The methode of phisicke conteyning the causes, signes, and cures of invvard diseases in mans body from the head to the foote. VVhereunto is added, the forme and rule of making remedies and medicines, which our phisitians commonly vse at this day, with the proportion, quantitie, & names of ech [sic] medicine. By Philip Barrough.
Barrough, Philip, fl. 1590.

CAP. LXIIII. Of sore trauaile in child birth. DE DIFFICVLTATE PARTVS.

SORE trauaile in child birth doth chance either through default of the parent,* or of the child, or of the secundine, or through som outward cause. Of the pa∣rent if she be grose & fat & faint harted, & vnskilfull of paine, or if the whole matrice be small, or if there be inflammation of the whole womb, or of some part of it, or that it be vexed with some other diseases, or if she be naturally weake, so that she can not driue out the child: or if that she do labour before her time. Also if the neck of the mouth of the matrice be croked, or if there be som piece of flesh ingendred Page  160 there, by reason of a bile or vlcer going before. But default of the childe is, if it be of an vnaccustomed greatnesse, or small and of a little weight, or if it hath a great head, or if it be monstrouse, as hauing two heades, or three feete, or if it be dead, and so doeth not la∣bour to come foorth, or if it swell, or being aliue, if it be weake, so that it can not proceede foorth: or if they be two or mo, and do all rush sodainly togither into the necke of the ma∣trice, or if the child be fashioned contrarie to nature. For the naturall forme of a child com∣ming foorth is, first with his head, (his hands being stretched out vpon the thighes) & with his head declining to the neither parts, but straightly directed to the mouth of the matrice. the best forme in comming foorth, next vnto this, is, first with his feete, hauing the hands stretched vppon both the thighes, and so descending straight vp. All other formes in com∣ming foorth, except these two, are contrarie and abhorring to nature. The trauaile is made difficile through the Secundine: if it be not pulled away, because of the grossnesse or thick∣nesse of it, or if it breake before it should do, because of the thinnesse of it. For then, the hu∣moure that is gathered together in the matrice, is sent out before the conuenient time. Therfore the priuities be without moisture, and be drie at the time of the trauaile, when moystnesse were necessarie, which should make a slipperie, & easie, going out of the child, and so through drinesse, the childe slideth out hardly. Also difficultie in childe-birth is en∣gendred of outward causes: as of colde, which thickeneth the matrice, and maketh the passages straighter, or through a great heate, which dissolueth and weakedeth the strength. But outwarde causes are knowen by the telling of the pacient, or of them that sitte by her. Weakenesse of the woman that laboureth,* as fatnesse may be knowen by the state of the bodie. Also by diseases, that shee hath had before, you may readily come to the knowledge of weakenesse, and of many other euilles. Weakenesse of the childe is knowen by feeble and slowe mouing of it. Which if it be dead, it moueth not, and there is coldnesse of the belly, and great paine about the nauell. Also a stinking breath is breathed out, & a naughty colour of the face. Greatnesse of the childe may be coniectured by the constitution of the parentes bodie, and by greatnesse of the womans belly. Grossenesse and thickenesse of the secundine may be gathered & known thus: if none of the aforesaid signes be present, and the woman strong and lusty, and the child moueth quickly and easily. As for the cure, it va∣rieth according to the diuersitie of causes.* Therfore you must place a fat woman downward in a little bed, that is, hanging downwarde with her head, and her face toward the ground, bending & enclining her knees to her thighs, that the womb stretching to the Abdomen, may be right with his mouth. You must with your fingers annoint the mouth of the matrice, with butter, oile, ducks greace, hens greace, & such like, & you must spreade it abroad, & open it wider by little & little. You must comfort & incourage a fearefull woman. And if she be vn∣skilfull of paines in trauaile,* admonish her to hold and stop her breath strongly, and let her thrust it out to the ilions with all her might. If sore trauaile in childbirth be caused of adstri∣ction, & binding, or astonishment, or, as it were, adarctation and pending in of the child, you must help it with dissoluing & releasing, by pouring in largely sweete wine & hote. Also the decoction of fenugreeke, or mallowes, or lineseede, or also egs are good, because they are of a losening & mollifying vertue. Afterward you must nourish the parts about the priuy mē∣bers, & the belly & loynes with the aforesaid decoction, or with some other losening & mol∣lifying medicine. Also it profiteth to vse hote incessions & euaporations, & to haue the aire of the house enclining to heate. Also it is good to vse insusions & annointings, with oiles that be hote in touching & vertue, & cōueniēt cataplasmes be good. And if neither a feuer, nor a∣ny thing els do let it, she must vse releasing & dissoluing bathes, & you must moue her, with bearing her in a chaire, in an aire that is meanely hote. Many do vse to such violent shaking