The methode of phisicke conteyning the causes, signes, and cures of invvard diseases in mans body from the head to the foote. VVhereunto is added, the forme and rule of making remedies and medicines, which our phisitians commonly vse at this day, with the proportion, quantitie, & names of ech [sic] medicine. By Philip Barrough.
Barrough, Philip, fl. 1590.

The Third Booke.

CAP I. Of weaknes of the stomake. DE IMBECILLITATE ƲENTRICVLI.

WEAKNES of the stomache is sometime caused through distem∣pure of the effectrix and working qualities without any flowing of humours. For as Galene sayeth in lib. 3. de simplic. causis. cap. 10.* All vehement distempure doeth ouerthrowe and cast down the strength. Also sometime it is caused of an humour, being conteyned in the bo∣some, and large space of the stomach, which hath power and vertue ether to heate, or coole, or to moisten, or drye, or two of these quali∣ties mixt together. sometime it is caused of an humour,* stuffed and drowned, in the filmes, and cotes of the stomach. Vehement thirst, abhorring of meat, and sauoring belkinges do betoken distempure only of a hote quality. Contrarywise litle thirst, Page  80 vnmeasurable appetite, and soure belkings betoken distempure of a cold quality. And to be short, if the stomach be grieued with hote or cold distempure, it chaungeth the meates that be eaten into the nature of the distempure, so that the meates may be perceiued to be chaunged into the sauour of rosting or sourenes without the commixing of any humour. Moreouer if the distempure be hote, you shall see the patient by and by eased with taking of medicines, or meates, or drinckes that be cold. But if the distempure be cold, the patient feeleth ease in hote meates or medicines, but he feeleth hurt with cold thinges. In a moist distempure, the patient feeleth no thirst, or very litle, he hath aboundance of spitle, & doeth desire moist meates. In a dry distempure there is drynes of the tongue, extenuation of the body, litle spitle, and vehement thirst. Moreouer vomiting and desire therto, heauines of the stomach, and belking specially after meat, betoken aboundance of naughtie and corrupt humours. And if yelow colour do abound, ther followeth bitternes of the mouth. vomiting vp of choler, thirst, belkinges, with sauour rosted, and gnawing of the stomach: but if fleume do abound, it doeth cause no gnawing in the stomach, vnlesse it be salt fleume: ther are pre∣sent sour belkinges, no thirst and stretching out of the stomach. If melancholy abound, it causeth sadnes & feare, stincking belkinges & spittinges, & sauor of fishe, sleepe with fittes of strange imaginations, contraction & paine of the hammes, and calfes of the legges. Euery distempure is corrected and amended by his contrary.* Therefore you must coole a hote distempure, and heat a cold distempure: also moisten a dry, and dry a moist distempure: like∣wise must you do in compound distempures, ether heat and dry, or heat and moisten, or els coole and moisten,* or coole and dry. Those that be vexed with hote distempure of the sto∣mach, are cured with a cooling dyet, but specially if they take cold thinges with vineger. Therefore let there bread be mixed or dipped in posca. For flesh let him vse chickens, part∣rich,* veale sodden with vineger or veriuyce. For potherbes, lettuce, and purcelaine are verye good. Also apples and sharpe peares. The sicke must drincke small Ale or Beere, if he hath bene vsed to it, bu if not, let him drincke the decoction of cinnamom, or wyne, that is thinne & watery. You must apply & lay vpō the stomach outwardly such medicines as do meanly restraine and coole. They which be vexed with a cold distempure of the stomach, you must heale them with the contraries to the oforesaid thinges,* with the decoction of Anise seede, rewe, and percely seede. Let the meates which they eate be condyte and dressed with Cyn∣namon, calamus aromaticus, cloues, pepper, and such like adoramentes. Also giue vnto them Diatrionpipercon, diacalaminthes, and theriaca. Annoint the stomach outwardlye with those ointmentes, which haue power to heat, and let them vse to drincke that is old, & somewhat astringent.* A moist distempure is helped with meates that do dry, without any strong heat or coldnes. Moreouer vsing of lesse drinck then he is accustomed to do. A dry distempure must be cured as the feuer Ethicke is cured, of which we will treate in the fourth booke. But if some humour hauing power to heate, or coole, do cause weaknes of the stomach, you must marke and consider diligently whether that humour do swimme in the bosome, and large∣nes of the stomach, or whether it be stuffed in the filmes and cotes of the stomach. If the hu∣mour be contained in the bosome of the stomach, and be a cholericke humour, it must be purped straight by vomit, warme water or thinne mulsa dronken doth cause an easie vomyt. It will be better if you minister before it thinges that do moisten, as is the broth of Ptisan, or els the yolke of an egge. But if the cholerike humour be stuffed in the filmes of the sto∣mach, purge him with Hierapicra, for as Galene sayth, ther can no better medicine be found against vicious humours, being stuffed in the filmes of the stomach. The humour being pur∣ged,* let them vse the same dyet, that they do which are vexed with a hote distempure, as is taught before. Minister within the body conserues, which haue vertue to coole and moist. Also minister electuaries hauing like vertues. Apply outwardly to the stomake thinges that do coole, and meanly restraine, as is oyle of Roses, oyle of Quinces, putting to saunders, ba∣laustie, corall, and purcelaine. But yet vse thinges that doe coole in a meane according to the contrarietie of the distempure. For ouermuche vse of cold thinges doeth not only not proffit, but also oftentimes it causeth an incurable disease: because of the great heat that is requisite for concoction and digestion.* If humours being flegmaticke, grosse and toughe, do swimme in the bredth of the stomache, he must vse oximell, wherein hath beene sodden Page  81 medicines which haue vertue to extenuat and cut (as is) hysope, the roote of ireos, origan, sa∣uory and horehound. But if the flegmatike humours be drowned in the filmes and cootes of the stomache, then first you must minister those things which do cu & deuide clammy hu∣mours and grosse fleume, but afterward you must purge him. If you will know what me∣dicines do purge tough fleume, looke before in the first boke. cap. 12. Also Hierapicra is no: vnprofitable to purge grosse humours. Let him also vse a dyet which doeth extenuate: and let him vse electuaries that do heate, as diatrionpipereon, diagalanges, diacinnamomum, diambar,* ginger condyte, diacorus, and such like. Apply outwardly to the stomach things that do heat as is oyle of nardinum, oyle of myntes, oyle of wormewood, and oile of masticke, and other thinges hauing the like vertue. For this purpose also Cerotes are commended, which the Phisitions commonly do call scutum stomachale, such as this is. ℞. cinnamon chosen, cloues.* long pepper. ana. ʒ.j. galliae moschatae, maces, ana. ʒ.ss. calamus aromaticus, franckensence. ana. ʒ.j.ss. wood of aloes, ℈.j. sowen mintes, ʒ.ij. masticke, lapdanum, ana. ʒ.ij. oiles of masticke, & narde. ana. ℥.ss. with wax and turpentine, as much as will suffice, make a cerote to laye vpon the stomach, and couer it with purple silcke. Or vse this medicine. ℞. masticke beaten to powder. ℥.j.ss. then strew it vpon leather being cut like a buckler,* and powre vpon it oleum nardinum, then hold it to the fire till it be molten together, and strewe vpon it chosen cinna∣mon, nutmegges, and cloues. ana. ʒ.j. beaten into pouder, and apply it to the stomach.* To be short, these and other thinges, which do strengthen and heat the stomach, are to be applied (as is) mintes, wormewood, franckensence, masticke, cinamon, galingale, ginger, maces, wood of aloes, calamus adoratus, and such like rehersed in our first booke of making medi∣cines, of which one may make diuerse kindes of remedies as he seeth cause.

CAP II. Of yealking and vomiting. DE NAVSEA ET VOMITV.

DISPOSITION to vomite (called Nausea) which is a naughty and wicked motion of the expulsiue vertue of the stomach.* It is caused of a vicious hu∣mour conteyned in the stomach, being ether hote or cold, which humour e∣ther swimmeth in the concauity and hollownes of the stomach, or it is stuffed in the filmes of the stomach, cleauing like birdlyme, and can scarce be drawē away: or the humour being more watery, it is drowned in the cotes of the stomach, like wa∣ter in a sponge. And such humours are oftentimes engendred through distempure of the stomach aswell hote as cold: somtime such humours do flow from the whole body, or from other partes (being first euill affected) into the stomach as it were the excrementes: as from the liuer or the splene, or the head, or from the whole body. If those humours be engendrrd through the distempure, you may easilie perceaue it by the signes declared in the last chap∣ter before this. But whether that humour swimme in the hollownes of the stomach,* or be stuffed in his cotes, thus shalt thou know it. If the vicious humour doeth swimme in the sto∣mach, and cause nausea (that is) disposition to vomite, then for the most part vomiting fol∣loweth, & the stomach corupting the meates, it doth manifestly infect it with that humour, and chaungeth it into his nature: but if a tough humour be drowned in the cotes of the sto∣mach, it causeth disposition to vomit, but yet such a disposition, as bringeth forth nothinge, although the patient doeth prouoke and straine him selfe as though he could vomit: but if that humour be watery and wheish, then it causeth vomiting, not only before meat, but also after meat, and specially if that humour swimme in the breadth of the stomach: for if it be stuffed and cleaue to the toppe of the stomache, it doeth moue vomiting without bringing any thing vp before meate: but when other partes (from which do flow excrementes into the stomach) be euill affected, the sicke himselfe doeth first feele the griefe of the member that is diseased: for ether he feeleth heat, or cold, or heauines nigh about the place that is diseased, or also he cannot suffer to let the place be touched hard. But if the whole body be full of vicious humours, you may know that by the colour, and by breaking out of wheales Page  82 and pushes in the skinne,* and also by the vryne you may discerne it. For the cure, you must diligently consider which grief it is, whether it be a disease caused only of the stomach, or of the whole body, or of some other member. For if humours do flow into the stomach from some other member, or from the whole body; you must first take care for the whole body, or for that member that is diseased, but yet you may not neglect the stomach altogether. For vnlesse the whole body be first purged of vicious humours, he laboureth in vaine that goeth about to resist the flowing of humours into some one place. So also he that doth cure the member that is first diseased, he cutteth of as it were the fountaine of all flowinges into the stomach. Yf you will knowe how those members are to be cured that doe send excre∣mentes into the stomach, you must learne that in ther proper chapters before or after. But if humours be ingendred in the stomach causing disposition to vomit, you must marke whe∣ther those humours be thinne, cholericke and wheyishe, and being contained in the hol∣lownes of the stomach, for then you must giue him very thinn iuice of ptisan, or hote water, and the sicke must prouoke vomit with his finger, or with a feather being put downe into his throte. But if the humours be stuffed within vpon the top of the stomach, you must mi∣nister one drachme of aloes to drincke being dissolued in water. For against hote humours which be in the stomach, Aloes is the best medicine, so that often it hath healed euil stoma∣ches in one day. After rhe humours be purged and other medicines ministred, which doe stoppe or make temperate the sharpnes of Choler, then you must cure the hote distempure of the stomach, as is taught in the last chapter before this. If they be flegmaticke, grosse and tough humours which do swimme in the breadth of the stomach, you must cure them af∣ter that sort that is taught of vs in the former chapter, and then you must get away the cold distempure of the stomach,* as is afore taught. Now, for vomiting you must note that in the beginning it ought not to be stopped,* if the sicke be the better for it, according to Hippo∣crates saying. In vomiting which commeth by it selfe, if such thinges be purged as ought to be, it is good and may be suffered, but if not, so then the contrarywise it is euil. Therefore you may not stoppe that vomit which is decretory, or where humours do flowe from the whole body into the stomach, or when humours be engendred in the stomach through di∣stempure. But then you must rather help the motion of the expulsiue vertue in a hote cause by ministring hote water with oyle of violettes to drincke: but in a cold cause minister oxi∣mell and other thinges before rehearsed.* But if the vomiting be immoderate and do begin to weaken the strength of the sicke, then you must go about to stoppe and resttaine it. Ther∣fore first let the sicke ly vpward in a conuenient house, and contrarie to the disease (that is) let the house be cold, if the disease be hote, and contrariewyse let it be hote, if the disease be cold, let the extreme parts of the body be rubbed, and let them be fealt with warme hands, and also bynd them strongly with bandes, also put the feete and handes in luke warme wa∣ter. Also hold adoramentes of good sauour to the nose for to smell, as roses, quinces, peny∣royall, myntes, fennell, spickenarde. Annoynt the stomach outwardly with oyles of worme∣wood and roses. Emplaisters made of Dates, quinces, and wormewood be good. Also Ce∣rates made of them and such like as myntes, darnell meale, franckensence, masticke be good being laid vpon the stomach. Also you must stampe well dates that haue beene steeped in old wine, afterward you must put to it masticke and franckensence, ech of them finely pow∣dred by it selfe afore, and then bray them together. To this place also you must call the re∣medies, that are spoken of hereafter, partlie in the chapter of cholera, and partly in the chap∣ter of the fluxe dysemeria. Furthermore that euill continuing long, if the meate cannot tary in the stomach, you must fasten a cupping glasse to the mouth of the stomache with great flame, vntill the place waxe red: and you must giue the patient meate, while the glasse han∣geth on still.

CAP III. Of immoderate thirst. DE SITI IMMENSA:

Page  83THIRST, as Galene witnesseth in lib. 1. de simpli. med. facultate, cap. 30. is cau∣sed two maner of wayes: partly through want of moisture, and partly through aboundance of heat. The stomach is heat many & sundry wayes,* that is ether through hote distempure of the bare quality simple or compound, or through hote and cholericke humours engendred in the stomach, or els flowing to it. Also through aboundant drincking of old wyne. The stomach is dryed ether throughe the drye distempure that is in it, or through salt humours, or drincking of salt water. Also often times it is dryed through consent of the whole body, as it chaunceth in burning feauers and feauer Ethickes. The diuersitie of causes may easilie be knowen by the patients wordes,* and by those signes which we haue spoken of in the 2. chapter next before. Therefore the cause being knowen, you must remedy ech of them according to ther causes diuerslie.* Therefore you must remedie thirst comming of heat, by ministring thinges that doe coole. Therefore both the drawing in of cold ayer, and water or watery wyne being droncken are good. Also Cucumberseed chewed, or if it be hulled and beaten, and druncken with water, it helpeth greatly against thirst engēdred through heat of the stomach. Likewyse lettuce seed chewed and droncke profiteth. Also purcelaine seed likewyse. The best thing to quench thirst is this. ℞. of the seedes of sowen Cucumbers husked. ℥.j. tragacanthae. ℥.ss. bray tragacantham and serce it, and beat the seedes, and put those pouders to the whytes of egges being rawe,* and beating them altogether, make pilles and dry them in the shadow. Of these pilles mi∣nister one at once to be hold vnder the tongue, that it may dissolue by little and little, and so be swallowed. They that haue had burning and heat in the stomach long time, the iuyce of the sweete roote being droncke, doth help them, & also the roote it selfe with water and the iuyce of purselaine. But those which are vexed with thirst caused of heat and drynes, as it chaunceth in all burning and very dry feauers, and to those which labour in sommer, or in great heat,* such are best ealed with oxycratū (that is) a drincke made with vineger & water sodden together. For vineger doth coole mightely, and doth perce to euery place quickly, and the water besides the coolenes that it hath, it is moistest of any thing: for nothing (as Galen sayeth in the place before rehersed) is moister then water. Also the thirst which en∣gēdreth in feauers, may be mitigated in sprinckling the head with the coldest oyles, as oyle of roses being sprinckled aloft on the fore part of the head. Also the best remedie for drynes is sleepe, where heat & moisture, ar commixt together, as it chaunceth in that kind of dropsy, in which plenty of salt humours be heaped in the stomach and belly, or in those which haue their stomach stuffed with salt fleume, then vineger is the best remedie. It is also good for them to soupe the iuyce of quinces or peares, or veriuyce with water. If humours cholericke or salt swimming in the stomach, or drowned & stuffed in it do prouoke thirst, thē you must minister medicines which can purge out those humours. Afterward you must vse medicines which do restraine and comfort the stomach and strengthen it, Examples wherof you must seeke before. They which thirst through drincking of much old wyne, are holpen with drin∣king of cold water and other thinges rehersed in lib. 1. cap. 14.

CAP. IIII. Of payne in the stomache. DE DOLORE STOMACHI.

PAINE of the stomach is caused when naughty venemous and gnawing hu∣mours be kept in the stomach,* wherby it chaunceth that through intollerable gnawing they cause swounding, which they call stomachica. The disease is knowen by the cōtinuall pricking and gnawing of the mouth of the stomach. In this euill you must giue him meates that do coole, and which may bringe strength to the stomach (as is) lettuce and purcelaine taken with vineger.* Also pomegra∣nates, and Orenges, peares, sharpe grapes, and such like. Also bread being steeped in very cold water is good. Also let his other meates be such that will easily digest, and yet not easy to corrupt (as be) chickens, partrich, birdes of moūtaines, & such like sodden with veriuice. Page  84 Also fishes bred among stones, sodden with vineger, limons, and the sharp iuyce of Cytrons. Lykewise let the sicke drincke water wherein hath bene sodden a litle cynamon, or giue him thinn waterie wyne.* For the cure in the beginning you must prouoke vomit by the re∣medies aforesaid. Then after that also he must purge downeward, by Hierapicra takinge. Which thinges being done, you must vse remedies to strengthen the stomach both inward∣ly and outwardly, as is taught in the 2. chap. and in other places also.

CAP. V. Of inflammation of the stomach. DE INFLAMMATIONE VENTRICVLI.

*INFLAMMATION of the stomach is caused no otherwise then the inflam∣mation of other partes of the body (that is to say) through the flowing toge∣ther of aboundance of hote bloud.* Signes hereof, is exceeding great paine continually, which cannot be mitigated with any medicines that be applyed to it. Moreouer there is swelling and burning which you may feele. Alsoe a feauer,* heauines, and appetite to meate. The dyet (like as it is in other inflammations) must be thinne, small, and exquisite. Therfore he must vse iuyce of ptisan: and he must abstaine from flesh, and wyne, and from other hote meates. Let the sicke drincke water, wherin hath bene sodden a litle cynnamon, or iuice of soure pomegarnates, or of some other fruict that is cold and restringent. Let him sleepe litle, and let him not talke much. Let him eschewe as much as he can sadnes,* and let him remaine in an ayer meanly cold. You must beginne the cure with letting of bloud, if there be fulnes of the whole body, and strēgth of the sicke. You must cut the inward veyne of the arme, and you must draw bloud according to the strength of the patient. After this you must applye outwardly those thinges that do represse and re∣straine, specially vpon the place where the paine and swelling do most appeare. For the sto∣mach, speciallie the mouth of it, hath euer need of the commixing of those thinges that do restraine, but most of all when it hath an inflammation. Therfore those which do attempt the cure with loosening remedies onlie, without the commixing of those thinges that doe strengthen the stomach, they cause perill of death. Therfore alwayes whether it be an oyle that the inflamed member be nourished withall, or a soft plaister laid vpon that member, you must commixe some restringent thing with them. Therefore for this purpose it is good to applie to it oile wherein wormewood or quinces hath bene sodden, commixed together with masticke; Also the iuice of quinces, or peares, putting to it red roses, barley meale, saun∣ders,* bole armoniacke, and such like. Also you may vse this cerate. ℞. barly meale. ℥.ss. white saunders, and red roses. ana. ʒ.ij. bole armoniacke. ʒ.j.ss. aloes, masticke. ana. ʒ.j. wormewood nutmegges, balaustiae. ana. ʒ.ss. oiles of masticke, and roses. ana. ℥.j.ss. with waxe & turpentine as much as is sufficient, make a cerot to lay vpon the stomach. But if there be neede of great restriction (as it chaunceth then, when the stomach is so weake that it cannot holde and retaine meate) you may commixe with the said thinges veriuice, or iuice of wormewood, or hipocischidos, & sumach, and such like. All these thinges. if the inflammation be vehement, must be applied to the griefe cold. And if the bellie doth send forth nothing, you must pro∣uoke it with easie clysters. Nor he worketh vnwiselie, that doth minister. ℥.ss. of casia fistula dissolued in endiuē water, after that the burning heat is somewhat abated. Also at that time you may commixe with the restrictiue medicines, which you apply outwardlie, many things that do discusse and dissolue (as is) fenugreeke meale, floures of chammomill, and Althee, & lineseed; you must neuer (as we warned you before, noe not at that time, when ther flow∣eth no more to the griefe, & that cannot be driuen backe, which is conteined in the diseased member) you must nor I say at that time, nether vse only loosening medicines, or only dissol¦uing medicines: but alwayes you must commixe with them restrictiue thinges which haue power to preserue and keepe the strength of the stomach. Therefore at that time you must vse this emplaister.* ℞. the meale of lyneseed and fenugreeke. ana. ℥.ss, seed of dill. ʒ.ij. flours of chāmomill & melilote. ana. ℥.ss. wormewood, balaustie, red roses. ana. ℥.ij. hypocischidis. Page  85 ℈.ij. oyles of Chammomill, lillies, roses, masticke, ana. ℥.ss. hennes greace, and goose grease, ana. ʒ.ij. commixe them all together, and make an emplaister. But before it be ap∣plied, it is not in vaine to annoint the stomach with this oyntment. ℞. oyles of Cammomil, dill, and quinces, ana. ʒ.iij. pouder of the roote of Althoea, wormwood,* lineseede. ana. ℈.j. waxe sufficient, make an oyntment.

CAP VI. Of abhorring of meate. DE CIBI FASTIDIO.

ABHORRING of meate, or loosing of appetite doeth chaunce either through loosing of the sense of sucking of the veynes, which is naturall hunger,* as Ga∣len witnesseth libro primo, de sympt. causis. cap. 7. or because there is no suc∣king out, or because the bodie is not emptied. Also sometime it chaunceth through some hote distempure, speciallie of the stomach, which distempure doth dissolue the hard and sound members by loosing of them, and maketh them weaker in drawing: but the moist members, it stretcheth out vnmeasurablie by shedding. Sometime it is caused through aboundance of vicious humours conteyned in the stomach: & through immoderate flux of the belly and bowelles: also through ouermuch bloudletting. Also the sicke doth abhorre meate in continuall and vehement feuers, also in inflammacions of the stomach, the liuer and the matrice, and for many other causes which neede not to bee re∣hearsed here. The signes which betoken a hote distempure,* are rehearsed before in the first chapter. Those which abhorre meate, through the vice of cholericke humours, are trou∣bled with gnawinge of the stomach, and with appetite to vomite, and with thirst. Those that haue humours that be rotten, they haue sometime a feuer. But those which haue lo∣thinge of meate thorough grosse and clammie humours, they neither feele gnawinge of the stomach nor thirst. But commonlie to all there commeth disposition to vomite. If lothing of meate doeth come about the beginning of the disease, or about the vigour and strength of it, which the pacientes strength may yet suffer, it causeth no perill, for the sicke neede but little nourishment. But if losse of appetite do come in the declination of the whole disease, or in longe weakenesse, or in lacke of strength, or of vnmeasurable pur∣ging, it is not without perill and daunger. This euill is encreased of age. For children are vnluckely troubled with this disease (that is to say) such as are deuourers by nature, and haue neede of continuall nourishment. Therefore if children haue this disease, great ex∣cesse aboue nature is signified by it. For cure of this disease,* if the losse of appetite be cau∣sed thorough weakenesse of the stomach, you must marke what distempure doeth weaken the strength, and you must cure it by contraries to that distempure, as is before taught. If the presence of vicious humours do cause lothing of meate, if those humours be thinne and gnawing: you must first beginne, before any other thinge be ministred, to purge the hu∣mours contayned in the stomach by vomite. And if the pacient doeth vomite vneasilie, minister vnto him soupinges, and other nourishmentes which do moysten, that they may driue those humours downe into the bellie, and driue them out beneath, or purge the wombe with hierapicra. Then wee must bring the bodie to a good temper, with such thinges as be meete for that purpose. Those that do abhorre meate thorough grosse and clammie humoures, you shall cure them by extenuatinge and cutting the humours as well with Oxymell, as also with those medicines, that are made of this and other sawces, as with Capares, Olyues, musterde-seede, and such like declared in the first Chap∣ter. If loathing of meate happen thorough inflammation, or stoppinge of anie other part of the bodie, then you must go about the curinge of that member or parte. And you must go about to prouoke appetite againe, onelie by odoramentes, either by odour and smelling of wine infused, or decoction of quinces, or peares. Also you shall go about the same thing with softe annoyntinges with oyles, as oyles of roses, masticke, and such like, & moderate frictiōs & rubbings of the body. Also insessions to be applied to the loins & share. Page  86 Also let meates be prepared of diuerse and sundrie kinds, and after the daintiest fashion, that besides their sweetenesse, they may entice and prouoke their appetite, first of the best kind of corne,* and such as doth nourish much, as is Alica washed with the decoction of dates and damscene prunes: reere egges, birdes of the mountaines that be leane and of no strong sa∣uour: swines feete much consumed in seething. For if he onely tast such meates, they nou∣rish the bodie sufficiently. Whatsoeuer you minister, ought to be of such sort, that it maye easily be deuoured and swallowed. For those thinges that require much chewing, do cause vnpleasantnesse, and put away appetite. Nor you may not neglect to applie outwardly vp∣pon the stomach besides the oyntmentes, emplaisters made of dates, quinces, wormewood, and such like. Also Cerates made of the same thinges, examples whereof you must seeke before.

CAP. VII. Of a doglike appetite. DE APPETENTIA CANINA.

A Doglike appetite is contrarie to losse of appetite. For they that are thus diseased, they desire much meate: and when they can not restraine their ap∣petite, they deuour in meate without measure: then they being heauie with the multitude of meate, and their stomach not beinge able to beare the meates, that are in it, without hurt, they turne to vomiting. Then afterward they fill them selues with meate, and againe they returne to vomiting like dogges. It is cau∣sed through colde distempure of the stomach, or through vicious and sharp humours which do gnaw and pricke the mouth of the stomach. For cold vicious humours do cause a gnaw∣ing much like the proportion of sucking, and do raise appetite of meate. Also sometime it chaunceth thorough vnmeasurable dissipation and spreading abrode of the whole bodie, which do followe either the violence of heate, or the weakenesse of the vertue retentiue. Cold distempure of the stomach is knowen by euill digestion,* windinesse, romblinge, and many egestions or seiges, and by other tokens declared before in the first Chapter. Sharpe humours are knowen by soure belkings, and much egestion, and verie thinne. If it be caused of vnmeasurable dissipation and spreading abroade, and that through heate which consu∣meth the meate like fire, and rarefieth the skinne: then the egestions sent out by the bellie, be lesse in quantitie, then the meate that is eaten, and also the egestions be drier: But if that dissipation come through weakenesse of the retentiue vertue, which cannot maister the meates:* then there is much deiection, and casting out of those thinges that are eaten. For the Cure, colde distempure must be healed, as is taught in the first chapter of this booke. If Doglike and vnmeasurable appetite be caused of sharp humours stuffed in the mouth of the stomach,* and as it were, water soked into a sponge: you must minister in the beginninge, Hierapicra Galeni. For this doeth not onely heate, but also it doeth cut of and make clean, and draw out from the depth of the mouth of the stomach, humours that be stuffed in it, and it causeth them to auoide downwarde. And yet it addeth strength to the stomach, that af∣terwarde it will not easilie receaue any hurtfull humour. Therefore that is the best remedie for vicious humours, stuffed in the stomach, to bring them foorth. It is ministred the weight of ʒ.iiij. with wine infused with warme water. If a child doth labour of this disease, which cannot drinke the medicine for bitternesse, make ʒ.j. or ij. of it in pilles, and annoint it out∣wardly with hony, and let them swallow them downe. Seing that for the most parte, this euill chaunceth of sharpe and soure fleume, you must vse such meates and medicines, as haue power to cut, deuide, scoure, and heate, as be, garlicke, leekes, tyme, sauorie, origan, penyroyall; and such like. Therefore the humours that be vicious being purged in the beginning,* you must let them vse this diet. Let not their bread be newe, nor well leauenned, with the which also you must mixe thinges that prouoke vryne, as is, An∣nise seede, Caraway seede, Commin, parsleye, and such like. Let his meates be fatte and oylie. Also soupinges are good, that do destroye appetite, as be pottage made Page  87 with much hony, and much oyle, or goose grease, hennes grease, or swines grease. Let his pot hearbes be mallowes. Also giue him the braines and fattest partes of birdes, and of fi∣shes likewise, and those thinges that do altogether destroy appetite, and cause fullnesse, and that do nourish but little, although they be eaten in great quantitie. You maye well giue them great plentie of wine, euen as much as they can drink, and such wine that doth heate greatly, as those do that be yellowe in colour, thinne in substance, sweete in smelling, and without restriction. For this doeth heate the stomach, and destroy the sharpenesse of humours, so that often such wine with fat and oylie meates, suffiseth for the perfect cure.* As Hippocrates sayth, drinking of wine easeth hunger. And you must giue wine, aswell to them that be fasting, as to them also which haue eaten meate, although they be not yet a thirst. But you must giue it to them that be fasting, hoate, or warme at the least. He must abstayne from all sower and restrictiue meates and drinkes, but specially from fruite. Let their ban∣quetting meates be pistacium, Almondes, pine nuttes, and oliues with hony. Minister also vnto them milke, as well alone, as also with wine called Passum, or with hony, so that neuer∣thelesse, you must take heede that you giue it not to those, that are wont to haue it waxe soure in their stomach, for to those it doth more hurt then good. But if it be well digested, it doeth not onely stop the appetite, but it softeneth the bellie being stopped, and stoppeth his fluxes. Also you must make potions and fine cakes with milcke, and giue them to him, as be, marchpaines and Rise sodden with milke. Also he must wash nowe and then, and make fat their skinne largely. This kinde of cure you must vse as long, as the sicke is disea∣sed, and till he be cleane whole. If the doglike appetite through vnmeasurable scattring a∣broade, opening, and dissipation, then in such a disease it is good to thicken the skinne,* and make it grosser with oyle made of vnripe Oliues, or oyles of roses, or of mirtles, or anie o∣ther wherein anie restrictiue thing hath bene sodden with a soft fire. Let the sicke remaine in an ayer, that is cold and perspirable. Let him eschew hote ayer and hote bathes. Also let him eschew wine and all things as well outwardly as inwardly that do heate. Let his drinke be cold water or decoction of Cynnamon. Put the sicke in a cold bath if nothing do let it as slendernesse and leannesse of the bodie, or the coldnesse of some member of the bodie, as the breast or some other. You must giue vnto them meates that be stable, durable, and hard to corrupt, as be periwincles, and all kindes of shell fish, if they be sodden with water twise chaunged. Also swines flesh being in full strength and specially the bellie. Also fatte bieffe, and all things that be all fatte, and that do swimme in the stomach, and be hard to be dige∣sted and distributed. For there be some, that haue this disease, which by reason of a sharp & biting heate, and as it were a feuerous heate in them which do digest and consume bieffe and other thinges hard of digestion with lesse labour then fishes of stony places, and such like things which be easie of digestion. Of egges those are good for them, which be sodden till they be hard, or fried in a frying pan. Giue them manchet made of fat broths without honie. Also rice sodden with butter, and vnleauened bread. Looke how much the euill is abated, & so much you must abate of the grosse meates that you are wont to giue, and you must minish the restrictiue things also that you lay without. For some time the vehemencie of the appe∣tite being abated, when the bodie is filled with crude and grosse humours, it turneth into some other worse disease. Among restrictiue medicines besides those thinges which are a∣foresaid you must vse this oyntment. ℞. oyles of mirtles,* and quinces. ana. ℥.ss. oyle of roses. ℥.j. iuice of plantaine. ʒ.ij. red saunders, masticke, bistorta, red roses. ana. ʒ.j. bole armoniake. ℈.ij. Hipochistidos, acatia, sanguis draconis. ana. ℈.j. waxe as much as is sufficient, make an oyntment.

CAP VIII. Of great famine. DE BVLIMO.

BVLIMOS in Greeke is nothing else, but great, and vehement famine or hun∣ger. It is caused through coldenesse of the stomach,* and for want and wakenesse of strength, and in a man it taketh his beginninge altogether of outwarde colde Page  88 for long iourneyes, speciallie when there is snow causeth this disease. It is knowen thus. In the beginning there is felte much hunger,* which for all that, doeth not long endure. For afterwarde the heart of the patient beginneth to faile him with coldenesse of the extreame partes, and want of spirit and breath. You must apply remedies for this disease by and by, because there be that in desert places,* or in bathes, being suddenly taken with this disease, do perish for lacke of helpe. Therefore they that are troubled with great hunger, in a iour∣ney without a feuer, or any other wayes, you must recomfort them with vinegre, or peny∣royall, giuen them to smell vnto, or earth whatsoeuer it bee, sprinckled with vinegre, or apples, or peares, or such other like fruite which is next hande. Also newe bread holden to the nose doeth helpe, and cheese of good sauour. Also porke rosted or sodden, and vni∣uersallie all that doth nourish much: but especially that which hath sauour of rosted meate, and is well seasoned, and hath a sufficient sauour. For by such odoures and sauours they that haue this disease, are for the most part refreshed, seeing there is nothing (as wee sayed before in the second booke, the fourteenth chapter) that doth refresh and renue the strength sooner then odours. Moreouer you must binde the extreame partes of them with bandes, and you must put the tippes of their handes and feete in verie hote water, and you must raise them and stirre them, as well by prickinge of the cheekes, as also by pullinge of the heare and eares. And when he is somewhat come againe to him selfe, you shall minister vnto him breade infused in wine, or some such thing, which doeth restore strength verie quickelye, (as be) reare egges, Alica with wine. The next remedie they must looke for by meate, which if they can not take when it is offered them, you must put it into the mouth violentlye, and compell them to swallowe it, for by and by after that, they are de∣liuered from their great hunger, and from their fayntinge, and are raysed quicklye. For this purpose are good also the Antidotes, which are compounded of diuerse sweete o∣doures (as is) Aromaticum Rosarum, Diamber, Dianthon, diamoschi, Alipta moschata, and such other like. And if this disease chaunce to come in feuers (which is seeldome seene) and if it doeth rush in suddenly about the declination of fittes belonging to feauers, you may minister meate without feare. But if it chaunce in the beginning of the augmentacion or in the vigour and strength of the feauer, the sicke must be refreshed by the odoraments a∣foresaid, and specially by those things that haue corne in them, as is Polenta, wet with wa∣ter,* or hote bread that sendeth foorth a burning sauour. Also you must vse frictions & rub∣bings of the extreme parts, & applie plaisters made of dates, or quinces sodden in wine▪ and this must you do vntill the declining of the fit, that you may safely giue him meate. And if the sicke be neuer the better through these things, you must venter to help him by giuing of meate. Therfore minister iuice of Ptysan, or one morsell or other wet in wine that is white and thinne. For they being refreshed and as it were sodainly called backe, they afterwarde come to the declining of the fit. We must eschew altogether in them that haue this disease, long delay from meate, and hunger. For you shall giue him euerie houre verie little meate, for it taketh away great famine, and the fainting wherby the sick is eased. And that it is law∣full to nourish and giue meate to the sicke in a fit, Galene teacheth, libro decimo, method. capite tertio.

CAP IX. Of euill digestion. DE CRVDITATE.

RAWNESSE of the stomach or ill digestion, is, when as the meate is not all∣together chaunged.* The causes of it, is distempure in the stomach, in∣flammacions,* hardenesse, impostumes, and such other like. Sometime the meates remaine raw and vndigested, although the stomach be not diseased: either through immoderate deuouring of meates and drinkes at one time, or through the euil and vicious qualities of the meates them selues. Or through heating of them out of due time, or thorough inordinate takinge of them: or thorough Page  89 some viciouse superfluitie growing: or through short sleeping as Galene sayth, libro tertio de symptomatum causis capite primo.* The diuersitie of causes be known partly by the tale of the patient, and them that be about them: and partlye by certayne tokens. By the tale of the sicke, and of them that be about him, you may knowe whether meates and drinckes haue bene taken immoderately, or out of due season, or inordinately. Also you may know of them the shortnesse of sleeping: you may knowe if the meates their selues were of euill quali∣ties by his belkinges and sauours, like thinges rosted or burned. For in them that be hoate and cholericke, the belkinges or corruptions sauour like meate rosted or burned. But in them, that be of a colde nature and more fleugmatike, the corruptions are soure or sharpe. Likewise you must iudge of excrementes that be fleugmatike and colde, they cause soure corruptions, but those that be hote and mixed with bitter choler, do cause sauour like burned meate. Likewise iudge of the stomach beinge▪ anie otherwise euill at ease, for if the disease be coulde, it causeth sharpe and soure permutations, but if it be hote, it causeth a burning sauour. VVhen perfect cruditie and rawnesse is engendred without corruption, in such sort, that the meates do remaine altogether euen as they were eaten: by this you maye knowe that the stomach is ouercome, either thorough great quantitie of meates, or thorough vehement coulde taken in a hoate thirst. Therefore if you woulde not haue this cruditie and euill digestion,* you must beware of all the aforesaid things (that is) that you neither offende in the quantitie, nor qualitie, nor order, nor due season of the takinge of your meate: and that you eate those thinges onely, which you are able to digest, and not that, which appetite requireth. Therefore you must especially take diligent heede to the measure, and quantitie of your meate, and you must refraine your ap∣petite, and eate no more then your strength is able to suffer. Also you must beware of euill order (that is) that you do not first eate quinces, or pomegranates, or some such like thing: and afterward to eate pot herbes out of oyle of sauce made with salted fish, or other things which do soften the bellie. Also you must eschewe eating out of due season (that is) that you do not eate before some moderate exercise, or before yesterdayes meat be well discen∣ded, and also not before your accustomed houre. Also you must eschewe all thinges that be hard by nature to digest: as is flesh that is hard by nature, that is, bieffe and hartes flesh, also eschewe all old flesh. Also you must beware of meates that be fatte, or that be poudred in salt, and stale kept. Among pot-hearbes, those that be verie hote, or verie coulde, or also those that engender wind, be hurtfull. Eschew fishes, which are hard and dried by long ke∣ping. Also abstaine from meates that be corrupt, or that do stinke, or smell ilfauouredlie. Refraine from sweete fruite, or that, which doth engender windinesse, or that which is cor∣rupt. Also eschewe iunkets which be hard of digestion. Also you must eschewe meates that be straunge and vnaccustomed, and that haue the power of a medicine, as people vse to commixe in their tartes and fine cakes, but you must eate your meate in due time not gree∣dilie nor in gobbets, nor swallow it not without chewing. Neither let your drinke interrupt and disturbe your meate: for that doeth hinder the vnitinge and knittinge together of the meate: and causeth eche peece to swimme from other. After meate eaten, you must es∣chewe vnequall and troubleouse motions. Also eschewe heate and coulde, for those thinges do stoppe the digestion of meate. But calefaction and chaufing of the sides, and rubbinge of the feete do helpe digestion. And if there be heauinesse about the stomach, so that thorough it a certaine painefulnesse bee spread thoroughout the whole bodie, then laye your hande beinge stretched foorth, vppon the mouth of your stomach, or ap∣plie to it a fleshie infant, for as Gallen sayeth, it is much better and more naturall, then the heate which is procured by Fomentes. For which cause, some do laye lit∣tle whelpes, while they rest vppon theyr stomach, which doeth encrease the aboundance of heate, that digesteth the meate. Also you must procure sleepe in the night equall and without disturbaunce. For this: you must prepare to lye straight and let your head bee boulstered vp high, and in your lyinge, you must encline towardes the lefte side. And if you can not sleep, you must lie without tourninge or stirring of your bodie, and keepe it still in one forme of lying, for often stirringes and tossinges do disturb the meates, and make the body windy & the bowels likewise.* The cure must be diuerse according to the diuersity of Page  90 the causes. For hote distempure of the stomach requireth one kinde of curing, and cold di∣stempure requireth another kind. Also inflammation of the stomach requireth another kind of cure, and hardnesse or impostumacions another kinde, and all those cures you shall seeke out in the proper chapters. For here it suffiseth to say thus much. When there commeth an vnpleasant belking, declaring manifestly that there is corruption of meates: without pro∣longing you must prouoke vomite, and by drinkinge of warme water, you must constraine all that is corrupt to come foorth. For if they remaine in the stomach, they cause tormen∣tinge and wrestlinge and heauinesse of the head: and sometimes they sende foorth cho∣ler vpwarde and downewarde,* or they cause fluxe of the wombe or feauers. Therefore such as can not digest but hardly, wee accustome them longe tyme before, that they maye vomite easilie, for that is best in manie perilles. And if anie be harde to vomite by na∣ture, and be ill disposed to drinke coulde thinges, in anie cause it is not inconuenient to giue him a cuppe of pure coulde water to drincke, for the stomach beinge strengthened, it soone thrusteth out those thinges that sticke in it, and sendeth them downe to the lower partes. Then the next daye let the sicke be kept in quiet and rest, and vse rubbinges of his feete, and chafing of the sides, vntill the rumbling and windinesse breake out beneath, and vntill the belkinges do come foorth with a gentler qualitie. And then it is good to rise vp, that first the bellie may sende out the corrupt thinges by seege, and afterwarde let the sicke walke moderately, and let him be idle, because of the troubled vapours, which be ascended into the head through corruption. After this he must apply his minde to daylie businesse without perturbation and indignation. Then againe the bellie must be prouoked to a∣uoide those thinges that remaine yet. Afterwarde you must bidde him rest, and you must powre vppon and nourishe the feete with warme water: and the face being washed with pure coulde water, let him rest in his bedde, and procure him to sleepe by all meanes. After which let him vse a little walkinge, and then a Bathe. After bathinge let him take meate moderately,* and that which the bodie is able to digest. But yet you may not ouer∣passe medicines that do helpe digestion, as is pepper, especiallie long pepper, which doth onelie helpe digestion. But if you haue it not at that present, you may vse white pepper, and if you haue not that neither, take blacke pepper. Also for the same, Diacotoneon is good, and diospoliticum. Also there bee other thinges to be applied as well inwardlie as outwardely both simples and compoundes, to strengthen the stomach, which are rehear∣sed in the former chapters. But all these medicines (especiallie such as do pierce quickly, as is Caraway seedes, fennell seedes, Apium, louage seede, parsley seede, ammeos, pepper, ginger and such like) must be giuen two houres before meate: but after meate you must ne∣uer take them: for then there is dispersed together with them some of the crude meates, and causeth obstructions. Therefore let them be vsed most before meate after the rubbings in the morning, and two houres before exercise.

CAP. X. Of windinesse of the stomach. DE INFLATIONE VENTRICVLI.

