣what, so as in the end it was accounted a dishonour to haue giuen but little. Some such of these there were as made the Gentlie a∣shamed in parting more voluntarilie with their gold, than they had done with their siluer.

To bee briefe, the whole beeing gathered together there was in monie, in plate, and in chaines of golde aboue foure score thou∣sand Frankes: which came in so good season, that without it they could hardly haue appeased their Reisters. I knowe that many of them were vrged to giue by example, shame, and persuasions, but certainlie a great part did it vpon zeale and affection, as appeared in that they offered more than was required of them. Was it not a deede worthie wonder to see an armie vnpaide, and vnprouided of all meanes, who thought it a meruaile to part with their smal com∣modities for their owne wants, now not to spare to furnish others therwith, who peraduenture did giue them no thanks? Now would it be vnpossible to doe the lyke, for that all Gentlemanlike actions are almost out of vse.

Of the returne of the two armies toward Orleance and Paris: also of the course that the P. of Condie tooke in victualling, marching, and lodgiug of his men.

AFter the ioyning of the Reisters there needed * no long consultation to knowe what were best to be done. For the generall voice imported to transport the warre to Paris. This did some de∣sire peraduenture the rather to the ende to see their owne houses, but the most part knewe it to be the best waie to attaine to peace: neither were the Generalles ignorant that to continue the warre, their ar∣mies Page  404 could not misse artillerie, pouder, money, and other commo∣dities that are to be wreasted from the marchant and the artificer, whereof vnlesse they drewe towarde Orleance (which was their nource mother) they should be depriued, which made them to yéeld to the common desire. In this good minde did the Protestants re∣turne, beeing of opinion that the enimies armie would coast them, as well to debarre them from dismantelling diuerse small and weake Townes, as also to spie occasion to intrappe some one of their troopes. Then did Fraunce abounde in all sortes of virtu∣alles, and yet were they to vse greate arte and diligence to feede an vnpayd armie of aboue twentie thousand men, whom the Coun∣trie fauoured not as they did the other, beeing but meanely furni∣shed with munition. The Lorde Admirall had an especiall care aboue all things to haue expert commissaries, and to cause them to haue carriage according to the Protestant want, and was wont when so euer there was anie question of forming the bodie of an armie, to saie: Let vs beginne the shaping of this monster by the bel∣lie.

Nowe because our horsemen did commonlie lodge scattering * abroade in the good villages, the sayde commissaries besides theyr ordinarie carriages kept still in euery cornet a baker and two horse of burthen, which came no sooner to their quarter but they fell to making of bread, and so sent it to the footemen. All these small helpes proceeding from fortie cornets (for there about wee then were) being gathered together, amounted vnto a great deale: yea, and thence sometimes they sent both flesh and wine, whereto the Gentrie were so affectionate that from their lodgings they would not spare their carriages for conduct of whatsoeuer was requisite. The small Townes that were taken were reserued for the muni∣tionaries, and they threatned the rest that kept no garrisons to fire all a league rounde about if they sent in no prouision: where∣by our footmen who lodged close were ordinarilie well prouided. I doe not heere speake of the booties which as well the footemen as horsemen wonne from the aduersaries, neyther is it anie doubt but this denouring animall passing through so many Prouinces, could still finde soule pasture where with was sometimes mixed the poore mans garment, yea, and the friendes to, so sore did necessitie and desire to catch incite those that wanted no excuses to coulour their spoile. Of these fruites were many prouided of those things which besides foode the soldiour is to buy, as garments & weapons Page  405 which are most neessarie things.