of the body. And if any woman be weake, and haue sore trauaile in childe birth thorough resolution of the bodie, you must comfort and refresh the bodie, with medicines that do thicken, and drawe togither, and with such meates and drinkes, as do recreate, restore, & ad strength to the bodie: as be incessions & sprinklings with mirtles, vine leaues, pomegra∣nates, roses, smelling to vinegre, and annointinges with wine, mixt with cold oyle of roses. VVhen the infant is ouer great, you must apply those thinges which can make wider, stretch out, and loosen the mouth of the matrice. If sore trauaile doe chaunce thorough Page  161 an innaturall forme of the child in comming foorth, you must bring him to a natural forme and figure, as much as is possible, partly by putting backe, partly by drawing to you, partly by turning, and partly by making it straight. And if the head or foote, be sent out first, you may not drawe out the childe taking holde by that member: but put your fingers to the shoulders or haunches of the childe, and thrust vp that againe, which is come forth into the conuenien place, if there be two or three, or mo children, and do thrust altogether into the necke of the matrice, you must driue backe the rest into the bottome of the wombe, and bring that out first, which seemeth to be most readie: but if it do not come foorth, because the infant is dead, or hath a very great head, or through some other cause, you must come to drawing out of the childe, or to cutting, which is taught aboundantly of Aetius, lib. 16. cap. 23. and of Paulus lib. 6. cap. 74. For it is not our purpose to teach handy cure heare. Moreouer if the tunicle or secundine of the childe be thicker and stronger, then that it may be broken, you must cut it. Those that haue the humour, which is contained in the tunicles or secundine, flowing and running out before the conuenient time, so that the places be dried vp, you shall wash it all about with whites of egges, with the decoction of mallowes, and fenugreeke strained, or with iuyce of Ptisan warmed. A medicine that doth vniuersally helpe all that haue sore trauell in child birth, is this that followeth. ℞. Cinnamon chosen.* ʒ.ij. mirrhe, casia lignea. ana. ℈.j. white ambre. ʒ beate them together and make a fine pouder, wherof minister in wine that is odoriferous, the weight of one drachme. Moreouer the child being borne, oftentimes it chaunceth that the Secundine doeth sticke fast in the wombe, which if it chauceth, then sometime the mouth of the matrice is found open, and sometime shut, and the secundine manie times is still ioyned to the bottome of the womb, and many times it is separate. If therefore the mouth of the matrice be open, and the secun∣dine which is left therin do cleaue to some part of the womb, being wound vp together like a ball, it may easily be drawne out.* You must drawe out the secundine with your lefte hand being warmed, and annointed with some fat thing, and put into the wombe. If the secun∣dine be fastened and knit to the bottome of the womb, you shall likewise put in your hand, warmed and annointed with grease, and take hold of the secundine, and draw it out: but you may not drawe it straight foorth, lest the matrice come out with it: nor pull it verie vehe∣mently, but softely and easilie, first pulling it crooked, bringing it this way and that way: then after that, you may draw it somewhat harder, for by this meanes you shall loosen it from the fastening. But if the mouth of the matrice be shut, you shall vse perfusions, & with the fingers of your left hand you shall labour to open it easily, and to make it wider by little and little. Which if you cannot bring to passe, it is good to apply about the priuities, fo∣mentes, perfusions and ointmentes that can mollifie, dissolue and release. If she be strong, you must put into her nosthrilles at that time also sneezing powder, made of Castoreum, pepper and such like. For Hippocrates in 5. Apho. 49. writeth thus: that the secundine may come out, giue her sneezing powder, and let her stop her nose and mouth. Also you must minister vnto her, potions that can prouoke menstruis: which thinges aforesaid, you must do the first and second day. Moreouer she must vse suffumigations, seething in a pot, mo∣therwort, yreos, saueine, peniroyall, calamint, dictamus and such like. Then put the pot vn∣der a close chayr, vpon the which let the woman sit, being compassed in round about with clothes. After that, if you finde the mouth of the matrice opened, put in your hand and la∣bour to pull out the secundine, as is aforesayed, but if it will not obey to come foorth, you may not rent it, for within a fewe dayes after being rotten and tourned into atter, it will fall out. But because thorough the euill sauour and smell, when it is rotted, it filleth the head and marreth the stomach. They that are troubled with this euill, must be continual∣lie perfumed. For which purpose these thinges are good: Cardamonies, bdellium, with sa∣ueyne, frankensence, storax, lapdanum, wood of Aloës, and such like. Also a perfu∣ming with eate by a pipe, which is put into the mouth of the matrice, doeth profite marue∣louslie. Also simples, such as prouoke menstruis, be good: as decoction of mootherwort, and laurell bereies, with vinum mulsum. Also make Pessaries of mirrhe and Cyclamminum commixed with oyle.