*THe stomach is windie through the windinesse that is engendred in it. Win∣dinesse is engendred through fleugmaticke humours in the stomach, or else thorough meates dissolued into vapours through want and debility of heate. For cold onely doth cause no windinesse, because it can neither exte∣nuate nor dissolue meate. Vehement heate for the most part, ouercomming those things that it comprehendeth, it extenuateth and maketh thinne the meate, so that no vapours can engender thereof: vnlesse it be easie to turne into windines, of the owne nature. But the windinesse that is so engendred is troublous and cloudie: and also it is but little, and endureth but a little while, so that at one belkinge or other it vanisheth a∣waye straight. The heate that woorketh in the meates, if it be but of little force and strengthe, (that is) doeth somewhat dissolue them, but not altogeather consume Page  91 them, thereof must needes engender windines, (as Galen teacheth lib. 30. de sympto causis. 70. They that are thus diseased, haue stretching out and heauines of the stomach:* also some∣time swelling, and a certaine bowing out of the mouth of the stomach, and of the stomach it selfe: also emptie belkings doe come, sometimes lightening a litle, and a stopping of the windines which is wont to breake downeward. Also this euill sometimes is all ouer the breast, and sometime behind, about the backbone and backe, and rusheth among the iointes, and often it occupieth both places. Besides these thinges there is vehement paine in drawing of breath, because of the pressing down togither of the midriffe, so that some do feele like as though they were choked. They are eased by the meate going downewarde, and by windines breaking out either by belking, or by the bellie. Also rumbling and noise is hard within. Therefore if the windines of the stomach be caused of flegmatique meates:* you must minister an extenuating diet, and such medicines, as doe deuide and purge fleume, which we taught in the first chapter of this booke. But if the windines be engēdred through want & weakenes of heate, he must vse meates easie of digestion, and of good iuice. Also you must eate but litle: for fasting is very good for this disease. After all the meate you must minister wine that is pure and vnwixed: but yet he must eschue much drinke, as a deadly e∣nemie. Also let him eschew fruite and eating of moist oyles. Also let him vse hote bathes in great vessels, for those doe mitigate so often and dissolue windines wheresoeuer it be, and prouoke sleepe. And when sleepe commeth, it easeth the pacient much because it helpeth digestion maruelouslie. And as for medicines, let them vse this decoption. ℞. Calamint, mintes, wilde mintes, chamomill, origan,*peniroiall. ana. M.j. wormewood. M.ss. seedes of an∣nyse, apium, comin, daucus, parcely, fennell. ana. ʒ.iij. seedes of nettles, carawayes. ana. ʒ.ij. of the roote of Enula Campana. ℥.ij. seath these in iust quantitie of water, till the third parte be consumed: then straine them, and put to sufficient suger to make the iuce of that decoction sweete, and put to that licour, of syrop of Calamint. ℥.iij and make a potion whereof let the sicke drinke euery day, in the morning. ℥.iiij. Or let him vse this pouder. ℞. the pouders of Dianysum, diacuninum, diacalum, inthes, ana. ℈.ij. seedes of Annyse,* daucus & fennell. ana. ℈.j. quibbybes, cloues. ana. ℈.ij ginger. ℈. pepper. ʒ.j. sugar lib. ss. commixe them altogeather and make a powder. They which haue taken meate, but a litle before, must first vomit. Also you must minister suppositories made of thinges that entice windi∣nes. After this sort. ℞. hony sodden ℥.ij. seedes of rew, comin, and fennell. ana. ℈.j. seedes of Careawayes & anyse. ana. ʒ.ss. salt. ℈.ij. commixt them altogeather and make supposi∣sitaries. If the wombe be very costiue, you must cast in a Clister made thus.* ℞. of the de∣coction aboue taught. lib. j. of benedicta laxatiua. ʒ.vij. oyles of worewood, rew, & dil,* ana. ℥.j. goose greace and hennes greace without salt. ana. ʒ.ij.ss. common salt, ʒ.j. cōmixe al∣togeather, & make a clyster. In this disease you must annoint the stomach outwarly with the oyles aforesaid or make a litle bunch of wooll, and wet it in the aforesaid oyles, being warmed, & apply it to the stomach. And vpon the buntch of wooll being wound vp toge∣ther, strew comin beaten, or seede of Apium or dill. If the disease endure longe apply to it plaisters made of line seede, bareley meale, darnell meale, comin, dill seede, or Apium, or fennell beaten, the toppes of Centorie and such other like, or apply this cerote.* ℞ oyles of rew, dill, narde, and laurell. ana. ℥.j. meale of lineseede, and fenugreeke ana. ʒ.j.ss. seedes of Apium, careawayes, and Nigella Romana, ana. ʒ.j. laurell bearies, and Cen∣torie ana. ʒ.j.ss. gumme ammoniacke, and opoponax ana. ʒ.ij. wax and rosen as much as is sufficient, make a Cerate. Also a great cupping glasse comprehending the nauell euery where, being applied with greate flame, is a remeady in this disease. Also Castoreum dronke with Posca, and also applied outwardly with oyle of dill, is good.

CAP. XI. Of yelking or hicket. DE SINGVLTƲ.

Page  92YELKING is motion of the stomach, and it is as it were a crampe of the sto∣mach raised of the expulsiue vertue which goeth about to thrust forth euill & hurtfull thinges.* This disease is caused for the most parte, either of fulnes or of emptines, as Hippocrates Witnesseth. Also somtimes it is caused through the byting and gnawing of sharpe humors. Also the meate being turned into a gnawing qualitie, and so corrupted, causeth some to yelke. Also coldnes of the mouth of the stomach, and corruption of the food causeth yelking, which causeth chil∣dren specially to haue the hicket often. Also yelking engendreth in feauers, specially whē the stomach or some other bowell is inflamed.* The outward causes are easily knowen by the telling of the sicke and them that be about him. Fulnes is knowne by heauines and em∣tines by those thinges that went before. You may knowe if the meate be corrupt by the burnt sauour of it. But you shall know sharpnes by gnawing, pricking and pulling. There∣fore when yelking is engendred of coldnes, you must lay vpon the stomach, wooll dipped in the oyle,* wherein hath bene sodden rew, comin and wormewood. Also oyle of mastick, and of Castoreum being annointed doth profit. To children warme linnen clothes being applied to, doe helpe often. They that be of full age, minister to them to drinke wine or Apium sodden in aqua mulsa, or comin beaten, or Asarum or penyroyall, eche of these by him selfe or else mixt with other. Also squilliticke vinegre is good to soupe. Also giue thē ʒ.j. of Castoreum with Posca, aswell against yelking caused of colde: as also, if it be caused through multitude of humours. Also if it be applied outwardly to the stomach with olde oyle, it is good for both the saide griefes. Moreouer holding of the breath which doth en∣crease heate,* is a present remedy for them that doe yelke through cold. When yelking is caused of fulnes, vomiting is the best remedie. If there be grosse humours, they must be ex∣tenuate and cutte with Oximel scylliticum, and calamint and horehound their decoction, & such like before rehersed.* Afterwarde you must apply those thinges which may drawe¦th aboundannce of humours a contrary way, and turne them cleane aside. For which pur∣pose are good those thinges which do purge downeward, and specially clisters, bindings & rubbings of the extreame partes, and cupping glasses with much flame, fasted to the breast, to the stomach and to the backe. Also these thinges are good for them, longe and quicke walking,* bearinges about and chiefly ryding. Also it is good for them to sneese as Hippo∣crates saith. For when the yelking is caused of fulnes there is neede of violent mouing. Also handsome calling loud, with much clamor, and with holding of the breath is good for them. Moreouer the stomach must be strengthened by medicines ministred as well inwardly as outwardly. Inwardly by comforting Electuaries, and outwardly by applying of ointmets, emplaisters and cerotes before taught. Yelking, that is caused of emptines, is cured by gi∣uing to the patient conuenient food,* and by those thinges that do fill his wanting: which partly be afore taught, & aboundantly spoken of hereafter in the cure of the feauer Ethicke. It doth much good in this kinde of yelking, to annoint the ioyntes of the necke and the backe with moisting oyle,* (as is) oiles of violets and of sweete almondes. But if yelking be caused of gnawing thinges, first we find that vomiting is a sufficient remedy for it: than also stupefaction of feeling, and such thinges as doe alter the gnawing. The senses be asto∣nyed and stupefact by cooling things,* for which purpose you must minister philonium, or pils of hounds tongue, which do profit maruelouslie in this disease, you must vse them thus. You must make of one drachme, six pilles, whereof let the sicke take one before he go to bed. The mordacitie and gnawing is altered and driuen away by medicines which doe stoppe, attenuate, and dry. Stoppers of gnawing be these, iuice of Endiue drunke, cowcumber seedes husked and beaten being drunke, lettuse seede likewise taken. Also iuice of purce∣laine drunke, & purslaine it selfe taken in meate. Also Sebesten dectoction taken in drinke, but specially aboue all Asses milke is good. Or if you haue not that, cowes milke new mil∣ked is good being dronke. For the same purpose minister conserue of roses, or of violets, or of water lillies diarrhodon, diatrion fautalon. Iulep of violets of Nimpheae (that is) water lillies and such like.* The Throchiskes doe stoppe, extenuate and drie vp. ℞. Costus, saf∣fron, spikenard, greene roses, masticke, ana. ℥.ss. asarum, aloës. ana. ʒ.ij. opium. ʒ.j. with iuice of psillium. make trochiskes, of the which giue ʒ.ss. or ʒ.j. Note that opium, and the roses, & Page  93 the iuice of psillium be of a colde operation. The spiknard doth discusse, dissolue and corro∣borate. The Asarum doth bring out the vicious humors by vrine. The Aloës doth purge out the vicious humors, and driue them out beneth at the seege. The saffron digesteth and strengtheneth the partes, for by his temperament of heate he causeth digestion, and by his restrictiue vertue which he hath, he addeth strength. The costus doeth sufficiently heate, and moderatly restraine, which you may perceiue by his tast. Galen commendeth this medicine very much lib. 8. de comp. Med. secundum locos. cap. 3.

CAP. XII. Of Choler. DE CHOLERA.

CHOLERA in Latine, is an immoderate perturbation of the stomach caused by vomit both vpward and downwarde. The barbarous sorte call this dis∣ease, Cholerica passio: they that haue this disease be called of the Latines Cholerici.* It is caused through much cruditie and rawnes of the stomach and ill digestion, which many times engendereth of great wickednes of the meates and sometime through aboundaunce of vicious humours also. The signes whereby this euill is knowne be verie manifest: for they auoid both vpwarde and downward: also there followeth thirst and swet, & short pulse and drawing vp,* and stret∣ching out of the muscles of the handes, and feete, and specially of the calfe of the legges. Therefore seeing this euill is most sharpe and doth cause verie greuous soundings, if it en∣dure long, you must doe your diligence, that you helpe it by and by without any tarying.* No Phisition, if he see this disease to be engendred through aboundaunce of vicious hu∣mours, will in the beginning all at once go about to stop that which is sent forth, for seeing they be vnprofitable & hurtfull they haue neede of purging. Therefore if the patient hath disposition to vomit, and be troubled with vndigested meates remaining in the stomach, you must giue him warme water, and then he must vomit by his finger or a fether put into his mouth. But you may not prouoke vomit by ministring of Aqua mulsa, nor with water mixed with oyle: because these thinges doe encrease the fluxes, and cause mordacitie and writhinges. Also you must helpe the matter that purgeth downewarde: for a straung poy∣son as it were being within doth gnaw the stomach and the guttes, and draweth the hu∣mours from the whole bodie, you must minister vnto him the easiest purging medicines as is Aloës, Casia fistularis, decoctions of Mirabolanes and such like. After that the superflu∣ous thinges be brought forth, then he must rest, and it is good to nourish the sides with oyles of Masticke, or nard, or wormewood, and to cause sleepe. You must commixe sometime with the aforesaid other thinges which can strengthen the stomach, which be afore taught, and with them you must make oitmentes. When there appeare exact and perfect conco∣ction and digestion, vse bathes of sweete water, & meates of good iuice. Among which is brothe of chickens with veriuice, the flesh of smale birdes of mountaines, reere egges & such like. In drinke let him vse iuice of Pomgranates, or syrupe of roses, or water where∣in burning steele hath bene quenched three or foure times. But when the euill hath endu∣red long, and hath caused slendernes and leanes throughout the body, and specially if the belly or stomach doe rest after the remouing from his place, and that the pulse be lesse, and thicker, then you must bynde the extreme and vttermost partes by bandes, and you must make them fast by much oyle. Also apply to the stomach Cataplasmes, and emplaisters, made of restrictiue and strengthening thinges, as those be which are made of dates, hypo∣cischidos, Acatia, Sumach, bole armomacke, franckensence, balaustiae, roses, and fruit of mirtles. Also it is an effectious remeady, if a linnen cloth wet in the iuice of crabbes, be laid vpon the stomach, or this Cerate. ℞. of the oyles of Roses, mirtells,* & quinces ana. ℥.j ma∣sticke, franckensence, acatia. ana. ʒ.ij. hypocischidos. ʒ.j.ss. saunders whyte and redde. ana. ʒ.j. balustiae, dragons blood. ana. ʒ.ss. bole armoniacke ʒ.j. wax and roson as much as is sufficient, make a Cerate to lay vpon the stomach couered with silke. In drincking Page  94 giue him the measure of one Cyathe of cold water to soupe of (that is) ℥.j.ss. but you must beware that it be not ouer cold,* for that being giuen sodainly is vomited vp againe, and sometime with his stupor and coldnes it hurteth verie extreemely the naturall heate, or it causeth inflammation of the stomach, or of some of the bowels. And you may sometime droppe into the water, a litle of the iuice of sharpe pomegranates, or of roses, or of the de∣coction of vine braunches. And if those thinges that be voyded furth be verie sharpe; and that thirst and burning doe trouble the patient: then minister cucumber seedes with three Cyathes of water. Also you may giue it commodiouslie with Amylum. Then also minister endiue or lettuse or both sodden in Posca. Afterward procure sleepe and rest by all mea∣nes: but if the fluxe will not be stopped, and the pulse decaie betweene this and that, and that cold and swet doe take him, and also sometime yelking, you must come to wine that is meanely restrictiue, which is not very strong, but yet sweete & not odoriferous. And put into it, warme if it may be, or else cold, crummes of bread or Alica, and so by litle and litle at sundry times let them soupe it vp. But yet they must eschew much quantitie of wine, & by all meanes you must goe about to bring them to sleepe, by strewing the pauement of the house, with roses, vine leaues, bryer, and such like afore taught. Also apply odouraments to the nose, as roses, quinces, and such like, also annoint soporiferous and sleepy ointments about the temples and forehead. If he goe to the stoole still, cast in by a clyster Amylum with decoction of poppy heades, for it doth both restraine and coole and cause sleepe. To stop vomits,* it is good to eate and deuoure the iuice of meddlers, quinces, pomegranates and peares. If with these remedies, and others that be taught before in the 2. chapter of this booke, the sicke cannot keepe & brooke his meate: you must apply without vpon the sto∣mach a very great cupping glasse lightly. Against the contractions and drawing vp of the muscles,* you must wind about the muscles, linnen clothes sooked in warme oyle, and ap∣ply moist Cerates and ointmentes, wherein is put some Castoreum and oyle of ireos. You shall finde examples enough of those in the chapter of the palsey before in the first booke. When the disease decreaseth, you must refresh and restore the patient againe, with good meates as chickens, doues, hennes, partriche, wood culuer, and ousills, or blackbirdes and such like.

CAP. XIII. Of the fluxe diarrhaea. DE DIARRHAEA.

DIARRHAEA in Latine, is a copious & great fluxe of the wombe without ex∣ulceration and inflammation. It is caused through weakenes of the instru∣ments that be long,* and doe serue to digestion: also through aboundance of nourishment and meate that is moist, and viscous, and through corrupting of the same meate. Moreouer gnawing and byting of those thinges that are contained in the belly: also flowing of some thinges from aboue to the belly, and also wekenes of the retentiue vertue.* The signes whereby the causes are knowen are very ma∣nifest. For if this fluxe diarrhaea be caused through the weakenes of the instrumentes that serue for digestion (as is) the stomach, the bowels, the liuer and the splene: you must seeke the signes of these out of their owne chapters. But if it be caused through much deuouring of euill meates and drinckes, you may know it partly by the patients tale, and partly also by those things that come forth by seige. For if they be cholericke they be yellow of colour, & they be not cast out without feeling of gnawing & heate: also the patient feeleth bitternes of the mouth, thirst, thinne state of the body, & other tokens which signifie choler. If it be flegmaticke, those thinges which come out with the seige, shalbe contrarie to that, which is sayd before of Choler. And if humours doe flowe from the head to the belly, the egesti∣ons will appeare frothy, and the tempre of the braine wilbe very moist. If the fluxe be en∣gendred through fulnes of the whole bodie, or if it be indicatorie, the signes are rehersed in another place, and of Galen lib. de plenitudine & crisibus. And if this fluxe of the wombe, be caused through weakenes of the instrumentes,* the distempure which is cause of this, Page  95 must be cured and corrected by his contraries, a is taught in the first chapter of this booke. If this fluxe of the wombe be caused through other causes,* and that nature doth labour to driue out of the body superfluous and hurtfull matter by this meanes, and that you can ea∣sily suffer it, which be troubled with it, then you must suffer and watch, till nature hath be∣stowed all her care and charge: or else also it is good to helpe natures motion, but for to goe about to striue with it, and to stoppe the fluxe, it causeth a worse and greater disease. For those humours which are stopped being caried vpward doe cause paine in the head, or phrensie, or litargie, or impostumation behind the eares not without daunger. Therefore in the beginning you may not stop the fluxe, which floweth profitably for the health of the body. But after that the fluxe hath endured long, not onely carrying forth superflui∣ties, but also melting as it were the state of the body and consuming the strength, then you must labour to stoppe it, as well by thinges giuen in at the mouth, as also cast in at the foū∣dament, and also by thinges applyed outwardly vpon the belly. Therefore if there come forth excreementes of cleane choler, you must chaunge it into a better and more healthfull state, but yet you may not cure them by stopping of it straight wayes.* For the cholericke matter that is gathered togeather, and heaped in the stomach, and in the bowell called ieiu∣num, if it be withholden and kept there still, it hurteth greatly. For it both ouerturneth the stomach, and causeth inflammations of the bowels, it kindleth thirst and restoreth feauers, and caused the euils aforesaide, and generally causeth a worse disease. Therefore if there be aboundaunce of cholericke humours in the body: nature must be expelled with easie purging medicines, (as is infusion) of rewbarbe, casia fistularis, the barkes of mirabolanes, Citrine or manna. After that giue cowes milke or goates milke warme, being new milked: or seeth it at the fire and stirre it continually, till it be consumed vnto the third part: which you may doe by quenching of redde hote iron, or steele gaddes in the milke often, but while it seetheth you must take the scume or some of it. For surely you can finde noe quicker re∣medy against fluxes of choler. And because the milke that is eaten of one that hath a feuer, is wont to turne into a burning sauour, or also sharpe or soure, and so causeth more hurt thē good: therefore if the patient hath a feuer togeather with this fluxe, you shall eschew mi∣nistring of milke to him, dressed after rhat sorte. But you must poure the fourth part of wa∣ter to the milcke, and seeth it vntill halfe be consumed, and then minister it vnto him. If the choler be heaped vp togeather in the bowels, you must cast in clisters made of the decocti∣on of barcley, with suger, roset, oyle of roses, yolkes of egges and such like. At the length, when the cholericke humours be voided out, you must minister inwardly such medicines, as do restraine and strengthen (as be) conserue of roses, diacotoneon without spyces, dia∣trion santalon, trochiskes of spodium Hydromalon and such like. And what kinde of medi∣cines they must be that ought to be applied outwardly, we will tell you a litle heareafter. Also the foundament must be fomented and nourished with a decoction made of some re∣strictiue thinges. If the fluxe Diarrhaea be engendred through flegmaticke humours that be grosse and tough, or through corruption of them,* then you must begine your cure as you did before with easie purging. Therefore then you must minister the infusion of Agaricke, with mirabolanes imbelitici: or some such like medicine, which is able to bring furth the afore saide humours. Also clysters are good, specially if there be aboundaunce of clammy hu∣mours heaped vp in the bowels, let them be made of the decoction of Centory, and oyle of rew, and such like. Minister within the belly Diacotoneon with spices, greene ginger, & other medicines which haue power to heate and drye. Also apply outwardly those thinges which doe adde strength. If the fluxe Diarrhaea be caused through the weakenes of the vertue retentiue, you must minister and apply those medicines,* which are applyed against other vnmeasurable fluxes of the wombe. Therefore apply irrigations and sprincklinges of oyle omphacine, or oyle of roses, or oyle of the blossomes of apples with some soure or sharpe wine, but oyle of mirtles is of more effect, if there be neede of vehement restriction, hauing the third or fourth part of wine added to it. And if their bodies be strong, you may seeth in that irrigation, gawles, pomegranate rindes, and Balustiae. If the fluxe endure still: apply Cataplasmes, emplaisters, and cerates, made of restrictiue and drying things, where∣of we will make mention in the next chapter. Also this Cerate is effectious to be made.*Page  96 Take seuen mulberies, or blackberies which be soure and whytish for lacke of ripenes, bray them well and adde to it oyle of roses ℥.ij. wax ℥.j. and make a cerate. After the voyding of superfluous and hurtfull humours, these thinges heale the fluxe of the wombe being mi∣nistred in drinke, (that is) comin, decoction of maidenheare, the roote of white thorne, likewise on drachme weight of the seede of Apium ministred: for it prouoketh vrine and turneth the fluxes that be in the bowels thither. Also vnrype Mulberies being yet soure, if they be dryed many dayes in the Sunne and so kept, if they be beaten and drunke when neede requireth, they restraine and stop the wombe maruelously. Also they may be ••aied and mixed with his meates, as they are wont to vse Sumach, which sometimes is sodden, the quantitie of an ounce weight with a chicken: but yet blackeberies of the brier being vn∣ripe and sharpe, do bind the bellie more, if they be dryed as is aforesaide and ministred in drinke. Among compound medicines these are maruelous good (that is) trochiskes of Spodium, of terra le••ia, diacotoneon, diatrion santalon, Triacle: and this compound made in Lozenges is good.* ℞. the powders of diatrion santalon, diarrhodon abbatis. ana. ℈.ij. red co∣rall, chosen franckensence, red roses. ana. ʒ.ss. spodium, ʒ.j. seedes of sorrell, sumuch. ana. ℈.j. balaustiae, acatiae, ana. ʒ.ss. masticke ℈.ss. bole armoniacke. ℥.j. fine white suger▪ lib. ss. dissolue it in the stilled waters of Plantaine, and roses, and make lozenges. Also this loch is good:* ℞. of old conserue of roses, of diacotoneon without spices, rob è ribes, rob de berberies ana. ℥.ss. hydromel. ʒ.iij. diamoron. ʒ.v. the powder of diatrion santalon. ℈.ij. red corall, ℈.j. spodium, balaustiae. ana. ℈.ss. bole armoniacke. ʒ.j. syrupe of mirtles as much as shall suffise and make a loch. Moreouer you shall euer haue this water ready made. ℞. sumach, one quarter,* raine water. lib. 3. in which steepe the sumach a day and a night, then boyle, them, and straine the sumach well and strongly. And in that water, seeth rice, or milcke, or other meates, or at the least way, poure some portion of this water to them. If the fluxe Diarrhaea be caused through flowing of humours from some other member of the bodie you must seeke the cure out of their proper chapters. As for example, if the humours flow from the heade into the stomach: you must returne to those thinges which are spoken of before in the chapiter against distillation or reume, and so doe likewise with other partes of the body.

CAP XIIII. Of the fluxe Lienteria. DE LIENTERIA.

LIENTERIA in Greeke, is a certaine lightnes, or smoothnes of the bowels, e∣uen like as there chaunceth of a scarre without on the skinne of the body. In this disease the bowels do not hold the meate, but they let it slide away before it be chaunged and perfitly digest, euen in the same forme and likenes that it was eaten. Therefore in Latine, it may well be called leuitas, or leuor intestino∣rum,* and in English, lightnes or smothenes of the bowels. It is caused oftentimes through a grieuous fluxe disenteria by name going afore, which causeth deepe exulceration of the bowels, then scarres that be hard closed togeather and smooth do follow: which scarres by reason of the hard closing, will not suffer the meates to be distributed aboue the body, be∣cause the mouthes of the veines, which are wont to drawe nowrishment from the bowelles to them selues, are now stopped. And because of smoothnes (as is aforesaide) the bowels suffer the meates to slide out, before they be perfitly digested. Also this disease is caused many times through weakenes and debilitie of the vertue, that should keepe and holde the meates in the stomach. For this vertue being weake and sickly, the food or meates be nei∣ther digested nor distributed: but they are cast forth crude, moist, and nothing chaunged, (the belly being alwayes soluble). Also sometime it engendereth after long fluxe of the wombe. Also sometime when dropsey water, auoideth by the belly, this fluxe Lienteria followeth. Therefore of what cause soeuer this fluxe is engendred, the sicke doth tast or feele no meate,* and it causeth euill state or plight of the bodie. Therefore there chaunceth to the patient continuall seiges, crude and raw, in colour pale or whitish, vnequall and very Page  97 waterie without anye commixinge of bloode and choler. Alsoe he feeleth a burninge, which spreadeth all ouer the sides, loothinge of meate followeth it.* It is a good and a friendely signe in them, that haue had this fluxe longe, if their chaunce to them sharpe and soure belchinges, for it betokeneth that the meate doeth abyde some while in the stomache vntill it beginne to be chaunged.* When this disease chaunce∣eth, it is easie to perceiue, that you must refreshe and recreate the vertues retentiue and digestiue, aswell of the stomache as of the bowelles by all meanes, and that may chiefelye be done by mynistringe of conueniente meates, and ordeyning of a dyette meete to restoore and refreshe strength. Therefore the fleshe of the byrdes of moun∣taynes are good, also chickens rosted in whose bellies also must be putte Sumache or masticke, and other thinges which shall be rehearsed in the next chapter. Lette the meat which you giue him, be litle in quantitie and easie of digestion. And if his sie∣ges be sharpe and cholericke, make him meate with rice and Alica and such like, with the which seeth some restrictiue thinges, peares, quinces, meddlars and such other like. Also milcke sodden is good for them, but if their seige bee flegmaticke, you must minister vnto them contrarye meates. Also commixe some what that is plea∣saunte and acceptable to the stomache, as is Annyse seede, comyn, or Daucus. In cholericke seiges lette their drincke be wine that is waterye and thinne: but in fleg∣maticke let the wine be olde and hotte. And generally let him drincke but litle, for muche drincke is not onely in this fluxe Lienteria, but also in all other fluxes of the wombe, most hurtfull. For curinge of this disease, if the fluxe Lienteria be engen∣dred through weakenesse of the vertue of the stomache,* you must turne to the cha∣pter of weakeneesse of the stomache, and there seeke the cure. But to be shorte you must minister both within and without to the bodye those thinges that doe restraine, and that can strengthen aswell the stomache as also the bowelles. Therefore my∣nister syruppes of wormewoode, and mintes and other electuaries which doe streng∣then the stomache. And you must applye those thinges outwardely, which be re∣hearsed before in the chapter of Diarrhaea, and shall be taught in the nexte chap∣ter followinge. But this medicine is speciallie good. ℞. oyles of Masticke, worme∣woode, myntes, and myrtles. ana. ʒ.ij. pouders of cinnamon chosen, cloues,* and galingale. ana. ℈.j. Balaustiae and redde roses. ana. ℈.ss. waxe as much as is suffici∣ent, make an oyntment, or vse this cerote. ℞. oyles of masticke, of wormewoode, and of quinces. ana. ℥.j. oyle of myntes. ℥.ss. calamus aromaticus, cloues, franckensence,* ana. ʒ.j. woode of Aloes. ℈.ss. redde roses, whyte saunders and redde. ana. ʒ.ss. ma∣sticke, comyn. ana. ʒ.j. Hypochischidos, Acatia, Sumach. ana. ʒ.j.ss. Gallia moscha∣ta. ℈.j. with waxe and turpentine as muche as is sufficient, make a cerate.* More∣ouer to those that youe coniecture haue a scarre, to those the eating of sharpe thinges is profitable, for it causeth a certaine refrication and rubbing open againe of the scarre, also it reuyueth againe the naturall heate, and doeth some what refresh the di∣gestiue vertue. Therefore in this case (as Galen witnesseth in chapter nientie fiue, Artis Medicae) they be good which doe scoure, and wype awaye sufficientlie, and restraine a litle, therefore allwayes commixe scouring thinges with restrictiue medy∣cines. In all other causes of this fluxe Lienteria, you must vse the same kinde of cure, which you doe vse to them that be afflicted with the fluxes Diarrhaea, or Dy∣senteria.

CAP. XV. Of the fluxe Dysenteria. DE DYSENTERIA.

Page  98DYSENTERIA in greeke properly is nothing else then an exulceration of the bowelles. The Latynes call this disease tormina, because through it, the bowells are tormented and fretted verie much with payne. We sayde be∣fore properly,* because the greekes recken foure kindes of bloudy Dysente∣ria, as witnesseth Galen lib. 30. de symptomatum causis. The first is, when [ 1] bloud is sent furth by circuite through some part of the bodie being cut of, or through some exercise of the former life, being let passe for a time. The second is when waterie bloud, [ 2] like vnto the water, wherein bloodie fleshe being newe killed, hath bene washed and sooked, is sent out: which chaunceth through weakenesse of the liuer. The thirde is, [ 3] when there is sent forth an humour more shyning & blacker, then that which is naturall, being commixt of bloode and melancholy. And of these, we doe not speake here, but [ 4] we speake onely of the fourth kinde, in the which many times by litle and litle, and be∣tweene whyles sometymes is cast out of pure bloode. Also sometyme clodded bloode, or shauing of the bowelles, commeth out with pure bloode. Also many times is cast out thicke dounge sprinckled with droppes of bloode. This fourth kinde (as it is saide) is caused through exulceration of the bowelles,* which sometime chaunceth through out∣warde causes, as of colde, heate, and moystnesse. Also through drincking of perni∣cious and naughtie medicines (as is scammony and such like. Also through eating of fruicte, through cruditie and rawnes, or through eating of sharpe or soure meates, or through sharpe and gnawing humours, flowinge from the whole bodie to the bellie, or engendred in the bellie it selfe. And this beginneth after Tenasmus sometime, and sometyme by it selfe.* The excremententes first are cholericke, diuerse and fattie, by reason of the fatte that cleaueth within in the bowells beinge melted. But when the superficies of the bowelles is altogeather bare, and exulceration doeth abyde a∣bout it, then the excrementes that come forth, be full of dregges and bloodie. And when the exulceration hath pearced deeper, then also is sent forth filthines, hauing as it were litle peaces of parchemente commixed with it. And if it be not stopped, it eateth and feedeth in shortetime, the places nigh vnto it, and it sendeth forth mat∣terie excrementes,* such as are wonte to runne from deade bodies. When the small guttes are exulcerate, there abydeth payne about the nauill, the excrementes are cholerike hauing the colour of a leeke, and altogeather garnished with sundrie co∣lours, commixed with much ordure or dounge. The patiente feeleth greefe and fret∣tinges, and gnawinges and losening, so that the sicke is not farre from faynting and fayling of harte. Also they are troubled with thriste and be feuerous, and the ordure commeth forth crude and rawe, and the bowell called ieiunum is exulcerate, but that is verie seldome: but if it doe chaunce the egestions doe appeare more crude and rawe hauing blacke blood wrapped with it vehemently and yelow choler, and much thirst, and also disposition to vomit doe trouble the sicke. Also sometime they vomit and abhorre meates. Also there remayneth vehement payne aboue the nauill, and sometime also malignaunt feauers doe engender. And they that are so diseased be waxen ill coulored, and doe sweate out euen till faynting and failing of harte. Their strength doeth quick∣ly fayle them,* and they be not farre from death. But if the vlceration be engendred in the great bowelles, then the ordure it commeth forth is pure and much and hea∣ped togeather, and commeth out with windines and frothenes sometime. Also fatnesse is commixed with it, and blood swimmeth alofte: as Galen sheweth largely in libro 60. de male affectis locis. For it helpeth greatly to the cure to knowe this thinge. For if the exulceration be in the vpper and smale bowelles, you must goe about to cure by medicines, giuen in at the mouth, but if it be in the great and lower bowelles, it is more conuenient to throwe in clysters. The beginning of the cure of them that haue the fluxe Dysenteria, from whence soeuer the fluxe proceedeth, must be with quiet & rest, and litle meat. Therefore if a feauar do not let it, let him eate milcke new milcked, while it is yet warme:* or it steed of it minister milcke sodden: as we taught before in the chapter of diar¦rhea. For this first clenseth & purgeth downward, and tempereth togither those thinges Page  99 which be in the bodie, and last of all it stoppeth and bindeth the wombe. But you must giue him moreouer wet bread after the taking of the milcke. Also pottage prepared of milcke, hath both the nature of medicines, and also they cause good nourishment, as is rice with milcke, amylum, and egges mixed with milcke. Also soupings or pottage made of alica, & mi∣lium, sumach, being added to it, is good. Also you must prepare meates of dry bread, pouring to it Posca, or iuice of dates, or quinces, or of peares, or of sumach.* Also minister chittes well rosted, with plantaine, or sodden with quinces, brayed: thusing of oyles is not necessary nor needefull, but you shall minister to tast vpon endiue, to both wilde and tame sodden, and plantaine, and colewortes twise sodden. Giue him also the yolkes of egges rosted. Fleshe is not good to be giuen to them that haue the fluxe dysenteria, because they be of a stronger nourishment, and doe striue against digestion: but yet you must giue it to them, that be troubled with this disease longe. Amonge all kinde of fleshe, you must specially chuse birdes, as is partrich, and wood culuers and birdes of mountaines. Amonge foure foo∣ted beastes, gotes fleshe and hares fleshe are good. But you must forbidde him the fleshe of cattell that drawe, and of all other foure footed beastes.* From the beginning let him vse for his drinke rayne water which is not fallen from houses couered with leade: For such water being droncke, euen of them that be whole, engendereth the Disenteria: and if good rayne water be not present, you must vse running water, wherein burning steele hath bene quenched. But if the stomach be diseased, or if his strength be cast downe, giue him wine, also let it be restringent and not verie olde.* Sleepe is the best remeady for them that haue the Disenteria. For this cure you must vse such remeadyes, that doe restraine, stoppe, drie vp, and prouoke vryne, and that doe carry the fluxe some other waye. Restrictiue thinges be these: sorrell seede sumach, gaules,* pomgranate ryndes dryed, bryer roote, lapdamum, acatia, hipocischis, balaustium, willowe leaues, comferie rootes leaues and seede, rheum ponticum, if it may be gotten, roote of Altheae, horse∣taile, corall, masticke, hares creame, dragons bloude, the barke of franckensence, ter∣ra lemnia, roote of verbascus, plantayne seede, white daysies, a kinde of mallowes cal∣led alcea, oxis, sanicula, ophrys, ophioglossum, knotgrasse, sheepeheardes purse, wal∣worte, pedelion, numularia, dragans the male, sharpe mulberies, carnells of grapes, the barcke of maces and such like. These thinges doe stoppe and make temperate the by∣tyng, gnawing and sharpenesse of humuors, as is Amylum, tragacantha, gummes,* tal∣lowe of goates, kiddes, swyne, gease, and hennes. These doe drye vppe: hares creame,* hartes horne burnt, the shelles of crabbes of running water and sage. Thinges to pro∣uoke vryne, you shall finde in his owne place. Therefore if the exulceration be in the great bowels, you must minister clysters first, such as haue power to scoure and clense,* as this is. ℞. of the decoction of whole bareley lib. j. mel rosarum strayned ℥.j. sugar ro∣set. ℥.ss. yolkes of egges in number ij. oyle of roses. ℥.iij. commixt altogeather and make a clyster. Abstersion and cleansing being first done, cast in those thinges that doe gluti∣nate and ioyne togither, as this is. ℞. redde roses, plantaine, leaues of comferie, knotgrasse primerose. ana. M.ss. balaustiae. ʒ.j. ryce burned ℥.j. roote of comferie. ℥.ss. seeth alto∣geather in water, wherein steele hath bene quenched, vntill the thirde parte be consu∣med, then strayne it, and take of the iuice of that decoction. ℥.xij. iuice of plantayne. ʒ.ij. acatia hipocischidos. ana. ℈.ij. bole armoniacke, sanguis draconis. ana. ℈.j. gotes tallowe. ℥.j. oyles of roses, mirtelles, quinces. ana. ʒ.j. commixe altogeather and make a clyster. Sometime it doth not onely require thinges to stoppe the vehemencie of the payne, but al∣so medicines that be stupefactiue. Therefore then it is good to vse this clyster.* ℞. of goa∣tes milcke, or of cowes milcke. lib. j. fresh butter. ℥.j. goates greace. ℥.j.ss. tragacantha, gumme. ana, ʒ.j. yolkes of egges in number iij. pilles of hounds tongue. ʒ.j. oyles of roses. ℥.iij. cōmix altogeather & make a clyster. If there be neede of more stupefactiō vehement: you must augment the weight of the pilles, or else you must adde to the aforesaid weight of pilles .iij. or .iiij. graines of opiū, or more or lesse, according to the vehemency of the paine, & the state of the body. If the exulceration be in the small & thin bowels, then it rather re∣quireth medicines that are giuē in at the mouth. Therfore the decoctiō of restrictiue things, which is afore taught, is good, if you cōmixe with it syrupe of roses & mirtles, & so minister Page  100 it,* and also other medicines which are taught in the chapter of Diarrhea, are good. Also you may conueniently minister this potion. ℞. of the decoction of the roote of comfery, or of some other restrictiue thing. ℥.iij. syrupe of roses. ℥.j. syrupe of mirtles. ℥.ss. powder of the trochiskes of spodium, plantine seede, boyle armoniacke. ana. ℈.ij. commixe alto∣geather and make a potion. Besides those thinges that are rehearsed in the chapters of Diarrhea and Lienteria, you must apply outwardly vppon the bellie this cerote. ℞. of the oyles of masticke,* roses, mirtles, and quinces. ana. ℥.j. meale of barley and fenugreeke. ana. ʒ.j. of red roses, plantine. ana. ʒ.j. balaustiae, sanguinis draconis, ana. ʒ.ss. bole armo∣niacke. ʒ.j. hypocischidos, acatia, masticke. ana. ʒ.ij. with waxe and rosen as much as is sufficient, make a cerote. By the examples aforesaide, you may make many other remea∣dies, which we ouerpasse here.

CAP. XVI. Of Tenasmus. DE TENASMO.

TENASMVS, is a continuall desire to go to the stole or seege, which the patiēt cannot deferre nor eschewe, and yet he auoydeth nothing, except it be a li∣tle bloode,* or filthie matter like sneuell. It is caused oftentimes through outwarde colde, or through humors sharpe and cholericke, or of salt fleume, or impostumation, or of inflammation engendred in the streight gut. Also many times, the stopping of harde dounge in the blinde gut, may cause the Tenasmus.* The Phisition may easily know, if it be caused of outward colde, by the tale of the sicke, because either he hath sitten vpon colde thinges, or he hath taken much colde in winter, or he hath taried long in cold water, you may know the humours by that which he auoydeth, which either be cholericke or flegmaticke. In a botch or byle his egestion is mat∣ter and corruption, and he feeleth pricking in the foundament. Inflammation causeth swel∣ling of the right bowell, and greauous paine togeather with a feauer, aboundance of doung causeth feeling of grieuous distention, and stretching out about the bottome of the bellie. The cure is diuerse according to the diuersitie of causes.* Therefore if the Tenasmus be caused of cold, you must minister pure and vnmixed wine, hote, and you must sprinckle fo¦ment and nourish the share, and the partes about the priuy members with hot oyles and fo∣ments: as are, oyles of rew and lillies: also branne sodden in wine, & put in a bag, may well be applied to the fondament. Also it is good to throwe in clysters made of the decoction of wild mintes, origan, calamint, chammomill, sothernwood, seede of annyse, fennell & such like, putting to it oyles of dill, chammomill, and lillies. Also it is maruelous good, if you take a very cold tyle which is blacke with smooke, & bray it with the geere that is contayned on it, then commixe it togeather with seething vinegre, & binde it vp in a cloth, and apply it to the fondament by and by after he hath auoided any thing. But if the Tenasmus be caused through cholericke humors withholden & remaining in the bowels & fondamēt you must cast in clisters which haue vertue & power to scoure,* wash and clense. As this is ℞ of the li∣cour of the decoction of barley lib. j. suger roset. ℥.j.ss. mel rosarum ℥.j. yolkes of egges .ij. oile of roses. ℥.iij. commixe them and make a clister, he must eschew all sharpe things, and he must vse thinges meanly colde and moist, and all those thinges which do stop and tem∣perate the sharpnes of choler. If Tenasmus be caused of flegmaticke humours, it shall be healed like that,* which is caused of cold, onely adding to, and commixing with the clisters, such medicines as haue vertue to purge flume, as is Electuarium nidum, or diaphaemicon, or be∣nedicta laxatina. And if Tenasmus be engendred of inflammation, cast in broth of Ptysan, wherein hath bene sodden a fewe redde roses,* or if vehement inflammation doe trouble him, minister this clyster. ℞. of the licoure of the decoction plantine. ℥.v. oyle of roses. ℥.ij. the white of one egge, commixe them togeather and make a clyster. Out∣wardely you must sprinkle, and annoynte the place betweene the pryuie member, & the fondament wiih oyles of rew,* & mirtles: or apply this foment. ℞ redde roses, plantayne. Page  101 ana. M.j. balaustiae. ʒ.iij. sidiorum. ℥.j. mirtle bearies. ʒ.ij. leaues of bryer. ℥.j. seeth alto∣geather in sufficient water, vntill the third parte be consumed, then wet a sponge in the li∣coure of that decoction, and apply it to the foundament.* Moreouer when there is neede of suppuration, rotting or dissoluing, apply fomentes made of the decoction of the roote of Althaea, of fenugreeke, chammomill, inolilote and branne. If the Tenasmus be caused of an vlcer or botch, first cast in the thinges which haue an abstersiue and clensing vertue:* and then afterward, things that doe glutinate, and ioyne togither must be vsed, euen as you did in the fluxe Dysenteria. Also this ointment put into the foundament is good. ℞. oyle of roses ℥.j.ss. the muscilage of Tragacantha, and gumme. ana. ʒ.iij. Ceruse, burnt leade, ana. ʒ.ss. Aloes, franckensence. ana. ℈.j. waxe, as much, as is sufficient, make an ointment, wherein dippe linnen clothes, and put them into the tuell. If the paine be wonderfull great, you may adde to the aforesaide thinges, opium. ℈.j.* If the Tenasmus be caused through multitude and aboundance of donge, then in the beginning the doung must be brought out by litle and litle with soluble and gentle clysters, as this is. ℞. Mallowes, Althaea, mercurie, beetes, leaues of blacke violettes. ana. M.j. seedes of fenugreeke and lyne∣seede. ana. ℥.ss. boyle them all in sufficient quantitie of water to the thirde parte: then take of the licour of that decoction. lib. j. medullae casiae fistularis. ℥.j.ss. common oyle. ℥.iij. salt beaten. ʒ.j. and make a clyster. But of this one thing, you must specially beware,* that in this case you do minister no purgation at the mouth, for that woulde bring great perill and destruction to the patient, by reason of drawing of mo excrementes from the whole bodie thither.

CAP. XVII. Of the Cholicke. DE COLI DOLORIBVS.