Now must I speake of the lodging of the armie which they were * forced to scatter abroade, and that for two principall reasons. The one for the commoditie of virtuall, the other that it might be vnder couert, whereby to be defended from the iniurie of the winter: for without this help it could not consist. I know this to be a verie bad kinde of lodging: also that in imperial & royall warres men would beware of committing such ouer sights, least they might be straight wayes surprised: But in ciuill warres both partes were forced and accustomed so to doe, at the least in France. The footmen were lodged in two bodies, viz. in a maine battayle and an auantgarde, and the horsemen in the villages next to hand. Uppon anie earnest allarum the horsemen drewe to their quarters: likewise if one se∣uerall lodging were assayled, the others went straight to the re∣scue.

Among the Cornets there were many harquebuziers on horsback, and when they were come to their quarter, all the wayes were very well fortefied: and many times they prouided themselues in the Churches and Castles, so to holde out two good houres vntill they might haue succour. I haue sometimes seene one of the Generals march with fiue or sixe hundred men and beate back the enimie that had assayled some lodging. Howbeit notwithstanding whatsoeuer watch on all sides, yet there happened many surprises, albeit the waies were beaten both night and daie. Many times wee had our best aduice from the Picorers, who buzzing abroade like flyes did ordinarilie meet with the enimie, and so some one brought in word, for these men to flie are as swift as hares, and when they goe about some bootie they euen flie. The head towarde the enimie who had light horsmen did commonlie consist of fiue hundred good horse, and as many harquebuziers on horsebacke, with small store of carriage, except horse of burthen, which was done to the end to keepe the eni∣mies busie, that they should make no enterprise, also that the armie might alwayes haue warning.

Concerning the order of the march, all the troopes had theyr meeting nominated at a certaine houre in place conuenient, for the * diuision of the lodgings: and thence they repayred each to his quar∣ter, as also they vsed greate speede when they were to trauayle sundrie wayes. One inconuenience there was in marching thus scatteringlie, namelie, that oftentimes they did vse ma∣ny false allarums. Neuerthelesse it was neuer noted that the Page  406Prince of Condie had euer anie notable surprise. Neither woulde I that anie man should build anie rule vpon these examples which necessitie engendered, vnlesse vppon the lyke reason as then bare swaie: for so may they be vsed in accomodating them to time, place, and persons. But the surest waie were to reforme our customes by the ancient militarie rules, wherin is more perfection than in those which wee now a dayes doe practise. Yet must we not saie that these great Captaines ought to haue done otherwise than they did, for they neuer fayled in ought that either could or should be done. As also their most notable actions are since their deathes vanished away.

Of the new forces out of sundrie Prouinces that met at Or∣leance, which inuitéd the Prince of Condy to vndertake the voiage to Chartres.