THE Colick, or paine, which is bred in the gut called Colon of the Greekes is caused many wayes: but it hath foure speciall causes.* For sometime it is en∣gendred through grosse and flegmaticke humours fallen downe within the thinne skinne of the gut Colon. Also sometime through windines, which hath no roume to get out. Also it is caused through inflammation of the grosse and thicke gut stretching out and troubling or vexing. Also it is wont to engender through sharpe and gnawing humours, which do afflict and vexe the aforesaide bowell vehemently.* Those that haue the colicke engendred of a grosse and flegmaticke humor, they be greaued & vexed aloft, all ouer the Abdomen, (that is) the place which is vnder the mouth of the sto∣mach: specially they are grieued, where the gut Colon lyeth: for there they feele paine, as though the gut were braied or boored through. Also they be fretted, and haue disposition to vomit, belkings, sundry and straung vomitings and specially of fleume. Also the wombe is letted and stopped and sendeth forth nothing, not so much as wind. Also the dounge, which are sometime commeth forth, doth looke like oxes doung, & it is light & full of winde. And there goeth before these thinges continuall vsing of meates that be very colde & of a grosse iuice, also filling with meates, ill digestiō, & crudity, idlenes, & such as be adioyning to these. Those that haue the cholicke caused of windines they feele extension,* stretching forth and bolning. They that haue the Colicke caused through inflammation, they feele inward bur∣ning and heat, & no small feauer: also retention both of the vrine & ordure. Also they are troubled with thirst burning heat, disposition to vomit, & vomiting specially of color with∣out any ceasing of the euil at al. And this is the most grieuous & worst kind of colick,* which do threaten to turne into the paine of the Iliacapossio. They, that haue the colike engēdred of sharpe & gnawing humors, they be troubled & vexed with burning thirst & watching, yea & smale feauers, the vrine is made sharpe, & cholericke humors are throwen out oftētimes going to the stoole doth raise greater payne & torment. Also meates & drinkes that be hot, being receiued, doe prouooke it grieuouslie. The diet and cure of this disease is diuerse ac∣cording to the diuerse of the causes. Therfore whē grosse & clammy humours do cause the Page  102 colicke, the whole diet must be extenuate and made thinne. Therefore let the bread which the sicke shall eate be new and well baked in an ouen or furnace. Flesh is good specially of birdes, as hens, partrich, wood culuers, turtles, blacke byrdes, and doues, he must eschue all kind of soules which do swime or liue in waters, as those thinges which do abound with many superfluities. Among foure footed beastes the flesh of calues and kiddes are good. He must eschew all kinde of pulse, which do maruelous hurt in this disease. For pot herbes, you must vse fennell, apium asperage and such like. Also it will not hurt to take garlicke & oynions raw. To be short, let his food be easie of digestion and engendring good iuice. Let him eschew fulnes and cruditie: he must drinke wine that is somewhat restrictiue, white, thinne, shining, of meane age, temperatly alayed, and let him drinke but litle. For the cure of the cholicke caused of grosse humours:* you must cure it so, that you doe not heate vehemently with no medicines, for such remeadies doe spread abroad, puffe vp, & make windy all cold & grosse humours, which puffing vp and spreading in the bowels doth cause more vehement paine. Therefore it is good to deuide, cut, & digest those humours without vehement paine or heate: and by vsing of those things which do not puffe vp and make windy. Therefor in his sharpe & extreeme paine make irrigations of the oyles of rew, chamomill, and dill. Also make fomentes and sacculi of the flowers of chamomill, dill, and melilote, seedes of flaxe, of fenugreke, of Althaea, of mill & branne. Also clisters made with the oyles aforesaid, and with the decoction of the aforesaid herbes are maruelous good, or with the decoction of the roote of wild cucumbers, putting to it comin, or rew, with goose greace,* or hens greace after this sort: ℞. mallowes, Althaea, chamomill, Mercury, dill, ana. M.j. origan, calamint, peniroiall. ana. M.ss. seedes of flaxe, fenugreeke, comin, louage. ana. ʒ.iij. seeth altogether with well water, of iust quantity vntill the third part. Then take of the licour of that decoction being strained lib. 1. Hierapicra. ℥.ss. benedicta laxatina. ʒ.v. of Electuarium nidum. ʒ.j.ss. of melrosarum streined. ℥.ss. of oyles of chamomill, dill and rew, ana. ℥.j. the yolkes of egges in number two, common salt. ʒ.j. commixe all togeather and make a clyster. Also the putting in of suppositaries, and annointing of the foundament made by iuice of Cyclaminum, with hony and salt peter, or centorie with hony and salt peter do profit.* Example of a suppositorie is this. ℞. of hony sodden. ℥.j.ss. pouder of hierapicra, ʒ.j. colochinthids. ℈.j sal gemme. ℈.ss. commixe them and make long suppositories. Also vomiting before supper,* if the patient can vomit easily, doth helpe aboue all other thinges. Moreouer after the purging, if the paine hath bene prolonged forth many dayes, let him go into a great vessell of hot oyle if it may be had.* Also it is good to sit in the decoction of A∣thaea, peniroyall, lawrell leaues, fenugreeke, chamomill, mootherworte, dill and such like.* The most conuenient medicine against the cholicke, is wine wherein wormewood hath bene infused or sodden, if they neede drincking after a bathe: it is also verie profita∣ble for them that they thirst not. Also decoction of the herbe it selfe, when it hath once boyled being commixed with wine, may commodiouslie be ministred after a bath. Also Castoreum continually dronke,* doth destroy the disease vtterly: and it is better then all medicines. It is ministred to the sicke. ʒ.j. in three Ciathes, of Aqua mulsa. And if the payne doe not cease and rest, you must minister diatrion piperion or theriaca. If that the payne be vehement,* it is good to vse medicines, that doe meanly ease, make soluble, and mitigate, aswell put in beneath as also giuen to drinke. For you must eschew those thinges that doe stupefact and astony strongly, because they doe somewhat ease and mitigate, but they make the disease longer by making the humors more grosse, & thickning of the passa∣ges of the bowels. If the cholicke be caused of windines, you must cast in clisters, that doe dissolue winde,* as is this, ℞. sothernewood, origan, peniroyall, calamint, chammomill, ana. M.j. rew, mints, wildemintes. ana. M.ss. seedes of annyse, fennell, carawayes, comin, dil, louage, and daucus, an. ʒ.ij. seeth altogeather vnto the thirde parte. Then take of the licour of that decoctiō strained. lib. j. hierapicra, benedicta laxatina. ana. ℥.ss. Castoreum. ʒ.j. pow∣der of diacuminum. ʒ.ij. oyles of rew and dill, ana. ℥.j.ss. common salt. ʒ.j.ss. commixe thē altogeather and make a clister.* Also there may be added to the aforesayde thinges the con∣fection of bay bearyes: for there is nothing of more effect to dissolue and driue awaye windinesse. Also it is good to minister dayly the quantitie of an hasell nut of the saide Page  103 decoction or electuarie of laurell beries in the decoction of some cutting and extenuating medicine. Applie outwardly vpon the bellie aloft, fomentes and irrrigations of such things as do disperse and scatter windinesse, as these be, besides the afornamed things nigella ani∣mi, parsley bitter Almondes, blacke pepper, wilde mints, bay beries, wormewood, nettle∣seede, gladon, marioram, Cinnamon and others, of these therefore you may make Cata∣plasmes, foments, and bagges.* But that which farre excelleth all the rest (as Galene witnes∣seth) is a great cupping glasse fastened lightly with aboundant flame to the whole bellie a∣loft, which doth maruelouslie as it were by inchauntment.* Let the sicke beware of and es∣chewe wine that is alayed, and drinking of cold water, and also from vsing of milke and o∣ther things that do coole, and from meates and drinkes which engender windinesse. And let him rather vse to drinke wine that is vnmingled and pure, and let him vse a diet which doth heate and out or deuide. If the collicke be caused of inflammation of the bowels,* you must open the paine in the arme. But if difficultie and hardnesse of makinge water, do rule and beare a sway, you must draw bloud from the veines of the anckle. Also you must vse the a∣foresayd remedies, excepting sharp things, and vehement purgers. And you must rather vse clysters mitigating and easing paine, also Cataplasmes and irrigations, and going down in∣to oile. Also fasten to them cupping glasses. Let his diet be thinne, almost the diet of feuers,* vntill the inflamation be slaked. And if the collicke be caused through sharp and gnawing or fretting humours, it is good to poure in at the fundament those things that can wash out and purge those humours without any mordacitie and gnawing: as is broth of Ptisan, or the decoction of fenugreeke, lineseede, chammomill, and Althaea, with fresh goose grease, or hennes grease and oyle of roses. This clister is specially good. ℞. leaues of violets,* both the tame endiues, leaues of Althaea, chammomill. ana. M.j.ss. seedes of fenugreeke, flaxe, ana. ℥.ss. boile these in iust quantitie of water, vntill the third part be consumed. Then take of the licour of that decoction being strayned, ℥.xiij. casia fistula. ℥.j. hierapicra. ʒ.vj. oyle of roses. ℥.ij. oyle of dill. ℥.j. goose greace and hennes greace. ana. ʒ.iij. yolkes of egges in number ij. commixe them all, and make a clister. Moreouer you must not onely purge the hurtfull and corrupt humours, but also you must temper and moderate them. Therefore he must vse bathes of sweete water, for they do mitigate and also prouoke sleepe: for which purpose minister syrupe of violets, and roses, and such like, which are able to temperate, & stop the violence of the gnawing humours. Also he must vse souping meates as Ptysans,* and brothes of fishes of stony places. He must abstaine from all hote and sharp things, whether they be meates or medicines, or cataphasmes or foments, or irrigations that be hote: as also he must abstaine from drinking of wine, especially from old wine. And to be short, let his whole diet be cold and moist. If the paine be not a whit released, but do rage more vehe∣mently, then you must come to the vsing of stupefactiue things.* For in this disease they do not onely pleasure and profit by astonying of the sense and feeling: but also because they make the thinne humours more thicke and grosse, and do quench the intollerable heate. A∣mong stupefactiue things Philonium is specially good,* of the which you may minister for the most part one whole drachme. Also pilles of hounds tongue are maruelouslie good, if as is afore taught you do make sixe pilles of, ʒ.j. and minister one of them to be swallowed before they go to bed. But there be very manie things which do helpe the collick with their whole vertue and substance. Among the which white dong of a wolfe taken with water, or thinne white wine is not the worst. That dong is better which hangeth on herbs or bushes, then that which toucheth the ground. Also the said dong of the wolfe,* easethe the collicke being bound to the Ilions. Greene mintes as Aetius affirmeth, sodden awhile and dronk iij. dayes healeth Collickes.

CAP. XVIII. Of Iliaca passio. DE ILEO.

THE Iliaca passio, is a disease causinge most grieuous & deadly paine in the small guttes. The Latines do call this disease, voluulus & connoluulus. The barbarous do call it Iliaca passio.* This disease is caused through continuall corruption & cruditie Page  104 of meates, but specially offat meates, which, if they be without corruption and being with∣holden, they engender obstructions in the small guttes. Also it is engendred of certaine stripes and blowes in certaine places in which the small guttes do lye. Also through vehe∣ment cold restrayning, and with holding of the excrements. Moreouer through aboundant drinking of cold things, specially if much be taken when they sweate. Also it chaunceth to them, whose bowels be fallen into the coddes togethr with the dong: and being violentlie thrust backe from thence againe, and through that it is enflamed. Also it is caused through drinking of deadly medicines, & through hard dong being impact about the thinne bowell. For the most part this disease is engendred either through inflammation, or through obstru∣ction of the drie dong. This disease is common to children, but yet they escape it, through helpe of naturall humiditie. It is not wont to chaunce verie often to olde men: but if they chaunce to haue it,* they almost be neuer rid of it. They that haue this disease haue most ve∣hement paine, and some swelling of the thinne and small gutts sticketh out, that it seemeth wounden together like a string called Chorda, whereupon manie do call this disease Chor∣dapson, also there is ouer much moistnesse of the stomach, loosenesse, vaine and empty bel∣kings, and doing no ease, rumbling and noyse of the bowelles, perfect stopping and letting of the dong and of windinesse. If the euill do increase and waxe greater, he auoideth all vp∣ward, and therefore he vomiteth vp fleume and choler, he hath coldnesse of the whole bo∣die, and paine. Also to manie there chaunceth difficultie and hardnesse of breathing. More∣ouer to them that shall die there chaunceth colde sweat, difficulty and hardnesse of making water, yea the foundament is so bound and close; that no small instrument will enter in. And sometime dong is cast vp by vomitting. For the cure of this disease, you must cure children with irrigations,* cataplasmes, clysters, suppositories and foments as is declared in the chap∣ter of the Collicke. But the cure of them that be of age must differ according to the diuersi∣tie of causes.* Therefore if Iliaca passio be caused of cruditie and ill digestion, and thorough deuouring and eating of manie and diuerse meates which yet remaine in the stomach: you must prouoke vomite with thinges aforesayd. But if there do remaine no raw and vndigest meates in the stomach, you must go about by all meanes, to draw out beneath, aswell win∣dinesse as also the dong: and that must be done by clisters, suppositories, and annointinges with great diligence in ech of them. Therefore you must cast in this clyster. ℞. Mercurie, Rewe,* leaues of Althaea, centorie. ana. M.j. hysope, calamint, wormewoode, ana. M.j.ss. roote of Althaea, ℥.j. roote of wilde cucumber. ʒ.j.ss. seedes of flaxe and faenugreeke. ana. ʒ.iij. seedes of commin. ʒ.ij. boyle them in iust quantitie of water, vntill the third part be cō∣sumed, then take of the liquor of that decoction being strained. ℥.xiiij. of benedicta laxati∣na. ℥.j. fresh butter, melrosarum strayned. ana. ℥.ss. oyles of Rewe, and dill. ana. ℥.j.ss. com¦mon salt. ʒ.j. commixe them altogether and make a clyster, and cast it in before meate: but if the euill be vehement, cast it in also after meate. And you must warne the pacient, that he doe hold it as long as he can. Also you must make suppositories, as you doe for the Colick, putting to them seeds of rew,* comin, and stalkes of colewortes, And you must make them the lōger,* that they may pearce the deeper. Also you must annoint the fundament with iuice of Cyclaminum, or honie with nitrum or salt peter. The foments and cataphasmes, wherwith this euill is cured, be almost such as are spoken of in the chapter of the Collicke. Also fo∣mentes made of wooll wet in oyle, wherin commin, dill, rewe, and cresses hath bene sod∣den, be verie good. Also emplaisters made of lineseede, faenugreeke, barley meale, darnell meale, rewe, cōmin, seedes of dill and apium are good. Also it is good to discend into a vessel filled with water and oyle: but seeth in the water Althaea, rewe, and dill. After these, fasten on cupping glasses,* first lightly to places somewhat farre of, and then also to the places that are grieued, making deepe scarifications. Also it is good to minister purgations, specially if the dong be drawne out first by such thinges as are afore rehearsed. It is maruelous good if they vomite, by drinking dill sodden. After drinking, cast bread into scalding water, & mi∣nister peeces of it to eate by and by hote. They that haue the Iliaca passio engēdred through taking of some venimous medicine,* you must giue them much warme water, and let them drinke it, and constraine them to vomite. After that you must giue them hote oyle in drinke, or fat broth, that they may vomite againe. After, within a fewe dayes giue him theriaca dis∣solued Page  105 in wine, and let him eate meates of good iuice. And if the obstruction do conti∣nue still emptie the bellie with milke, with a little scammonie or Aloës,* or some other pur∣ging medicine. If the Iliaca passio be engendred through inflammation, you must beginne with bloud letting: then you must fasten cupping glasses about the inflamed partes scarifi∣ing them. Also cast in clysters made of the decoction of mallowes, faenugreeke, lineseede, with oyle and butter. Also applie outwardly those things, that are good against inflamma∣tions, and do ease paine, you must prescribe vnto them a most thinne diet.* If the Iliaca pas∣sio be caused through falling of the bowels into the coddes, you must by and by labour (the patient lying vpright) to thrust backe againe the bowels that are fallen down to the share, and keepe it vp easily without violence or pressinge of it together, with bandes and trusses applied, conuenient for it.

CAP. XIX. Of wormes. DE LVMBRICIS.

THERE be three kindes of wormes. The first be round and long, named teretes. The second be brode, called therefore Lati. The third: those be called asca∣ridoes. The first kind of wormes called teretes:* according to their thicknesse they be round and a hand breadth in length, and sometime longer, and they be commoner then other. They be often in the slender and small guttes, and they go into the stomach, and therefore they are voyded often by the mouth, and to some also they come out at the nosthrilles. And this kind of wormes is peculiar to infants & chil∣dren, and boyes, and girles. The second kinde of wormes called Lati,* be broade and longe like a gard or band. They be of incredible length as Plinie witnesseth, lib. 2. cap. 3.3. Some∣time they are seene three hundred foote long, and sometime more. This kind of worme (as Paulus and Aetius witnesse) is nothing else but a permutation and chaunging of the thinne filmes going about the small guttes within, into a certaine liuing bodie, that will moue and stirre. The third kinde of wormes called Ascarides, be thinne and short like small wormes.* They be found most commonly in the right gut, and in the end of the fundament. All the a∣fore kindes be engendred and caused of crude, rawe, grosse, and fleugmatike mater,* and through conuenient rottennesse, such as is gathered specially in children, and in other great eaters. They that haue round wormes, do feele incredible gnawing of the bowelles,* and of the stomach, thinne and small coughes, and oftentimes prouoking and drie. In manie there followeth yesking and sleepe with mouing of the stomach: and also they do arise vp vnrea∣sonablie. Manie do awake and leape vp with noyse & crying out, & fall asleepe againe: but some do both put foorth their tongue, & shut their eyes and be quiet, and keepe silence, & do fret & fume with them which raise them, because they cannot watch they be so weake. Some haue their eyes sprinkled with bloud, and a pulse that is vnequall, obscure, fayling & running backe. Also to manie there chaunceth losse of appetite. Children, while they slepe do chewe their tongue, and also fashioning of their mouth as though they sucked or recea∣ued meate. Also to some there chaunceth gnashing of the teeth. But these things are done by little and little and betweene whiles. To some they runne foorth into the stomach, and do cause gnawing and disposition to vomit, and the pacients refuse meate: and if they be compelled to eate, they scarce can swallowe that which they take, or they vomit it vp a∣gaine. In manie the bellie doeth throw out corrupt meates, and is puffed vp like as it were a timpanie. The rest of the bodie it doth consume and make leane without reason, neither fasting going before, nor vnmeasurable purging being made. Also it chaunceth sometime the face to be made verie red, specially about the balles of the cheekes: but this colour tur∣neth againe into swartnesse. Some do speake foolish thinges in their sleepe like franticke persons. Some chaunge the place that they lie downe in, and tumble, and cast them selues from place to place: they increase feuers in them without order with vehement coldnesse of the extreme partes, hauing fittes the third or fourth day without order. But also these signes Page  106 and tokens altogether which we haue now rehearsed, must not euerie one of them be loo∣ked for in euerie bodie: but the chiefest of them & sometime manie. Brode wormes do bring continuall gnawing of the stomach, and an impotent, and incorrigible appetite to meate. For the worme that is in the guttes,* deuoureth the meate that is eaten, so that he hath need of more straight way, and except he eate straight way, the bowelles are gnawne: they that are thus diseased there followeth slendernesse and weakenesse of the body with inequality. The most sure and infallible signe is, if certaine things like cucumber seedes be auoided out with the egestion or excrements.*Ascarides do raise a vehement itch in the fundament, and do prouoke the patient to go to the stoole continuallie. And they that be troubled with this disease, for the most parte be the better after egestion and easing of themselues. Let their diet be hote and dry, specially if the pacient lacke a feauer, and let them vse meates of good iuice, and which will soone be dispersed throughout the whole body: and such as do not increase the cause that ingendreth wormes. Therfore all meates are to be eschewed, which can ingender fleugmaticke humours. Moreouer they that are troubled with wormes, must be nourished and fed liberally, and may not suffer hunger: because the wormes, except they haue meate to feede on, they then by and by gnawe the hard partes of the bodie: but giue thē meate at that time, specially when they are not altogether emptie. Let them drink wa∣tery wine.* For the cure it is not to be spared: and somtime if there be a feuer with it, you must haue respect to that, and to the worms also: & sometime you neede to be carefull but a little for the feuer, and you must be diligent notwitstanding to get the wormes out of the bodie. Therefore when many haue not spied and knowen this, it commeth to passe for lacke of heede taken to auoide the wormes, that they be gnawen and eaten of them, and so being pulled and gnawne, they die. The cure aswell of the round wormes, as of the flat wormes, consisteth in this point, that you may driue them out of the bodie being first killed. They are killed specially with bitter medicines, among which (if a feuer be not present) these sim∣ples are good:* wormewood, Scryphium, which is a kind of wormewood growing in the sea, sothernwood, calamint, horehound, dittaine, hysope, rew, leaues of persica, coriāder seeds, harts horne, lupins mints, penyroyall, origan, Centorie, ferne, gentian, aristolochia rotun∣d, garlike, seede of coleworts, and roote of enula campana. To these, if a feauer be present, you must adioyne the seedes of both the endiues and also the iuice of ther herbes, and myx∣aria.* Among all other the most commendable remedie is aloes. Therfore if infants will hard∣ly take aloes because it is so bitter, you must keepe them vpright with bandes, & their mouth being opened & separated, you must cast it in against their wils by a certaine pipe strength∣ned with a long splent. Of these aforsaid simples now rehearsed, there may be made diuerse cōpounds,* as decoctions, powders, cataplasmes, emplaisters, & oyntments. Among other things this powder is onely good.* ℞. of wormeseede. ʒ.ij. of centorie, wormwood, hartes horne burnt. ana. ʒ.j. calamint, peniroyall, origan. ana. ℥.ss. sothernwood, mintes, lupines, leaues of aristolochia rotunda. ana. ℈.j. aloes. ℈.ij. commix them altogether, & make a pow∣der, of the which, minister the weight of one drachme, or halfe a drachme, accordinge to the age and state of the bodie of the sicke, in milke or hony or syrupe of liquorice: for those things, which do kill the wormes, must bee ministred with sweet liquors, that thereby the wormes may tast of the medicine the sooner being allured by the sweetnesse of it, that is ministred with it. Annoynt the nauill you must outwardly with bulles gall, or with this oint¦ment.* ℞. oyles of bitter almondes, and of wormewood. ana. ℥.j. Bulles gall. ℥.ss. Centorie, wormewood, lupines. ana. ℈.ij. leaues of persica, hartes horne burnt, aloes, sothernwood, ana. ℈.j. waxe as much as is sufficient and make an oyntment. Or applie all ouer the sto∣mach this Cerate. ℞. aloes,* wormewood, meale of lupines. ana. ʒ.ij. nigella, mintes, origan, penyroyall, horehound. ana. ʒ.j. centorie, calamint. ana. ʒ.ss. oyles of wormewood, & bit∣ter almonds. ana. ℥.ij. oleum costinum. ℥.j. bulles gall. ℥.ss. with waxe and rosen, as much as shall suffise, make a Cerote. By examples of these you may easily make emplaisters and ca∣taplasmes, so that I neede not to rehearse here an example of ech of them. Moreouer it is good to cast in beneath abundance of mulsa, that thereby the wormes being allured by the sweetnesse of the hony, may creepe downward. But when the wormes were killed by the a∣foresaid medicines you must driue them out without delay: for there proceedeth a vicious Page  107 exhalation from them, which both destroyeth appetite and hurteth digestion, and being li∣fted vpward it causeth sweamiegs, and other euilles. The wormes being killed are driuen out for the most part by suppositories and purgations,* but specially by hierapicra and pillulae pestilentiales or rufi, which haue a maruelous efficacie in killing and bringing out of worms. But those that are troubled with wormes and with flux of the wombe also: those you must cure by thickening of the flux, and by chaunging the digestion into a better state, aswel with meates, as also with cataplasmes: for the more that the fluxe preuaileth, so much the more the engendring of wormes is increased: and againe the fluxe ceasing, the wormes do rest and pause. Therefore you must diligently labour to stop and restraine the wombe, and to ad stedfastnesse and strength vnto it. Therefore minister iuice of plantaine: or else let him take dried plantaine: for both haue like efficacie aswell against the fluxe, as also against worms. Also make cataplasmes, cerotes and oyntments of raw barley meale, pomegranate rindes, hypocischidos, and such like restrictiue thinges: but adde vnto them those thinges which be good to kill wormes. Restrictiue medicines are good to be applied outwardly for this cause, because they do corroborate and strengthen againe the stomach, being hurt through often vsing of bitter medicines. Also it is lawfull in this case to minister earth wormes being dri∣ed, and beaten to pouder with hydromel. The wormes called Ascarides,* being in children that be infants, they must be brought out with suppositaries made of honie and salt. In thē that be elder they must be brought out wich clysters, made either with sharp brine, or with decoction of worme wood, centorie, calamint, lupines, penyroyall, and other aboue re∣hearsed putting to oyles. After ministration of clisters, annoint the straight gut, or founda∣dament with these simples, (that is) Acatia, hypocischidos, iuice of Sumache, or some other restrictiue medicine. For the flesh being constrained by restrictiue things, it looseth the ha∣bilitie, that engendreth the wormes, and it excludeth and shutteth out the ascarides. But this that followeth is good both for children, and for those that be of greater age, and is most ef∣fectuous. Take olde flesh that is poudred, cut of the fat, and fashion it long and round, like a suppositarie fit for the fundament and thrust it into the tuell: applying a ligament or band, and let it alone within, as long as they can suffer it, then losen it and draw it out together with the wormes, that stick on it. After that you shall poure in the things aforesaid, and also annoint it as is aforesaid.

CAP. XX. Of the hemmorhoides. DE HEMMORHOIDIBVS.

THE Hemmorhoides is an vnfolding and spreading abrode of the vaines in the tuell. Of these some be blinde, which do swell and do send out none,* or very little bloud, some be open, which be set wide open abroade certaine times, and do send foorth bloud.* The hemmorhoides are caused through dreggie & melancholy blound, when there is aboundance thereof, which the liuer sen∣deth to those vaines. The signes whereby this euill is knowen, neede not to be required.* For the blind hemmerhoids may be seene with eyes, and they cause vehement paine, specially in auoiding the dong. But the open hemmerhoides do bleede, therefore the patient cannot be ignorant what they be. Therefore when blinde hemmerhoides appeare,* and do rayse great tormenting in the fundament, if the bodie be full of humours, cut the veyne of the hamme or of the anckle bones. Also you must make the bellie soluble aboundantly, left the drie dong, while it is sent foorth, do engender paine. Also you must apply where vehement paine is, those things that can and will mitigate. Among which are crummes of bread stee∣ped in milke, and sodden with yolkes of egges, and applied like a plaister. Also it profiteth to sit in a bath made of the decoction of mallowes, violet leaues, melilot, faenugreeke, cham∣momill, leaues of althaea, lineseede, floures of rose campion, and such like. And if the pa∣tient cannot vse that, wet woll or a sponge in the said decoction, and applie it to the griefe. And if these aforesaid things do no good, you must get out bloud of them. Therefore put Page  108 into the euell,* woll annointed with iuice of cyclaminum, or with onions, or with oxe gall. The same effect also hath the iuice of centorie, doues dong, staues acre, figge leaues: if they be rubbed with it, and also the pulpe of Colocynthidis steeped in the oyle of bitter al∣mondes.* Among many other, this emplaister is verie good. ℞. of doues dong. ℥.ss. seede of stauescre, lupines. ana. ʒ.j.ss. bitter almonds. ʒ.j. pulpe of coloquintida. ʒ.ss. iuices of cy∣cla••inum, and onions. ana. ℥.j. commixe them altogether, and make it like a plaister, put∣ting to it if neede be, oyle of bitter almonds. But to take away the paine presently, vse this following. ℞. elder leaues. M.j. boile them in water, vntill they be verie tender, then take a peece of scarlet, as much as a mans hand or greater, and wet it in the decoction, and lay it to the place as warme as may be suffred, and when it is cold lay it to againe, being wet, in the same decoction as before. Do thus v. or vj times together, then lay the herbes vpon the same skarlet, lay the herbes verie hote also, this doth mollifie the hemmorhoides, and sea∣seth the paines verie quickly, which my selfe haue often prooued. Also you may put long suppositaries in the foundament,* made of the roote of Cyclaminum. Also bloudsuckers, or horse leaches, being included in a reede, so that they can put foorth, but only their head, are wont to be put to the hēmorhoids to open thē, & if you cannot pull them away easily, strew ashes vpon their heades, and you shall make them to fall of alone. But if the hemmorhoides be open,* and do auoide out bloud meanely at certaine times, they may not be stopped, for the bursting out of such bloud doth cause men that haue this disease, to be free from manie other diseases. Which thing Hypocrates witnesseth, where he saith in Epidemys, these words. They which haue the hemmorhoides,* neither be vexed with paine of the sides, nor inflam∣mation of the longs, nor a feeding vlcer, nor with felons, or cattes heare, nor with terniui∣this, nor with the leprie, nor with morphue. But if the hemmorhoides do throw out bloud immoderately, or longer then they should do, so that the patient do consume and wast a∣way with this euill, and their strength decayed and throwne downe, they must be stopped by and by: but otherwise there is perill in stopping them, but in this case it is to doubt, lest the dropsie should follow, the liuer being cooled through moderate vacuation & purging. Therfore let those that be so emptied and purged out of measure,* vse meats that haue but lit∣tle bloud, and that do engender but little superfluities or excrements, & which also do drie and restraine, as is Alica and rice. Of potherbes, endiue, succorie, purslane, and such like. Commix his meate with sumach, and iuice of vnripe grapes. If his strength be much weake∣ned, you must nourish and feede the sicke with meate thus, you must straine out the iuyce that is in the meate, and commix with it iuice of quinces, and let him soupe that vp, he must drinke wine that is restrictiue.* For the cure if there be abundance of humours in the bodie, it profiteth to cut the inner veine of the right hand in the arme: but if there be not, you must studie to auert and tourne away the bloud by fastening of cupping glasses to the sides, and to the liuer. For the which purpose it is good to bind the handes and the feete with bands, and to vse sharp & hard frictions & rubbings. Morouer you must minister within the body those things which do restraine, as are, syrupes of Roses, of mirtles, and of quinces, red corall, bole armoniacke, trochistes of ambre, of spodium, of terra lemnia, and other which be rehearsed in the Chapter of spitting of bloud. Also applie those thinges outwardly, which can stoppe bloud that floweth. Among which as Aëtius witnesseth. lib. 14. cap. 5. is aloës laid on with Posca. The same effect also hath scales of iron or burnt lead. This medicine is notable good which is described of Galen lib. 5. therap. method. ℞. of frankensence one part, of Aloes one part and a halfe,* commixe them with the white of an egge, vntill all come to the thicknesse of hony, and lay it vpon the soft hayres of an hare, and apply it to the place that bleedeth, being bound outwardly with bandes of fine linnen. Also ointments, bathes, incessions, fo∣mentes, and other such like medicines, made of things hauing a restrictiue vertue do profit, whereof you shall finde manie examples before in the Chapters of diarrhaea, lieuteria, Dysen¦teria and tenafinus.* And if you shall vse little bagges, it is best, before you apply them, to boyle them in wine that is red and restrictiue, or at the least to sprinkle them with it. Examples of other me∣dicines seeke before.

Page  109

CAP. XXI. Of the falling out of the tuell. DE PROCIDENTIA ANI.

IT chaunceth sometime, that resolucion or weakenes of the ouertwhart mus∣cles which do plucke the fundament vpward, doth cause the tuell to fall out.* Wherefore seing it cannot be drawen backeward againe, nor pulled vpward of the aforesaid muscles, it hath neede of handes or medicines to put it vp a∣gaine. When the tuell is fallen out, you must dilgently consider,* whether it be free from inflammation or no, for if it be not enflamed at all, it must by and by be thrust & put to his former place by compulsion. And because it must not fall out again, after that it is thrust in, and put vp into his own place, you must apply restrictiue medicines outward to it. Therefore first, you must annoint it about with oyle of roses being warmed, or scoure the tuell with restrictiue wine, and then being put vp againe into his place, you must bind him vp. And that you must do by & by, as soone as the sick hath bin at the stoole, least that, when necessitie constrayneth them to go to the stoole againe, the tuel should fall out againe. You must applie a lineament of acatia and hypocischidos with wine. Also you must seeth in water till it be red, gaules, balustiae, shelles of mast, pomegranate rindes, daisies, sumach, shales of quinces and such like, and afterward of that decoction make incessions and washing. But af∣ter that the tuell is washed with wine or with some restrictiue decoction then it is lawful to strew vpon it, & to apply to it dry medicines. For which purpose you may applie bole armo∣niake, frankensense, sanguis draconis, galles, acatia, mirrhe, hypocichidos, harts horn, & such other restrictiue medicines, as we haue rehearsed often before. But if the tuell thorough in∣flammation be so swollen, that it cannot be thrust vp againe: if the body be full of humours, you must first cut a veine, and prouoke vomit. And also you must apply to the tuell by & by in the beginning, those things that do restraine & stop or appease: but if there be no abun∣dance of humors in the body, let the sick vse incessions of the decoction of Chammomill, mallowes, althaea, lineseede, fenugreek, and such like, or let him descend into hote water, & tarie in it for a time. Also it is lawfull to apply a sponge or woll wet in the decoction. More∣ouer you must annoint the tuell with oyles of chammomill, & dill, vntill it may be put vp: for they because of their dissoluing vertue, do readily take away the swelling, and do also cause, that it may be put vp againe, without any difficultie or paine. But after it is put vp againe, then you must vse the aforsaid restrictiue medicines, that it fall not out againe.

CAP. XXII. Of the clefts of the fundament. DE RIMIS ANI.

CLEFTES of the fundamēt be chaps which are made in the muscle that shut∣teth the fundament, or in the circle round about the fundament, they be like the chaps, which are made through a north wind on the lips.* They ar caused through flowing of sharp humors, or through inflāmation, or through exten¦tiō of the swelling of the tuel. This euil is apparēt to the eyes,* & therfore we neede to shew no signes to declare it by. For the cure, if the clefts of the fun∣dament be engendred of sharp humors, then they first of all must be purged & tēpered.* But if it be caused through swelling of the fundament caused of inflammation, you must likewise vse at the beginning purging, medicines. Also the bellie all the time of the cure must be kept soluble with meates that do moisten, and fat meates, least drie dong should hinder, and tarie the conglutination. Of such qualities be mallowes, spinache, milcke of sweete Almondes, soft egges, fat broth, and such other like. But to the chappes them selues you must vse this oyntment. ℞. of the oyles of roses and mirtles. ana. ℥.j. franckensence,* ma∣sticke, litarge, sanguis draconis. ana. ℈.j. aloës, burnt lead, ceruse, balaustiae, bole armoniake. ana. ℈.ss. white wax asmuch as is sufficient, make an oyntment. Or thus. ℞. oyle of Roses.*Page  110 ℥.j.ss. galles, mirrhe, terra lemnia. ana. ℈.j. roote of comferie, roch a lume, burnt lead. ana. ℈.ss. the yolke of an egge being rosted, wax as much as is sufficient, and make an ointmēt. VVith these oyntments you must annoint the cleftes, thrise on a day, but wash them first with decoction of roses, galles and fidiorum. And if burning and inflammation do vexe the diseased place, you must annoint it with vnguentum album camphoratum.

CAP XXIII. Of the weaknes of the liuer. DE IMBECILLITATE IECINORIS.

*WEAKENESSE of the liuer is caused of distempure either hote, cold, moist, or drie. Hote distempure doth rost, and as it were burne vp as well the humours which were before in the liuer, as also those humours, which are caried to the liuer by the veynes mesenterij. But cold distempure doth make the flegmatike and rawe humour, which is alreadie contayned in the liuer, grosse and tough and hard to be moued, and the humours that be caried to the liuer, it leaueth them halfe di∣gested. Drie distempure doth make the humours drier and thicker. Moist distempure doeth make the humours thinne and more waterie. Therfore they which haue weake facultie and strength of the liuer they are called hepatici, as Galen sayth. Hote distēpure vexing the liuer, there are colliquations,* first of the humours, and after that of the liuer it selfe: also choler that is stinking and grosse is auoided by the belly, and is aboundantly coloured: also a feuer ve∣xeth him, he abhorreth meate and casteth vp choler. Moreouer thirst doth trouble thē, their vrine is ruffe, and the pulse is swift. VVhen there is cold distempure, they make not many ex∣cretions, nor much in quantitie, the euill endureth long, & the belly floweth certaine dayes aboundantly. But the egestions be lesse stinking, then those which be melted through heat, neither haue they colour also nor thickenesse, but are like putrifact bloud which is curded. And if you do diligently marke it, it is neither curded bloud, nor blacke bloud, but as it were certaine slime and dregges of grosse bloud comming nigh to melancholie. And also diuerse and manie colours of the excrementes do signifie cold distempure. Also in it there appeareth a faint feuer. The face doth not fall, and he hath greater appetite of meates. To either of these distempures, if there come drinesse, the excrements will be drier and lsse and the sicke wil be more thirstie. But if moistnesse come to either of them, the egestions will be more liquide and more aboundant,* and they shall be lesse troubled with thirst. For the cure the chiefe point is to amend the griefe by conrraries. Therefore you must coole a hoate di∣stempure,* and heate a cold distempure. Likewise you must moisten a drie distempure, & dry a moisture. But in the cure this onely must also be considered that in all medicines for the liuer, that as well those which be taken by the mouth inward, as also those that be applied to it outwardly, commixe some restrictiue things with them, whereby the strength and sta∣bility of the liuer may be conserued and kept. Therefore in a hote distempure, for his diet, let him vse broth of Ptysan,* and other meates that do meanelie coole, as lettuse, endiue, succorie, sowthistle, and water and bread mixed together, or bread dipped in water. Also chickens, partrich, birds of mountaines, and veale, these being sodden in veriuice or lymōs. of fruits let the sick eate faisons, lymons, & sweete almonds. He must eschew wine altoge∣ther, except some other cause let it, as weakenesse of the stomach, for then you must minister thinne and watery wine. Let them drinke, for wine, iuice of pomegranates, and syrupus ace∣tosus simplex. Also oxysaccharum, with decoction of barley or endiue. Also they must eschew all meates and drinkes dressed with hony, and that be verie hote, and haue vertue to cut and deuide.* For the cure minister vnto him by the mouth, conserue of roses diarrhodō abbatis, dia∣trion santalon, and other such like antidotes. Also these lozenges profit, ℞. the powders of Diarrhodon abbatis, and of diatrion santalon. ana. ʒ.j.ss. seedes of both the tame endiues, red roses. ana. ℈.ij. raisons. ℥.j. white saunders, withwind, floures of squinaunt. ana. ℈.j. suger. ℥.vj. dissolue it in the stilled waters of withwind, & endiue that hath the brode leaues, and make lozenges. And also the antidote Philoniū, only once ministred, somtime hath mar∣uelouslie Page  111 healed all hote distempure of the liuer. Applie outwardly foments made of roses, chāmomil & quinces, or seeth wormwood or dates in the aforesaid oiles of roses, chāmomil and quinces, and then wet woll or a spong in them, and lay that right against the liuer. Also you may vse this oyntment. ℞. oyles of roses, of quinces,* and of water lillies. ana. ℥.j. white saunders and red, red roses. ana. ℈.j. scraping of iuorie. ℈.j.ss. seedes of both the tame endiues. ana. ℈.j. vinegre. ʒ.j.ss. purslayne seede. gra.ij. waxe as much as is suffi∣cient and make an oyntment. Also Epithemes in this disease are wont to profite not a little:* which may be made thus, or after this sort. ℞. the distilled waters of sowen Endiue, with the broade leaues of lettice, of sorell, of roses, of water lillies. ana. ℥.iij. iuice of sengreene, ℥.j. vineger. ℥.j. red roses, red saunders, shauing of iuorie. ana. ʒ.j. powders of Diarrho∣don abbatis, diatrion santalon. ana. ʒ.ss. seede of purslayne. ℈.ss. Commixe them all, and make an Epitheme. You must applie Epithemes in sommer coldo, and in winter warme. When there is colde distempure of the liuer, you must vse medicines that do heate,* and adde strength and stabilitie to the liuer. In his diet he must vse meates easie of digestion, and heatinge. For pot herbes let him take sauorie, hysope, fennell, parsley, sothernwoode, sage, and such like. And let his meates be dressed with Aromaticke thinges, as Cynna∣mon, cloues, and such others. He must drincke wine that is thinne, yellowe, and o∣doriferous. He must eschewe eating of fish, and colde fruictes, and idlenesse, and in con∣clusion what so euer doeth make colde. Within the bodie he must take this decoction. ℞. rootes of Apium, of fennell, and of parsley. ana. ℥.j. agrimonie, hysope, mintes,* worm∣wood, succorie, withwinde, origan, calamint, Asarum. ana. M.j. seedes of Anise, fen∣nell, daucus, commin, carawayes. ana. ʒ.ij. squynaunt. ʒ.j.ss. masticke. ʒ.j. floures of Chammomill, redde roses. ana. M.j. Cynnamon chosen. ʒ.j.ss. seeth all these in a pound and halfe of wine, and one pounde of running-water vnto the third part, then straine it, and put to the licour of syrupe of agrimonie. ℥.iij. syrupe of wormewood. ℥.j. Com∣mixe all together and make a potion: of the which let him drinke in the morning, and after dinner. ℥.iij.ss. at a time, for the same purpose you may minister hoate antidotes, as diacinnamomum, dianisum, conserue of sage, galingale condite, rootes of pimpernell coue∣red with suger, and such like. You must annoint him outwardly with hote oyles, as be, oyles of Narde, Chammomill, wormewoode, and such like. Also it is verie good to vse this oyntment. ℞. of the oyles of wormewood, and narde. ana. ℥.j.ss. Iuice of Agrimonie. ʒ.ij. cinnamon, cloues, wood of Aloës. ana. ℈.ij. spicknarde,* squynaunt and masticke. ana. ℈.j. wax, as much, as is sufficient, make an oyntment. You may also applie this Cerate. ℞. of the meale of faenugreeke, and of lupines. ana. ʒ.ij. roote of yreos,* and Asarum. ana. ʒ.j. of agrimonie, wormewood, melilotte, and squynaunt. ana ʒ.ss. gallia moschata. ℈.j. seede of Annise and fennell. ana. ℈.ss. masticke. ℈.ij. mirrhe and frankensence. ana. ℈.j. oyles of masticke, narde, roses, and dill. ana. ℥.j. waxe and rosen, as much as is sufficient, and make a Cerote to apply to the liuer.* Also the vsing of this Epitheme is good. ℞. seedes of anise, fennell, ammeos. ana. ʒ.j.ss. Cinnamon, cloues, squinaunt. ana. ʒ.j. seeth all in a pound and halfe of malmesey, till halfe be consumed, then straine it and commixe with the licour of that decoction, waters of wormewood and agrimony. ana. ℥.ij. pouders of diacin∣namomum, and diagalanges. ana. ʒ.j. withwind. ℈.ij. vinegre. ʒ.iij. commix altogether and make an Epitheme. In a moist distempure of the liuer, let him vse a diet that doeth drie,* as flesh of birdes rosted, thinne wine: those thinges that do prouoke sweat, as drie bathes, or hoate houses, and also bathes comming of their owne accord: generally he must eate & drinke but little. He must eschewe all kind of fishes, and fruites that haue power to moisten. You must minister within the bodie, syrupe of wormewood, dialacchae and diacureuma. You must applie, outwardly those thinges which do drie without anie great heate: of the which we will speake afterwarde in the Chapter of the dropsie anasarca.* Drie distempure of the li∣uer must be cured like the other, by his contraries. Therefore that wee may comprehende the matter in fewe wordes: it is good for him to vse a diet that doeth moysten, and bathes of sweete water, and other thinges which do moysten, whereof wee will speake aboun∣dantlie in theyr places. But this must not be forgotten, which wee also admonished you of before, to commixe alway with your moystening things, those things which ad strength Page  112 to the liuer.* But among those thinges which seeme to be good, by the propertie of their whole substance, the best is wolues liuer, if it be diligently dried and beaten, and ʒ.j. therof ministred with sweete wine alayed with water. For this, by often proofe is knowen to be good against all distempures of the liuer. For as we sayd, by the propertie of his whole sub∣stance, he hath his efficacie, and not by heating or cooling.