IN the first ciuill warres most of the *Protestants, namely their heads, toke this for a principle: That it was hard without an armie in ye field to make anie honourable warre or profitable peace. In consideration heereof they exhorted their partakers to helpe to make a braue power, the benefit wher of should redound to the whole body, which was the reason that made so many readie to come in. But they found an inconuenience in aban∣doning to this effecte such good places as before they held in the prouinces, for afterward they had no place of retreate, as also they haue somtimes failed in the other point, viz. by keeping ouer ma∣ny. Wherin we may learne to auoid all extremities. Which not∣withstanding, yet were not the prouinces free frō war as wel in the first troubles as in these. Yea, who so list well to consider the dea∣lings of the Baron of Adrets, and other the braue exploites of sun∣drie Captaines both Catholikes and Protestants, recorded in the histories, shall see miserable matters valiantly and wisely executed. Page  407 But because I haue tied my selfe to speake of no more than I haue either seene or learned in good places, I haue abstained from ente∣ring the carrier of vnknowen Countries for feare of stumbling. Now the Prince of Condie being enformed that his forces out of Gascoyne and Daulphine amounting neere to sixe thousand men were ariued at Orleance thought it good to imploie them, & there∣fore sent them worde to be ready, as also to prouide pouder and shot with three or foure bad peeces of artillerie that were left: for albe∣it the Catholiks accounted the Protestants fierie people, yet were they alwayes but meanelie prouided of such instrumentes, neither haue they, as themselues, anie Saint Anthonie, whome men saie to be president of this element. His intent was before his enimies knew his purpose to haue enuironed the town that he meant to be∣siege, whereof he thought none so commodious for his affayres as Chartres, which being taken he purposed to fortefie, so to keepe a continuall thorne in the Parisians foote, and vnder the fauour ther∣of somewhat to preserue his Countries which were behinde. To * this effect being aboue twentie leagues of he sent three thousande horse to enclose it, which diligence turned to no greate profite, for a regiment of footmen which lay but foure leagues off did neuerthe∣lesse enter thereinto, which was the safegard of the towne. The L. of Ligniers did commaund therein, who had in all two and twentie companies, neyther did anie man spare for all remedies for forti∣fication, which are vsuall in such lowe places as are preuented. The assailants also for their parts noted those places that seemed most assaultable, which on euery side were so bad, that it was hard to say which was worst, and hauing discouered a mountaine which com∣manded vpon the flanke of a Courtine, without farther considerati∣on they tooke it, and at the first blush it promised much, howbeit the remedies there agaynst were easie: For the Prince hauing but fiue field peeces and foure light Culuerines, what were they able to do agaynst so many men of defence and labour as were therein. And in two daies and two nights it was so crossed and entrenched, that they durst not enter vpon them. The French man is so sodain, that he will immediatly discouer yt which cannot be found without long search. And through this redinesse I haue seene the discouerers of places commit so many ouer sights, that I thinke it a most profita∣ble rule to looke twice, yea thrice vpon a thing before we resolue or settle our iudgement thereof. After the breach was made, we knew that to giue the assault on that side was to loose our men wilfullie: Page  408 and as we were preparing for a new batterie in some weaker place the peace was concluded, which ouerthrew all militarie actions. True is the Prouerbe, that there is no well to the good men, for the place must be verie bad wherein they cannot find meanes to accommodate themselues. Men should neuer keepe anie long siege agaynst such places, in deede to let an armie lie before it 3. weekes or a moneth it may be done, whiles another is leauied in fauour of the besieged.

During our abode there the Lord Admirall attempted a braue * enterprise, which was determined in manner ensuing: The contra∣rie armie being beyond the riuer of Sein, durst not (I wot not why) approch the Princes maine power, yet would it not omitte anie op∣portunitie to fauour the besieged. And to the same effect was the Lord of Vallet a famous Captaine, sent with eighteene cornets of horsemen to surprise one of our troopes in their lodgings, to hinder our forage, to breake off our victuals, and to keepe vs in often alla∣rums. He approched within foure leagues of the camp, and lodged verie close, from whence he began greatlie to molest vs: The Lord *Admirall haere of aduertised, tooke vppon him to prouide remedie thereto. And vsing commonlie to march strong, for feare sayd he, of want of game, he tooke 3500. horse, & departed so earlie, that by the Sunne rising he was in these horsmens quarters, of whom many, notwithstanding their good watch kept in the fielde, were ouerta∣ken, so as there were foure cloutes taken but few men slayne. The Lord of Vallet who lodged in Oudan gathered together foure or fiue hundred horse, with whom albeit a thousand of ours did folow, he retired in good order, often making head agaynst vs, as indeede he had both skill and experience. Hereby we see that it is not good soiourning long in the face of a strong power of horse vnlesse a man be as stronglie lodged. For before he be aware he may be sur∣prised as it were with a sodaine storme: and the same may be vpon him in manner as soone as his sentinels, scoutes, or discouerers: for it marcheth assured, seareth nothing, and still sayth to the foremost, On, charge and follow all that thou findest. In such affayres the wi∣sest and most circumspect are sometimes ouertaken.

Page  409
The second peace concluded at Lon-iumeau.

THroughout the whole troubles in Fraunce wee * haue still seene it fall out that they haue spoken of peace in the middest of all the war, so willing was euerie man to shew himself to like of so health some a matter: as also there haue ben diuerse concluded, but none worse to the Protestants than this. The treatie hereof was againe begun while the Prince lay before Char∣tres, who sent the Cardinall of Chastillon with other Gentlemen, to meete with the kings deputies at Lon-iumeau, where they so folowed it, that the articles were agreed vpon which were sent some to Paris & others to Chartres, there to decide the chiefe difficulties arising therein. Now as a good peace was not onely greatly desi∣red, but also as necessarie, so were there few that staied to consider what maner of one this was: but as if ye verie name had also brought the effect, most of the Protestants were fully resolud, yt it must bee accepted: And to speake plainly that was it that forced the P. & Ad∣miral, who saw such readinesse euen in the nobilitie, to condescend therto & to accept of it. It was as a whirle winde which they could not resist, but that it carried thē awaie. True it is that the P. was of himselfe somwhat inclined vnto it, but the Admiral stil doubted of the obseruation thereof: for he almost perceiued that they meant to be reuenged of the Protestants for ye iniurie receiued at the iourney of Meaux. Yea, euen then some such of the Catholiks as could con∣ceale nothing, gaue out openly that shortly they would haue a day. One of our agents also for the peace, sending word that hee had oft heard such speeches, & perceiued great indignation hidden in some of their hearts with whom they did conferre, wished it might be lo∣ked vnto, as noting some singular euent. Some likewise euen of the court, who sometime stole speeches out of the closet, sent their friends & kinsmen word yt vndoubtedly they would be deceiued vn∣lesse they wrought surely: which might haue sufficed to wakē those yt slept so soundly vpō ye sweet pillow of peace: but notwithstanding al aduice, ye brook which alredy ouerflowed could not be restrained. It may be meruailed yt these Captains being of such credit wt their partakers, could not persuade thē to that which was so profitable: Page  410 howbeit if we consider what these voluntarie persons were, also the violent desire to visite a mans home, we shall perceiue yt the anchor of apparant necessitie being broken, the shippe that is driuen with such vehement windes cannot be staied.

Sundry whole Cornets and diuerse perticular persons euen be∣fore the raising of the siege from before Chartres were departed * without asking leaue toward Xantoigne and Poictou. This hu∣mour also tooke place among the footmen, euen those that dwelte farthest off. Many also sayde that sith the King offered the last E∣dict of pacification, it might not be refused: Other of the Gentrie gaue out that they would retire into theyr owne Prouinces for the preseruation of their families whome the enimies cruelties often∣times murthered: The footmen complayned of the want of paie, and that ordinarily their victuals failed them. Thus might not the Generals of the Protestants cleaue to such aduertisements as they receiued, and so reiect the peace, least they should haue remayned o∣uer weake. Heerevppon they sometimes discoursed in this man∣ner.

That the most of their French forces abandoning them, they should be driuen to stand vpon their defence: but it would bee a great disgrace vnto them, in that it now was the time of yeere that armies vsed to take the field. To part with their Reisters whome they should distri∣bute in their townes they would not doe it, for so they shoulde deuoure themselues: likewise to lodge them in a fortefied campe, that remedie would last but a while. To be briefe, that they must trie the hazarde of a peace. Then could they haue wished to haue had some townes for the assurance therof: but when they requested anie other pledge than the edicts, oathes & promises, they were dismissed as men that did despise or contemne the authoritie roiall, which caused them to accept that which was vsuallie offered. Thus did the Protestants dismisse their strangers, retire into their houses, and euery man per∣ticularly lay awaie their weapons: weening (at the least the com∣mon sort, that the Catholiks would haue done the like: who were content onely to promise it, but in effect to performe nothing: but remaining still armed, kept the townes & passages ouer the riuer, so as within two moneths after they had the Protestants as it were at their discretions. Yea, some of them that insisted most vppon peace were forced to saie: We haue committed follie, and therefore must not thinke much to tast thereof, albeit this drinke be like to be verie bitter.