CAP XXIIII. Of obstructions of the liuer. DE OBSTRVCTIONE IECINORIS.

*OBSTRVCTIONS of the liuer are caused of vapours, windinsse, and grosse and hard to digest. But sometime it is caused of grosse and viscous humours in the endes of the veynes, springing from the flat part of the liuer, by the which veines nourishment is sent to the liuer from the stomach and the bowels.* If abundance of grosse and vaporous windinesse be heaped vp together, which can not find free passage out, and so doth ingender obstruction, there ariseth then not onely griefe & heauinesse a∣bout the right side, but also feeling and perceauing of distension and stretching out. If ob∣struction be engendred through grosse & viscous humours, there followeth heauines with feeling of paine, sometime easie, and sometime vehement: also sometime without a feuer, and sometime with a feuer. For grosse and viscous humours, being many, do cause obstru∣ction and stopping more then other, & specially when the pacient doth vse vehement mo∣uing after meate. And if they be sharp and much in quantitie, which be taken in meats, the paine of the obstructiō is made more vehement: when the body is stopped, they suffer both stretching out,* and also pricking. You must giue vnto them which haue this disease, hote meates, & that haue vertue to take away obstruction and stopping, as be leekes with oximel, sperage, fennell, parsley, capers, & other like things either sodden in pottage and meates, or taken with some heating sauce, which taketh away obstructions. You must eschew all meats and nourishments engendring grosse iuice. Also refraine bathes and exercises after meates. He must vse for drink, wine that is thinne and old. Besides his diet it is requisite for him to vse verie quickly medicines that do attenuate,* and take away obstructions: for obstructions waxing old doth not onely engender putrifaction in the liuer, but also in all the whole bo∣dy,* & kindleth a feuer. Among simple medicines these that follow do take away obstructiōs notably and without griefe (that is) wolues liuer, fumitorie, agrimonie, chammomill, galin∣gale, dragons roote, asarum, anise, apium, wormewood, casia, ireos, licorice, rhapontic•••, lu∣pines, capares, axini, with wind parsley, pistacium, bitter almondes, spikenard, stichados, gen∣tian, roote of plantaine, also the seede and leaues dried, iuice of Anagallis the female, suc∣cory, alkakengi, both the endiues, sperage and bruscus. Of these also you may make diuerse compound medicines, and specially decoctions, putting to it Oximel simplex, scilliticum, sy∣rups, acetosus compositus. Syrupes of wormewood, of hysope, of calamint, of horehound, & such other like. For the same purpose it is lawfull to minister trochistes of Agrimonie, of wormewood, of rubarb and such like. Also these Antidotes; diasaccha, diacurcunia are good and such other like. Among other simples before rehersed pistacium is notable good to take away obstructions. Therefore it will not onely be profitable but also pleasant, if you steepe pistacia ten or twelue houres by night in malmesey, and minister them in the morning, the digestion being ended. You must applie outwardly, Epithemes, ointmentes, emplaisters, and Ceroces, which be declared in the former Chapter, of the cure of cold distempure of the liuer. And these aforesaide medicines do suffise, if the euill be not yet inueterate and growen older for when the euill is imeterate you must vse both bloud letting and purga∣gations, if nothing do forbid it. You must purge him with pilles of Rubarb and of agaricke, & with other antidotes, which do purge grosse & thin humors by the belly. You must purge thē specially by the belly, when the hollow part of the liuer is vexed. But you must purge by vrine, whē the roūd embossed part of the liuer is vexed. The body being purged by bludler∣ting & purgatiōs thē you must minister those medicins, which ar before rehearsed. And spe∣cially Page  113 this Electuarie. ℞. of the roote of ireos, chamoepityos,* of seedes of anise and apium. ana. ʒ.ij. of asarum. ʒ.ij.ss. of cinnamone, ginger, carawayes, chammomill. ana. ʒ.j. of staecha∣dus, gentian, and horehounde. ana. ʒ.ij. with Oxymell scilliticum as much as is sufficient, make an electuarie. This doeth maruelouslie take away obstructions, not so much those that be in the hollowe part of the liuer, as those that sticke in the out side of the liuer. For it purgeth out vehemently by vrine.

CAP. XXV. Of inflammation of the liuer. DE INFLAMMATIONE IECINORIS.

THERE is inflammation ingendered in the liuer aswell as in other members,* and thorough the same causes that they be engendred of. If the liuer be vex∣ed with inflammation, there is felt paine and heauinesse all ouer the right side comming vp to the necke, and downe to the bastard ribs.* Also there is swel∣linge of the right side, specially, if the outwarde part of the liuer be en∣flamed. He hath a sharp feuer, a small and drie cough, an infaciable thirst, abhorringe of meates, hardnesse and difficultie of breathinge, the colour of the tongue first redde and afterward blacke. Vomites aswell of pure choller, as also like yolkes of egges, and after∣warde also rusty, the belly is costiue. Also the colour of the bodie is chaunged, like as in the yellowe iaundise, also hee hath the hicket. In the time of their fitte they are taken with a certaine rauing, and do voide foorth sharpe vrine. The inflammation that chaun∣ceth through causes in the crooked and hollowe partes of the liuer, do cause abhorring of meate, disposition to vomit vomits of choler, and vnquenchable thirst. The inflammation, that ingendreth in the outward and round partes of the liuer, causeth the patient to haue greater paine in drawinge of breath then the other, and do raise a greater cough, & it doth stretch out paine vnto the right part of the necke, so that it seemeth to plucke it of. Also it chaunceth sometime, that the muscles leaning vppon the liuer be enflamed: therefore manie being deceaued, do thinke it to be an inflammation of the liuer. Therefore it is ne∣cessarie to tell the differences betweene these. For if the liuer be inflamed, there followeth a round swelling, fashioned like the liuer, which will also be fashioned accordinge to the laying of the bodie. For it appeareth greater, when the bodie is tourned downe on the lefte side, and againe lesser, when it is tourned to the right side. For the liuer going vnder the bastard ribbes, it neither appeareth to the sight, nor to the feeling. Againe the thinne skin, inclining to the inflammation of the liuer, it apperreth to haue a naturall fashion. If the muscles be enflamed, the skinne is stretched out round about, so that if one would pull it vp with his fingers, he can not easilie. Moreouer there appeareth a swelling according to the placing of the muscles, that lye vppon the liuer, long in fashion and manifest to sight & feeling. For the cure, when the liuer beginneth to be enflamed,* you must by and by let him bloud, if age and strength will permit it. Therefore as Galene witnesseth you must both pull backe and purge the bloud, that floweth to the liuer▪ by cutting the inwarde veine of the arme: because that veyne in the right arme is right against the liuer, and hath a large passage: hauing societie with the veyne which is called Ʋena caua. If this veyne doeth not appeare, you must cut the middle veyne. And if that doeth not appeare neither, you must cut the vpper veyne, you must drawe out aboundaunt, and sufficient bloud if his strength will suffer it. After bloud-letting within a little space, make the bellie soluble, with a simple and easie clyster, speciallie if it do not voyde by it selfe.* The next day after the bloud lettinge, fasten on a cupping glasse, with scarification, and againe, likewise fasten it on, within a day after: for many haue felt more ease the second time of the applying: then at the first time. Also you must vse foments of woll wet in oyle, cataplasmes, cerotes,* and e∣pithemes. In the applying of the which, this onely is to be obserued, that to the other medi∣cines that be mollificatiue and discussiue, you alwayes commix some restrictiue medicines. Therfore make a foment of oyles of quinces, or of mastike, or roses, or mirtles, putting to it Page  114 odoriferous wine: or applie a sponge wette in the decoction of wormewoode, meli∣lot, red roses, chammomill, dill, plaintaine, tame endiue, and other like. Also make Cata∣plasmes or emplaisters of lineseede and faenugreeke,* barley meale, quinces, meliloe, floures, wormewoode and such like. Or this emplaister. ℞. barley meale. ℥.ss. meate of quinces beaten. ʒ.iij. wormewood,* floures of melilot, squinaunt. ana. ʒ.ij. lineseede. ʒ.j. oyles of Roses, quinces, chammomill, wormewood. ana. ℥.ss. vinegre. ℥.j. Com∣mixe altogether,* and make an emplaister. Also this Cerote is good. ℞. of the meate of Dates. ʒ.iij. of mirrhe, steeped in olde restrictiue wine, storaxe, and mastick. ana. ʒ.ij. floures of melilot, wormewood, chammomill. ana. ʒ.j.ss. saffron. ʒ.ss. oyles of quinces, of masticke, and of roses. ana. ℥.j. with waxe and rosen as much as is sufficient, and make a Cerote to applie to the liuer.* For the same purpose, you may make Epithemes of the decoction of Roses, plantaine, wormewood, chammomill, or of their watets distilled. And in makinge of all these thinges, you must take heede, that when there is vehement inflammation, the restrictiue thinges may preuaile, & exceede the thinges that mollifie and loosen. And con∣trariwise when the vehemencie of the heate is somewhat slaked, the mollifyinge thinges must exceede restrictiue thinges.* Moreouer you must beware, that you do not applie the aforesaid things when they are colde, but first warme them a little. Moreouer in inflamma∣tion of the liuer, when there is great and vehement paine, you must also minister drincke medicines, that do ease paine: but so, that you do eschewe continuall vse of them: you must vse drinking of simples most. Therefore minister ground swell sodden, as a thing very profi∣table, or iuice of lycorice with hote water. Also iuice of endiues doeth profite no lesse then the other, putting to them a little honie: for besides that it cooleth, and addeth strength to the liuer, it also purgeth the mouthes of the veynes of the liuer. But the bellie must also be prouoked by eatinge of nettles or mercurie sodden. Also in the declination of the disease, the bellie must be emptied by clisters, for which purpose polibodie & Epithimum with mul∣sa are put in: and that specially, if the inflammation be in the hollow part of the liuer. For the hollowe parte of the liuer (as wee sayd before) must be purged by the guttes. But the round and outward part of the liuer, must be purged by vrine. Moreouer in inflammation of the liuer there is neede of an exquisite diet (as Galen witnesseth lib. 13. Therap. method. The liuer it selfe requireth meate chieflie that can withstand obstructions.* Such be all those that be of thinne substance, and which do scoure without gnawing, as is, ptysan, mulsa, and such like. Therefore the best foode for them that are thus diseased, is ptysan broth, wherein apium hath bene sodden. Also you may minister broth of a chicken, wherin parsley hath bin sodden: but drinke mulsa or barley broth, or decoction of the tame endiues. And if that in∣flammation do begin to chaunge to suppuration and rotting then all the aforesaid signes will increase,* as paines, feuers, rauings, carefulnesse, and abhorring of meate. Then you must help the permutation, and rotting, that it may quickly be done, lest other members in con∣tinuance of time do rot with it also. Therefore you shall help it to rot with this cataplasme. ℞. of the roote of Althaea. ℥.j.ss. faenugreeke,* and lineseede. ana. ʒ.ij. leaues of Althaea and mallowes. ana. M.ij. dry figges in number vj. boile these in water till they wax soft, then bruise them, and make a Cataplasme. Neither shall you do amisse, if you applie an emplai∣ster,* that can help it to chaunge into matter. As this is. ℞. of barley meale, and faenugreke. ana. ℥.iij. of the roote of Althaea. ℥.ss. of the roote of white lillies. ʒ.j.ss. lineseede. ʒ.j. floures of cammomill, and melilote. ana. M.ss. boile all in water vnto a iust thicknesse, then commix of oyle of cammomill. ℥.j. of oyle of lillies. ℥.j.ss. boile them againe, and make an emplaister. Of these said things you may also make a cerote, by putting to them butter; la∣danum, rosen and waxe. VVhen the suppuration and rotting is fully come to a perfection, then the paines do cease, and all the fittes do appeare gentler and meeker. In the time of the rupture or breaking,* the paine doeth encrease more againe, therefore then also you must helpe the rupture or breaking of it, by vsing of goates dong and doues dong, nettle∣seede, mustard seede, and other things that do drawe to the superficies. And by heating potions, as is decoction of poley, fumitorie, roote of Chamaedrios, and such like. VVhen it is broken you must minister water of hony, or decoction of cicers, & other like things, which haue an abstersiue & scouring vertue. And if the matter doth auoid by the veines, you must Page  115 commix thinges that prouoke vryne: as be sium, asarum, casia, and cinamome. But if it a∣uoyde by the belly, commix those thinges which doe purge gently, as be goates wheye, tamarindes, & casia sistularis. Also it is lawfull then to vse clysters made of the decoction of bareley. When clensing and scouring of it is done minister medicines, which can glutinate and ioyne it vp.

CAP. XXVI. Of distempure of the Spleene. DE INTEMPERIE LIENIS.

LIKE as other partes of the bodie haue eight kindes of distempures, so many hath the spleene, and most often it suffereth cold and moist distempure. Eche particuler cause is not to be declared here: for there be some causes,* that be in other distempures of other members of the bodie,* therefore you shall seeke them in Galen ex capitibus primi, 2. & 3. lib. de morborum causis. The surest & shortest signes of distempure of the spleene is knowen by those signes that be eaten and droncken, and by those thinges which are applyed outwardly vpon the skinne, nigh to the skinne, nigh to the left side. For if colde distempure doeth vexe the spleene, all meates & drinckes which doe coole notably, doe soone and manifestly hurt the spleene. Also al cold thinges applyed outwardly doe hurt it: and therefore they signifie colde distempure of it: but contrariwise all hot thinges doe ease it. And if the distempure of the splene be hot,* it is not vexed with colde meates or drinckes or with cold thinges being applyed outward∣lie. And if the heat increase there is not onely no swelling in it, but also it suffreth contra∣ction, and shrincking vp, specially if a feuer be present. But meates and drinkes that be hot, and those thinges that adde heat being applyed outwardly doe encrease hot distem∣pures, and make them outragious. Also all cooling thinges be ioyfull vnto them.* Like∣wise also you may gaher the signes of dry distempure, specially when it is not euident by the proper nature of it for lacke of greatnes. Also those thinges that be applyed outward∣ly to the body, and that be receiued inwardly, if they haue vertue and power of drying, they doe drie vp the splene. When the splene is vexed with moist distempure▪* and so con∣tinuing a while, it causeth it to encrease so much, that it toucheth both the stomache and the liuer. Also the kinde of payne togeather with these aforesayde signes, do declare the distempure that vexeth. For in a hot and cold distempure, they haue small payne or none at all, neither haue they any also in a moyst distempure but least of all in a dry distempure. By these aforesayd signes, you may make coniecture of compounde distempures of the splene. For in a manner altogeather, when a hote distempure is vehement, a dry distem∣pure followeth it: and to a cold distempure being inueterate, a moyst distempure followeth.* But in so much as humours flowing into the spleene do cause swelling: you must haue di∣ligent consideration to them. For if choler doe flow thither, the whole bodie appeareth hotter, although there be no feuer present. Also the eyes and the vrine be coloured by choler. The sicke shall alwayes accuse drines, and complayne of thirst, and choler trou∣bling his mouth. He abhorreth meate, and is troubled with watching, and desireth colde thinges, and withall these his tongue is yelowished. He hath tertian fits, and the manners of the sicke be wrathfull, and they will chause out of measure. If Melancholie doth flowe,* his colour doth appeare as well on the tongue, as in all the rest of the body, and he hath vnnaturall appetite to meate, the patient is sad and heauy,* and other signes of choler be present with these. Also fits do vexe him the fourth day. When a flegmaticke humor flow∣eth into the splene, his color shal be like fleume. The sick doth not thirst, he desireth meate, vnlesse the humour be salt fleume: for the sicke abhorreth meate, and be more desirous of drinke, for they are thirstie. Also fits vexe them euerie day. And their vrines are whyte, and they themselues be slowe and sluggishe. Some of them that haue colde distempure with it, haue a great and a hard spleene. And if it be a sanguine humour,* that floweth into spleene, it is possible for it to chaunge the colour both of the tongue, and of the skinne. As for the appetit or abhorring of meates, the sicke is in a meane betwene both, and they be Page  116 more sicke then the rest, although they haue not like swelling of the spleene. The vey∣nes of the whole body doe appeare full of blood, and the vryne is yellowe. These signes we haue declared at large out of Aetius,* because they are common, and may almost be applyed to all distempures of other medicines, caused through flowing of humours. Gene∣rally distempure of the bare qualitie of the splene is almost without swelling.* You must cure and correct them both by meates and drinckes, as also by simple medicines and fo∣mentes, oyles and oyntmentes and such other like, which be contrary to the distem∣pure. Therefore you shall heale hot distempure of the splene, (as you did of the liuer) by meates and drinkes that do coole, and by annoyntinges with oyles of roses and olium moli∣num & other things which be rehearsed before in the 23. chapter of this booke. Likewise colde distempure of the liuer,* by those thinges which doe moderatly heat. In a moist di∣stempure of the splene, besides those thinges which are rehearsed before in the 23. chap∣ter, these thinges doe profit: roote of fiue leaued grasse, dry plantaine, the floure & some of salt, ammoxiacum, iuice of willow and such like. If you make of them an oyntment or ce∣rote by putting to sufficient vinegre, such as we will a little after describe. Also frictions are most conuenient for this,* which haue a discussing vertue. Dry distempure of the splene is cured by sweete bathes and hot waters, also annointinges with sweete oyle, and meates moisting without coldnes,* as is Ptysan iuice. If distempure of the spleene be caused through flowing of an humour, then if the humour be sanguine, you must let blood of the inner veine of the left arme, called lienaris vena, or if that cannot be founde, let blood of the veine, which is betweene the ring finger, and the eare finger, then apply both inwardely and outwardly medicines which doe ad strength to the spleene, as is, the barcke of the roote of capers, of hartes tongue, Ceterach, maydenheare Yreos, calamint and such like, which also are able to adde strength and stability to the liuer: of which we will speake a∣boundantly in the chapters following. If other humours flow to the spleene, first you must auoyd the superfluous humours by purging them with medicines: then all the rest of the time, you must correct the distempure that is left, and also apply thinges that strengthen the spleene.

CAP. XXVII. Of inflammation of the Spleene. DE LIENIS INFLAMMATIONE

THE Spleene, like as other members is vexed with inflammation as oft as hot blood doth flowe thither vnnaturally.* It is knowen by heauynes and swel∣ling of the left side,* which will not giue place to the feeling: also by paine & stretching out of the place, by feauers and by burning heate. But if aboun∣daunce of humours doe rush in thither, it is knowed by the greatnes & swift∣nes of the engendring of the inflammation. Let the diet of them that be vex∣ed with inflammation of the spleene be simple,* and giue them those thinges that will easi∣ly digest for their meate, as is Ptysan iuice, bread wet and other thinges which be often re∣hearsed of vs before in the inflammation of other members. And if the inflammation en∣dure longe, you may also giue them birdes flesh, and fishes taken in grauellie places. Let the drincke of the pacient be decoction of cinnamome or waterie wine.* Let the cure be begunne by cutting of the veine of the spleene, or that veine, which is betweene the litle finger,* and the ring finger, if there be no cause to forbid it. Let the bellie be often washed with clisters, but speciallie, if you may not let him blood. Then laie vpon the splene restri∣ctiue medicines, which can appease the furie of that, that floweth: and keepe the strength of the liuer and spleene, but yet you may not onely apply restrictiue thinges, but you must commixe with them, those thinges which doe extenuate, cut and loosen without euident heat, least grosse matter be stopped in it, and doe waxe more vehemently hard. Therefore if there be moderate inflammation,* you must apply moist woole wet in wine that is olde, sharpe and thinne and mixed with sweete oyle. But if there be greater heate, take oyle of roses, or oleum melinum, or oyle of chammomill with vinegre you may commix them togea∣ther Page  117 after this sort. ℞. oyle of roses and quinces. ana. ℥.ij. oyle of chamomill. ℥.j. the best vinegre. ℥.ss. commix them altogeather for a foment & irrigation. And if the aforesaide oyles be not at hande, seeth bryer leaues and quinces in oyle, and adde to also some exte∣nuating thinges, as is wormewood and peniroiall.* And you must beware also that you ap∣ply nothing vpon the splene colde, but whatsoeuer medicine you apply to it outwardly, let it be warmed. After fomentes and irrigatiōs, you must passe to cataplasmes: in the making of which you may adde the meale of darnell and barley with dry figges lineseede and oyle, wherein wormewood and penyroiall be sodden. But you must beware that the place be not kept bare after irrigations, and cataplasmes, but assone as those be taken away, by and by applie such cerotes or emplaisters as be described in the chapter of inflammation of the liuer. For both the liuer and the splene require one kinde of medicines, but the spleene re∣quireth so much the stonger medicines, as it is of grosser nourishment. Therefore you shal seeke examples of medicines meete for this place out of the chapter of inflammation of the Liuer: obseruing onely this thing, that you alwayes commixe vinegre, and somewhat that is acceptable to the spleene, and that doeth peculiarly defend his strength. And if the in∣flammation of the spleene tendeth towarde suppuration and rotting, which doe seeldome chaunce, you must helpe to further the suppuration, least other members putrifie, by cata∣plasmes that bring it to matter, whereof we haue spoken in the inflammation of the liuer.

CAP. XXVIII. Of hardnes of the Spleene. DE LIENIS SCHIRRHO.

INFAMMATION of the spleene, if it be not rightly cured, it draweth togea∣ther a hard swelling of the spleene. The cause of this disease is a certaine hu∣mour, which cleaueth stubburnly to the spleene:* but it is when hardnes en∣gendreth without inflammation into ouer much swelling.* The euill is easely knowen by touching, of what cause soeuer it be. His diet must be extenua∣ting: therefore he must eate meate which is easie of digestion,* and doth engender good iuice and thine. He must eschue all hard flesh, which doth engender grosse iuice, & which doe striue against digestion. He must drincke wine that is thinne in substaunce, yelowish in colour, not verie olde and being without all restriction. Also he must put much trust in exercises, which, it is good to vse before meate, the body not abounding with super∣fluities. Also it is manifest that vociferation, and crying out, oportunatly done and in time, doth greatly helpe in this euill. For the cure, you must vse verie strong thinges as well out∣wardly as also inwardly. Therefore with in the body minister most strong potions,* for those they may suffer without griefe. Among the which, the chiefe be, the barkes of the rootes of capers, hartestongue, the roote and herbe of Tamariscus, sodden in vinegre or ox∣ymell. Also iuice of centorie droncke, and decoction of bitter lupines taken with rew and pepper. Anagallis the female. ℈.j. with Posca or oximell, profiteth maruelouslie to drincke it. Also the most conuenient remeady for the hardnes of the spleene is yron quenched of∣ten in water, or wine or Posca. For that water or wine or Posca ministred in the beginning is pleasant, and most profitable, and is giuen many dayes orderly. Therefore to them that haue the feauer, minister water or Posca: but to them that haue tender flesh, and lacke a feauer, minister wine. Let the yron that is quenched in them be some instrument that is laide with steele. Also the scales of yron may profitablie be ministred to strong and rude men. For, this doth melt the spleene notablie, for it hath a consuming vertue. But yet least it should hurt the stomach, it is good to commix with it some strengthning medicines, as is hartestongue, toppes of wormewood, casia, annyse seede, sepillum montanum, or such other like. Apply outwardly this foment. ℞. centorie, hartestongue, rew. ana. M.j. barke of the roote of capers. ℥.j. seeth all in vinegre, and when they be sodden,* wet a sponge in the de∣coction, and applie it hot to the spleene.* Moreouer this oyntment sheweth a maruelous ef∣fect. ℞. of the oyles of capers, lillies and yreos. ana. ℥.j. marrow of oxes shankes. ʒ.ij. musci∣lage Page  118 of the roote of Althaea, fenugreeke, and lineseede. ana. ʒ.j. badgers greace, hennes greace, goose greace. ana. ʒ.ij. the barke of the roote of capers, Tamariscus, costus, centory. ana. ʒ.j. gumme ammoniacke, bdellium, galbanum. ana. ʒ.ss. the gummes being first dissol∣ued in vineger, with waxe as much as is sufficient, make an oyntment. Also emplaisters and cerotes doe profit much being made after this sorte. ℞. of the oyles of lillies, yreos, and of capers. ana. ℥.j. barley meale,* fenugreeke, lineseede. ana. ʒ.j. the barke of the roote of capers, hartestongue. ana. ʒ.j.ss. roote of Althaea ʒ.j. bdellium, ammoniacke, galbanum. ana. ʒ.j.ss. opop••ax, mirrhe, fanckensence. ana. ʒ.ss. with rosen, turpentine & waxe, as much as is sufficient make a cerote. Moreouer the Phisition must looke diligently to the disease, as he seeth cause sometime adde, and sometime take away those thinges which doe either mollifie, or attenuate and dissolue, or which addeth strength. In conclusion cupping glasses fastened with scarification, is not a litle profitable.

CAP. XXIX. Of obstruction of the Spleene. DE LIENIS OBSTRƲCTIONE.

IT chaunceth sometime not onely through weakenes of attractiue vertue, which is in the splene, but also through stopping of the passage, by which the dreggy humour of melancholy is deriued from the liuer vnto the splene there followeth obstruction. Afterward that vnpure and naughty blood is distribu∣ted all ouer the whole body, which, if it chaunce, then the colour of the bodie is corrupt, and enclieneth to blacknesse. Also sometime they that are thus diseased, haue vncurable vlcers. The causes may easily be knowen by those causes,* which we spoke of, in the chapter of the obstruction of the liuer. This euill is knowen by heauines,* which is about the left side. If the whole body be corrupted with it besides, it is easie to know specially by the colour of the face, difficulty of breathing, trou∣blesome dreames,* and other such like aforesaide. This disease is cured with an extenua∣ting diet, and by medicines which take away obstructions, whereof you may finde great plentie rehearsed in the chapter of obstructions of the liuer: for both these members haue neede of like medicines: But yet the splene hath neede of stronger medicines so much as it is nourished with grosser food. Therefore against grosse humours, that they may obey rea∣dilie to be purged,* there behoueth preparatiues, which preparatiues shall be the same that are for obstructions of the liuer, (this onely obserued) that here all thinges be stronger, and that they haue thinges commixed with them, that doe adde strength to the spleene, (the humour being preparate) then they must be purged by such medicines, as doe purge grosse and dreggie humours, whereof we haue spoken often before. After this apply such medi∣cines both inwardly and outwardly, as are contained in the former chapter, & in the chap∣ter of obstructiō of the liuer. Therefore those places will shew you medicines aboundantly.

CAP. XXX. Of the Iaundes. DE ICTERO.

*THE Iaundies is nothing else but a shedding either of yelow choler, or of melancholie all ouer the body. Sometime there chaunceth shedding of cho∣ler to the skinne, the liuer being safe, as in the Crisis of diseases. Many times the iaundeis is caused, and doth chaunce when the blood is corrupted without a feuer of some outward occasion, and is made cholericke, as it chaunceth by byting of venemous beastes. So a certaine man, when he was stong of a viper, had all his bodie spotted like the colour of leikes. Also it may chaunce that through inflammation, or chaunging of the naturall temperament of the liuer, such corruptiō of humour may hap∣pen Page  119 that sometime all the body shall be manifestly like herbes that be whitish with pale∣nes. Also sometime it shall be like the colour of lead, as also such colours be blacker if they happen through disease of the spleene. Also it is caused many times through weakenes of the bladder that receiueth the choler, which doeth not draw as it was wont to doe the cho∣lericke humour from the liuer vnto him, & therefore leaueth the blood vnpure. Also some∣time it is caused through obstruction and debilitie of the vessels; whose mouthes are deri∣ued from the gall to the liuer, and do not therefore draw the cholericke humour. Also ma∣ny times through obstruction of the passages, which goeth to the bowelles. But that we may discerne well the causes of the iaundeis,* you must of necessitie consider the figure of the excrementes, and the colour, seing in some they appeare much coloured by yellow choler, as also in some the vrine doeth appeare. Therefore in them that haue choler burst out vnto the skinne, by reason of a good crisis in feauers, their excrementes and vrine shall seeme to be of naturall colour. But if with the feuer cholericke derections do inuade, and there be heauines in the right side, it signifieth burning inflammation in the liuer: by whose violence the blood is chaunged into choler, and carried all ouer the bodie. But if there be burning without heauines, and griefe, the euill engendred onely through hote distempure of the liuer. But if without a feauer, togeather with feeling of some heauines about the right side, white excrementes be auoided: in them you may iudge, that there is obstructiō of the passages of the bladder that receiue the choler. If such egestions come forth without that heauines, you may iudge their strength to be weake, either the attractiue vertue which fetcheth out the cholericke humour from the liuer, or weakenes of the expulsiue vertue, which driueth out to the bowels. Also by & by after most cholericke humours be sent out with the vrine aboundantlie.* Those that haue melancholie sent to the skinne togeather with the the blood, they be vexed togeather grieuouslie: for there followeth it saddnesse without reason, and gnawing of those thinges which be about the bellie, difficultie of brea∣thing, abhorring of meate, and they auoid blacke vryne, but their dunge is like the colour the coperouse or shomakers bleache, & their wombe is much costiue. But those that haue the iaundeis caused of yelow choler, haue no gnawing about the belly, nor also they do not so much abhorre meates. They auoid white egestions, their vrines be coloured like saffron, but they remaine troubled, but commonly to all that haue the iaundeis, there chaunceth sluggishnes to moue, and a contrarie minde to sweete meates. Also itch of the whole bo∣die followeth. The whytes of the eyes and the partes of the face nigh the temples, and the balles of the cheekes doe betoken it by their pale colour. Also the veynes vnder the tōgue are founde full and signifie an aboundant humour. The iaundeis that is caused by reason of a good crisis, when the feauer is parfectly ended, they are soone cured,* if they vse bathes of sweete water, and frictions or chafinges with discussiue oyles, and all thinges that ratifie, the skinne, (as be) oyles or chammomill, of dill, of yreos, or such like. Also rosemarie sod∣den in oyle doth discusse and dissolue much. Let their whole diet be moiste, and extenua∣ting grosse humours.* They that haue the iaundeis caused through byting of a venemous beast, they are to be cured almost as those be, which be bitten with a madde dogge of the which we will speake in another place. Those that haue the iaundes through hot distem∣pure of the liuer, or through inflammation of it, you must minister the cures which are re∣hearsed before in the diseases of the liuer. Therefore that which we haue rehearsed there, must be referred hither. But if the iaundeis be caused through obstruction of the bladder that receiueth the choler, then two speciall remeadies must be vsed: blood letting & pur∣ging. In them therefore that blood doe much abound togeather with choler all ouer the bodie; & that be troubled with heauines or stretching out, about the liuer or the spleene, nothing can be done more profitably, then to let him blood, so there be not cause that let∣teth it. You must cut the innermost veyne of the right arme, and that if the liuer be affe∣cted euill: but if the spleene be diseased, cut the veine in the left arme,* you must drawe out the blood now and then, least if you should draw it out on heapes, the strength of the sicke should faile him. And if we be prohibited from blood letting, we may conueniently mini∣ster a clyster. For a clyster may well be cast in after blood letting, for by the auoyding out of the dounge, it maketh easie breath & by prouoking and gnawing of the bowels it draw∣eth Page  120 and pulleth backe to it the humours that are sent out to the skinne. Make it after this sorte. ℞. both the endiues,* horehounde, agrimonie, maidenheare, origan, wormewoode. ana. M.j. seedes of annyse, fennell, percely, sperage. ana. ʒ.ij.ss. licoryce, apium, fennell, the rootes of them. ana. ℥.j. boyle them in sufficient water vntill the third part: then straine them and take of the licour of that decoction. ℥.xiij. casia fistula. ℥.j. hierapicra. ℥.ss. electua∣rium de succo rosarum. ʒ.ij. oyles of dill and yreos. ana. ℥.j.ss. salt. ʒ.j. commix them all and make a clister. But purgations be most proper and familiar for this disease: but so that the humours be first attenuated, and made thinne by brothes, potions, and also medicines. Therefore he must vse meates of easie digestion and extenuating,* birdes of mountaines, fi∣shes of grauelly places, and potherbes prouoking vrine: specially endiues, sperage, louage, fennell, and such like. Flesh of wilde beastes being tamed, are best, specially of goates. For his sauce vinegre is good, wherein Aristolochia hath bene steeped. He must abstaine from fruites, but let his banket be almoundes, a few at once, and cicer, a litle tosted. Also the decoction of it continually droncke profiteth not a litle. Wine white and thinne & not verie olde, is good. For medicines let him haue those, that be taught in the chapter of ob∣struction of the liuer, and also in the 1. book, the 11 chapter. Aboue other, specially, apium percely, maidenheare, calamint, veruaine, roote of chickweede, or mather, aristolochia, se∣pillum, S. Iohns worte, being decoct, are good. The humours being preparate and exte∣nuate at length,* you must minister a medicine that purgeth choler. You must giue stronge purgations to them that haue the ianndeis: for through the drines of their stomach, the me∣dicines seeme weaker, and lesse in effect in them. The best purgation in this case, is infusiō of rewbarbe, described in the first booke the 11. chapter. Also Hierapicra, electuarium de suc∣co rosarum, de psyllio, and diaphanicon. And if you profit him nothing with the first purgatiō, you must returne againe to those thinges, which haue vertue to take away obstructions and stopping: and after three dayes you must purge him more vehemently againe. If the iaun∣deis be engendred through disease of the spleene, you must turne to the chapter of Melan∣choliousnes, and the chapter of obstruction of the liuer. The belly being purged, you must againe minister medicines, which do purge the entrailes. For which purpose the roote of, Cyclaminum beaten and druncke is onely good: for this doeth not onely purge againe the intrailes, but also it is most meete, to shut out the choler, by swet in the whole skinne all o∣uer. Therefore after it is druncke, you must helpe the exclusion of the swet by coueringes, and warmings in bed. You may giue of it. ʒ.ij. or iij. with aqua mulsa. Also iuice of the barcke of radish doeth notably well, if it be mixed with sweete wine vnalayed, or vinum mulsum, so that. ℥.ij. of the iuice be tempered with ℥.j. of wine. Also earthwormes dry gi∣uen .iij. dayes with vinum mulsum, doe sende out the iaundeis by the vrine. Also you may giue very profitably iuice of endiue and succorie to them that haue feauers by itselfe, and to them that lacke feauers with wine. Also iuice of cuscuta profiteth maruelouslie. Also chammomill is most profitable, which is called leucanthemus, and also buphthalmum. But all the medicines ministred in drincke, let them be ministred in a bath if it can be, when the pa∣tient sitteth in a great hot vessell. Also you must be much diligent at this time to giue him a dyet, that recomforteth and refresheth strength, by the which the vertue expulsiue may be repayred: and if any member be hurte, let it be strengthned, and let the corruption of his colour be purged away. Also it is good for him to vse exercises, gestations, annointinges & sweating out. For this purpose dry hote houses are good: in the which annoint the bodie with oyle, wherein sepillum or rosemarie hath bene sodden. And if any of the iaundeis be lefte about the face and the eyes, if the vrine appeare pure, and the bellie auoyding af∣ter his accustomed manner you must vse infusions into the nose: for which purpose iuice of cyclaminum is poured in, also igella with vinegre, iuice of the roote of beetes and anagallis. Also let the sicke sitting in abathe drawe in∣to his nosethrilles verie sharp vinegre and let him keepe it a while, pressing his nosethrilles, togeather, and it will purge mar∣uelouslie.

Page  121

CAP. XXXI. Of euill state of the bodie. DE MALO CORPORIS HABITV.

CACHEXIA in greeke is nothing else,* but an euill and naughtie state and disposition of the bodie. For it is in such case that it is spredde abroade in waterynes, and all the whole bodie is loose and waxeth softe.* This dis∣ease for the most parte is engendred of a longe sicknes. Also it follow∣eth when some entraile is hardened speciallie after the hardenesse of the liuer and the spleene. Also it chaunceth often in a continuall Dysenteria, and the disease called Caeliacus morbus. Also through letting of some accustomed excre∣tion. The whole bodie is made whitishe and weake,* so that his legges are scarce able to beare him: and in the beginning his digestions be letted, his appetite remaining it still: but afterward there followeth abhorring of meate, and their breathing is seeldome and weake. Also their bellie sendeth out vnequall excrementes. Olde men and children are specially taken with this disease, which do soone perish through weakenes of the vitall fa∣cultie, & because the iuice doth breath out of them readylie through thinnes of the skinne. But they that be of full age, doe seeldome fall into this disease, and do soone get it awaie a∣gaine. If this disease doe endure longe, it turneth into the dropsie. Therefore his cure may not be differred. Let his diet altogeather be thinne and drie: therefore let their meates be simple, & which will easelie digest, and that can ingender the best bloode.* Let them eschue all fruites also that engender grosse and viscouse humours, and that be harde to digest. Wine is good for them which is white, thinne, and odoriferous. For the cure if the disease happen by letting of accustomed excretion you must stirre vppe,* and prouoke the excretion. Therefore you must vse blood letting, if nothing doe let it, which you must drawe out by litle and litle at sundrie times vnto the thirde or fourth day in them that fell into this disease through retention of hemorhoides or menstruis. But in them that haue it through aboundaunce of vicious humours, bloodletting is hurtfull. Therefore rather purge them with some conuenient purgation. The bodie being purged, let him vse chief∣lie waters that spring by them selues of alome and salte peter, and afterwarde sulphurous waters. Also let them exercise diuerse deambulations, gestacions, vociferations, frictions with linnen, & other moderate exercises. After let them vse annointings with oyle, wherein is put somwhat that dryeth vp humors, (as be) nitrum & saltes. To cure the wearines apply certaine bathes betweene whiles. Also potion of wormewood helpeth them maruelouslie, & dropaces applyed. Also if the liuer be euill affected, or some other of the inward mēbers, it is good to cure them by their own remeadies before prescribed. If the euill turne into the dropsie, you shall find it next.

CAP. XXXII. Of the dropsey DE AQVA INTER CVTEM.

THERE be three kindes of the dropsie. The first is called in Greeke Asci∣tes. The seconde Tympanites, and the thirde Anasarca, Yposarca,*Sarci∣tes, and Leucophlegmatia. Ascites is, when much, waterie humour is hea∣ped vppe betweene the skinne or fylme called peritoneum, and the bow∣els. Tympanites is when much windynesse and superfluous breath is ga∣thered in the aforesayde places of the bellie. Anasarca is,* when the hu∣mour is dispersed throughout the whole bodie, that all the fleshe appeareth altogea∣ther moyste and wette like a sponge or paper. The dropsye is caused through great coldnesse of the liuer, or through other partes verie notably cooled,* which can bring the liuer into the same effecte. The liuer is affecte by the spleene being colde and by the stomach and the bowelles, also by the longes, the reynes, and the mydriffe. Also it chanceth through vnmeasurable auoyding of the hemorhoydes: or through womans fluxe, Page  122 or through retention of menstruis, or through soule other great affection of the wombe. For in all these the liuer hath no vnnaturall swelling: and yet the bodie is taken with the dropsie, onely through refrigeration of the liuer, affected in the beginning. But afterwarde sometime it also waxeth harde, which is euident to be seene in them, which through vntimely drincking of colde water, haue their liuer cooled on heapes, so that the dropsie followeth by and by, before the liuer be lyfted vppe into a knottie swel∣ling. Many haue fallen into the dropsie after the goute, and through the vexing paine of the hucklebones. Most commonly those which feele not their meate, and haue euill state of the bodie, and also that be troubled with the Iaundeis, the dropsie followeth it. Also it followeth Caeliacus morbus, and Dysenteria. Commonly euerie dropsie causeth difficul∣tie of breathing,* and swelling, and heauines and naughtie colour. Also they abhorre meate, and desire drincke largely, specially they that haue Ascites. For the humour that is holden and kept in the aforesaide places, is salt and rotten: therefore also after for the most parte, there is wont to follow a feauer. Women are lesse trobled with the drop∣sie then men. Children for the most part are taken with the dropsie Anasarca. Among the saide three kindes of dropsies, Tympanites is the most perilous. Ascites lesse perilous then it,* and then Anasarca. One diet is common to all these kindes of dropsies: that their meate be easie of digestion and sufficiently coact, and drie. For that meate that is lose and moist, is apt to be turned into watrines. Therefore let his bread be verie well baked,* and let it haue salt, ammi, fennell, annyse, or comin commixed with it. Also it ought to be well leauened, for so it restraineth and stoppeth the lesse. Of birdes the driest are good, as partriches, turtles, blackbirdes, and thrushes and such like. Of foure footed beastes goates and hares. Also chickens, their extreeme partes, when they are rosted. Of fishes, crabbes of flouddes. Also egges rosted are good. Let him vse pot∣hearbes, but seldome. Let those thinges that be ministred vnto them be somewhat sharp, and that haue vertue to attenuate and heate: as is, Apium, percelie, Dancus, rocket, penyroiall, colewortes, garlicke sodden, onions and leikes. He must altogeather ab∣staine from pulses. For sauce let him vse vinegre with pepper, cinamon and such like. Let their salt be compound with fennell,* hysope, rosemarie and Apium. You must giue them so much drincke onely as shall suffice somewhat to breake their thirst: for ouer much drincke doeth dammage them that be sicke of the dropsie without measure. They must drincke thinne wine, and that doeth prouoke vrine. But they must eschue sweete wi∣nes, and mulsum: vinegre doeth maruelouslie quench their thirst. Moreouer let them take the greatest portion of meate at supper. Let them eschue much fruites and second ta∣bles: but yet nuttes, almondes, pomgranades, peares sodden, and drie figges are to be giuen vnto them, but yet let them take all those moderately and not euerie day. Let not their bedde be verie softe, specially them that haue Anasarca. Strew vnder them drie her∣bes, as be, penyroiall, calamint, origan, and such like. For it is maruelous, how much those doe drie vp, while they sleepe: so that it hath ben proued that some being wrapped and hidden in a heape of wheate, to haue risen againe after sleepe stronge and safe. Al∣so lette them vse exercises in the Sunne, if it be sommer and a saire daie, but let their heade be couered:* but if it be colde, let them vse it in houses being warmed, and nigh a fire, or at a fire Riding is expedient at the first, and to be carried hither and thither in a chaire. But if the strength of the patient may suffer it, it is better to walke much on his feete, and sometime to runne, then to be borne. Also the patient must be wrapped in skinnes dried with the Sunne, or digged into hote sande. After exercises wipe of the swette with sharpe linnen clothes. Also it is verie good if you vse daiely, thrise or foure times, frictions: for this doeth open the passages that are shutte: and it dryeth vppe, ex∣tenuateth and casteth a sunder humours. Therefore it doeth verie quickly prouoke forth much swette, and constraineth the flesh. They must be rubbed with hrye han∣des, or with salte beaten in water or hot oyle. After this they must be washed with a∣lommewater, or sulphure water, or salte water. For manie which haue beene taken with the dropsie Anasarca, and haue vsed such kynde of bathes, they haue suffi∣sed to weare out the disease, and also to make a stronger state of the bodye. And Page  123 hitherto, we haue rehearsed a common diet for all kinde of dropsies. For the cure, the remeadie that is common for all dropsies, is that by and by in the beginninge,* you must purge the humour that doeth abounde. That you may doe both by blood letting, and by purgations, and by those medicines that prouoke vrine. That which is good par∣ticularly for this or that kinde, we will teach in the chapters following, in which we will follow the cures of them euerie one particularlie.

CAP. XXXIII. Of the dropsey Anasarca. DE ANASARCA.

IN the dropsie Anasarca, all the whole bodie, and the flesh appeareth loose, and wet like a sponge as it is saide: so that all the whole bodie swelleth vp,* and is like a dead bodie. In this disease you must beginne the cure with let∣ting of blood,* specially if the euill be engendred of suppression of hemor∣hoides or menstruis, and if age and strength will suffer it. For by this meanes thea boundaunce of humours that doe hurte, are drawen out, and the feeble nature be∣ing vnloden is swifter, and the cause of the disease is minished, and also health commeth againe with lesse labour. The naughty humours being drawn out and purged by blood let∣ting, you must come to the remeady of purging medicines.* But if there be neede of extenu∣ation & preparation of the humors before their expulsion, you shall minister decoctions and other things which be rehearsed before in the chapters of weaknes of the liuer, and obstru∣ction of the liuer. For which purpose minister also syrups of wormewood, of tame endiue with the broad leaues, of Agrimony and bizantijs. Let the purging medicines be, of sim∣ples, rubarbe, and agaricke, of compoundes pilles of rubarbe, pilulae de hiera simplici: and pilles of agaricke and such like. Also hierapicra is good in the beginning because it ta∣keth awaie obstruction, and addeth strength to the entrailes. Therefore you must onely beware, that you minister not purging medicines that be strong, and which ad no strength to the liuer: but you must bring forth the hurtfull humour with easie medicines by litle & litle. For if you purge but once, and on heapes, you destroy the strength maruelouslie and coole the liuer. Therefore euerie weeke you must make the wombe soluble, and you must alwaies passe from gentle remeadies, by litle and little to stronger. Therefore in this kinde of dropsie the Antidotes, diaphanicon, and Electuarium nidum be good. Also the roote of Elder sodden in wine doth purge notably. Also the roote of wolwort profiteth, for they be both of one vertue. Moreouer the rest of the time of the cure, while he abstaineth from purging medicines, you must minister those thinges that adde strength to the liuer, where∣of many be recited before, where we taught the cure of obstruction and weakenes of the liuer. Also minister those thinges which prouoke vrine. For which purpose, you may well minister diarrhodon abbatis, aromaticum rosarum, dialacca diacurcuma, trochiskes of a∣grimonie, of rubarbe, of wormewood, theriaca, and such licke. And this medicine pro∣fiteth notably. ℞. the pouders of diacurcuma,* and of dialacca. ana. ℈.j. pouders of dia∣trion santalon, and of diarrhodon abbatis. ana. ʒ.ss. pouder of aromaticum rosarum. ℈.j. ru∣barbe chosen ʒ.ss. seedes of endiue with the broade leaues, of melons, and fennell. ana. ℈.ij. of wormewood, chammomill, and withwinde. ana. ℈.j. of nutmegges, squi∣naunt and spiknard. ana. ℈.ss.j. of verie white sugar. ℥.j. commixe them togeather, & make a pouder. Also this profiteth maruelouslie. ℞. seedes of caraway, fennell, and annyse. ana. ℈.ij. seedes of comin and S. Iohns worte. ana. ℈.j. seedes of 〈◊〉; parcely,* dau∣cus and louage. ana. ʒ.ss. of the rootes yreos and of Asarum. ana. ʒ.j. wormewoode. ℈.j. of licorice. ʒ.j. sugar, the weight of all the rest, commixe them all and make a pou∣der. And you must doe your diligence, that in Anasarca, the medicynes be more drie then moyst, because the whole state of the bodie is so waterie. Moreouer you must apply those medicynes outwardelie, which can drie vppe humours, as be cataplasmes▪ Page  124 emplaisters, ointmentes, and other like thinges that haue drying vertue in them. There∣fore a aaplasme is good made of barley and beane meale,* of fenugreeke, of the roote of walworte, of laurell bearies, of wormewood, and of origan sodden in wine, and laide ouer all the whole bodie. Also oxes doung conueniently dryed, may well be applied with posca or oxiell, hauing the fourth part of brimston put to it. Also fresh cheese hauing much creame being layd to, maketh well against all swelling partes. Moreouer doues dounge and goates dounge, maieweede, and chammomill, by euen portions bruised, sodden in vi∣negre, and hony may be applied. Moreouer you must vse emplaisters of leauen, dry figges, intrum, yreos, melilote, sage, peniroiall, cardamomum, sulphur vinum, laurell bearies, staues a∣cre, salt armoniacke, masticke, franckensence, sothernwood, Aristolochia rotunda, doues doung, make it vp with oximell. But you must altogeather eschue fat and rozennie ce∣rotes, for they engender windines and cause swellinges. But yet the legges and the hands, and other partes of the bodie being swollen, may often be annointed with this oyntment in the Sunne or by a fire. ℞. of vnguentum agrippa. ℥.j. of the meales of lineseede,* fenu∣greeke beanes and bareley. ana. ℥.ij. seedes of Althaea, nigella, dancus. ana. ʒ.j.ss. Sul∣phur vinum. ʒ.iij. bolearmoniacke. ʒ.ij. roote of yreos. ʒ.ij.ss. roche alome, fancken∣sence. ana. ʒ.j.ss. Euphorbium. ʒ.j. oyles of yreos, white lillies and chammomill. ana. ℥.j.ss. with waxe as much as is sufficient, make an oyntment, wherewith annoynt the swol∣len partes verie often, it being melted on the coales. For his dyet you must seeke it in the former chapter of the dropsie.

CAP. XXXIIII. Of the dropsie Ascites. DE ASCITE.

*IN the dropsie Ascites, all the whole bellie is swollen vppe, and if it be stro∣ken, there is hearde such a sounde, as a bottle doeth make that is not full of water,* but the other partes of the bodie, speciallie the vpper partes▪ are not puffed vppe nor swollen. Let his diet be, that hath this dropsie, of bir∣des of mountaine and other meates easie of digestion, and which doe en∣gender good iuice,* as is sayde before in the thirtie two chapter. The cure must be begunne by vsing of purging medicines. Let them be such as we rehearsed in the former chapter. Colewortes of the sea called soldana, and soldanella taken in drincke excelleth all the rest: for this sheweth a maruelous effecte in bringing furth the hidro∣picke water, so that many by the onely vsing of it, haue bene restored to health. Giue of it in wine or wheye. ʒ.ij. or more or lesse according to the diuersitie of the bodie. Al∣so pilles of sagapanum are verie good: and two drachmes or three of the iuce of the roote of yreos, putting to it. ℥.j. of sugar. Also you must minister sharpe clysters, vn∣lesse the bellie be soluble of it selfe:* for then it is more conuenient to drie vppe. Among other this clyster is speciallie commended. ℞. floutes of laurell. ʒ.ij. roote of poli∣podie, agaricke. ana. ʒ.j.ss. dodder or cuscutha. ʒ.iij. seeth them in wine or water vn∣till the thirde parte be consumed. Then take of the licour of that decoction being strain∣ned. lib. 1. of benedicta laxatina. ℥.ss. of Electuarium nidum. ʒ.ij.ss. mel rosarum. ℥.j. oyles of rewe, chammomill and yreos. ana. ℥.j. salt gemme. ʒ.j.ss. commix them all and make a clyster. For the same purpose, if you thinke good, you may seeth colocythis▪ carta∣nus, laurell bearies, annyse seede, ammi, and carawaie seedes, rewe, roote of wilde cucumber, and other like thinges out to them. After the aforesaide remeadies you must lay vppon the whole bellie, some of the prescribed cataplasmes and emplaisters. Also apply oyntmentes and reamedies that prouoke v∣rine and swette: and let him vse exercises of the which we haue spoken aboundantly before.

Page  125

CAP. XXXV. Of the dropsey Timpanites. DE TYMPANITE.

IN this kind of dropsie, the belly is puffed vppe and stretched out:* and being stroken, it maketh a noyse like a tabour or timbrell, but the other partes of the body wax leane. It requireth like diet,* that the other kindes of dropsies haue: but in this all windy thinges are specially to be auoided. Also let their exercises be much, and great thirst do helpe & succour the patient strongly. Let the cure be begune with purging medicines, whereof you shall finde examples before.* Also it is good to cast in clysters, which haue vertue to dissolue and discusse wind, as this is. ℞. rootes of apium, and fennell. ana. ℥.j. seedes of Annyse, fennell, daucus, louage, parce∣ly and comin. ana. ʒ.ij. careaway seede. ʒ.iij. rew, asarum, leaues of waleworte, melilote, ana. M.j. boyle them in water vnto the thirde parte, and then take of the licour of that de∣coction being strained. ℥.xij. hieropicra, benedicta laxatiua. ana. ℥.ss. Electuarium de baccis lauri. ʒ.iij. oyles of rew and dill, ana. ℥.j.ss. salt. ʒ.j.ss. cōmix them togeather, and make a clyster. You must giue also vnto them thinges that doe prouoke vrine, and you must vse aswell inwardly as outwardly those thinges that doe dissolue and discusse windines, where∣of you shall finde plentie in the chapter of the cholicke.* The belly must daiely be nouri∣shed with Panicum milum, salt, branne, leaues of rew, chammomill floures, hote ashes sewed in bagges. Also you may apply to it this cerote. ℞. floures of chammomill and me∣lilote. ana. ʒ.j.ss. myntes, sauorie, asarum. ana. ℈.j. seedes of Annyse, fennell, rew,* co∣myn, daucus. ana. ʒ.j. cardamomum. ℈.ss. mirrhe, castoreum. ana. ℈.j. oyle of rew. ℥.iij. oyle of dill. ℥.j.ss. rosen & waxe as much as is sufficient, make a cerote. Moreouer cupping glasses fastened often to the whole bellie lightly, and with much flame do maruelously pro∣fit. Afterwarde the bellie must be rubbed with a sharpe linnen cloath, so longe till it be redde. Inwardly he must vse the antidotes, dianisum, diacuminum, and electuarium e baccis lauri, or these lozenges. ℞. the pouders of dianisum, and diacuminum. ana. ℈.j. the pou∣ders of the antidote of laurell bearies. ʒ.j. the pouder of diagalangae. ʒ.ss. seedes of annyse,* carawayes, dancus, and fennell. ana. ℈.ss. leaues of rew, seedes of Apium and louage. ana. ℈.j. sugar. ℥.vj. dissolue it in the distilled waters of fennell and Apium, and make lozenges. The other remeadies are to be sought in the chapter of the cholicke.

CAP. XXXVI. Of raynes that sendeth furth bloodie vrine. DE RENIBVS CRVENTAM VRINAM EXCERNENTIBVS

MANY times there happeneth a disease of the raynes, through the which thin wheyish blood is pissed. It is caused through weakenes of the reines,* which be not therfore able to deuide the vrine: or it is caused through amplitude of the reines, which straine out the vrine from Vena cana vnto the raines. For when the passages are wider and stronger, they also sende out some of the blood to the reines, & other grosse matter. Also oftentimes the raines do send out blood like wise as it is wōt to do in the hemorhoides. Moreouer some do void out blood frō the raines through breaking of a vaine in the raines: as it chaunceth to those which haue lift vppe a great weight or haue lept greatly, or haue fallen out of an high place, or haue suffered some such other violēt thing. Somtime it chanceth through gnawing of the veines of sharpe hu∣mors flowing frō aboue.* If this disease be caused though weaknes of the raines the blood is sent out very wheyish. But if it be through amplitude & largnes of the veines, thē they feele no paine. If the excretiō of blood be by certaine circuites, thē either there is fulnes of the whole body, or neglecting of accustomed exercises, or resectiō of some mēber that wēt be∣fore. And if it chance through breaking of a veine, thē blood is pissed forth most abondantly: Page  126 but if it be of gnawing, then blood is sent forth by litle and litle, and paine doeth vexe the reines.* Therfore you shall cure that excretiō of bloody vrine, which is caused through weak¦nes of the raines, or amplitude of the vessels that straine out vrine to the raines, by quiet and restrictue meates, drincking of blacke wine & other things which are rehersed, in the chap. of spitting of blood. You must abstaine from those things specially which prouoke vrine & from carnall copulation. In drincke besides those thinges that are rehearsed in the chap∣ter aforedaide, minister decoction of the roote of comferie, and tragacantha ministered, that is steeped in blacke wine, is good. Also. ℥.j. of harte shorne with wine, iuice of marigoolds doth stop bruisinges out of blood from the reines. Likewise leaues of willow braied with wine, lapis hematitis. ʒ.j. roote of white thorne and decoction of knotgrasse. Moreouer. ʒ.j. of bolearmoniacke ministred, is good. Siruppes of roses and of mirtles, trochiskes of am∣bre, of terra lemnia and of spodium. Moreouer sheepes milcke is onely praised being mini∣stred fasting. ℥.iiij. with ʒ.j. of bolearmoniacke cōmixed with it. Apply outwardly to the reines and the loynes those thinges which be described against spitting of blood, and in the chapter of Dysenteria, and other eruptions of blood. And whatsoeuer can togeather with his restraining and drying adde strength also: (as be) leaues of bryer and oke, mast, mirtle bearies, pomegranate rindes, balaustiae and such like. After this the state of the body must be refreshed and restored with meates of good iuice, with milke & flesh of birdes, also with swines flesh that is lene. That therby the whole body may be brought to his former strēgth and the reines being strengthned also they may fulfill their owne proper office, & that they may deuide,* and straine out the wheyish humour from the blood. But if the reines do sende out blood according to the circuites, or through breaking of a veine, or through gnawing of sharp humours flowing from aboue, then by and by you must cut a veine of the same side in the arme. To those that send out by circuites blood, let them blood a litle before the circuite, but let the other bloode by and by in the beginning: but it is better to parte the drawing out of the blood, that his pulling backe and auersion may be done by litle and li∣tle. Let the places about the reines be couered with sponges wet in Posca, or moist wooll with oyle of roses and vinegre. After this apply oyntmentes, emplaisters and cerotes des∣cribed in the places before rehearsed. Also a cupping glasse may commodiouslie be ap∣plyed specially if you suspect inflammatiō to be present in them, which pisse blood through breaking of a vaine. Also potions are good rehearsed before in the chapter of spitting of blood. In the meane season also, the sicke must be driuen from all salt and sharp thinges. But when excretion of bloode ceaseth, he must vse a diet that doeth not engender much blood, specially in those that void out blood by circuite. Also the vpper partes of the body must continualy be exercised. In those, which pisse blood through breaking of a veine, if the exulceration be left in the places you shall cure them after the blood is stopped by those thinges that are spoken of in the chapter of exulceration of the reines.

CAP. XXXVII. Of inflammation of the Reynes. DE RENVM INFLAMMATIONE.

THE Raynes are vexed with inflammation for diuerse causes. For both cor∣rupt humours,* and strypes, and rubbinges togeather, and drincking of me∣dicines doe engender inflammation of the reines, and specially continuall & vehement rydinges.* There commeth to the sicke a beating payne behinde about the first ioynt of the back, a litle aboue the bastard ribbes: but the paine stretcheth vpward, euen vnto the liuer, specially the right side raine being vexed, but down∣ward vnto the bladder & priuy members and the loynes & hippes: & also to the share and thighes. Also there followeth astonishment of the leg that is neere, that it can neither be stretched out right, nor he cannnot go on his feet. And whether sneesing or any other con∣cussion do chance, they are vexed with moist vehement paine, their extreeme parts be cold & most the calfes of the legges, & the feete. There is present difficultie in making of water, Page  127 and they pisse continually and painefully. In the beginning their vrine is thinne and watery, hauing no residence in it: but the inflammation waxeth worse, it is more rubicund. Also af∣terward it is grosse and filthy, and there be vehement feuers present. And if the inflamma∣tion increase still, all these signes wax more vehement. To these commeth disposition to vomite, and gnawing of the stomach, and vomiting of choler. Many of them are vexed, & sweate vntill their hartes faile them: their belly is stopped, so that they are puffed vp with wind, & do send out belkings continually. There followeth vehement abhorring of meate, and to some there are continuall exacerbations, but to some betweene whiles. And gene∣rallie egestion of the wombe, and much excretion of vryne do go before those paines. The sicke must ly in a verie soft bed: and the first day he must abstaine from meate, but you may not extend his fasting to manie dayes. For the vrines being made more pure and sharpe by fasting, do vex with most vehement byting and gnawing.* Therefore in the beginning you must nourish them with thinne soupinges, that do ease and cease gnawinge and bitinge, (as is) broth of Ptysan or alica of barley. Also mallowes for his pot herbes doth much profit. Let his drinke be water, wherin a little cinnamon hath bene sodden. To be short let his diet be thinne, and such, as is in other inflammations. For the cure, in the beginning you must by and by let him bloud, and you must cut the veine that is in the hamme or in the anckles,* and that must be done one the legge that is right against the Reyne, that is vexed. Also somtime (as Galen sayth) you may let bloud of the arme (that is) when the inflammation is newe, and aboundance of bloud is present. After bloud letting you must come to outward medi∣cines, as Cataplasmes, fomentes, linimentes, emplaisters, and such like,* which haue vertue to coole meanely, and to ease paine, made of the oyles of roses, quinces and chammomill, of barley meale, beane meale, fenugreeke, lineseede, and such like, which be rehearsed in the Chapters of inflammation of the liuer and the splene. And if the paine be not eased by those things that be applied outwardly: apply a cupping glasse to the loynes, & the guts, & scarification being made, you must draw out much bloud. Then you must vse nourishment of sponges, and other things which can ease paine. You must only beware all this time, that you giue not such medicines to drinke as prouoke vrine,* for they hurt vehemently by brin∣ging in gnawing and byting humours to the inflamed partes. This medicine I haue proued to be singularly good. ℞. the iuyce of clary, and the iuyce of nightshade. ana. ℥.ij. dronk in ℥.vj. of stale ale, morning and euening vj. dayes together. Also you must beware in the be∣ginning of the inflammation of purging medicines. But yet you may vse soft clysters (spe∣cially if the belly be costiue) made of the decoction of mallowes, or lineseede, & fenugreke, or Ptysan broth, putting to it oyle of violets, or chammomill oyle. But you must beware that you put not in great abundance of it, for then the bowels being filled and stretched out with it will presse together the Reynes. But when the inflammation is perfectly ceased and con∣coct, which you may knowe by the ceasing of the paine, then also you may purge him by medicines that prouoke vrine. For after inflammacions concoct, and digest, the vrine com∣meth foorth much in quantitie and grosse. And in those that haue residence, it is good, and so iudgeth the best altogether. VVhat medicines prouoke vrine, we haue taught in the se∣cond booke of making of medicines the seuenth chapter, specially among pot herbs, fennel, apium, and parsneps well sodden, are good. And if by the aforesaid medicines, the inflam∣mation be not driuen away, and if neither the paine, nor the feuer,* nor the heauinesse do rest by vsing of thaforesaid things, and also if difficultie of pissing, and often dropping down of the vrine, do vex the patient, these betoken matter to be gathered in that part. Therefore as swiftly as you can, you must help the suppuration, and breakinge out of the matter. For the which purpose, a sponge continually wet in water and oyle applied in steede of a fomēt profiteth. For the same purpose also vse cataplasmes, which are made of barley meale, bran, figges, althaea, and such like, rehearsed before in the Chapter of inflammation of the liuer. Also it profiteth greatly to descend into a bath made of mollifying herbs, as mallows, althaea lineseede, fenugreeke. And if after perfect suppuration, the rupture and breaking be delayd and taried (which you may know if the feuers and paines wax lesse,* and sense of heauinesse remaine about the reyne that is affected) minister those thinges in drinke, which prouoke vrine, as is, decoction of fennell, peniroyall, origan, and such like. For these sometime do Page  128 breake the suppuration, and purge out the matter with the vryne. And if the vsing of them do profit nothing, you must wash the bellie with sharp clysters: as with roote of wilde cu∣cumber sodden and alayed, or decoction of garlike or radish. You must steepe those in brine and commix a little oyle, whereby they may be made slipperie to be poured in. These must be throwen in with a clyster pipe, and the sicke must be bidden to holde it long time: for they are wont often to breake that suppuration, together with that, that they mollifie the bellie. Also if the rupture and breaking tarie, commin with wine called passum helpeth, and rewe with vinum mulsum.* Moreouer the rupture being made, little peeces af flesh being long, are sent out with the vrine. And if the vlcers be malignant, there be sent out homours stinking, swart, and slimie, but if they be benigne and gentle, the matter that is pissed forth, is white, equall, light, and without grieuous sauour, and little in quantitie. After the eruptiō and breaking out of the matter, minister milke, with hony, and other things which shall be rehearsed in the Chapter of vlcers of the Reynes.

CAP XXXVIII. Of the stone in the reines. DE CALCVLO RENVM.

THE stone of the Raines happeneth oftener to men of perfect age, then to chil∣dren.* The cause of ingendring of such stones is continuall cruditie and raw∣nesse of the stomach, whereby in aboundance of grosse and earthly humours is heaped vp together, and burning of fierie heate about the reynes, parcheth the humours, and knites them together, and hardeneth them into a stone. The stones be in the reynes, nigh their ventricles either little or great, and sometime smaller,* sometime manie, differing among them selues in greatnesse, figure, co∣lour and sharpnesse: for they are found blacke, whitish and pale. There chaunceth to the sicke grieuous paine in the raines,* and he feeleth like as it were a bodkinne thrust in, & yet there appeareth no swelling without. He can turne his backe bone hardly. The leg that is right against the raine, that is diseased, is astonied, there is present abhorring of meate and vomitting. About the beginning of obcuration and stopping, the vrine is pissed foorth little in quantitie and waterie. Afterward there followeth perfect suppression of the vrine, and the womb auoideth nothing, but it maketh manie proffers to go to the stoole. Sometime there is auoided forth bloud, through the violence of the stones, specially if they be sharp stones. Also the vrine hath grauelly residence specially when the stone is remoued from the reines, which signes aforesaide Hyppocrates declareth in lib. 6. Epid. par. 1. Aphor. 5. Moreouer things that be light and round, are easilie sent out: but not so, if they be of any other forme or fashion: but specially if they be long and sharp, they are hard to be sent out. VVhen the stone,* stopped in the raynes, doth cause most vehement paines, lest aboundance of bloud through the greatnesse of the paine should come downe together to the member diseased, in a body that is full of humors and strōg,* you must by & by cut the veine in the hāme of that legge that is astonied, and is right against the reine that is diseased. But if those that labour of ill digestion or uitious humours,* purging of the abundant humour is good for them. Nei∣ther may this caution be omitted, except some other thing do forbid them: which also Hippocrates biddeth, while he teacheth that young men should be purged with hellebore. And if it be not lawfull to let bloud, nor to minister purgation, you must wash the womb by ministring of clysters, which you must do at that time speciallie, when there is great plentie of excrements in the bowels. But you must onely beware that they be not strong clysters, & that they do not drawe plenty of humours from other places to the bowels, lest the passages of the vrine should be straightned and pressed together. But let them be such as are onelie able to auoide the excrements contained in the bowels,* as is this Clister. ℞. Mallowes, al∣thaea, mercurie, maidenhaire, parietarie. ana. M.j. water cresses. M.j.ss. seedes of parsley, apium, fennell, and flaxe. ana. ʒ.iij. roote of gladon. ℥.j.ss. branne. ℥.j. boyle them in iust quantitie of water vnto the third part, and then take of the licour of that decoction being Page  129 strained. ℥.xj. of casia fistula. ℥.j. of hierapicra. ℥.ss. mel rosarum strained. ℥.j.ss. oyles of dill, rewe, and chammomill. ana. ℥.j. salt. ʒ.ij. commix them all and make a clyster.* But we may in no case vse continuall clisters, and neglect almost all other remedies, as many phisitions do now adayes, but vse them twise or thrise, but so that they be not kept aboue theyr accu∣stomed time. For if they be holden longer then they ought to be, they cause pressing toge∣ther, and straightnesse of the reynes, and the conduites of the vrine. When the belly is pur∣ged and emptied of excrements, you must minister those medicines, which can loosen the conduis and passages. For which purpose the region of the reynes, and the loynes must be annointed with this medicine. ℞. oyles of dill,* and of sweete almondes. ana. ʒ.ij. oyle of cammomill. ℥.j.ss. hennes grease, and goose greace. ana. ℈.ij. butter without sale. ʒ.j. wax as much as is sufficient, make a soft oyntment.* Also he must vse incessions of the decoctions of calamint, origan, water cresses, cole wortes, leaues of althaea, mallowes and such like, or the sicke must often be let downe into a great vessell of warme sweete water. Also foments of branne, with leaues of althaea, sodden, being applied to the grieued place be verie good. Also cataplasmes made of wheate meale, of lineseede and fenugreeke, of lupines,* of the roote of dog fennell beaten verie small, and of cammomill. Also it is good to lay bread sod∣den in wine called passum about the loynes and the bellie. Neither shall he do rashly which applieth cataplasmes, and other things before rehearsed to the bladder and the share. But you must bring on heapes one plaister after another, before the first do coole. For cold doth draw together and bind, and so doth hold still the stone in the raines, and in the conduites of the vrine. And if you list not to vse so many cataplasmes, you may couer it with some hea¦ting thing vpon it that it coole not. For these sometimes, and that not seldome, are wont to suffise for to cast out the stone by the vrine. And if these driue not away the disease, you must minister in drinke those thinges, which prouoke vrine. These that follow drawe much vrine: gladon, S. Iohns wort, parsley, orcoselinum, grommell, ammi, seede of daucus and fen∣nell, asarum, roote of briony and mather, barke of the roote of capares, sperage & such like. With these commix those things that bring downe vrine vnto the Reines: as is roote of pē∣cedane, or dog fennell, briony, apium and raedicula. Also commixe with them those thinges that breake and teare the stone in the reines, as is, sium, maidenhaire, bdellium,utsan feede, bruscus roote, saxifrage, betonie, roote of damosonium, broth of cicers, roote of Cypresse, gromell, lapis indiacus, xanthium, the seede and roote of althaea, gumme of plomb tree, earth wormes sodden, and stones and sponges of the sea. Euerie one of these part of them sodden and part of them verie finely poudred, minister them to drink. But it is best to minister those things which prouoke vrine and breake the stone, at that time, when the vehement paines be released: which chaunceth when the stone is remoued, and stirred out of his place. But if the stones be established fast, and be vehemently compact in the Reines, he must eschewe much drink, and also those things that prouoke vrine. For seing they bring with thē to the raines a great abundance of excrements, they cause the passages of the vrine to be stopped, and letteth the passing of the stones out of the raines. You must release and losen the rains, and the conduites of the vrine, with foments, cataplasmes and incessions, as is aforesaide. Also the belly must be voided with light clysters, lest the passages of the vrine be stopped. After that the paine is a little released▪ you may also apply profitaby to them a cuppinge glasse, specially subtilly fastened to, if inflammation do not let it: for often times cuppinge glasses do so remoue on heaps those stones, that they cease the paines by and by (that is) the stones being caried into the amplitude of the bladder. VVherefore in the beginning fasten a cupping glasse aboue from the reine, and then to the part about the priuie members, ouer thwartly according to the placinge of the conduites of the vrine. Moreouer stones being brought from the raines to the bladder, and for their greatnesse being holden still about the necke of the bladder; they do often bring the sicke into extraeme perill, as well thorough their pricking paine, as also because they will not suffer the vrine to come out. You must go about to let the sicke lye in such a fashion, that he may lye vpright, and haue the oyntes of his ••ickle bones lye verie high. Then you must 〈◊〉 them manie wayes, that by all the meanes, that you can inuent, you may make the stone to fall out of the passage of the blad∣der. Afterward you must bidde the sicke to put out the vrine quickly▪ but when the stone is 〈2 pages missing〉Page  132 bloud or atter be pissed out, it signifieth exulceration either of the reynes, or of the bladder. And by & by after he saith, if in a grosse and thicke vrine, there appeare little peeces of flesh, or as it were haires,* they are sent from the reynes. Therefore when these appeare, let the sicke eschewe crudities, and sacietie or fulnesse. Therefore let him eate no raw things in his meates, neither that which is hard of digestion, or that will easily corrupt, or ingender inflam∣mations or windinesse. Let him chiefly abstaine from those thinges, which do soone waxe soure or sharp. Also from all sharp and burning things, and whatsoeuer doth breede and in∣gender choler: as is, much thirst, abstinence, hunger, labour, wrath, solitarinesse, exercise, watching, & immoderate sauces. He must eschew aboue all things immoderate riding, and all vehement mouing and stirring: also he must auoid perpetuall idlenesse, and continuall bathing. He must vse new bread well wrought. And giue him flesh of birdes of the moun∣taines, and kids flesh, and such like tender flesh. Also giue him scalie fishes of grauelly pla∣ces, rosted on a grediron. Moreouer riuer crabs, soupings of Ptysan and amylum sodden with milke, be maruelous good. Giue him also milke mixed with egges, and the fat broth of an henne. Also rere egges ministred alone, are good. Of pot herbes, mallowes, endiue, sorrell, purslaine, and lettuce are good: but all these must be sodden, for the sicke must eate no∣thing that is rawe, as is aforesaid. Of fruicts, raisons are not hurtfull, and pine nuttes. Also almondes well blaunched are good. Much drinke & strong must be eschewed. And he must altogether abstaine from cold drinke. For cold, as Hyppocrates sayth, 5. Aph. 20. is an ene∣mie to vlcers. For his drinke let him vse wine that is alayed, and somewhat restrictiue: or let him drinke goates milke, or sheepes milke, or almond milke. Carnall copulation is mar∣uelous euill not onely for vlcers, but also for all other diseases of the reynes, specially in old men, and in them that be weake of nature. Such things must be eschewed, as do prouoke vrine. Also bathing let be seeldome vsed, as is aforesaid. It is not vnprofitable to vse natural Bathes, and waters spronge of them-selues, and speciallie allome waters, and brimstone waters, for it is commodious to washe cold places: It destroieth vlcers that be hard to cure, as well outwardly as also inwardly. Also naturall waters dronke after the morning walke are good.* The cure of vlcers of the reyns, whē as they are caused through sharp & gnawing humors, must be begun of purging of vitious and gnawing humours. They that are thus af∣fected,* you must also purge them by vomite. For vomit is not good onely for to auoide vi∣cious humours, but also if any man do vomite boldly euerie moneth, he shall dissolue the vl∣cer of the reines, and what euill soeuer may chaunce there: for it turneth the mouing of the humours into a contrary part.* Also in the meane season you must minister medicines which do stop the gnawing of the sharp humours, as is, mallowes, endiue, sorrell, purslaine, seede of melons, cucumbers, and gourdes, syrupes of violets, roses, and water lillies, and the con∣serues of them.* But when the vicious humours be purged, he must drinke aqua mulsa, or the decoction of fenugreeke with honie, or of cucumbers, or of mallowes, or of melons seede with hydromell. Also minister milke with honie newly milked, and hote, for it is good to purge the vlcers. Also goates whey, decoction of barley, of raysons, and of licorice, is maruelous good, also the iuyce is likewise. When that the vlcers be purged and cleansed: which you may knowe, if there appeare in the vrine, neither peeces of the couer of the vl∣cer, nor yet dreggie and filthie atter, but matter that is whitish, light, equall and little in quantitie: then minister such medicines, as do drie vp and conglutinate. For which purpose giue him Bole armoniacke,* gumme, tragacanth, amylum, terra lemnia, and such like be∣fore rehearsed. But among other thinges, this powder a maruelous good. ℞. Terrae lem∣niae, bole armoniacke. ana. j.ss. Tragacanthae, spodium burnt. ana. ʒ.j. amylum, pine nuttes toasted. ana. ʒ.ss. lineseede, cucumber seede blaunched, melons seede. ana. ʒ.ij. seede of Apium. ℈.ij. dragons bloud. ʒ.j. beate them altogether, & make a verie fine pouder, of the which giue the sicke dayly. ʒ.ij. with milke newe milked.* Moreouer outwardly you must applie such thinges as can drie and strength the reynes. Therefore minister emplaisters and cerotes, or oyntmentes made of the oyles of roses, and of mirtles, of barley meale, fran∣kensence, masticke, red roses and such like. Examples whereof you may seeke be∣fore. As for other remedies, we will rehearse hereafter in the chapter of vlcers of the bladder.

Page  133

CAP. XLI. Of the stone in the bladder.

STONES in the bladder do ingender oftenner in children, then in older folke.* When that vrine grosse and verie thicke is caried into the largenesse of the bladder, it setleth and stayeth there, like dregs of wine, or muddy water, and afterward through the heate, that is in children, being dried and compact to∣gether, it breedeth a stone. Therfore there be two special causes of the ingen∣dring of the stone in the bladder (that is) thicknesse of the vrine, and heate of children. They that haue the stone in the bladder, they itch often,* and do handle his priuie members, which also are swollen, and they are constrained to make water continually, and they are vexed with the strangury, or dropping out of vrine.* The cure of this disease is almost the same, that the cure of the stone in the reynes is. But they differ in this thing, because the stones of the bladder require stronger medicines, and you must apply the medicines in ano∣ther place then you did in the cure of the reynes. The stones that are ingendred in the blad∣der, are broken chiefly with these medicines (that is) the seede & roote of fennell, of louage,* black piony seeds, motherwort, chammomill, the roote and seede of althaea, sium, mayden∣haire, sorrell rootes, the stones of sponges, the stone of tecolithus, grommell, bruscus roote & seede, the stones, which come out of men (with their vrine) brayed & drunk, the seed of little burs, the bark of capers, sothern wood seede, iacint, white violets, smalach, parsley and other such like, which do prouoke vrine, and which be rehearsed in the chapter of the stone in the reines. To these you must conioyne the most laudable remedie (that is) a hedge sparow be∣ing dressed in salt, & taken raw in meate, doth heale the disease perfectly. For it expelleth the stones that are alreadie ingendred by the vrine, and it letteth them from ingendring any more. Also goats bloud is a present remedie, aswel for the stone of the reines, as of the blad∣der: for it dissolueth those that be engēdred, and it driueth them out with the vrine, & it pro∣hibiteth other to ingender any more, and it ceaseth paine. Furthermore if the stones of the bladder cannot come out by the passage of the vrine, but that they be there stopped, & com∣pact togither, & so do cause suppression of vrine: then the sicke must be vpward, so that his hippes must lye vpward and highest, and then you must moue him hither and thither many wayes, that thereby the stone may fall out of the passage, and afterward bid him pisse euen as he lyeth yet vpward. But if he can not make water so neither, prouoke the vrine by a cy∣ring, and after that you must minister those medicins, which haue vertue to breake the stone in the bladder. And if the cure come not to passe by this meanes, you must come to cutting. The stone therefore being consumed by any of the meanes aforesaid, such an order of diet must be appointed to the patient, that the stone may not engender againe, which we haue prescribed in the Chapter of the stone in the reynes.

CAP. XLII. Of bloud broken out of the bladder or curded in it.

IT chaunceth somtime that a veine breaketh in the bladder,* & then some of the bloud is sent out, & some waxeth thick and curdeth within. When the bloud is thickened and curded within, the patientes heart fayleth him,* and he wax∣eth pale, his pulses be small, darke, and thicke, he is sorowfull, he is colde, and his strength decayeth. And sometime when a clodde of bloud, chaunceth to fall into the passage of the vrine, thē it stoppeth the going out of the vrine. You must in this case, as also in other brustinges out of bloud, cause a verie quicke and speedie remedie.* Therefore if nothing forbid it, it is good to cut the veine in the arme, drawing out the bloud by times, that by this meanes the bloud may be drawen back often, and by little & little. Let the pacient in his lying be laid vpward, and let his hips be lifted vp, & applie sponges dip∣ped in posca (that is) water & vineger sodden togither to coole him. Also the extreme parts must be bound, & the share must be couered with spōges dipped in posca. If the euil increase cupping glasses fastened to the ilions, & to the loynes profit much. After irrigaciōs with the Page  134 sponges dipped in posca, you must vse cataplasmes of knot grasse, brambles, plantaine and pomegranate floures. Also vse Cerotes made of hypocischis, acatia, bole armoniack and such like rehearsed before in the Chapters of spitting of bloud, and of the fluxe dysenteria. You must poure into the bladder iuice of knot grasse, plantaine, or millefolie, commixing with it acatia, bole annoniacke, trochiskes of spodium and such like. Also incessions of such like things are good. For both Posca and decoction of Lentiscus, and also of brambles and such like,* are good. Also you must minister in drink, medicines apt to bring out bloud, as be rha∣ponticum finely beaten, and 12. red seedes of pionie, terra lemnia, horse taile, the roote of centory the great,* the bark of frankensence & such like. But in them that bloud is congea∣led & curde in the bladder, first you must go about to dissolue & disperse that bloud with conuenient medicines. Therfore you must minister in drink, motherwort, stichados, citrine, wormwood, sothernwood, shauing of a vine, radish seede, hares or goats creme, ech of thē with oxymell. Also oximell ministred by it selfe doth profit maruelouslie, for it dissolueth the curds, that afterward they may come forth by little & little, with the vrine. Apply outwardly bathes, ointments, irrigations, and other things that haue vertue to loosen & release, which you must seeke out of the chapter of the stone in the reynes.* Aboue other things this cerote is verie good. ℞. of the oyles of roses and chammomill. ana. ℥.j.ss. calamint, comin, leaues of elder. ana. ʒ.iij. bitumen iudaicum, gumme ammoniak. ana. ʒ.ij. hares creame. ʒ.iij. sothern∣wood, meale of fenugreeke. ana. ℥.ss. spermacety. ʒ.j. with rosen and wax as much as is suffi∣cient, make a cerote to apply to the share. And if you profit nothing by doing thus, but the v∣rine is stil stopped, you must of necessitie vse a ciring: by the which when you haue brought out the vrine, you must againe minister the things aforesaid in drinke, & apply those things outwardly, which do dissolue congealed bloud. And if the cloddes of bloud will not yet be dissolued, you must come to the cutting of it, likewise as you did in the stone of the bladder.

CAP. XLIII. Of inflammatian of the bladder.

*OF diseases that be in the bladder, and ingender there, the most grieuouse and deadly is the inflammation therof. The sicke hath these tokens following. They are vexed with a sharp feuer, they watch, they raue, and speake they wotte not what:* they vomit pure choler, and they cannot make water. The share becom∣meth hard and hath vehement paine, they haue desire to the stoole, as is wont in the disease called Tenasmus. The ordure that commeth foorth is thinne & hath no residence. Also some∣time inflations follow, and the womb is costiue the right gut being pressed together of the inflammation of the bladder.* To them that haue this disease, if nothing let it cut the veine of the hamme without any tarying, or draw bloud of the ankles. Also minister to him a thinne kind of diet,* as is prescribed in other inflammations. He must also abstaine from wine, & he must vse water, wherein a little cinnamon hath bene sodden. Outwardly you must applie those things, that haue power to cease and mitigate paine. Therefore the place of the blad∣der must be nourished with oyle wherein hath bene sodden dill, lineseede, and sometime rewe and althaea. Medicines that be cold and restrictiue must altogether be forborn: and that chiefly because the bladder is full of sinews. For cold as Hyppocrates witnesseth 5. Aphoris. 28 is an enemy to sinewes. Moreouer because cold things do shut vp & bind, & so do stop the vrine (which thing chauncing in this euill by it selfe) it increaseth it. And last of all because cold things do prohibit and let that the humours causing inflammation, may be dissolued, consumed & digested. Therefore medicines meanely hote are rather to be applied, which haue vertue to cease paine, to losen the pipe and passage of the vrine, and to dissolue the in∣flammation. Also let the guts be washed with soft & easie clisters, and after the dong is com¦foorth,* cast in oyle of dill, or such like thing to ease and cease the paine. It is good to seeth poppie shelles, together with oyle, and to poure in goose greace, or fresh henns greace sod∣den together in the same oyle. In most vehement paine you must poure in ʒ.j. of pilles of houndes tong dissolued in oyle of dill: or take opium with mirrhe & saffron, & annoint it v∣pon Page  135 woll, & put it vp into the fundament. Also let the sicke sit in the decoction of lineseede, fenugreeke, roote of altheae, dancus seede, and such like, and bid the sicke pisse as he sitteth in the water of the decoction. For the bladder is not strong enough to receaue & expell out the vrine: therefore the patient or some that be about him, must thrust and presse the share easilie and softly, and that must not be done out of measure, lest that paine should be aug∣mented thereby. Also after clysters and incessions vse foments by hote water,* and apply oyle in oxe bladders, or other vessels, halfefull, or little bagges as is shewed in the chapter of the plurisie. And if for all these thinges, the euill cease not, fasten a cupping glasse with scarifi∣cation to the grieued places. Moreouer he must abstaine from those thinges which prouoke vrine vehemently, and he must eschewe much drinke, when there appeareth euident decli∣nation of the disease, you must come to the vse of those thinges that haue vertue to dis∣solue and mollifie, whereof we haue spoken often before.* The putting in of a Cyring into him that is diseased with inflammation of the bladder is not easie to vse & specially in men: for seing it can not be put into them without paine, it sharpeneth the paine and increaseth the inflammation: but in women it is no great hurt to vse it. For the passage of the vrine in them is short and straight, so that they may suffer the doing of it without paine. But if the perill through the stopping of vrine do verie much constraine you, then you must of neces∣sitie vse a ciring in men also: not because it taketh away the anguish of the disease, but ra∣ther because it should amende the great suppression of vrine, and deliuer the patient from deadlie perill. After that you haue entised out the vrine, you must come againe to the re∣medies which do cease paine, vntill the inflammation be dissolued and rotted. Often∣times the inflammation is wont to be dissolued by and by thorough the meanes of an Erisi∣pela, rising outwardly vppon the skinne, and remayning there, and not returning againe inwarde. Yea and oftentimes much vrine being cast out, doeth iudge the euill. Yet neuer∣thelesse although these things appeare, you must still vse the remedies aforesaid: in as much as for the most part, perfect tension and stretching out being risen, continuall exacerbations and fittes are caused, and long constitution of the euill. But when the perillous fittes are cea∣sed, and the constitution of the disease is nowe waxen olde, you must come to the vsing of ointments, which do call out and bring foorth the humours from within: and likewise em∣plaisters, which do rubifie and blister the skin, are to be applied which you may find after.

CAP. XLIIII. Of vlcers of the bladder and his necke.

THE bladder is exulcerate either thorough some bile, or botch, or swelling,* which hath bene before, or through some rupture, or by eating, and gnaw∣ing of a fluxe, or through some such like cause. There followeth this sicknesse sharp paine of the bladder, at all times pissing and auoiding out matter.* And when the vlcers be foule and filthy, there commeth foorth dreggie and sli∣mie matter, and such as hath a grosse residence like branne. And some∣time thinne skinnes like leaues, and woll are sent out with the vrine. If the vlcers do spreade abroade and feede deepe, there is sent out vrine that is bloudie, atterie and stinking. To these signes may be added, difficulty of making water, and rising vp of the yarde. There is paine not onely, when the passage of the vrine is exulcerate, but also when the exulceratiō is in the bottom or depth. You may knowe whether the exulceration be in the bottome of the bladder, or nigh the pipe and passage of the vrine by this: for if it be in the depth of the bladder, there followeth paine about the share: but if the vlcers be nigh the necke of the bladder, there is paine felt onely at such time, as he maketh water, and specially at the be∣ginning and ending of his pissing: & also his paine is the greater if the vrine be sharp. They that are vexed with this euill, they either sit continually, or they can not stand vpright, nor rest lying along, & thorough great and continuall paine they are killed with feuers,* watch∣ings, and consumings, some sooner and some later. But the vlcers of the bladder be incura∣rable, or at the least wayes very harde to cure: as well because the bladder is smowie, as Page  136 also because the vrine which is of nature sharp doth cōtinually touch the vlcers, & so gnaw¦eth them: and will not suffer them to conglutinate and ioyne together. For although much vrine be sent out, yet all the bladder can not be cleane emptied, but alwayes some of the v∣rine is left in it, which doth continually touch the vlcers▪ Yea when the abundance of vrine is sent out, then the bladder shrinketh vp and falleth together, so that the vrine that is left in it, although it be verie little, yet it toucheth euery part therof. But seing that oftentims some thinges chaunce besides our expectation, you shall go about the cure, by the which, if you bring nothing else to passe,* yet you shall deminish the paines of the fits. First therefore, you must perswade the patient to ly down and to rest in his bed: and that specially, when that he hath a feuer. Then you must minister remedies for intermitting feuers. The chiefe thing in this case hath bene drinking of milke, and this is to be compared aboue all other medicines. For it maketh smooth roughnesse, and washeth vlcerations, and scoureth the euill. Let the rest of his diet be such, as that is, which is ministred in the exulceration of the reynes. Also you must comfort the sicke by medicines, that will let the ingendring of sharp vrine, which doth gnaw & fret the vlcers. And if there be inflāmation with the exulceration, cataplasmes of lineseede, and fenugreeke, and other things, which are rehearsed before in the chapter of inflammation of the bladder, are apt and meete to be applied. Moreouer, if the exulceration do spreade broder & eate depe, you must apply outwardly medicines somewhat restrictiue, and that such as be hote whē they are applied, that by their heate they might help the pain∣full places round about by mollifying them, & that through their vertue, they may prohibite the places nigh adioyning to feede and eate.* Restrictiue medicines be these: galles, pome∣granate rinds, alome, acatia, hypocischis, and such like often rehearsed of vs before. Also you must vse to minister to them, medicines cast in with a cyring. You must cast into the exulce∣rate places, milk newly milked, or verie good oyle of roses warme. And if none of these be at hād, you must cast in continually most sweete water warmed: specially at such time as the gnawing is present. Also you must driue in by the fundament the iuice of Ptysan, or the de∣coction of lineseede,* cucumber seede husked, fenugreeke, mallowes, or milke with oyle of roses. Moreouer when thou wilt minister a clister to him which is diseased in the bladder, he may not ly vpward, for the bladder then will not suffer the infusion to enter in, because it lyeth vpon the streight bowell: but the patient must lye groueling vppon his knees, and so you must cast in your infusion. Also let the sicke sitte often in hoate water, and in dissol∣uing decoctions, for these do cease paine somwhat. And when the vlcers do spreade abrode and feede, you must cast into the bladder by a Cyring such thinges as can stoppe the fee∣ding: as be acatia, hypocischis, terra lemnia, bole armoniacke and other rehearsed a little be∣fore. But if the vlcers be foule and filthie, you must poure in medicines, which haue ver∣tue to scoure and cleanse them, as is mulsa much watered, or milcke with a little honie, or with the seede of Cucumbers cleansed. But if there followe sharpnesse and gnawing, cast in milcke newlye milked, mixed with good amylum, or Tuttie washed and dryed with manie waters, and then mixed with the milcke. When the vlcers be scoured and purged cleane, you must procure to bring them to a scarre, and to heale them. And that must be done by restrictiue incessions, and by emplaisters, fomentes, and irrigations, that be of like facultie and vertue. But if the exulceration doe endure long time, as it chaun∣ceth for the most parte, then the pacient hath exacerbations and fittes sometime and in∣termission and space from them at other times. Therefore in the painefull fittes applye emplaisters and irrigations, hauinge power to cease and ease the paine, and in the time of the intermission betweene the fittes, vse such thinges as haue vertue to destroy the euill. Therefore applie to the share, Synapismes, and such thinges as will rubifie and blister. And let the sicke vse a diet that is good to restore strength. And if the euill doeth not waxe gentler, you must make burnt scurfes about the share, either by medicines or with iron, and to suffer the vlcers to purge and cleanse them selues long time with matter flowinge out.* You may also minister medicines to cease paine in drincke, if vehement paines vexe him. For this purpose aboue other thinges, which we haue rehearsed in other places, the pills of Alkakengi with opium are good. Also these things following do much mi∣tigate the paines of exulceration (that is) cucumberseede, mallowes, white poppie, traga∣canthe, Page  137 amylum, pine nuttes and almondes. Therefore this medicine may be ministred. ℞. conserue of violets. ℥.iij. seede of mallowes. ʒ.ij. of the foure great colde seedes. ana. ʒ.j. liquorace scraped. ʒ.j.ss. gumme. ℈.ij. bole armoniake. ʒ.ss. trochiskes of terra lemnia. ʒ.j. make them vp altogether with syrupe of liquorice. Minister of it dayly in the morning the quantitie of an hasell nut. Moreouer you must throwe into the bladder medicines that can cease paine, and heale the exulceration.

CAP. XLV. Of the strangurie. DE STILLICIDIO VRINAE.

STRANGVRIA in greeke, stillicidium vrinae in Latine, is a disease wheras the vrine distilleth downe by drops,* or by little and little and causeth a continuall prouoking and desire to pisse. This disease is caused through the sharpnesse of the vrine, or by exulceration of the bladder,* or by an impostume of the li∣uer, or the reynes, which being broken and sending the filth and atter to the bladder, through the sharpnesse thereof, it causeth continuall desire to pisse. You shall iudge that sharpnesse is the cause, if his vrines be cholericke,* and also all the state of the bodie, if the rest of the signes betoken choller, and that gnawings do chaunce about the bladder. You may know the exulceration of the bladder, as also an impostume or bile of the liuer and the reynes, by the signes afore rehearsed in their owne proper chapters.* If ther∣fore the strangurie be caused through sharpnes of the vrine, then you must purge the vicious and naughty humour, that doth abound, with all spede. For the which purpose, besides those thinges which are often spoken of before, whey with casia fistula, is maruelouse good, or some other medicine that bringeth out choler. The cholerik humour being auoided & pur∣ged, the patient must vse meats that be temperate, and that can stop the sharpnes: as is,* iuyce of ptisan, mallowes, purslaine, violets, cucumber seede and such like. He must abstaine from all things that be sharp or salt. Also let him eschew wine, exercises, wrath, and slow eating: for all these things do heape vp choler in the bodie. Let them vse stony fishes, and bathes of sweete water, which is wont to make temperate vicious humours maruelously. In drink you must minister much sweete water hote, or the decoction of barley with syrupe of violets, & roses. But you may not giue him wine, as is said, except it be sweete and alayed with water. Also milk drunk hote, is the best thing that can be. To conclude for the order of his diet, he must vse meates that do moisten, and brothes that do make the womb soluble. But the sicke must be compelled to pisse continually: for if the sharp dregs do tarie long in the bladder, it gnaweth and exulcerateth it. Also to stop the sharpnesse of the humours, minister the me∣dicine which we haue described in the end of the former chapter. For the same purpose mi∣nister decoction of licorice, or this pouder following. ℞. of the seedes of melons husked,* ci∣trons, and cucumbers. ana. ʒ.iij. seedes of gourds, purslaine, and lettuse. ana. ʒ.ij. of red ro∣ses. ʒ.j. iuice of licorice & of mast. ana. ʒ.j.ss. beate them all and make a fine pouder: whereof giue dayly the weight of ʒ.j.ss. in the morning with syrupe of licorice, or inleps of violets or roses. Also venice turpentine washed in rosewater or endiue water,* & minister the quantitie of a nut, or sometime two or three is maruelous good for this (as Galen witnesseth. lib. 5. de¦tuenda sanitate) doth not only loosen the bellie without hurt, & so by that meanes, turneth a∣way the sharp humours from the passages of the vrine: but also it scoureth & clenseth the in∣warde partes, and specially the reines. And there hath bin some, that haue recouered health onely by the vse of this. Also clisters made of the decoction of mallowes, violettes, althaea, leaues of willowe, water lillies, and other afore rehearsed, putting to thē casia fistula, suger,* and oyle of violets, and roses do profit much. But if the sharpnesse do stil increase, you must also cast in by the yarde into the bladder milke with amylum. Also for the same purpose you may cast in the decoction of white poppie, and you must annoynt outwardly vppon the share, and there aboutes oyles of violettes, and water lillyes, puttinge to them a ve∣rie little of the iuyce of purslaine. But if the Strangurie doeth chaunce through exulcera∣tion Page  138 of the bladder, or thorough some other part of the bodie being euill affected, and so purging it selfe out by the vrine, then it is manifest that those members ought first to be cu∣red, but yet so that this present euill be not neglected. The cures of euerie part you may seeke out of their proper places and chapters.

CAP. XLVI. Of difficultie of pissing. DE DIFFICVLTATE VRINAE.

DISVRIA in Greeke, vrinae difficultas, it is a disease wherein the vrine is pis∣sed hardly and difficultly.* It is caused through weakenesse of the bladder, and through cold distempure of it which hurteth his actions. Also sometime it is caused of grosse and fleugmatike humours which stop the necke of the blad∣der.* You may know colde distempure if it come of an outward cause, by the patients telling, and by the thinnesse and whitenesse of the vrine. But if besides the white∣nesse there appeare grosnesse in the vrine, you may iudge it a fleugmatike humour, which hath stopped the neck of the bladder,* as is aforesaid. Cold distēpure is cured by those things that do heate. Therefore be must vse heating meates, & wine that is hote and condite. Also he must vse medicines which prouoke vrine, as are parsneps well sodden, fennel, apium, spe∣rage, smalach and such like. Also crabs and hedgehogges do prouoke vrine very well. You must dry their flesh and minister the weight of one ʒ. in drink. Also minister in drinke the decoctions of aromatique things, or electuaries made of them, and so named of them. A∣boue other things the antidotes of diacalaminthes, dialactia, and diacurcuma, are verie good. Also triacle giuen in drinke is maruelous good. You must nourish the share without, with hote oyles, as is, oyles of rewe, dill, lillies, scorpions, and of castoreum. Also you must applie foments,* and little bags made of chammomill, sothernwood, betony, mugwort, rewe, cala∣mint, saucin and such like herbs. The sicke must sit in the decoction of the aforesaid herbes, and couer and make hote the bottome of the belly. Also sometime it profiteth to cast in the decoction of the saide herbes mixed with hoate oyles into the foundament. If a colde and fleugmatike humour do cause difficulty of pissing,* then the patient must vse oxymell, and decoctions of hysope, penyroall, origan, time, & such like often before rehearsed. Also let them vse foments, irrigations, & little bags made of hote things, wherof we spake a litle be∣fore, & in the former chapters. Moreouer whether a grosse humour or the stone, or a clod of bloud, or any other thing of that kinde through stopping do let the passage of the vrine, it is good to put in a Cyring, vnlesse inflāmation of the members do let it, which also we haue ad monished before.

CAP. XLVII. Of stopping of the vrine. DE SVPPRESSIONE ƲRINAE.

ISCVRIA in greeke, suppressio vrine in Latin, it is a disease, in the which the v∣rine of the pacient is altogether letted & stopped.* This disease is caused som∣time through weaknes of the bladder, not being able to thrust out that which is contained in it. Also sometime it chaunceth through stopping of the nether passage of the bladder, or of grosse humours, or of a stone congealed. Also it is wont to come either of an inflammation, or of hardnesse, or some swelling against nature, which maketh the passages straighter, or stoppeth it altogether. Also sometime it cometh by a little peece of flesh, or a hard knob ingendred in the passage of the vrine. Also bloud congealed into cloddes in the bladder, is cause of the suppression and stopping of vrine. Al∣so atter sent down to the bladder frō the reines, or the liuer, or from some other vpper part, causeth stopping of the vrine, euen like as a grosse & clammie humour doth. Also it chaun∣ceth sometime, that through the dull sense of the bladder, that the vrine is not made, and yet Page  139 it is without hurt of the vertue expulsiue, when as his proper synowes be euill affected: so in haile folke when the vrine is holden long time, the bladder is stretched out, and the v∣rine is stopped. If stopping of the vrine be caused through weakenes of the bladder,* it is knowne by those signes which declare the cold distempure of the bladder. If it be caused of grosse humours, it is knowen by the diet that went before. As if one that liueth idlely, hath vsed much meates which do engender grosse and clammie humours. If it be caused of the stone, you may knowe it by the signes which are rehearsed before in the chapter of the stone. If it be caused of inflammation or of any other swelling, it is knowen by paine by feauer and by sight. When suppression of the vrine is caused through some peece of fleshe, or some knobbe, it may be knowne by the signes of vlcers aforesaide: and also because that a cyring being put in, the vrine commetn out. Also a cyring being put into that part of the conduite or passage, where you coniectured the byle to be before, it mo∣ueth paine, and the flesh being broken with the cyring, there followeth out with the pis∣singe of the vrine, both blood and fragments of flesh. If clodded blood cause stopping of the vrine, there went before it excretion and pissing of blood, or fluxe thereof. When as attre hath stopped the vrine, you may know it by things that chaunce before: for either the bladder or the reynes laboured of some euill before, whereby such, & so much atter might gather: or there hath bene an impostume in some member aboue the reines, which being broken the attre is sent downe into the reines, and so into the bladder: the rest of the causes may be knowen by the patientes telling.* The cure is diuerse according to the diuersitie of causes. For if the stopping of vrine be caused through imbecillitie and weakenes of the bladder, you must minister and apply those thinges which doe heate, as is saide in the for∣mer chapter. For you must altogeather remoue cold distempure, which letteth the acti∣ons of the bladder. If the withholding of vrine be engendred of grosse and clammie hu∣mours, he must be cured by fomentes, incessions,* and cataplasmes made of herbes that be hot, and that haue vertue to cut and deuide the humours, and with a diet of such like things. Besides those things which we haue rehearsed in the former chapter of difficultie of pissing, this oyntment following is notably good,* to take away the disease. ℞. of the oile of scorpions, oyle of narde, and of lillies. ana. ʒ.iij. gumme serapine, bdellium, and oppopo∣nax. ana. ℈.ij. goose greace, duckes greace. ana. ʒ.ss.. roote of Enula campana. ℈.ij. peny∣roiall, calamint. ana. ʒ.ss. dissolue the gummes in wine, and with wax as much as is suffici∣ent, make an oyntment. Also you must throw into the bladder with a cyring, oyle of scor∣pions, or lillies, or some other thing that can dissolue, cut, and deuide clammie humours. If the vrine be stopped through the stone or clodded blood:* you must seeke the cure out of their proper chapters. For the stone which hath stopped the passage of the vrine must be remoued out of his place as is taught before in the 41. chapter: but the clodded blood must be dissolued, as is taught in the 42. chapter. If the vrine be stopped through inflammation,* or some other swelling against nature, the cure must also be sought out of their owne pro∣pre chapters. And if the vrine be stopped through some litle peece of flesh or hard knobbe,* apply bathinges and other dissoluing and loosening medicines and such as doe open and spread abroad the pype & conduit of the vrine: examples whereof you may seeke out of the chapter of the stone of the reines. And if the vrine doe not come out so, you must come to the vsing of a cyring, and by putting in of the instrument you must entice out the vrine.* If the vrine be suppressed through the dull sence of the bladder, you must raise vp his action, by prouoking vrine, and you must helpe it by incessions, fomentes, and other hot medi∣cines, which can take awaie his sleeping and dulnes. But you must onely eshue those thinges which prouoke vrine, least that through plentie of it, the bladder be stretched out, and so the contractiue vertue of it should be hurt. Moreouer you must entice out vrine with intrum, or salt peter, or with a quicke louse, or with some other thing, that can stirre vp the vertue expulsiue of the bladder. In healthfull folke, when through some great busines the vrine is holden to long, and so hath made the bladder feeble, that it cannot expell it out,* then he must helpe himselfe thus. He must stand, so that the necke of the bladder may leane downward, and he must lay both his handes about his share, and he must presse it & thrust out the vrine by litle & litle, & thus may he do also in the dul sence, of the bladder aforesaid.

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CAP. XLVIII. Of exulceration of the priuie members. DE EXVLCERATIONE PVDENDI.

VLCERS engendred in the priuie members without inflammation haue need of medicines, which doe drie vppe vehemently: such as these be paper bur∣ned,* drie dill burnt, and drie Aloës made into powder, for you can scarcely finde a more present remeadie. Also the roote of Aristolochia rotunda doeth bring present remeadie to the exulceration of the priuie members. Also a∣mong compounde medicines,* that is the most effections and profitable. ℞. Aloës epa∣ticum. ʒ.ij. gaules. ʒ.j. dragons blood, bole armoniacke, tuttie. ana. ʒ.j. rootes of Aristo∣lochia rotunda. ʒ.ss. mirrhe. ℈.j. of gumme arabicke. ʒ.ij. alome burnt. ʒ.ss. let all these be beaten,* and make a fine pouder, and strew it vppon the exulcerate partes. But if the vlcers be verie moist and foule, first scoure them and clense them with mulsa well alaied, and then after with goates milke: which thing being done, vse the aforesaid pouder, or lapis hmati∣tes or frankensence or pomegranade ryndes, or terra lemnia or such like beaten into pouder. If there chaunce inflammation togeather with the exulceration, you must first remoue the inflammation with linnen cloathes wet in roose water, or night shade, or purselaine water, or housleeke water, putting to it the white of an egge, and applying it to the diseased place. The rest of the remeadies, seeke out of other chapters.

CAP. XLIX. Of the continuall standing of the yearde. DE PRIAPISMO.

PRIAPISMVS (as Galen witnesseth in lib. 6. de male affectis locis. cap. 6.) is whē the yeard is stretched out in length and in breadth,* nothing prouoking the patient to lust and desire, nor no heate gotten. And if there chaunce to the yeard panting or beating, then the euill is called Satyriasis. This euill is cau∣sed (as Galen doth witnes in the place aforesaid) either through immoderate opening of the mouth of the arteries,* or of some vaporous spirite engendred in the hollow and fistulous sinow. But it followeth often after the gaping and opening of the mouthes of the arteries. For it is easier for them to stretch out wide, then for flatuous and windy aire to engender in the hollow sinow. For the loynes being het, it is reason that the arteries are made hotter, and that also other mouthes should be wider opened. Therefore at that time, they send out no small substaunce of spirite or aire into the hollow senew, which be∣ing a litle filled, it stretcheth out the yarde, so that all his power doth seme to consist in the holow sinow. Sometime this euill chaunceth to them which haue abstained long time from carnall copulation contrarie to their custome. And this thing chaunceth speciallie to them, that doe abound with much blood, and doe not studie to disperse the aboundaunce of blood with much exercise. They that labour of this disease be grieued, as those be, which be taken with distention and stretching out of the synewes: for the yard being puffed vp, and stretched out, suffereth as it were a crampe. They that haue this conuulsion or crāpe, doe quickly perish, vnlesse helpe be vsed to them by and by: and when they die their bel∣lie is puffed vp,* and their swet is colde. The cure is diuerse according to the diuersitie of causes▪ for if the disease do chaunce through gaping of the mouthes of the arteries, and so through the heate of them, by and by it is good to let blood by cutting of a vaine which thing also you shall doe, when this euill taketh them which abound with blood, and haue abstained long time from carnall copulation, contrarie to their custome. And you must cut the blacke veine which is called media or mediana, the middle veine of the arme. Also he must vse a thinne diet, and abstaine from wine. Giue him but litle meate made of corne, and that which doth engender no wind at all, and that causeth thirst, and it is good for him Page  141 to vse to drincke water exercises and frictions or rubbings are well applyed and vsed, to dis∣solue and disperse the spirites or ayre. Also it is good to goe about emptying by vomiting. Also if the wombe be costiue and bound, you must make it soluble with a clyster,* that is not verie sharpe, as that is which is made of the decoction of beetes, mallowes and mercurie. You must altogeather abstaine from purging medicines, least that the humours should be drawen downwarde, for the same cause also, he must eschue those things which haue ver∣tue to prouoke vrine.* To conclude you must altogeather labour and studie to minister those medicines which can voide and emptie the aboundaunce, and draw vpward, and so turne the humours from the priuie members. And if the euill endure long, fasten cupping glasses with scarification. And if there be fulnes apply horse leaches. But you must laie vpon the loynes, those thinges which doe euidently coole, as is, nightshade, purslane, hen∣bane, and singreene. Also you must of necessitie annoint the yarde, and the space between the fundament and the yard, with some iuice or water of herbes that doe coole gentlie. If a cerote made of fine oyle of roses, washed often in colde water be applyed as well to the yard, as also to the loynes, it doth notably well. The making of this cerote which is cal∣led ceratum liquidum, is taugh of Galen. lib. 1. de simplicium medicamentorum facultate. cap. 6.* Also this cerote is good. ℞. white wax washed tennetimes in colde water. quar. j. pur∣slane. ʒ.ij. commix them togeather & bring them into the forme of a cerote. To be short, applie, and also minister in drincke those medines which can extinguish and quench seede: of the which we will speake aboundantlie in the next chapter. Moreouer it is hurtfull for him to rest, lying vpright, but he must lie on his side. He must altogeather be kept from sightes and stories, and rehearsing of those thinges, which pertaine vnto lecherie. If this disease chaunce of a vaporous and windie spirite or ayre engendred in the hollow sinow, all your whole cure must be turned to the dispersing and dissoluing of it. Therefore you must turn backe to the chapters of curing of inflammation, and windines of the stomach, and to the cure of the windie cholicke: for there you shall find plentie of remeadies.

CAP. L. Of shedding of sperme. DE SEMINIS PROFLVVIO.

GONORRHAEA in Greeke, seminis proflunium in Latine,* it is excretion and shedding of seede or sperme against the patientes will, and without sicknes of the yard.* It is caused through imbecillitie and weakenes of the retentiue vertue in the vessels, conteining the sperme: or through some other disease, that moueth the partes of the vessels of sperme, after that sort, as the expul∣siue vertue doth, according to nature: as in the falling sicknes it chaunceth sometime, and in other violent conuulsions & crampes. Also sometime it is caused through fluxe of the spermaticke vessels. The seede that shedeth out, is waterie thinne without 〈◊〉 petite of carnall copulation: and for the most parte without feeling of it, but sometime it commeth out with certaine pleasure. They that haue this disease,* their whole bodie cor∣rupteth by litle and litle, and waxeth leane speciallie about the loynes. And 〈◊〉 follow∣eth much weakenes, not for the multitude of seede, but for the principallitie 〈…〉. And if it come out (the yard not standing) there followeth imbecillitie and 〈…〉 the retentiue vertue in the spermaticke vessels. But if it commeth out (the yard 〈…〉 the griefe is somewhat like a conuulsion, or crampe. This disease chaunceth not 〈…〉 men, but also to women, and in women it is hard to cure. The cure of this disease is 〈◊〉 with those cures that are ministred in euerie fluxe. First therefore you must keepe 〈◊〉 sicke in quietnes with litle meate, and with drincking of water. Then also you must ••uer the places about the share and priuities, and the loynes with woll wet in oyle of rose in wine, or in oyle of blossomes of apples, or of quinces. Also sponges wet in in Posca ap∣plyed are not hurtfull. The daies following you must vse cataplasmes, emplaisters, and ointmentes, made of vine braunches, quinces, acatia hypocischis, sumach, and such like a∣fore Page  142 rehearsed. Also he must vse restrictiue incessions made of the decoctions of bryer, plaintaine, mirtles and such other like. These thinges must be sodden in austere and sharpe wine, or also in water. Let him vse meates which are harde to corrupt, and that are difficultie chaunged, and that haue power to drie vp. Also you must giue him with his meates and drincke, the seede of Agnus castus, and of hempe, specially rosted. Also the seede and leaues of rew, the seede and stalke of lettuce, and the roote of water lillies. In drincke minister daiely, in steed of common water, the water wherein yron hath often be quenched. To be shorte he must eschue the vsing of sharpe thinges, and drincking of much wine, and eating of pottage, and all his whole diet must be appointed of such things, as doe drie vp and restraine.* And you must minister such medicines, as doe extinguish and quench seede, as is, tutsan seede tosted and rubbed, also the leaues and floures of it are said to restraine lecherie, not onely when they are eaten, but also when they are taken in drinck, or strewed vnder one. Purslane eaten, and lettuce seede drouncke, and the roote & seede of waterlillies taken in meate, doe extinguish the seede by cooling of it. But rew eaten corrupteth and destroyeth the seede with his heate. They which eate calamint continual∣lie, doe loose the power of generation, and likewise the seede of white violettes doth the same. But smithes water, in which yron is often quenched, being continually droncke, doth diminish the seede without any griefe. Moreouer of these simples before rehearsed, you may compound and make diuerse remeadies. And specially this pouder is good. ℞. of the pouders of diacuminum,*diacalaminthes. ana. ʒ.j.ss. seede of tutsan & rew. ana. ʒ.j. ca∣lamint. ʒ.ij. seede of luttuse and purslane. ana. ʒ.j. sugre, the weight of them all: com∣mixe them togeather and make a fine pouder, whereof minister. ʒ.j. or ʒ.j.ss. infused in soure wine.* Also it is counted notable, to lay a plate of leade vpon the loynes, for it is wont to coole much. To those which cannot suffer the hardnes of leade, you must giue counsel, that they strew vnder them some of the aforesaide herbes dried: for the which purpose a∣boue other thinges, vine leaues, rew, calamint, and roses are praised: for these profit, and besides that they hurt not the reynes. For vehement colde thinges being applyed to the loynes, doe hurte the reines. Also let not his bed be softe, and let him lie for the most part vpon his side, eschuing vpright lying, least thereby the arteries of the loynes should wax hot. After that the disease hath dured a while, you must commit the sicke to exercises, whereby the whole bodie, and specially the diseased partes, may be confirmed and streng∣thened. Also it shall be good, if nothing else doe let it, to vse colde bathing and wash∣inges, which is wont to driue away all the griefe engendred of fluxe: and that specially if the water be indewed with any medicinable qualitie. Also it is good at certaine times to vse those thinges that doe rubifie and blister, and that can fetch out from the depth and bottom, vnto the top of the skinne. Moreouer the patient must exclude all thought belon∣ging to carnall copulation.

CAP. LI. Of the losse of carnall copulation. DE IIS QVI RE VENEREA VTI NON POSSVNT.

THEY which be maried, and cannot vse the act of generation, because of the sluggish impotencie and weakenes of their members:* comming of a colde distempure wherewith they be vexed, or of some other cause: such ough to exercise the neather partes, and to vse meates that doe heate and engender good humours:* as is the flesh of hennes, capons, partrich, feasauntes, yong 〈◊〉 of mountaines, and specially sparrowes, cockes stones and such like. Not 〈◊〉 good nourishing meates, but also windy meates are good for him, as be chiche 〈◊〉eanes, scalions, leekes, the roote and seede of persneppes, pine nuttus, sweete 〈◊〉, rape rootes and such other like. Also the egges of partriches doe stirre vp car∣•••• lust. Let the patient sleepe in a soft bedde, and let him reade thinges that doe stirre vp lust,* or let him heare them read. Let his priuie members be continually chafed and rubbed with oyles, ointmentes and other heating medicines. For which purpose vse this ointment Page  143 following. ℞. oyle of lillies. ℥.j.ss. oyle of castoreum. ℥.ss. pepper, nigella, pellitorie. ana. ℈.j. mirrhe. ʒ.ss. Euphorbium. gran. iij. wax as much as is sufficient, and make an oyntment.* And also he must vse medicines, which doe engender plentie of sperme, and can heate. A∣mong simple medicines, these that follow doe chieflie stirre vp carnall lust, as be rocket, mustard seede, gardein cresses, nettleseede, roote of Aron, and pepper, satyrion, orminum,* annyse, squill, orchis, called also testiculus canis, whose greatest round roote druncke with milke doth prouoke stiffenes of the yearde, but the the lesse roote thereof droncke with water doeth slake the stiffenes thereof, also fennell and dill are good. The stones of a fox dried, beaten to pouder and droncke, doth cause a stiffenes of the member: not hurtefull nor vaine. Also the partes of scinces which embrace the reynes, are druncke to raise a stiffenes of the yarde. Moreouer burne the drie pissell of an harte and minister. ℥.j. of it with pure wine. Among compoundes it is good to vse this medicine. ℞. Dianthos,*plirisar∣coticon, diagalangae. ana. ʒ.iij. diasatyrion. ʒ.vj. pine nuttes, sweete almondes, pistax. ana. ʒ.ij. satyrium. ʒ.j. roote of Aron. ℈.j. seedes of rocket, nettles, and gardein cresses. ana. ʒ.j.ss. scincus. ʒ.ss. nux indica. ʒ.j. of long pepper and ginger. ana. ʒ.j.ss. pouder of hartes pis∣sle. ℈.j. syrupe of mintes, and sugar as much as is sufficient, and make an electuarie: where of minister before supper or fasting the quantitie of one drachme, or two alone, or in good wine.

CAP. LII. Of bursting or ruptures. DE RAMICE.

CELE in Greeke, ramex and hernia in Latine, the barbarous writers call it rupura. It is caused diuerse wayes, and thereupon it hath diuerse names.* For if the Peritonaeum doth breake, and the bowelles fall downe into the coddes, it is called in Latine, ramx intestinorum: that is,* the rupture of the bowelles. But when the bowelles doe cleaue or staie aboue the priuie members, it is called in Lataine ramex inguinis: that is, the rupture aboue the priuie members.* And if any quiet and waterie humour be gathered in any parte of the filmes, or skinnes of the coddes, it is called in latine, ramex aqnosus: that is waterie rup∣ture. When there groweth harde flesh, within the coates and tunicles of the stones, it is called in Lataine ramex carnosus, that is a fleshie rupture. To be short, the kindes of rup∣tures euer take their names of the thinges that doe fill vp the coddes. As if the call or filme that lappes in the bowelles, doe fall downe into the coddes, it is called in Latine ramex ormenti: that is the rupture of the filme.* And if the bowelles doe slippe downe also with it, it is called in Latine ramex ormenti & intestini: that is the rupture of the filme and the bowelles. So when the veynes which nourish the stones be spread abroade, and swollen out of measure on heapes, it is called ramex varicosus: that is the rupture of the swollen veines. The rupture of the bowelles, and of the partes aboue the priuie members, are cau∣sed either because the Peritonaeum, is stretched out more then it ought to be, or because it is broaken. Both these doe chaunce through some violent occasion going before, as a stroke, or leaping or crying, or by taking vp of a great weight. A waterie rupture is cau∣sed sometime of a secret cause, and sometime of a manifest cause. Of a secret cause 〈…〉 the vesselles that are ioyned togeather be increased in the coddes, and then a 〈…〉 mixed with blood is driuen downe to those partes, and resteth there. Of a 〈◊〉 cause, as when through some blowe or stroke, the vesselles breake and slide down〈◊〉 then blood flowing downe thither to nourish them, it is chaunged into a waterie and 〈◊〉 substance. A fleshie rupture is ingendred of a secret cause, as through the stone 〈◊〉 without a fluxe and waxing harde, or of a stripe, or by ill curing after the cutting of a rupture. The causes of the other ruptures are euident by their descriptions. The signes, both of the rupture of the bowelles, and the rupture about the priuie members are commō.* For there is a manifest swelling in the coddes, or about the priuie members, which appear∣eth greater, then it did before in exercises, iourneis, holding of the breath and such like oc∣casions: Page  144 being thrusted togeather, it goeth backe againe slowly, and it rouleth downe againe quickly. The particular signes whereby ruptures that come, when the Peritonaum is but stretched out, be these: that the bowelles fall downe not for a long time togeather, but for a short space, and for verie litle cause, the swelling appeareth equall and deepe, the bowelles that fall downe being stayed with the peritonaeum. The proper signes of a rupture that commeth when the peritonaeum is broken are, that the bowelles fall downe vniuersally from the beginning of the rupture, and that onely through violent causes: the swelling is of a wonderfull greatnes, inequall, and it sheweth streight way sticking out in the skinne, be∣cause the bowelles are fallen out of the peritoraum. The common signes of a waterie ru∣pture be these: swelling that is without paine, and firme, and permanent in the coddes, not vanishing by noe occasion, but in them that haue but a litle of the humour, it giueth place, and in them that haue not so much of it, not so. And when there is a waterie hu∣mour in the coddes, the swelling shineth of the same colour: that the humour is, as like dregges or blood, or rubicund, or swarte. And when these signes appeare in both sides of the coddes, it betokeneth that there is a double rupture. There followeth after a fleshie rupture, hardnes, and a colour alwayes like vnto it. But if the swelling doe encrease into a hardnes or kernell, then there is nether colour nor sence, nor feeling. But if the humour be of a wicked nature,* then pricking paine doth vex him. The rupture of the bowelles, and of the partes about the priuie members, be cured in this wise. You must lay the patient vp∣right and separate his legges, and then put vp the bowelles by little and little: and when they are put vp, you must keepe them vp with conuenient trusses, and ligamentes. But if the places adioyning to the coddes, or to the place about the priuie members, be grieued with inflammation and most grieuous paines, and that there come with it frettinges and windines, and so thereby the bowelles be made disobedient to goe vp againe, then you must vse and apply fomentes, lynementes and bathes, which haue vertue to mollifie and to cease paine and inflammation, and to disperse windines: as those thinges be which be made of mallowes, chammomill, dill, lineseede, fenugreeke, caraway seede, annyseseede, comin and such like. Also nourish the places that be vexed with paine, with woll that is moist, dipped in wine and oyle. When the bowelles are put vp againe into their places, you must goe about, that they may be kept vp still, with conuenient trusses and bandes: ap∣applying to it first,* restrictiue or glutinatiue cerotes, or emplaisters, as this is. ℞. ship pitch, masticke. ana. ʒ.iij. franckensence. ʒ.ij. hypocischis, sarcocoll, acatia. ana. ʒ.j.ss. lapis hama∣titis, dragons blood. ana. ʒ.ij. bole armoniacke rootes of comforie, gales, pomegranate rindes. ana. ʒ.iij. missle of the oke. ʒ.j.ss. of either Aristolochia. ʒ.ij. sumache, pomegra∣nade floures. ana. ʒ.j. goates tallow. ʒ.ij. turpentine and wax as much as is sufficient: dis∣solue the gummes first in vinegre or wine, and make a cerote, and put it in a weathers skin, and apply it binding it fast, and doe not loose it before the seuenth day. Also in the mean season 〈◊〉 the sicke tarie thirtie daies in his bed,* and let him abstaine from windie meates, 〈◊〉 much drincking of wine, from vehement mouing, running, leaping, crying loude 〈◊〉 other like. And in the meane season let him drincke this decoction. ℞. both the kindes of sanicula, of solidago saracenica, or consolida sar acenica, ophio glossum, pedelion, agri∣monie,*•••laria. ana. M.j. knotgrasse, clematis daphnoides, great plantaine, burnet. ana. M.ss. 〈◊〉 of comfrey, houndes tongue. ana. ʒ.ss. roote of the sixt kinde of geranium. ʒ. 〈…〉 mirtles. ʒ.iij. pomegranate floures. ʒ.ij. leaues of laurell. ʒ.j.ss. boyle these in 〈…〉 water of iust quantitie till the thirde parte be consumed. Then straine it and 〈…〉 to it sugre, make the liquor of the decoction sweete, and purifie it, and make a ••••potion, whereof minister dayly in the morning. ℥.iiij. Also you must take verie 〈◊〉ead, that the bellie wax not costiue: for if he be constreined to labour much, when ••••uld goe to the stoole, the bowelles will slide downe againe. Also he must vse apt •••onuenient deligatures and trusses, as be admonished before. And he must vse them speciallie,* at such time as occasion and necessitie of mouing requireth it. A waterie rupture must be cured by such medicines, as doe heate and drie vp, as be beane meale, laurell, bea∣ries, lineseede, dancus, althaea, nigella, and such other like, which we haue rehearsed in the chapter of the dropsie Asciles, and other dropsies. To conclude: as for the cure of these Page  145 ruptures, or anie other by surgerie, let it be sought out of Paulus Aegineta. libro sexto, chapter sixtietwo, where he treateath of it aboundantly: for it is not our intent to treate thereof in these bookes: therefore we will proceede to the diseases of the wombe.

CAP. LIII. Of stopping of menstruis. DE SVPPRESSIS MENSIBVS.

THE menstruis of women are suppressed and stopped in them either natural∣ly or against nature.* If they be naturally stopped you shall knowe it chief∣lye by this: because the woman thereby is vexed with noe griefe of the whole bodie, nor yet of the wombe. Also you shall haue a respecte to the age, for in manie the floures beginne to flowe the fourtenth yeare, and in verie fewe before the thirtenth or twelfth yeare. And to most women they burst out after the fourtenth yeare. For the most parte, the purging endureth for two or three dayes, to many fiue dayes, in some it endureth vnto the seuenth daie. The menstruis also doe stoppe in some the fiftie yeare, or the fiftie fiue yeare, and they flowe not vntill the sixtie yeare, but in fewe women. Also barraine women and daun∣cers, are not naturally purged: for whatsoeuer excrement is in them, it is consumed by the vehemencie of exercises. And to be shorte, women of a hote temperature, that be wilde, and doe vse stronge exercises, they purge out little or nothing. But many times the menstruis are wont to be suppressed and stopped against nature,* either through ouer much grossenes, or slendernes. For fat folke are more without blood, then other folke, and they haue lesse and streighter veynes, and that little blood which is in them, turneth almost in fat. But they that are leane and slender which be wasted with some continuall sicknes, they haue no superfluous bloud in them. Moreouer the mestruis doe not flowe in them, whose bloud is either grosse or clammie, or if it be sent to some other parte of the bodie, and purged out, as for example, if it goe out at the nose, or at the fundament. Al∣so in some that haue cast out much bloud from the breast, the menstruis are stopped, and in some, because much bloude hath gone out of a veine being cut. Also other kindes of emptyinges hath often done the same thing, as aboundaunt sweating, continuall vomiting, fluxes of the bellie: and all kindes of pustules and wheales which budde out of the skinne. Besides the causes nowe rehearsed, oftentimes the menstruis are withholden through great and sharpe sickenesses, and through aboundaunce or scarcitie of foode. For of little foode, that little doeth expirate and breath out streight, and of much foode the passages are stopped, and the excretion and voiding out of the menstruis is preuented and letted. And for those causes the menstruis are specially suppressed & stopped, the whole bodie being euill affected. Also they are in like manner withholden and stopped, when the wombe it selfe is afflicted with a particular disease or vice: which thing chaunceth to the wombe sometime through hote or colde distempure of the same. Also many times the purgation of the menstruis is letted through hardenes engendred in the mouth of the matryce, or through some excrescence and growing vppe of a peece of fleshe, or al∣so through aboundant fatnesse. Also to some by and by in the beginning, certaine filmes or thinne skinnes engender about the necke or entrie of the matrice. To other some the scarres of vlcers, which haue bene before in the wombe, haue stopped the mouthes of the vesselles, which caried bloud into the wombe. To some after the aborsion of the wombe, (the mouth of it being exulcerate, and afterwarde healed and brought to a scarre) there commeth conioyning & compaction of it, which besides that, it letteth all other transpira∣tions of the wombe, it also stoppeth the excretion and voiding out of bloud. Moreouer stub∣burne carefulnes, immoderate feare and great sorrowe doe stoppe the menstruis. There followeth suppression and stopping of the menstruis, heauines of the whole bodie,* de∣sire to vomite, abhorring of meate, and certaine terrible discursions, such as chaunce to those that haue conceiued. Moreouer, there be paynes about the loynes, thighes, Page  146 necke, the hinder parte of the eyes, and the foreparte of the heade. Also there followe continuall feauers, and blackish vrines, with certaine red attre, and filth in them, euen like as one shoulde mixe soote with the water wherein newe killed fleshe hath lately bene washed. Also to many either the vrine doeth come forth difficultly or else it is stopped altogeather. The diuersitie of causes is knowen partely by the disposition of the whole bodie,* and partely also and for the most parte, by the telling of the patient. Women may knowe a colde distempure in them selues, by these signes specially, because they be more sleepie and slower to all kinde of mouing, and whiter of colour, and as it were of a lea∣die colour. Moreouer their vrine is waterie and such like signes appeare, which are often rehearsed before.* The tokens of a hote distempure are cleane contrarie to these signes of a colde distempure before rehearsed. Signes of fulnes besides those that may be gathered out of the former chapters,* are wonte specially to be these: that women, that are vexed therewith, are greeued most in the time of the menstruis, and they feele vehement paine, about the loynes and the priuie members, and their veines are swolne vppe verie great.* The cure is diuerse according to the diuersitie of causes. For if a colde distem∣pure of the liuer or wombe doe stoppe the flowing of mestruis, it must be cured dri∣uen awaie with contraries: that is, with meate and medicines that doe heate. Therefore you must give vnto them hote meates, and wine that it yellowe, odoriferous and olde. Also you must prescribe to them exercises and you must minister other thinges which can helpe the bodie. Aboue other these thinges that followe are good, peniroiall, tyme, calamint, sotherwood, diptaine, roote of yreos, casia, gladon, asarum, and saueyne: of which you may make decoctions and fomentes. Also you must minister vnto them fasting, after a bathe, pure wine hote. Also the meete and conuenient times to take these medicines be, first, if the patient drincke straight waye, when the time of purgation is at hande: secondarilie, if he drincke straight after a bathe, fomenta∣tion, or annoynting, that the medicine helping the bodie being yet hote and loose, may shewe his strength and effecte the more easilie and effectuallie. Women that be too hoate and vse much evercise haue no neede of curing:* for it were better to the safe∣garde of their proper health, to prescribe them such a dyet, whereby their bodies shoulde be so dryed, that the mestruis shoulde not neede to be purged: but this were against conception: for they doe not conceiue which be not purged. Therefore for concep∣tions sake, and for because that almost all women keepe an vndiscreete dyet, purgati∣ons be necessarie. Therefore it is good also to adioyne the cure, whereby the menstruis, that are stopped through hote distempure, may be brought out. Women therefore, that be hote, and vse many exercises, must chieflie be made moyster by moyste meates and drinckes taken in good quantitie, as be soupinges of ptysans, and of Alica, and meates that are made of lambes fleshe, kiddes fleshe, and fishes that be tender, birdes of mountaynes, milcke. Let their potherbes be luttuse and gourdes, and their fruict, newe figges. They must vse whyte wine, that is not verie olde, and let it be alaied. Also ba∣thes of sweete water are good, and to conclude, the diet ascribed to them that haue the feauer Ethicke,* is to be prescribed to these. If the menstruis be withholden and stopped by reason of the fulnes that vexeth the woman, and if nothing else doe let it, you must beginne the cure with letting of blood. And you must cut the veynes of the anckles or of the hammes: and that not before the accustomed time of the menstruis. Neither will it be vnprofitable, if cupping glasses be fastened to the legges. The blood being emptied, minister potions, which can prouoke menstruis, and apply fomentacions, bathes, and an∣nointinges of other thinges, which we will describe hereafter. But if there be no fulnes, but only grosse & flegmaticke humours do stoppe the flowing of the menstruis:* First you must minister medicines which can cut & deuide the aforesaide humours, and preparate them, and make them easier to be expelled and purged out:* as is this decoction. ℞. the rootes of gladon, yreos, parcely and sperage. ana. ℥.j. of the seedes of apium, fennell, bruscus, annyse, daucus, ammi, & nettles. ana. ʒ.j. calamint, wormwood. ana. M.ss. origan, sothernwood, mugwort, peniroiall, asarū. ana. M.j. Isope. M.j.ss. chosen cynnamon. ʒ.j. seeth all these in a conuenient quantity of water, vntil the third part be consumed: then streine it & make the Page  147 licour of that decoction sweete with sugre, and clarifie it with the white of an egge, put∣ting into it of the syrupes of calamint, of hysope, and of horehounde. ana. ℥.j.ss. and make a potion, whereof minister daiely in the morning the weight of ℥.iiij. When that decoction is droncke vppe, minister some purging medicine: as is, hierapicra,*diaphaeni∣con, and electuarium nidum, pilles of agaricke, of benedicta, or such like.* After pur∣ging the patient must vse exercises, and frictions of the neather partes, and special∣ly walkinges. Moreouer apply fomentations, and bathinges made of chammomill,* mo∣therworte, myntes, and other thinges rehearsed in the decoction abouesaide. Also an∣noint the patient with this oyntment. ℞ of the oyles of lillyes, and rew. ana. ℥.j. moo∣therworte with the thinne leaues, penyroiall, calamint. ana. ℈.j. roote of yreos. ℈.ij. I∣sope, origan. ana. ℈.iij. with waxe as much as is sufficient, make an oyntment. After this, for the cause abouesayde, minister medicines, which can streight waie prouoke and bring forth the menstruis being stopped, such as these be: mirrhe, castoreum,* lau∣rell bearies, madder, pepper, sage, rewe, sauine, casia, and such other, which be re∣hearsed before of vs.* This medicine is not able good. ℞. castoreum. ℥.j. wild myntes beaten into pouder. ʒ.ss. olde wine, or mulsa. ℥.iiij. commixe them togeather, and minister it hote after a bathe. Also the decoction of penyroiall, mugworte, rewe, co∣min, daucus, sage, dill, ammeos, fennell, enula campana, and such like are good. Al∣so calamint beaten into pouder, the weight of ʒ.ij. or sauyne, the weight of ʒ.j. droncke in wine or mulsa, is verie good. Moreouer trochiskes of myrrhe, do maruelouslie pro∣fitte. Also wine wherein wormewoode hath bene infused or sodden, must be droncke all the time of the cure. Also you must vse to put pessaries into the wombe, if that ne∣cessitie so require it, such as this is. ℞. of Triphera magna, that is without opium. ʒ.j. of the meale of ernum, nigella, mather, mugworte,* penyroyall. ana. ℈.j.ss. iuice of rewe. ℥.ij. commix them togeather and make a pessarie, and put it in with woll or cotton. Or this pessarie. ℞. mirrhe, bdellium, storax. ana. ʒ.j. calamint, sothernwood,* & wormewood. ana. ʒ.j.ss. rootes of gladon and mather. ana. ʒ.j. seede of nigella, drie rew, laurell bearies. ana. ℈.ij. saueyne. ℈.j. castoreum. ℈.ss. beate all these to fine pouder, and commixe them with honie or Triphera, or mithridatum, and make pessaries to put into the womans priuities. Also you must cast into the wombe hote oyles, as is oyles of yreos, lillies, laurell and such like. Also it is good to vse suffumigations made of Storax, galbartum, franckensence,*bdol∣lium, the roote of Aristolochia, mugworte, cloues, cynnamon and such like. Examples whereof you shall finde in our booke of making of medicines. Moreouer the wombe must be euaporated, and fomented with odiferous thinges, as with maioram, sauorie, calamint, chammomill, penyroiall, mugworte, roote of yreos and such like sodden in a potte, which you must couer with a couering that hath a hole bored through it, wherein you must put a reede or some other pipe, and you must annoint it rounde about aloft, that the woman sitting thereon, may be fomented with it. Also it will profit, if the woman sit in this de∣coction vp to the nauell, and after receiue the pessaries before rehearsed.* Fat women must be cured with a dyet that can extenuate, and with swifte exercises, and with other medicines which can make the bodie slender and leane: as be continuall deiection and so∣lution of the bellie▪ oyntmentes that haue vertue to euaporate and breath out, and such like, which be aboundantly intreated of by Galen lib. 14. ther. meth. cap. 15. & lib. 6. de tuenda sanitate. Those which are not purged of their menstruis, through leanes of the bo∣die, whether it chaunce through sicknes, or any other meanes, you must first recreate,* and refresh them, and restore the flesh of their bodies by a conuenient diet, and by other me∣dicines, which Galen rehearsed in the places aforesaide. And if they wexe fleshie, there is good hope, that the menstruis will burst out by their owne accorde, which if they doe not come forth alone, then you shall prouoke them by potions, fomentes, and other medi∣cines aboue rehearsed. If the menstruis doe not flowe, because of some disease and vice of the wombe, first you must cure the euill, that is cause of the stopping of the menstruis:* and after that, we must proceede to the prouocation and purging of the menstruis. The cure of the disease of the wombe, must be sought out of their proper places.

Page  148

CAP. LIIII. Of flowing of menstruis. DE REDVNDANTIBVS MENSIBVS.

WE say, that menstruis doe redound and ouerflow in women, when that great plentie of them do flow out longer, then the accustomed time of their purga∣tion. There is no iust or certaine time of their purgation. For to most women they flow ij. or iij. dayes to many v. dayes, and to some seuen dayes. The mē∣struis do chaunce to flow out of measure,* through great or small vessels ope∣ned wide, or broken. Also immoderate purgations do engender in womē, somtime through grieuous trauaile in childbirth, which also do cease oftentimes of themselues. Oftentimes after aborsion, they labour of a vehement aborsion, and fluxe of menstruis, and sometime it bringeth them into a daungerous perill.* If the greather vessels be broken or open, the bloud floweth out gusshing on heapes: but if the lesser be open, it floweth out by litle and little, and not in great quantitie. If it be caused through eating or gnawing, it doth not onely flow by little and litle, but also it floweth with verie great paine. Moreouer when the menstruis flowe immoderatly, there followe a filthie colour, the feete are puffed vp with a light swelling, the strength of the bodie is decaied, both the digestion and ap∣petite of meate is corrupted. And in all pointes such signes, as are wont to follow immo∣derate voyding of bloud, either by the hemorhoides, or by any other fluxe of blood doe follow in this disease.* First therefore in the beginning of the cure, you must bind the pla∣ces betweene the ioyntes, and the extreeme partes of the bodie with bandes, beginning at the arme holles and the shares. Also you must fasten great cupping glasses lightly vn∣der the pappes, as Hipocrates teacheth. 5. Aph. 50. Also they must vse meates and drinckes, that be sharpe and restrictiue, as is ryce and such like: and let the sicke rather eate rosted meates, then sodden. And specially such fleshe, as is of nature able to drie vp, as be birdes that liue in mountaines, and wilde beastes. They must abstaine from mouing, and winde, and wine, and in steede of it they must vse some restrictiue potion, or posca, not colde but warme. Moreouer you must minister restrictiue medicines in drincke, as these simples be following. ℞. pomegranate flowers, hipocischis, acatia, co∣rall,*Lycium, terra le••nia, galles, knotgrasse, both the Consolidaes, the stone haematites, shelles of maste, plantaine, barberies and such like. Compounde medicines be these fol∣lowing, as syrupes of roses, mirtelles, trochiskes, of ambre, and of terra lemnia. Also these pilles following are maruelous good, to stoppe and restraine the menstruis. ℞. ter∣ra lemnia,* bole armoniacke, franckensence, masticke, galles. ana. ℈.ij. dragons blood, the stone haematites. ana. ℈.j. hartes tongue burnt. ʒ.j. hypocischis, acatia, red, corall. ana. ʒ.ss. pomegranate flowers, red roses. ana. ℈.ij. Ambre. ℈.j. commixe them with syrupe of mirtles, and make pilles wherof minister the weight of one drachme or. ʒ.ss. Also foment the place outwardly, with the oyles of roses, mirtles, quinces, and sharpe wine. And ap∣ply ointmentes, emplaisters, and cerotes, and restrictiue Epithemes, whereof you shall find many before in the chapters of the fluxes, Dysenteria, Diarrhea, and Lientera. Also incis∣sions made of the decoctions of the aforesaide medicines be good.* Also you must vse such medicines, as are cast into the wombe with an instrument. For the which purpose iuice of plantaine is maruelouslie commended, wherewith Galen sayth, in foure dayes, he stopped a fluxe of the wombe, that could be stopped with no other medicine. The quantitie that must be throwne in, shoulde be the measure of one cyath. Of the same effect be the iuices of knotgrasse, or nightshade, or hypocischis, or atatia, or such like cast in. Also the vsing of Pessaries is not to be dispised: among which this is specially praised. ℞. of franckensense, pomegranate flowers,* and galles. ana. ʒ.j. of gumme arahicke, acatia, ambre, hartes horne burnt. ana. ʒ.ij. bole armoniacke. ℈.ij. beate all these to sine pouder, and mixe it with woll dipped in oyle of roses, and put it into the wombe.

Page  149

CAP. LV. Of womans fluxe. DE FLVORE MVLIEBRI.

VTERI fluor, in Latine, fluxe of the matrice in English, is a continuall distilla∣tion, and flowing out for a long time, of the whole bodie, purging it selfe. That which is voided out, doth represent such forme and colour,* as the hu∣mour that doth abound in the bodie. For some is red, as blood putrified, or attre: some white, which commeth of fleume, some is pale, which signifi∣eth choler: and some is waterie which is, of a wheyeish matter. And if pure blood come forth, as in the cutting of a veine, you must take good heede, that some erosion and gnaw∣ing be not engendred in the wombe. By these signes following the fluxe is knowen.* The places are continually moyst with the humours, being diuerse in colourse. The patient is ill coloured, she sauoureth no meate but abhorreth it, in walking shee breatheth difficult∣ly her eyes be swollen, sometime with paine, and sometime without paine, or with exul∣ceration or without it, and either with an inflammation, that is with the vlcer, or else it is filthie or pure. The diuersitie of causes you may knowe by the colour of that that flow∣eth furth as is aforesaide. And if a woman be vexed with a red fluxe, in the beginning,* if age and other things will suffer it, you must come to letting of blood. For many incom∣modities would follow, if you should first goe about to represse and stoppe the rage and violence of the blood that floweth, as the dropsie, vice of the sinowes, or of the mouth of the stomach, or of the head. You may part the times of your blood letting, as you doe in them, that spit blood, so that thereby the auersion and turning away of the blood may be the longer a litle. You must cut a veine in the arme. After this you must binde the ex∣treeme partes of the bodie with bandes, and you must vse and apply all such thinges, as can turne the fluxe of the humour another waie. Therefore all those remeadies that be rehear∣sed of vs in the former chapters be good. Let her whole diet be restrictiue, and such as doth engender grossenes and thicknes. Let her drincke be water,* or if shee be weake wine that is grosse and restrictiue. But if the fluxe that is white or wheyish doe vex a woman,* it may not be stopped at the beginning, that euill humours may be purged out of the bodie. Nor also, it is not against reason, seeing that, that which is flowed out, is engendred of fleume, if you do minister a medicine to her, which doth purge fleume. And you must minister, and apply to the whole bodie, medicines and remeadies which doe drive vp, see∣ing that the disease it selfe is moyst. Therefore exercises specially of the vpper partes, and frictions are good. Also they must eate flesh which hath vertue in it to drie, as byrdes of the mountaines, and wilde beastes. Also in the beginning of the euill, such medy∣cines may be ministred, as doe extenuate grosse humours, and after that doe bring them out with the vrine, as be asarum, fennell, apium, and such like, often rehearsed before. The beginning being past, you must apply to the wombe thinges that be moderately restrictiue, as be oyles of rooses and quinces, and other rehearsed in the former chapter. Also you must vse abstersiue and scouring medicines, least that vlceration be made with the humour that floweth, wherefore the wheyishe humour must continually be washed with hot water. After the scouring and cleansing of the filth, you must annoint oyle of ro∣ses, or of quinces or of mirtles. Likewise, when a woman is diseased with pale fluxe,* it may not be stopped at the beginning, but the bodie must be purged with a medicine that purgeth choler. Then you must studie howe to pull backe, and turne away the hu∣mour, and you must vse other restrictiue medicines, not neglecting abstersiue and scou∣ring thinges, whereof you shall haue speciall neede, because of the sharpenes of the humour. Moreouer to conclude, when the fluxe ceaseth, they must long abstaine from swifte goinges and walkinges, from much frictions and rubbinges of the bellie and the loynes, also from eating of sharpe thinges, from thinges that heat, and from such thinges as do prouoke vrine.

Page  150

CAP. LVI. Of strangling of the wombe. DE VTERI SVFFOCATIONE.

SVFFOCATION or strangling of the wombe, is nothing else, but a drawing backe of it vp to the vpper partes. It is caused through stretching out of it, which is engendred of fulnes,* that followeth after the retention and stopping of menstruis. For in women the wombe, when it is retched and stretched out, it runneth not to an other place like a wandring beast but is drawen backe through the extention. Also it chaunceth oftentimes, through the seede that is restreined. Also many times it chaunceth through cold, which happened to the wombe, at the time that the purgation of the menstruis is ministred. Also sometime it cōmeth through some hard aborsion, or when as any hath hasted to stop sodainely a fluxe of blood flowing from the wombe.* They that are vexed with this disease, when the fit is nigh, there followeth heauies of minde, slownes, weaknes of the legges, palenes of face, and a sorowfull counte∣naunce. But when the suffocation and strangling is now present there followeth dispositiō to sleepe, doting, a withholding of the instruments of the sences, the voice doth wax domb, & the legges are drawen vp togeather. The pulses are small and weake. Also oftentimes they are altogeather stopped. Also in many the breath that should come out at the mouth & nosethrils, is stopped altogither, & yet that which is in the arteries, doth remaine stil. Whē the euill doth cease, the bals of the cheekes begin to wax red, and the eyes be lifted vp and opened. Also a certaine humiditie and moistnes, that one may by feeling perceiue to runne out of the wombe of women, & the bowels do make a noise: and also the wombe it selfe is a litle loosened, & so their mind, sences, and mouing commeth to them againe. This disease commeth by courses at certaine times as the falling sicknes doth: & that chaunceth whē the matrice (as is aforsaid) is filled with seed, or with some other mater that putrifieth & rotteth, in it. When the wombe it selfe is diseased with the quantitie & qualitie of any thing then mēstruis, or seede, or other kinde of symptomates are engendred. If that which is able to coole the whole body, do cause this disease, he body is so vehemētly cooled, that both breathing & arteries beating, cānot be perceiued by the sences. Which humor, if it be either grosse or sharp, it causeth cōuulsions & cramps: but if it haue the nature of the melancholie, it causeth sorrow & sadnes, & defection of the minde, refrigeration, & paine of the stomach. This kind of disease engendreth in all seasons▪ but specially in winter & Autumne, & most commonly yong folke, and such as be prone to leacherie, & barren, specially if they be made so by me∣dicines be most taken with this disease. Many doe recouer from this disease, & many a∣gaine doe perishe sodainely in the very fit, or at the least way within fewe houres after. That which chaunceth, when the pulses be swifte and inordinate, and then doe leaue of and vanish cleane awaie. At the last a colde humour in litle quantitie doeth bedewe and moisture the skinne alofte. In the fittes therefore you must binde the extreame partes,* and besides the bindinges, you must rubbe all the legges, and the hole bodie, and do euen as you would recouer one that is founded. And you must. place the sicke with her necke and shoulders, bending, and rising vpwarde, and with her thighes and share leaning downewarde. You must apply to her nosethrilles, stincking thinges, as the snuffe of a candle newly put out, feathers specially of partriches, burnte, or wooll burnte, or sooles of showes, or shales of garlicke, or onions: also heares burnt, and specially if they be the heares of the sicke, or gotes horne burnt. Also pitch melted vpon the coales, galbanum or castoreum, or such like. Also you may hold a chambre vessell with olde vrine to their nose, or olde linnen cloathes dipped in brimstone and burned. And you must perfume the priuities beneath with odiferous thinges, as be storox, wood of Aloes, cinnamon, cloues, and such like. And it is good to fasten cupping glasses with much flame, and lightly to the partes aboue the priuie members; and to the bottom of the bellie. As sone as the fit doeth come, you must apply fomentes, and little bagges warmed, to the bottom of the bellie and share,* for you shall scarcely finde a more present remeadie in the comming of the fit of this Page  151 disease. And you shall make them of both the moother wortes, and with origan, betonie, chammomill, calamint, wormewood,, penyroyall, lineseede, louageseede and such like. And if the fit be prolonged, you must also ad to, such things as are good to dissolue & bring out windinesse: whereof you shall find examples and names out of the Chapters of windi∣nesse of the stomach, and paine of the collicke. Also then, you must poure into the womb, both ointments and oyles, that be verie odoriferous, as is, oyles of spike, and yreos, and such like. Also let a midwife dippe her fingers in these oyles, and then put them into the mouth of the matrice, rubbing it, long and easilie, that through that prouoking, the grosse and clammy humour may be auoided out. Also let the woman be raised with loud callings, and call her loude by her proper name. Also at this time, you must minister those thinges that cause sneezing, as be pepper, castoreum, struthium, and such like. There be some that think it good to vse incessions made of the decoction of laurell beries, and leaues, peniroy∣all, calamint, motherwort, horehound, saueine, althaea, cammomill, serpillum, yreos, aristolo∣chia, and fenugreeke. But in the time of the incessions, wee may not omit the cure of the braine, but you must irrigate and sprinkle the head, with oyle of roses and vinegre. But I iudge, that you must rather vse foments and little bagges, then incessions, specially when as for the most part, although thou wouldest neuer so faine, thou canst not vse incessions in this euill. When the fit resteth and is ceased, compell the patient to vomite: for all vomites do lighten, but specially such as are vexed with meate. The third day after,* you must applie cupping glasses with scarification to the loynes, and the ylions. After the seuenth day mini∣ster the purgation of hiera colocythide, or pilles of agarick, & by & by come to the drinking of castoreum, which being continually dronke, it deliuereth the patient straight way from this euill. Also you must minister euerie day thereof. ʒ.j. sometime with mulsa, sometime with the decoction of motherwort, and sometime minister it with thinne wine. Therefore at this time, rather then in the time of the fit (as is said) it is lawfull for you to vse incessions, and pessaries, that do mollifie, made of goose grease, storax, masticke, gumme armoniacke, and such like. Also the wombe must be perfumed beneath with such thinges as do heate, and haue vertue to bring out wind.* Therfore vse this parfume specially. ℞. of the Trochiskes of gallia and alipta moschana. ana. ʒ.j.ss. storax. ʒ.iij. cloues, maces. ana. ʒ.j. wood of aloes. ℈.ij. cinnamon chosen, leaues of laurell. ana. ʒ.ij. lapdanum. ℥.ij.ss. beate them into pow∣der, and commix them with storax liquida, and make trochiskes for perfumes. In the meane season, let the woman be content with a verie little meate and drinke, and let all their diet be exciccatorie and drying vp. This cure following is to be vsed in the fittes of this disease.* In restoring and recreating the whole bodie, specially if that the disease hath endured long, you must begin oftentimes with bloud letting: specially if the menstruis haue ben stopped, and letted of their purging. Then you must come to purging with hierapicra. The purging being done, you must fasten on cupping glasses lightly, but with much flame, and you must drawe them of violently. Also sometime the places may be scarified, and strew vpon the sca∣rification, salt, then you must heale it with conuenient medicines. Also you may apply verie well Synapismes, and dropaces made of Euphorbium, pellitorie, pepper, and mustard seede. Also a good diet doth help much, as deambulations in the morning, gestacions,* and cary∣inges in a cart or in a ship, or on a beast, be good. Also, after they be moued with carying about, crying out loude, distinct and apt reading is conuenient. Also annointing and fri∣ctions vsed nowe and then are good. Bathes of sweete water are seeldome to be admitted, and not, but because it should scoure and cleanse the filth. It is verie good to vse naturall bath••, which flowe by nature, and this, as it were, the verie last refuge. Aboue others those bathes are good, which be in Badenia in the base Germanie in Marchia.

CAP. LVII. Of falling out of the wombe. D VTERI PROCIDENTIA.

Page  152WE say, that the matrice falleth out, when it is so turned downward, that it stic∣eth out outwardly. And yet the whole matrice rowleth not down, being lose¦ned from the bands & ligaments, as many vnwise folk do think, for if it should fall down so, it could not be restored againe. Although the wōb do fall out but seldome, yet there be many causes of the falling out of it. For a woman falling from an high place,* if she fall on her haunches, the pannicles and filmes, that holde vp the womb, and the members adioyning do breake and cause this disease. Also it chaunceth ma∣nie times that in a sore trauell of child birth, the womb falleth out because of the drawing out of the secundine, which, the womb that ioyneth to it doth follow. Also many times it chaunceth through negligent and vnskilfull drawing out of the child, specially if it be dead. Moreouer it chaunceth somtime through a stripe, or lifting vp of a great weight, or through vehement perturbation of the mind, as death of children, or comming of enemies, or tho∣rough perillous sayling, or through some such like cause, all the bodie being lousened, the womb falleth out. Also sometime this euill chaunceth (all the whole being loosened) tho∣rough resolution or weakenesse of the pannicles and muscles, which thing chaunceth spe∣cially to them that be olde. Oftentimes the womb falleth out, through the flowing downe of an humour much in quantitie and clammie. It falleth out most commonly by the mouth of it,* and that which falleth out, is like to the egges of an ostrich, differing only in that, that it is bigger, or lesse in quantitie. There is no neede of manie signes, because the diuersitie of causes may partly be knowen by the constitution and state of the bodie, and partly also by the telling of the sicke, and them that be with them dayly: when this disease is but newly begunne,* you must endeuour to put vp the wombe againe, and to restore him into his owne place, for in the beginning it will be obedient to be put vp readily, and being in his owne place, it will tarie so still, specially if age agree vnto it. For in them that are well stricken in age, the wombe being put vp againe, it slideth out againe through euery light cause. It is good therefore, if there be hard dong in the right gut, to bringe it out with a clyster. Like∣wise if vrine be gathered in the bladder, let it be brought out with a cyring, that the matrice may be at free libertie on ech side. For otherwise it chaunceth by their stretching out, that the matrice, which is in the middest betweene them, is pressed togither, and pent in a straite place, and so when he is fallen out, they let it and stop it, that it can not be put vp againe in∣to his owne place. When you haue thus done, you must lay the sicke vpright, so that her haunches may lie highest, her hammes bowed, and her legges spreade abrode: then you must bath and nourish aboundantly that part of the matrice which is fallen out, with warm oyle, or butter, or mallowes sodden, or with the decoction of althaea, fenugreeke, lineseede, or such like: and you must prepare wooll together on a heape, in figure and thicknesse, ac∣cording to the proportion of the member, and wind it about aloft with a fine and pure lin∣nen cloth: then dip it in the iuices of Acatia or of hypoischis infused in wine, and put it into the womb, and you shall wrest and writh vpward all that which is fallen downe by little & little, and without violence, vntill the matrice be put vp into his owne proper place. Out∣wardly you must couer the partes about the priuie members with a sponge wroong out of Posca. The woman shall ly with her legges stretched out and ioyned together, that the one may leane vpon the other. But it is more safegard, to bind the feete together, bringing the band vp to the knees. But if that part of the matrice which is fallen out, be swollen through continuance of time, and be stuffed vp with plentie of humours, so that the swelling do let the putting vp of it, you shall nourish it with decoction of beetes, & then you must clense it & wash it with vinegre, & strewe in it, salt finely poudred, & when it leaueth swelling then put it vp, as is aforesaid. Then fastē cupping glasses with much flame to the nauel, & both the ilions or small guttes: and apply continually to the nose odoriferous thinges. The third day (the woll being as yet still in the womb) let the woman sit in blacke soure wine a litle war∣med, or in the decoction of mirtles, bramble leaues, pomegranate rindes and such like. This being done let her lye vpright againe with her haunches highest, then take the former woll out, and put in such another in the steade of the first, dipped in the same medicine. Also ap∣ply cataplasmes and emplaisters outwardly to the bottome of the bellie, made of dates, pomegranate rindes, lentilles and such like. Also Cerotes that are made of masticke, wood Page  153 of aloes, lapdanum, frankensence, squinant, acorus, nutmegs, gumme tragacanthe, and such like, are good to be applied. But let these things be changed euerie third day, vntil the cure be ended perfectly. Also during the whole time of the cure, let the woman eschew mouing, and such things as prouoke sneezing. And the womb must be perfumed beneath with stin∣king thinges, but to the nose you must applie most odoriferous thinges, for because the ma∣trice flieth from stinking thinges, and it followeth and embraceth odoriferous thinges.* Let her meates be such as ingender good iuyce, and giue her odoriferous wines. Also the bellie must be made soft & soluble, lest if she should go to the stoole difficultly, the matrice shold also fall out againe. But yet you must take good heede, that the belly be not to much loose∣ned, for then the parts adioyning are loosened, & so the matrice will fall out againe. More∣ouer if that part of the womb which is fallen out, hath through continuance of time by neg∣ligence bene putrified and rotten, and through continuall wetting of it with vrine, and fil∣thinesse sticking in it, it be exulcerated: you must cut of and seare that which is vnprofita∣ble, or burne it without any feare of daunger: for it hath bene knowne (as Paulus testifieth) that the whole matrice, because it was rotted; hath bene taken away, and the woman ly∣ued still.

CAP. LVIII. Of the mole in the matrice. DE MOLA.

MOLA in Latine, is called of Aetius and Paulus, a swellinge that is hardened, sometime in the mouth and entrie of the matrice, and somtime it sticketh out in all the matrice, & in feeling it is almost like a stone. Galen in li. 14. ther met. defineth Mola to be a peece of flesh without shape. This disease is caused of womans seede, & much menstruous bloud flowing into the matrice,* & there kept, retayned and stopped, which immoderate heate doth ioyne together, and chaungeth it into the forme and fashion of flesh. There followeth this euill, a hard swelling, with con∣traction and drawing vp of the sides, slendernesse of the bodie, euill colour, losse of appetite,* and suppression of the menstruis. Also in this euill the pappes do swell, so that at the first it causeth some to suspect that the woman is conceaued with child, but in processe of time it may be discerned. For paine followeth the Mola, causing pricking, neither is there any mo∣uing perceaued in this disease, as is in conception. Many of them do make a suspection of the dropsie, but yet there is a difference betweene them two: because the swelling is hard, and doth not giue place to the thrusting of the hand or finger, as the dropsie doth, nor ma∣keth a noise as the timpanie doth. But yet often in processe of time, the liuer is cooled and the dropsie ingendreth. This euill for the most part is incurable, except remedies be applied in the beginning. But howsoeuer it chaunceth, the cure may not be neglected,* but you must apply and minister all things that seeme to be good for it. But first of all you must giue her meates that ingender good iuyce, and let her vse moderate drinking of wine. Let not the woman vse vehement mouing, for that will cause the fluxe to the disease, but let her vse ge∣stations, and caryings, and deambulations and bathes, & in her lying let her feete be highest In the meane season if fulnesse be present, you must cut a veine of the arme, and then you must purge her by pilulae foetidae. When the bodie is purged and emptied, applie cataplasms, foments, incessions, pessaries, ointments and cerotes, which haue vertue and power to dis∣solue, and loosen, as they be that are made of Althaea, mallowes, cammomill, melilot, fenu∣greeke, lineseede, and such like. For this purpose also it is good to apply vnguentum dialthaea or emplastrum diachylon simplex,* or apply this ointment. ℞. of the oyle of sweete almondes. ʒ.iij. oyle of lillies. ʒ.ij.ss. goose greace & hennes greace. ana. ʒ.j.ss. musculage of lineseede and fenugreeke. ana. ʒ.j. of the gummes ammoniacum, & bdellium. ana. ʒ.ij. roote of althaea, nigella seedes, and daucus. ana. ℈.ij. dissolue the guumes in wine, and with wax as much as is sufficient, make an ointment. Also you must put in Pessaries made with butter,* swines greace, hartes marrow, reisons, fat figges, lineseede and fenugreke. After this you must mi∣nister such medicines, as can prouoke menstruis: for which purpose besides those thinges Page  154 that we rehearsed in the Chapter of stopping of menstruis, this medicine is good. ℞. the pouders of diacinnamonum, diagalanga, diacuminum. ana. ʒ.ss. pouder of diamber. ℈.j. pow∣der of dialacha. ℈.ss. Cinnamon chosen,* S. Iohns wort, calamus aromaticus, asarum, roote of gladon, anise seede. ana. ℈.j. seed of rewe, ginger, motherwort, horehound, dictemus, sage, ana. ℈.ss. suger dissolued in the waters of motherwort, and S. Iohns wort, as much as is suf∣ficient, and make lozenges, whereof minister dayly the weight of two or three. ʒ. Also it is good to put in this pessarie. ℞. of the roote of Asarum, gladon, and madder. ana. ʒ.ij. seede of rew,*nigella. ana. ʒ.ss. maioram, nutmugs, cloues, laurellberies. ana. ʒ.j. saueine. ℈.j. castoreum, ••phorbium. ana. ℈.ss. pouder them and searce them that haue neede, and with turpentine make a Pessarie. To conclude, you must vse medicins that can dissolue and losen congealed bloud: for so there will follow excretion, and voiding out of much blacke bloud and clod∣ded. Also it profiteth maruelouslie to the takinge away of this disease, specially if the euill hath continued long, to vse naturall bathes, and such as ingender by them selues, which haue vertue to dissolue and discusse. Moreouer many other remedies rehearsed in the Chapters of the dropsie, may be vsed in this.

CAP. LIX. Of inflammation of the wombe. DE INFLAMMATIONE VTERI.

THE womb is inflamed through manie causes. As through a stripe or retentiō, and stopping of menstruis,* also by oborsion, exulceration, vnmeasurable le∣cherie, sitting on a verie hard stole, verie long and swift deambulation & wal∣king. Also oftentimes it chaunceth through cold, prohibiting and letting the transpiration and breathing out. The companions to inflammation of the ma∣trice be these:* an acute feuer, paine of the head, the share, the loynes, and the rootes of the eyes. Conulsion and cramp of the armes, the fingers, and the necke, and declining of them contrarie. Also paine of the stomach, and shutting vp of the mouth of the matrice, and pul∣ses that be small and often. If the inflammation be feeble and small, the aforesaid signes wil not be great and strong, and the wombe will be vexed with greater paine. But if the inflam∣mation be vehement, then all the whole wombe is vexed with a panting paine, and all the signes will be the more vehement. If all the wombe be inflamed, it will be painefull all ouer, but if some part of it be vexed with an inflammation, then the paine is greatest in that part. For if the hinder parts of it be vexed with inflāmation, the paine will afflict the loynes most, and hard dong is withholden and stopped, because then the right gut is pressed together verie much. If the former part be inflamed, then there is paine about the priuities, and the strangury or difficulty in pissing is ingendred, because the bladder is pressed togither. If the sides of it be enflamed, the parts about the priuie members are stretched out, and the legs are grieued, and difficultly, moued. When inflammation afflicteth the mouth of the matrice, there is paine in the Abdomen, and if you put in your finger, you shall feele the mouth hard, vnpleasant,* shut vp, and burning hote. In the beginning therfore of the cure, if neither age, nor state of the bodie, nor time of the yeare do let it, you must cut the veine of the hammes or of the ankles, (if the inflammation came not after aborsion or great voiding of bloud.) Afterward you shall place the sicke in a dark house, which is moderately warme, biddinge her to be quiet, and prohibiting all mouing from her legges. Then you must rub the space betweene the ioyntes, and also the extreame partes, that you may turne away the course of the fluxe from the wombe.* For her meate which must bee little in quantitie, you must vse Ptysan broth and rere egs: but there must be a day betweene: she must abstaine from drin∣king of wine, and for that, she must vse the decoction of Cinnamon, or hote water. Also the bellie if it be not soluble enough of it selfe, must be washed and emptied by easie and mol∣lifying clysters.* Outwardly you must applie vppon the loynes, and about the share woll wet in vinegre, wherein roses hath bene sodden. Also dates or quinces sodden in wine, & com∣mixed with oyle of roses, is good to be applied. Also you must apply Cataplasmes made Page  155 with the meale of lineseede, fenugreke, and with melilot, plantaine, lentilles, knotgrasse, purslaine, singrene, and such like: and that specially if the inflammation be of the nature of an crysipela. Moreouer you must put into the matrice, woll moistened with oyle of roses, or quinces, or in the iuyce of purslaine, or singrene. When the inflammation beginneth to decline & cease, you must come to the vsing of those things, which haue vertue to release, dissolue and discusse. Therefore you shall bid the pacient sit vp to the loynes, in fenugreeke sodden, or in the decoction of althaea, lineseede, mallowes, and sometime also motherwort, horehound, and sage. Also you shall annoint about the priuities, and the loynes, barley meale with fenugreeke and lineseede sodden in mulsa, or the decoction of drie figges. Also put in pessaries made of butter, harts marrow, goose grease, hennes greace, and such like. When the cure hath proceeded, sundrie meates and light will be much profitable. And when the declination of it, is manifest, bring the sicke to bathes, and giue her wine that is waterie and thine.

CAP. LX. Of windinesse in the wombe. DE INFLATI0NE VTERI.

THE wombe is puffed vp through colde, or humours corrupt in it,* or through aborsion, or sore trauell in child birth, the dore of it being shut, or a clod of bloud being in it & stopping it. Oftentimes the windinesse ingendreth in the hollow bought and space of it, sometime in the bosome of it, which is euidēt to the senses, & sometime in the thinner parts of the sustbance of the womb,* not appearing to the senses. There followeth this euill, swelling of the bot∣tome of the bellie, with hardnesse and paine that pricketh, which goeth vp to the midriffe and the stomach: and yet neuerthelesse it is stretched out on both sides, sometime to the share, & somtime the paine is in the loynes, & at the nauell, to whom also the head agreeth. Also many times wind breaketh out of the priuities that the sicke may feele it. If therefore windinesse be gathered in the hollownesse of the matrice, there is hard a certaine rombling and noise in the bodie, such as chaunceth to the guttes, which are vexed with gripings, also if you beate your fingers of it, it maketh a noise like a timpanie. But when the windinesse is contained in the thinne and slender passages of the matrice, then they are vexed with more vehement paine, and harder to cure. This euill is cured first, if age, the region,* and time of the yeare do not let it, by bloud letting, fasting, and purging, with hierapicra Galeni: which being done, you must vse foments, and annointings with oyle of rewe, or with oile wherin dill hath bene sodden. Also let her vse incessions made of the decoction of rewe, peniroyall, calaminr, horehound, motherwort, althaea, and such like. Also apply cataplasmes made of the seedes apium, fennell, caraway, commin, louage, daucus, anise, fitches or darnell meale and such like. Also you must poure into the wombe such things as haue power to loosen & dissolue windinesse: as is, oile of rewe, ammeos, origan, and the decoction of thinges before rehearsed. And if windinesse be included and stopped through the meanes of a clodde of bloud, after the vsing of the aforesaid things, and specially incessions: Let the midwife put her finger being first annointed, into the womans priuities, and dissolue, and bring foorth the clod easily and by little and little. And if the euill hath continued long, you must come to more effectuous remedies. Therefore you must vse linimentes, emplaisters, and cerotes that be stronger as this is. ℞. sothernwood, origan,* and calamint. ana. ʒ.ij. seede of tutsan. ℈.ij. of centorie the lesse. ʒ.j. Caraway seedes, a••mi. ana. ʒ.ss. casia. ℈.j. bdellium, ammo∣niacke. ana. j.ss. oyle of rewe and dill. ana. ℥.j. with wax and turpentine as much as is suffi∣cient, make a Cerote and applie it to the wombe. Also sometime you must proceede to the vse of Synapismes and Dropaces. Also cupping glasses maye be fastened to the places lightly in a circuite, and must be pulled away violently, for these do help as it were a charme. Also somtime scarificatiō must be made: & you must vse such things altogether, as haue po∣er to draw out, & call forth frō the bottō to the top. Also,* for her diet you must minister food that doth attenuate and dissolue windinesse, and minister medicines also that haue the same vertue, as diamson, and diacuminum, and diacalaminthes, and such like.

Page  156

CAP. LXI. Of exulceration of the wombe. DE VTERI EXVLCERATIONE.

*THE matrice sometime is exulcerate, because of hard child birth, or drawinge out of the child, or through corrupting of the matrice, or through sharp me∣dicines or fluxes, or through imposthumes or botches broken. They that haue this disease do feele a prickinge paine in the aggrieued part:* and at certaine times stinking and atterie humours are sent out from the filthy vlcer. And o∣ther signes proper to the diseases of the wombe do followe, as headach, and specially of the forepart of the head, of the great sinewes in the necke, and of the rootes of the eyes, is felte paine, which also extendeth vnto the fingers endes, and other tokens declared before in the chapter of inflāmation of it. Therfore if the vlcer may be seene, it may be knowen by an instrument called specillum oriculariū: but if it be deep within & hidden, those things which come from it will declare it: for a diuerse humour is sent forth. If the vlcer be enflamed, the humour is little in quantitie, bloudy or dredgie with great paine. If the vlcer be foule and filthie, the humour commeth out in more aboundance, and is matter with lesse griefe. If the vlcer doeth eate and feede,* the humour is stinking, blacke, and with vehement paine. For the Cure, when the bile, or vlcer is enflamed, you must vse bloud letting and other medi∣cines that are good against inflammation, as is afore taught. In other causes you must vse purging medicines, specially if the bodie doth abound with vitious and corrupt humours. Also applye such medicines, as doe represse and stop the flowing of humours, and cor∣rect their hote distempure, as is, the iuyces or waters of purslaine, plantaine, bursa pasto∣ris, and such like before rehearsed. Then, if the vlcer be filthy, you must vse scouring and cleansing medicines, as is, Ptysan with hony, and mulsa, with the decoction of the roote of Ireos, aristolochia, wormewood, or agrimonie. Those vlcers which do eate and feede, must, be washed with mares milke or Asses milke newly milked, you must mixe with the milke, hony, and roote of yreos. These thinges, is the vlcers may be seene, may be annoin∣ted: but if they be deepe within, cast them in with an instrument called metrenchita. When the vlcers be well purged and cleansed, you must vse such thinges, as will close them vp: first gentle things:* and then those that be of a more effect. The Cerote of Aetius doth espe∣cially please me, which is this. ℞. of white waxe. ℥.j. of fine oyle of roses. ℥.iij. and melt them together vpon the coales, and when it is cooled, then put it into a morter, & put ther∣into womans milke, or Asses milke, or goates milke newly milked, and worke them toge∣ther with a pestle, vntill it be white, then poure out the aforesaid milke, and put in new milk, and then work them againe, and then put to it about. ℈.j. of saffron. And if thou wouldest haue it to mitigate paine more, ad to it oyle of roses. ℥.ij. the greace and marrow of a goose. ana. ℥.ss. Also you may put to oyle of quinces, in steede of oyle of roses. You must apply this Cerote to the belly and the haunches. For the vertue of it is sent into the wombe by secrete and hidden passages. Also you may cast into the matrice of that faculty: as be, the decoctiō of pomegranate rindes, roses, quinces, bremble, mirtles, sumache, acatia, hypocischis, with restrictiue wine. To this place you may transferre and bring medicines out of the former Bookes, and out of the chapters of vlcers of the reines, the bladder, and the yard.

CAP. LXII. Of straitnesse of the matrice. DE PHINOSI VTERI.

*PHINOSIS in greeke, obturatio, or coarctatio vteri in Latin, it is a stopping or streightening in the mouth or necke of the matrice, whereby those places are made so streight, that it will not admit nor suffer any seede: or if they do re∣ceaue it, they cannot hold it, for because of their knobby hardnesse, it can not shut together. Sometime it receaueth seede, and it is kept and retained in Page  157 streight mouth of the wombe, & thereof is a child conceaued, but the conception bringeth occasion of death to the woman: seing, because of the great straightnesse of the places, it can not be brought foorth. This disease is caused in the mouth of the matrice,* either of ex∣ulceration going before, or of an inflammation there hardened. There is no neede of signes to know this disease by: for by the telling of the sicke, & by touching of it,* you may easilie know it. The cure of it must be wrought with fomentacions, that can release, dissolue, & mol∣lifie. Also with cataplasmes and incessions, that be of like power and vertue.* Therefore you must apply foments made of the decoction of fenugreeke, and hydrelaeon. Also you must vse pessaries, that can mollifie and dissolue, as that is which is made of aesipum, that is, oyle tried out of woll in sheepes flanks or necks, salt peter, and turpentine. To be short, to the cure of this disease you must vse mollifying medicines, as is mallowes, althaea nigella, fenugreeke, lineseede, ammoniake, bdellium, rozin, greace, and such lke, of the which you may make ce∣rotes, emplaisters, & all kind of outward medicines. And if the euill be waxed old, you must vse suffumigations, and euaporations made of aromatique things. And when the places do seeme to be softer to the feeling, then you must put a drie sponge, that hath a cord hanged at it, into the streight place, to the intent to make it wider: which if it fall out, you must put in another that is thicker. Therfore you must haue many and sundry drie sponges readie. Af∣terward you must annoint vpon the sponges that you will put in, some medicine made of alome, & claterium, mixed with hony, that thereby the place may be made wider. And if, af∣ter the sponges be taken away, the place do not seeme open & wide enough, and inflamma∣tion be present through the eating & gnawing of the medicines that were applied, then an∣noint vpon the sponge, that you will put in, this ointment.* ℞. oile of ireos. ℥.j. of fine turpen∣tine. ʒ.ij. of goose greace. ʒ.j. roote of ireos & frankensensence. ana. ʒ.ss. wax as much as is sufficient, & make an ointment. But if the inflammation be vehement, take oile of roses, or violets in stede of oile of yreos. When the inflāmation is ceased & the place is open, anoint vpon a sponge a cerote made of oile of roses & goose greace, & vse that vntill it be healed, making the place a little sounder: but yet you must alwayes put in sponges vntill the end of the cure, lest that the mouth of the wombe do gather together againe.

CAP. LXIII. To take away barainnesse. DE STERILITATE REMOVENDA.

STERILITAS in Latin, barennes in English.* It is caused of the womans part or of the mans part. It is of the mans part, when his seede is either hote, & as it were burned, or else cold, thinne, waterie and feeble, as is the seede of old and feeble men: or when it is sent foorth thicker then it ought to be: or be∣cause the men be halfe geldinges, & haue a very short yard, so that they can not cast their seede into the innermost place of the matrice, which also some∣time chaunceth through much fatnesse: for fat men haue such great bellies, that they can∣not cast the seede into the deepest partes of the bodie. Also women of their part can not conceaue, that haue their matrice either hote and fiery, or cold and moist, or foule, filthy & drie. For (as Hippocrates faith) 5. Apho. 62. the seede is corrupted or quenched in such. Also women that be very grosse and fat, do not conceaue (as Hippocrates witnesseth. 5. Apho. 46. Moreouer women that be leane & slender do not conceaue, or if they do conceaue, they do suffer aborsion straight way, which also Hyppocrates witnesseth. 5. Apho. 44. Also some do not conceaue, because their wombe is weake or straight or short: or because the vessels of it be stopped or shut vp, or blinded and couered by reason of a scarre, or because the necke of the womb is drawn crooked, or because the mouth of the matrice is to streight or to wide open. Also vnwilling carnall copulation for the most part is vaine and barren: for loue cau∣seth conception, and therefore louing women do conceaue often. Also age to great, or to little, doeth let conception. Therefore you must separate them that be young from carnall copulation, so that the man may be 30. yeares old, and the woman 18. But specially an vn∣comly Page  158 & foolish shape and forme of the womans bodie, doth giue an occasion to barennes. For a woman, that is fertile, ought to haue a moderate stature & height of the body, breadth of the loynes and the share, buttocks sticking out, a handsome & conuenient greatnesse of the belly, a streight breast and large pappes. The signes whereby the diuersitie of causes be known be these.* The hote distempure of a man, is easily known by the abundance of haires, specially blacke haires vpon the genitalles, and the places adioyning, from aboue vnto the midde thighes. Also this distemperature is lasciuious and readie to carnall lust, but it is soone satiate and filled.* A temperament that is to cold, is declared by the partes being a∣bout the stones being bald and without haire. Also they that be of this temperature, be not desirous and prone to carnall lust. Heate of the matrice is known by the heate in the rest of the body, & because fewe menstruis are sent out and that with paine, so that sometime the womans priuities are exulcerate with it, & that which is sent out, is blackish▪ Also there fol∣loweth this temperature, an instinction or tickling to lecherie, and drinesse of the whole bo∣die. A temperature of the matrice, which is cold, is known by suppression & stopping of the menstruis, and by astonishment engendred in the loines, the legs, & the parts about the pri∣uities. Also they that haue this temperament, doe despise vse of carnall lust, and haue the mouth of the matrice drawen togither. If through to much moistnesse, barennesse be ingen∣dred, then in the act of generation, they are verie much bedewed with moistnesse and the menstruis floweth much in quantitie and thinne. Drinesse is knowen by the contrarie signes to moistnesse. The rest of the causes may be knowen partly by sight, and partly by the tel∣ling of the partie, or other about her. For the cure commonly to both, as well the man as the woman:* It is conuenient for them to keepe the whole bodie verie temperate, and to keepe a meane and measure in labouring, eating, drinking, and bathing, and in all other exercises. Men therefore that haue their seede corrupted through naughty and euill kind of diet, if they vse a more ordinate diet and healthfull, their genitours will haue fecunditie and fertilitie. Let the woman neither wearie her selfe with to much labour, nor let her not be altogether idle: for idlenesse doeth fill and stuffe the whole bodie with superfluous hu∣mours, and excrementes: but great labour drieth vp the bloud, and consumeth the men∣struis. Let her vse meates and drinkes easie of digestion, and such as the stomach may well comprehende and consume. And you must specially obserue in their order of good diet, that neither the man nor the woman be made fat. For they that be fatte, are vnapt to pro∣create and beget children, because their genitours can not touch together, and also be∣cause they send out little seede. Moreouer it is conuenient that you giue vnto such as desire to get children, some accustomed and pleasant thing to eat or drink before meate, which be most apt to prouoke carnall lust, & to ingender seede: as those be that do heate measurably, & puffe vp with wind. Therfore wine in this case measurably drunk, is to be preferred afore water. For as the prouerb is sine Cerere & Baccho friget Venus. (that is) If you haue not bread & wine: carnal lust wil coole & pine. For potherbs they must vse rocket, orminiū, it is an herb like vnto horehound, erisymo, & other such like which we haue rehearsed of them that cānot vse carnall copulatiō. Rew, calamint & mints must be eschewed altogether: for calamint & mints, although they ingender much sede, yet, that which they ingender, is feble & weake: but rewe doth altogether corrupt & destroy seede. If a woman do not conceaue through the vice and corruption of certaine humours,* it is good to empty her with a purging medicine, & to amend her with a good diet. Particularly for womē, it is good for them to take as good heede as can be to those thinges that chance to the matrice, and that their menstruis may flowe without any, impediment. Therefore when the purgation of their menstruis is nigh at hand, let them keepe a measure in eating and drinking with all their dilgence. And let them take some of those thinges, that can prouoke and stirre vp the purgacion of the men∣menstruis, as be herbes that be odoriferous and sharpe, as is, Cerefolium, fennell, apium, lo∣uage & such like, wherof you shall find plentie in the chapter of stopping of the menstruis. After the purging of the menstruis, both the right side and the left side of the matrice is o∣pen. If colde distempure doeth cause barennesse, you must correct and amende it by fo∣ments,* Cataplasmes, and suffumigations, and other medicines that haue vertue to heate: as those be which are made of motherwort, poniroyall, sage, rewe, anise seede, commin, Page  159 gladon and such like. Also it profiteth her to drinke Castoreum, and odoriferous seedes, comin, anise seede, and iuniper fruict, and other thinges that be rehearsed in the Chapter of stopping of menstruis.* You must amend and correct a hote distempure of the matrice cau∣sing barennesse, with such things as do coole & moisten: as these herbs be, letuse, mallowes, gourdes, puslaine, & orach with such like. Also she must drink wine that is thinne, white & alayed. Also it profiteth her to sleepe, and to bath in sweete water. Also you must applie to the loynes and about the priuities such thinges as do coole, as iuyce of nightshade mixed with oyle of roses, which also being laid vpon woll, may be put well into the matrice. They which do not conceaue through moistnesse of the matrice, it is good for them to vse a drier diet. Also they must exercise them selues much,* & they must be rubbed in the vpper part of the bodie. Also to thintent to purge out, and turne away humours, let them vomite some∣time after dinner, and sometime fasting, and you must dry them with scarcity of meate, and let them eate flesh of middle aged beasts rosted, and giue them pure wine, that is mighty to drink, but giue it them seldome. Also it profiteth to apply restrictiue things to the matrice, as be roses, leaues of brier, galles, sumach, mirtles, knotgrasse, pomegranate rinds, and such like sodden. But you may not do this, vnlesse the whole bodie be first purged. A dry matrice must be cured by the contrarie to that which is aforesaid, as with bathes of sweete water,* annointings, & meates that do moisten, Let her vse wine that is alayed, being not very old. And if a womans conception be impedited and stopped through grosse humours, if they be gnawing it is good to purge the womā well with hierapicra in whey: & she must vse a more exquisit diet, & meats that do ingender good iuyce: but you must consume the fleugmatike humours with much labour, with sweating, vomiting or by purging by the nether parts: & all other things which be rehearsed in the chapter of stopping of menstruis, which it beho∣ueth not to rehearse here particularly. Also windinesse ingendred in the womb,* doth let the fertility of conception, & causeth barennesse. Such women therefore as haue this, must first be amended with a straighter diet. Then you must minister both outwardly, & inwardly to them, such medicines as can dissolue, disperse, & consume windinesse, as is comin, rew, dill, seede of apium, & such like, which be rehearsed in the chapter of windinesse of the matrice, and in other places. If shutting vp of the matrice doth cause barennesse,* you shall open it by casting in of odoriferous clisters, and by vsing of foments, & incessions made of fenugreeke, lineseede, mallowes, & such like rehearsed in the chapter of straightnesse of the womb. And afterward you must proceede to stronger medicines, as motherwort, calamint, peniroyall, & maioram. They which haue the mouth of the matrice gaping much,* it is good for them to vse a drying diet, and drying foments. And it is good also to vse restrictiue medicines, as be the decoction of galles, bremble rootes, mirtles, & such like rehearsed before in the cure of a moist distempur. Last of all, if crookednesse of the matrice do cause barennesse, you shal di∣rect & make straight the matrice with mollifying foments: for foments can do that best:* but yet you may conueniently put in mollifying pessaries. But specially the decoction of peni∣royall, & motherwort, & castoreum drunk with posca, are wont to be good for a writhed ma∣trice. Paulus saith, that then carnall lust vsed backward is good to conceaue. We here haue generally comprehended the cures, onely by other chapters. For the particular cure of ech cause, must be sought out his proper chapter.

CAP. LXIIII. Of sore trauaile in child birth. DE DIFFICVLTATE PARTVS.

SORE trauaile in child birth doth chance either through default of the parent,* or of the child, or of the secundine, or through som outward cause. Of the pa∣rent if she be grose & fat & faint harted, & vnskilfull of paine, or if the whole matrice be small, or if there be inflammation of the whole womb, or of some part of it, or that it be vexed with some other diseases, or if she be naturally weake, so that she can not driue out the child: or if that she do labour before her time. Also if the neck of the mouth of the matrice be croked, or if there be som piece of flesh ingendred Page  160 there, by reason of a bile or vlcer going before. But default of the childe is, if it be of an vnaccustomed greatnesse, or small and of a little weight, or if it hath a great head, or if it be monstrouse, as hauing two heades, or three feete, or if it be dead, and so doeth not la∣bour to come foorth, or if it swell, or being aliue, if it be weake, so that it can not proceede foorth: or if they be two or mo, and do all rush sodainly togither into the necke of the ma∣trice, or if the child be fashioned contrarie to nature. For the naturall forme of a child com∣ming foorth is, first with his head, (his hands being stretched out vpon the thighes) & with his head declining to the neither parts, but straightly directed to the mouth of the matrice. the best forme in comming foorth, next vnto this, is, first with his feete, hauing the hands stretched vppon both the thighes, and so descending straight vp. All other formes in com∣ming foorth, except these two, are contrarie and abhorring to nature. The trauaile is made difficile through the Secundine: if it be not pulled away, because of the grossnesse or thick∣nesse of it, or if it breake before it should do, because of the thinnesse of it. For then, the hu∣moure that is gathered together in the matrice, is sent out before the conuenient time. Therfore the priuities be without moisture, and be drie at the time of the trauaile, when moystnesse were necessarie, which should make a slipperie, & easie, going out of the child, and so through drinesse, the childe slideth out hardly. Also difficultie in childe-birth is en∣gendred of outward causes: as of colde, which thickeneth the matrice, and maketh the passages straighter, or through a great heate, which dissolueth and weakedeth the strength. But outwarde causes are knowen by the telling of the pacient, or of them that sitte by her. Weakenesse of the woman that laboureth,* as fatnesse may be knowen by the state of the bodie. Also by diseases, that shee hath had before, you may readily come to the knowledge of weakenesse, and of many other euilles. Weakenesse of the childe is knowen by feeble and slowe mouing of it. Which if it be dead, it moueth not, and there is coldnesse of the belly, and great paine about the nauell. Also a stinking breath is breathed out, & a naughty colour of the face. Greatnesse of the childe may be coniectured by the constitution of the parentes bodie, and by greatnesse of the womans belly. Grossenesse and thickenesse of the secundine may be gathered & known thus: if none of the aforesaid signes be present, and the woman strong and lusty, and the child moueth quickly and easily. As for the cure, it va∣rieth according to the diuersitie of causes.* Therfore you must place a fat woman downward in a little bed, that is, hanging downwarde with her head, and her face toward the ground, bending & enclining her knees to her thighs, that the womb stretching to the Abdomen, may be right with his mouth. You must with your fingers annoint the mouth of the matrice, with butter, oile, ducks greace, hens greace, & such like, & you must spreade it abroad, & open it wider by little & little. You must comfort & incourage a fearefull woman. And if she be vn∣skilfull of paines in trauaile,* admonish her to hold and stop her breath strongly, and let her thrust it out to the ilions with all her might. If sore trauaile in childbirth be caused of adstri∣ction, & binding, or astonishment, or, as it were, adarctation and pending in of the child, you must help it with dissoluing & releasing, by pouring in largely sweete wine & hote. Also the decoction of fenugreeke, or mallowes, or lineseede, or also egs are good, because they are of a losening & mollifying vertue. Afterward you must nourish the parts about the priuy mē∣bers, & the belly & loynes with the aforesaid decoction, or with some other losening & mol∣lifying medicine. Also it profiteth to vse hote incessions & euaporations, & to haue the aire of the house enclining to heate. Also it is good to vse insusions & annointings, with oiles that be hote in touching & vertue, & cōueniēt cataplasmes be good. And if neither a feuer, nor a∣ny thing els do let it, she must vse releasing & dissoluing bathes, & you must moue her, with bearing her in a chaire, in an aire that is meanely hote. Many do vse to such violent shaking of the body. And if any woman be weake, and haue sore trauaile in childe birth thorough resolution of the bodie, you must comfort and refresh the bodie, with medicines that do thicken, and drawe togither, and with such meates and drinkes, as do recreate, restore, & ad strength to the bodie: as be incessions & sprinklings with mirtles, vine leaues, pomegra∣nates, roses, smelling to vinegre, and annointinges with wine, mixt with cold oyle of roses. VVhen the infant is ouer great, you must apply those thinges which can make wider, stretch out, and loosen the mouth of the matrice. If sore trauaile doe chaunce thorough Page  161 an innaturall forme of the child in comming foorth, you must bring him to a natural forme and figure, as much as is possible, partly by putting backe, partly by drawing to you, partly by turning, and partly by making it straight. And if the head or foote, be sent out first, you may not drawe out the childe taking holde by that member: but put your fingers to the shoulders or haunches of the childe, and thrust vp that againe, which is come forth into the conuenien place, if there be two or three, or mo children, and do thrust altogether into the necke of the matrice, you must driue backe the rest into the bottome of the wombe, and bring that out first, which seemeth to be most readie: but if it do not come foorth, because the infant is dead, or hath a very great head, or through some other cause, you must come to drawing out of the childe, or to cutting, which is taught aboundantly of Aetius, lib. 16. cap. 23. and of Paulus lib. 6. cap. 74. For it is not our purpose to teach handy cure heare. Moreouer if the tunicle or secundine of the childe be thicker and stronger, then that it may be broken, you must cut it. Those that haue the humour, which is contained in the tunicles or secundine, flowing and running out before the conuenient time, so that the places be dried vp, you shall wash it all about with whites of egges, with the decoction of mallowes, and fenugreeke strained, or with iuyce of Ptisan warmed. A medicine that doth vniuersally helpe all that haue sore trauell in child birth, is this that followeth. ℞. Cinnamon chosen.* ʒ.ij. mirrhe, casia lignea. ana. ℈.j. white ambre. ʒ.j.ss. beate them together and make a fine pouder, wherof minister in wine that is odoriferous, the weight of one drachme. Moreouer the child being borne, oftentimes it chaunceth that the Secundine doeth sticke fast in the wombe, which if it chauceth, then sometime the mouth of the matrice is found open, and sometime shut, and the secundine manie times is still ioyned to the bottome of the womb, and many times it is separate. If therefore the mouth of the matrice be open, and the secun∣dine which is left therin do cleaue to some part of the womb, being wound vp together like a ball, it may easily be drawne out.* You must drawe out the secundine with your lefte hand being warmed, and annointed with some fat thing, and put into the wombe. If the secun∣dine be fastened and knit to the bottome of the womb, you shall likewise put in your hand, warmed and annointed with grease, and take hold of the secundine, and draw it out: but you may not drawe it straight foorth, lest the matrice come out with it: nor pull it verie vehe∣mently, but softely and easilie, first pulling it crooked, bringing it this way and that way: then after that, you may draw it somewhat harder, for by this meanes you shall loosen it from the fastening. But if the mouth of the matrice be shut, you shall vse perfusions, & with the fingers of your left hand you shall labour to open it easily, and to make it wider by little and little. Which if you cannot bring to passe, it is good to apply about the priuities, fo∣mentes, perfusions and ointmentes that can mollifie, dissolue and release. If she be strong, you must put into her nosthrilles at that time also sneezing powder, made of Castoreum, pepper and such like. For Hippocrates in 5. Apho. 49. writeth thus: that the secundine may come out, giue her sneezing powder, and let her stop her nose and mouth. Also you must minister vnto her, potions that can prouoke menstruis: which thinges aforesaid, you must do the first and second day. Moreouer she must vse suffumigations, seething in a pot, mo∣therwort, yreos, saueine, peniroyall, calamint, dictamus and such like. Then put the pot vn∣der a close chayr, vpon the which let the woman sit, being compassed in round about with clothes. After that, if you finde the mouth of the matrice opened, put in your hand and la∣bour to pull out the secundine, as is aforesayed, but if it will not obey to come foorth, you may not rent it, for within a fewe dayes after being rotten and tourned into atter, it will fall out. But because thorough the euill sauour and smell, when it is rotted, it filleth the head and marreth the stomach. They that are troubled with this euill, must be continual∣lie perfumed. For which purpose these thinges are good: Cardamonies, bdellium, with sa∣ueyne, frankensence, storax, lapdanum, wood of Aloës, and such like. Also a perfu∣ming with eate by a pipe, which is put into the mouth of the matrice, doeth profite marue∣louslie. Also simples, such as prouoke menstruis, be good: as decoction of mootherwort, and laurell bereies, with vinum mulsum. Also make Pessaries of mirrhe and Cyclamminum commixed with oyle.

Page  162

CAP. LXV. Of the Sciatica. DE ISCHIADE.

*ISCHIAS in Greeke, properly is called a most grieuous paine, which is wont to chaunce about the ioint, which the Greekes do call ischion, the Latines, Coxa, in English the huckle bone. The Latines call this disease Ischias, and they that are afflicted with this disease, are called Ischiadici. The barbarous sort call this disease, Sciatica, & they cal thē that be diseased with it Sciatici. It is caused through a grosse & flegmatike humour,* which being cōgealed, abideth in the ioint of the huckle bones. Therfore continuall crudities and rawnesse, and vnmeasurable vsing of venerious acts do not a little help the ingendring of a Sciatica. Also sometime swift deambu∣lations and walkings, and suppression or stopping of the hemmorhides, & custome of vomi∣ting being omitted, & purgation of menstruis, or also other familiar, & accustomed empty∣ings being impedited & stopped, & neglecting of exercises. For ech of these do ingender a∣bundance of flegmatike humours.* There goeth before this euill somtime paine of the mus∣cles that be nigh vnto it, and specially of the loynes, somtime the beginning is in the buckle bone it selfe. Also somtime it chanceth (that the paine of the huckle bone being takē away) there remaineth griefe only about the hammes: & to some about the ankles, but in some all the leg is equally vexed with paine. Also in many, there is paine about the priuy members, & then also the bladder being vexed, doth ingender difficulty in pissing: & then chiefly the whole legge,* from the haunches to the heeles suffereth paine. Let the cure be begunne with voiding and purging of the humour that doth afflict the patient. And if the bodie do e∣qually abound with all humours, before all other remedies, cut a veine in the hāme, or the outward ankle, or also in the arme, on that side that is diseased. For sometime the Sciatica is cured in one day, by this emptying out of the legges. But if the bodie be stuffed with a fleugmatike and grosse humour, you must beginne the cure with purging of that humour. For the wich purpose, you must minister Clysters often, made after this sort, or in like ma∣ner. ℞. of Centorie,* sage, Ʋerbasculi odorati, rewe, chamaepityos. ana. M.j. rootes of gla∣don. ℥.j. stechados. ʒ.iij. seedes of annise and fenuell. ana. ʒ.ij.ss. agaricke of the best. ʒ.ij. roote of polipodie. ʒ.v. seeth these in sufficient quantitie of water, vntill the thirde part. Then take of the licour of that decoction. ℥.xiij. of hierapicra. ℥.ss. of electuarium nidum maius. ʒ.ij. of oyle of lillies. ℥.ij. oyle of rewe. ℥.j. the yolkes of two egges, salt. ʒ.j.ss. commixe them all and make a Clyster. Also vomitings doth helpe them, that haue the Sciatica, much more then the purging downwarde by the bellie,* for that doeth repell and put backe the humour downward sodenly. Therefore you must prouoke vomites in the beginning by and by after meate. But afterward you must minister vomiting medicines, beginning first with them that be easie. They that haue humours vehemently compact and thickened together, which can difficultly be dissolued and loosened, caused thorough Phisitions vsing sharpe medicines out of time,* such be holpen by fastenning on of a verie great cupping glasse with scarifications. But in the Sciatica, we do not vse such medicines as can represse and stoppe the fluxe. For seing the disease is placed in the bottome of the huckle bone, bloud is expel∣led from the veines and muscles that be nigh adioyning to it, and is sent thither. Therefore in the beginning of this disease, there is neede of medicines that can mittigate and asswage which neithr do coole much, nor that do heate vehemently. For as those thinges which do coole, do thrust the humours violently to the ankle bone: so those thinges that doe vehe∣mently heate, do drawe more matter out of the members adioyning. Moreouer you may not come to the vsing of sharpe medicines, till after bloud letting or emptying by purga∣cions.* For if anie man applie sharp medicines to the diseased member, before the bodie be emptied or purged, he shall make the disease harde to cure, because of a multitude of hu∣mours so thickened there, that they cannot be dissolued. For besides other things it is made grosse and viscous, and through the heate and drinesse of the sharp medicines, it suffereth as it were rosting, or burning. First therefore you must irrigate and sprinkle the aggrieued Page  163 place with oyle of rew. After you must apply more effectuous medicines, which do heate and can draw humours from the bottom to the top, as be oleum nulpinum, oyle of pepper, oleum costinum, oyle of iuniper, vnguentum aragon, martiatum, and agrippa. Also sage, rew,* laurell leaues, elder, roote of wallworte, peniroiall, sauine, opoponax, bdellium, ammomacum and such like. Of the which you may make fomentes, ointmentes, emplaisters & cerotes. But if the griefe be extreemely painefull, then vse this, which followeth, for it is most ex∣cellent against this euill. ℞. rosen of the pine tree lib. j.ss. Galbanum. ℥.v. melt them with a soft fier, and then streine it through a cloath,* and put vnto it of the pouder of masticke. ℥.j. and then spread it warme vpon dogges leather, or lambes leather, and stricke it a good thicknes, and before you apply this plaister to the pained place annoint the place with this oyntment following. ℞. freshe hogges greace. ℥.j ss. and take sowes or monkes peason in number, twentie, and beat them both well in a morter, till they be well incorporate,* and therewith annoint the place and the plaister, and warme the plaister against the fire, till it be softe, and laie it to the agreeued place, and let it lie nine dayes. If there be heares vpon the place, you must shaue them of first, and roole it well, least it slippeth away, then eue∣rie daie, morning and euening at ech time, let the patient take. ℥.j. of this electuarie. ℞. of the rootes of Acarus, or gladian, being made cleane. lib. j. stampe them verie small,* (as possible you may doe) then take of clarified honie. lib. iij. and put in the rootes by litle and litle, euer stirring it: and when it is well sodden, put into it of cynnamome. ℥.j. made in verie fine pouder, which being well incorporate, keepe it to your vse, and at the ende of the nine dayes, if the paine be not cleane gone, lay to, the forenamed plaister, other nine dayes, vsing the same electuarie, and procure vomit, as before, euerie sixte or seuenth daie, for that doth greatly reuert the humour. But in the beginning of the griefe, apply to the aggrieued place againe and againe, sponges wet in the decoction of iuniper, or sage, or elder leaues. Afterward, vse this oyntment. ℞. of vnguentum martiaton. ʒ.iij. oyle of yreos,* and lillies. ana. ℥.ss. iuice of rewe, and chamaepityos. ana. ʒ.ij. hony. ʒ.j.ss. sage, peniroiall, pepper. ana. ʒ.ss. pellitorie, stauesare. ana. ℈.j. wax as much as is sufficient, make and an ointment. Also the vsing of this cerote profiteth. ℞. oleum costinū,* & vulpinum. ana. ℥.ij.ss. oile of pepper. ℥.ss. opoponax, bdellium, storax. ana. ʒ.iij. roote of brionie, salte peter, leaues of elder. ana. ʒ.ij. aristolochia rotunda, rewe, ana. ʒ.j.ss. Euphorbium. ℈.j. dissolue the gummes in verie sharpe vinegre, and with turpentine and waxe, as much as is sufficient make a ce∣rote. And if the euill doe remaine still, you must vse clisters, againe: and then fasten a ve∣rie great cupping glasse with much flame to the huckle bone, making good deepe gashes with scarification. And if that the disease be not ended so, you must vse againe purging vomites, and the other remeadies aforesaide, which being done, you must ome to the v∣sing of Dropaces, and Synapismes, and so to the vse of burning medicines: amongest which, the roote of the hearbe called iberis, is not the worste, being newe, digged vp in sommer, and diligently braied, and mixed with a little olde swines greace, being laid and bounde to the ioint of the huckle bone, or to the whole shanke or legge. Also the leaues of it will doe the same thing. And being so applyed, let it lie not past two houres to women, but let it lie foure houres to men, if it be possible for them to suffer it: for it raiseth swelling with burning and rednes, as a Synapisme is wont to do. Afterward bring the sicke into a bath, in the which, when he hath swet a little, bid him sit downe in the vessell, because of the by∣ting heate, and compell him to suffer it strongly. For in the beginning, it is wont to bring byting and gnawing with burning heate, then bring him out: from which alwayes almost (as Aetius witnesseth) although they be caried in of other, they will goe out alone vppon their feete. After the bathing, commixe much oyle with a verie litle wine, and shake them togeather, & annoint it: then wipe of the humour with a sharp cloath, and couer the legge it selfe with verie softe wooll. And truely (this being done) it hath bene wonte to neede no other remeadie for the cure. But if sometime it chaunce any part, or remembraunce of the euill to be left still, within a few daies after, you may vse againe the same remeadie. And certaine dayes after, you may lay on the cerote, which is a little before discribed. Moreouer, among burning and blistring medicines, this is good. ℞. Mel anacardinum, leauen. ana. ʒ.j. cantharides, (the winges cast away) ʒ.ij. vinegre, as much as is sufficient:* and com∣mix Page  164 them togeather.* Or this is good. ℞. Euphorbium, salt peter. ana. ℈.ij. sope, quicke lime. ana. ʒ.j. mel anacardinum, as much as is sufficient, so that all being mixed togeather, may be of the thicknes of honie.* Let his diet be such, that his meate may be meanely thin, and easie of digestion. Let his exercise be walkinges, continuall writhinges, leapinges, or dauncinges and running. It is good always to haue the bodie soluble. And if the disease hath endured long, and cannot be driuen away with the aforesaide medicines, you must vse burning in three or foure places, after that sort, as Paulus teacheth in lib. 6. cap. 76. and Aetius. lib. 12. cap. 30.

CAP. LXVI. Of the goute in the feete and ioyntes. DE PODAGRA ET ARTHRITIDE.

PODAGRA & arthritis in Latine, be diseases of one kinde. And therefore they differ not, but in places diseased. For in both of them there is weake∣nes of the ioyntes, and an vnnaturall humour floweth to them. And if that the fluxe of the humour doe flow to the feate, that is called Podagra in Latine. But if the humour flowe to other ioyntes,* it is called in Greeke Arthritis, in Latine, articularis morbus, the ioint sicknes. Sometime, this euill doth rushe in sodainely, being equally dispersed throughout all the ioyntes. But for the most parte, the fluxe is wont to fall in priuilie, and by little and little. For in some, paine doth inuade the ioynte of the great toe, but in some the ende of the heele is afflicted. Againe in some other, the hollownes of the foote is grieued, either through chafeing of the shoe, or some such like thing. The goute taketh his beginning at the feete, whereupon it taketh the name, and it proceedeth vpward by little & little to the knees, & also to the ioyntes of the huckle bones, & the thighes. Afterward to the handes, euery ioint particularly being grieued. They that are taken extreamly with this disease, they haue paine in the backbone ioyntes, and in the ioyntes of the ribbes, and eye liddes, and to some paine in the throte also: neither is there anie connexion or knitting of boanes,* which is free from this euill. This disease is engen∣dred of continuall crudities and drunckennes, and of immoderate vsing of lecherie, through vehement and swift deambulations and walkinges, through longe standing or often ry∣ding, by suppression and stopping of accustomed excretions and fluxes, and through inter∣mission of familiar exercises. Sorowes, cares, watchinges, and other perturbations of the minde do not onely engender this euill, but also doe breede hurtefull and corrupt humours. Also many times the cholicke being naughtely cured, is wont to be a cause, why the ioint sicknesse should follow. But, for the most parte, a disposition to this kinde of disease pro∣ceedeth from the parentes to the children, and their posteritie. Also vniuersally aboun∣daunce, of all rawe humours is the cause of this disease. The humours that do abound, and doe fasten them selues in the ioyntes, either be sanguine, or cholericke, or flegmaticke, or melancholious.* Also sometime this euill is engendred of commixion of humours. The out∣ward causes may easely be knowen by the telling of the sicke, or them that be about him. The difference of humours you shall know by the signes following. The humour of blood, if it be much in quantitie,* it causeth fulnes, and great swelling, not onely of the veines, but about the skinne of the whole member that is grieued, and maketh it red in colour. They which are afflicted with this euill, cannot suffer remeadies to be applyed that be verie cold, or verie hote, and they are continually vexed with paine, because the flowing of the bloude doth chaunce continually and equally. Their vrines are yelowe and meane of substaunce. Also their veynes doe abounde with bloude, and are puffed vppe and swollen. The conuenient age for this euill, is youth. Also meates that engender good iuice, and nourish aboundantly were eaten before, and exercises were neglected. The time of the yeare in the which the patient is most afflicted is spring time.* If the humour, that floweth into the ioyntes, be cholericke, you may knowe it by the yealowish colour of the skinne. Sometime rednes is mixed with the yealow colour, that is when choler is commixed with bloud. Also there is sensible heate and sharpe paine like launcing. Also moystnes sodain∣ly Page  165 bursteth out of the skinne, without euident swelling. The patient is eased with coo∣ling medicines, and reioyceth, but with hote thinges his paines augment. In the state and strength of the fitte, a feauer taketh him, and a verie great thirst. His vrine is cytrine, and sometime also it is sharpe. There is wont to goe before this disease, great cares, and wrath watchinges, and wermes, and a diet, that was apt to engender choler. The age, complex∣tion, and time of the yeare, that is hote and drie, be apt to cause this cholericke fluxe. And if the humour, that floweth into the ioyntes be flegmatick,* the swelling will giue place to the thrusting of the finger, and it is loose and moderate. The coler of the member affli∣cted, is white. Olde age is most afflicted with this humour, and a complexion colde and moyst, and it chaunceth in the winter time. His vrine is thinne and waterie. There went before it idlenes, reast, and a diet that engendreth flegmaticke humours. If it be salt fleame, great ich, and gnawing, or byting doth trouble the diseased members. If the fluxe to the ioyntes be of melancholie, which chaunceth but seldome,* the colour of the swelling is blac∣kish. The age, which doth most engender this fluxe, is the declination of middle age. Al∣so the complexion is colde and drie, and the time of the yeare, haruest, a countrie that is colde and drie, and like state of the aire, and a diet that engendreth melancholie. When the humour that floweth into the ioyntes, is bloud, by and by you must let bloud, not once onely, but often taking it awaie by little and little: for if you doe omit bloudletting,* and do vse repercussiue medicines, you shall be an authour of great euill. For the bloud being, dri∣uen backe from the vnnoble members, it rusheth vp to the principall members, and that be necessarie to life. Therefore in fluxes of bloud, letting of bloud is verie necessarie, spe∣cially in them that abound with bloud. You must cut a veyne in the arme beneath, right against the legge that is vexed with the fluxe. And if the right hande be vexed with paine of this disease, cut a veine in the right legge, about the hamme, or the ankle, or the sole of the feete: for a veine being cut right against the member that is afflicted, is of great effica∣cie and strength. Then specially must bloudletting be vsed, when this euill beginneth first to inuade any man. For they that be vexed often with this fluxe of bloud, doe feele more hurte, then helpe of bloudletting, specially if their bodie be weake and colde.* After bloud letting, you must applie remeadies to the agrieued member, which doe neither coole great∣ly, least they should driue togeather, and thicken the humours, nor heat vehemently, least they should draw mo humours vnto the diseased membre. Therefore you must sprinckle the grieued place with olde vinegre, and oyle of roses mixed togeather, specially if the cause of the paine doe seeme to be deepe within. For vinegre of his owne proper thinnes, going into the deapth, maketh a readie way for the oyle of roses, which naturally can ease paines. But if the paine be aloft, nigh the skinne, you shall helpe it geatly with oyle and wine, applying it in sommer warme, in winter hote. Afterwarde also you must vse cata∣plasmes, which can ease, and cease paine, without any prouoking of fluxes,* made of the meale of fenugreeke, bareley, beanes, lupynes, chammomill and such like: and you must see that those thinges be euer hote, which may well be, if they be continually chaunged, and couered ouer alofte with woll. Also this medicine profiteth not a little. ℞. goates milcke. ℥.v. the yolkes of two egges, oyle of roses. ℥.j. saffron. ʒ.ss. crummes of bread as much as is sufficient, that it may haue the forme of a cataplasme stampe these, till they be well commixed togeather, and then apply thereof to the member that is grieued. Also you may make an emplaister or cerote of oyle of roses, vinegre, rozen, waxe, galbanum, gumme ammoniacke, franckensence, saffron and such like. You must giue him meates,* which do extenuate, and that do nourish but little, as be potherbes. Let him abstaine altogeather from flesh, except it be birdes of mountaines. Let him vse fishes that breede in stonie wa∣ters. Wine if the intemperaunce of the sicke may suffer it, must altogeather be taken away: for it is almost the onely reason, whereby health shoulde follow: which, seeing among a thousand, scarce one doth obserue, it is not maruaile,* though there be verie few which be deliuered from this disease at these dayes. In steede of wine let him vse water, wherein cin∣namome, annyse seedes, or such like hath bene sodden: or that drincke, which is called folishly now adayes ypocras: the making whereof you may finde before in the chapter of the Palsey. Let the sicke diligently auoide fruicte and carnall lust. Also he ought to haue a Page  166 soluble bellie alwayes, that can auoide out the ordure readily alone: which, if it doe not well,* wash it with some easie clyster. If through flowing of choler, the disease in the ioints be caused, then your labour must be to voide and purge out the humour that doth vexe the patient, which you must doe, aswell by vomiting, as by the belly downe warne. Therefore you must surely purge them that be thus afflicted, by medicines that draw out choler. Af∣ter that, vntill the full state of it, you must apply medicines that haue vertue to coole and restraine, as be those that are made of singreene, greene roses, sharpe sorrell, nightshade, plantaine, and such like, often before rehearsed. In this kinde of fluxe, many times, be∣cause of the vehemencie of the paine, you must vse such medicine, as can cause astonish∣ment.* For the which purpose, it is good to apply the medicine which we described be∣fore, of gotes milcke, crummes of bread, saffron, and yolkes of egges, with the which, you must commixe poppie seedes. ʒ.iij. or opium. ℥.ss. or more, or lesse according to the paine. Also, for the same purpose, leaues of hemblocke and henbane doe profit, being applyed and laide on.* But, you must note, and take heade, that, when you be compelled to vse stu∣pefactiue thinges in feruent, and vehement paynes, that afterwarde you doe recreate and nourish those members by such thinges, as doe heate. For vnlesse you doe so, you shall make those members weake, and intemperant, and so they shall be subiect to a perpetuall fluxe, and shall sone catch hurte in their actions. Heating medicines be origan, sauorie, mustardseede pepper and such like. Also you must helpe to prouoke sweating with hea∣ting and rubbing of the bodie: but so, that you touch not the aggreued member. Moreo∣uer, you must minister in drincke those thinges, that doe prouoke vrine: for such do voide out choler by the vrine. Also such thinges ministred, as doe cause sleepe, are wonte to do good, because the fluxe is stopped and dried vp by them, specially, if they be ministred af∣ter a purgation. You must giue them meates, that do coole, but not that do moisten: for moystnes encreaseth the fluxe.* Let them not suffer hunger, for that maketh choler sharper. Of fruites, let them vse restrictiue apples and meddlars, and other, that doe coole, & stop, or let the fluxe. Let them abstaine altogeather from wine, as is aforesaide. They which are diseased through flowing of fleame, you must beginne the cure of them with purging of fleume.* The flegmaticke humour is auoided by vomiting, but neuerthelesse also down∣ward by the bellie. But the best purging in this euill, is downward by the bellie, whither the disease stricke about the handes or the feete: and so much the more, if the fluxe be in all the ioyntes of the bodie. For the way, that is most familiar, and least perilous for fleame, is to goe out by the guttes. For if it were drawen by violence vpward to the stomach, & not purged out, it causeth perill. Therefore it is more safe, and healthfull to purge it downe∣ward. But before you minister purging medicines, you must minister those thinges, that haue vertue to cut, extenuate and deuide, that by this meanes the grosse humours may be preparate, and made apt to purge. If emptying may not be done by purging, then they must vse hungre and famine,* many dayes, for they, that be flegmaticke of nature can suf∣fer hunger easily and without hurt. Hereupon Hypocrates saith, 7. Apho. 6. It is good for the bodies, that haue most flesh to vse hungre: for the hunger dryeth the bodies. Also they must vse discussiue & dissoluing frictions, & strong clisters & medicines that prouoke vrine: but you must apply outwardly such medicines, as can ease, and cease paine, and which can dissolue and drie moderately, of which we spake a little before. But in the beginning of the disease, you must mixe with them some thinges, that haue vertue to restraine & binde. After the beginning, you must vse onely dissoluing and discussiue thinges. The gentlest is this: of leaues althaea, sodden & beateh alone, or with floure, or bareley meale applied to it. Also, the roote of it sodden in aqua mulsa, and stamped and applyed, is good. And this oyntment is good. ℞. of the oyles of laurell,* and yreos. ana. ℥.j. olde swines greace, butter ana. ʒ.iij. the warrow of a hart. ʒ.ij. fine turpentine. ʒ.v. galbanum, dissolued in vinegre. ʒ.j. Isope, roote of althaea, fenugreeke seede. ana. ℈.ij. waxe as much as it sufficient, and make an oyntment.* Moreouer let the meates that you giue to nourish him, be drie of na∣ture, & small of norishing, as is iuice of rice, rootes, and such like: but yet flesh of the birdes of the mountaines rosted is not hurtfull to them. Capers with acetum mulsum. doth marue∣louslie profit. Giue vnto him wine, in verie little quantitie, at certaine times, and let it be Page  167 thinne yealow & olde. They that are diseased through flowing of melancholie,* they must be emptied either with bloudletting, or by purgation. Vse boudletting, when the bloud is infected with melancholie. And vse purgations, when the patient declineth to melan∣cholie: but if both these abounde togeather, it is not sufficient for you to vse one of the a∣foresaide thinges. But first, cut a veine, and then vse a purging medicine: which thing you must also doe in other euills that haue neede of dowble purging. In the beginning of the disease, and in the verie time of emptying and purging, you must vse such thinges as can represse, stoppe, and also heate sensibly. After purging, vse those thinges that can gentlie heate, attenuate and dissolue or discusse, as is afore taught. But because knobbes,* and harde swellinges doe engender afterward in the ioyntes, aswell, because of the grosse∣nes, and earthie hardnes of the humour that hath flowed thither, as also through the vsing of immoderate discussiue, and drying medicines, without mixing of such with them, as haue a mollyfiyng vertue. Therefore to take those knobbes away, you must vse those medicines, which be declared of vs before in the chapter of hardnes of the spleene. But specially verie olde and sharpe cheese, brayed in the decoction of verie fatte, and olde swynes fleshe, is good to be applyed. Also, for this euill, figges braied, and laid on, are good. Also Althaea, twyse sodden, oates, nettles, briony roote, round rootes, dill, sothern∣woode, maieweede, horehounde leaues, mixed with pitch, sulphur and wine. Also you must commixe fatte, and greaces of swine, goates, calfes, and geese. Also all marowes and other thinges, that haue vertue to mollifie and soften. And also bathinges,* after the inflammation is ceased, is most commodious, and profitable to all that haue the goute. While they wash them, put sponges wet in vinegre, and salt mixt togeather, round about the diseased places, that they may remaine safe from humours flowing to it. They must washe them selfes, not once onely, but often, in an ayre that is altogeather meane and moderate. But they may not tarie long in hote water. It is beast therefore, that they be sprinckled, & wet with hote water, poured on them. Also it is profitable, that all the bo∣die be rubbed with drie linnen cloathes. Moreouer, they that be cured of the goute, shall defend themselues afterwarde from it, by this meanes. First, twise in a yeare, that is,* at spring time and autumne, if nothing doe let it, let him bloude largely. Also about those times, and oftener, let him vse purging medicines. Also it is necessarie for him to eate li∣tle meate, and to abstaine from fulnes. Also you must vse meates that be easie of digestion, and which readily be distributed into the members of the bodie and be without excre∣mentes. Let him abstaine altogeather from wine, or let him vse it verie scarely. Let him vse exercise verie often, and that before meate: for labour (as Hippocrates sayth) must go before meate. And to conclude, they, that desire to be free from the goute, let him re∣member this shorte, and most holsome precept of Hypocrates: the way to helpe and pre∣serue health, is not to be filled with meates, and to be vnslouthfull in labouring. Also let his sleepes, and venerous actes be in a meane. As for remeadies in this case, let salt be brayed small in oyle, and the ioyntes rubbed therewith, for it helpeth greatly all those, that will be free from this euill, except they be of a wonderfull drie temperature. And he must vse an∣noynting with that, morning, and euening all the dayes of his life

Libri tertij finis.