The theorike and practike of moderne vvarres discoursed in dialogue vvise. VVherein is declared the neglect of martiall discipline: the inconuenience thereof: the imperfections of manie training captaines: a redresse by due regard had: the fittest weapons for our moderne vvarre: the vse of the same: the parts of a perfect souldier in generall and in particular: the officers in degrees, with their seuerall duties: the imbattailing of men in formes now most in vse: with figures and tables to the same: with sundrie other martiall points. VVritten by Robert Barret. Comprehended in sixe bookes.
Barret, Robert, fl. 1600.
Page  [unnumbered]

A Table, shevving the signification of sundry forraine words, vsed in these discourses.

GEntle Reader, for as much as in these Military discourses, I haue vsed some words and termes, somwhat straunge vnto such as haue not frequented forraine warres, nor haue anie great insight in forraine languages, I haue therefore thought good both to declare the signification of such words, and al∣so to shew my reasons for vsing the same.

First you are to vnderstand that most of our termes now vsed in warres are deriued from straungers; as the French, the Italian, the Spaniard and the Dutch; wherin euery one almost haue their seuerall pronuntiation; therefore I hold it good, to vse such war termes and words, as we do borrow from straungers (as most languages doe borrow some, more or lesse, one of another) neare after the same nature, orthographie & accent, as those nations do, from whom they are deriued: and not to pronounce and vse them o∣uer corruptly, as we commonly doe. As for example. The word Caporall, which is a meere Italian, and also vsed by the French, we corruptly do both write and pro∣nounce Corporall: for Caporall doth signifie the head and chiefe of a squadra, or small company of souldiers: and is an officer ensigning and gouerning (in his degree) the sayd company: and is in Spanish more aptly called Cabo de esquadra which is the head of a small squadra of 20 or 25 souldiers. And againe, wee vse both to pronounce and write, Core de guard; which by the French is written Corps de guard, and by the Italian and Spaniard, Corpo de guardia; which signi∣fieth the body of a watch: the which French or Italian word I haue rather vsed in my writing, then our corrupt English terme. Moreouer wee both pronounce and write the word Canuasada, the which (in truth) ought to be written and pro∣nounced Camisada, being a Spanish tearme; and doth signifie the inuesting a shirt ouer the soldiers apparell or armour; the which is vsed in the night time when any suddaine exploit or peece of seruice is to be put in practise vpon the e∣nemy, vnexpected or vnseene: to the end, that in the darkenesse of the night, the attempters may thereby the better one know and discerne another. These few words and termes, I suppose sufficient for my reasons. And for the signification of all other straunge and forraine words by me vsed, I will here following parti∣cularly set downe, in order of alphabet, as I shall call them to memory.

  • Abanderado, is a souldier vvhich carrieth the Ensigne in steede of the Ensigne-bearer some∣times.
  • Al'arma, is a vvord vsed among men of vvarre, at times of the enemies suddaine approching, and at their discouerie, and doth signifie, to armes or weapons.
  • Alferez, is a Spanish vvord, and signifieth the Ensigne bearer.
  • Page  [unnumbered]Alguazil, a Spanish vvord, is an officer attendant on the Campe-maister Generall, to apprehend offenders, and to see execution done.
  • Alerta, an Italian vvord▪ vsed vnto the souldiers, vvhen there is any suspition of the enemy; and signifieth to be vvatchfull, carefull and ready
  • Alvarado, a Spanish vvord, and is the discharging of the morning vvatch, by the sound of the drumme.
  • Ambuscado, a Spanish vvord, and signifieth any troupe or company of soldiers either foot or horse, lodged secretly in some couert, as in vvoods, hollow vvayes, behind bankes, or such like; to entrappe the enemy secretly attending his comming.
  • Aquaducts, are conduits to cary or conuay vvater into any Citie, Castell, or Citadell.
  • Armada, a Spanish vvord, is a Nauy of ships for vvarre, or one great ship of vvarre.
  • Artillaria, a forraine vvord, and is that vvhich vve call the great Ordinance.
  • Bando, a Spanish vvord, and signifieth, an act, or law made by the Generall and Counsell of war, in the Campe, and published by sound of the drumme or trumpet vnto the souldiers.
  • Bisognio or Bisonnio, a Spanish or Italian vvord, and is, as vve terme it, a raw souldier, vnex∣pert in his weapon, and other Military points.
  • Burgonet, a French vvord, is a certaine kind of head-peece, either for foote or horsemen, couering the head, and part of the face and cheke.
  • Cabo de esquadra or Caporall, a Spanish vvord, is the head or chiefe vnder the Captaine of a small number of souldiers, in number 20 or 25, or more or lesse, according as the company is deuided into.
  • Caporal, the Italian vvord, is as Cabo de esquadra in Spanish.
  • Cabo de Camara, a Spanish vvord, is a souldier vnder the Caporall, and is the chiefe ouer euery 10 or 12 souldiers.
  • Camarada, a Spanish vvord, is a small number of 11 or 12 soldiers, and is the one halfe of a squa∣dra, being vnited together in their lodging, and diet, and friendship, the chiefe man of whom is the Cabo de Camara.
  • Camisada, a Spanish vvord, and doth signifie the inuesting or putting on of a shirt ouer the souldi∣ers apparell or armour; the vvhich is vsed in the night time, vvhen any suddaine exploit or peece of seruice is to be put in practise vpon the enemy, vnexpected or vnseene, to the ende that the attempters may thereby the better one know and discerne another.
  • Campania, an Italian vvord, and is a field.
  • Campania Raza, an open field vvithout hedge, ditch, or other incombrance, razed playne.
  • Campe-maister, in Spanish Maestro del Campo, is a Colonell: being the chiefe Commander or officer ouer one Regiment or Tertio.
  • Camp maister Generall, in Spanish, Maestre del Campo Generall, is a great Commander, and is with vs the high Marshall of the field.
  • Castellano, is the Captaine or Commander of a Citadell, or Castel, as in Millan, Antwerp, Metz, and such other places.
  • Cannonera, a Spanish word, and is the place or roome where the Cannon is placed in a bulwarke.
  • Casamatta, a Spanish word, and doth signifie a slaughter-house, and is a place built low vnder the wall or bulwarke, not arriuing vnto the height of the ditch, seruing to scowre the ditch, annoying the enemy when he entreth into the ditch to skale the wall.
  • Cauagleria, an Italian woord, and is the Companies of souldiers seruing on horsebacke, of what sort soeuer.
  • Cauaglere, an Italian word, and signifieth a Gentleman seruing on horsebacke, but in fortificati∣ons, a Caualiere is a mount or platforme of earth, built and raised high, either within or without the wall for to plant great Ordinance vpon.
  • Page  [unnumbered]Caualliere à Cauallio, is a high mount or platforme of earth raised very high, so that the Artillery vpon the same, may shoote ouer the walles and bulwarkes, to scoure and cleare the fields all about.
  • Centre, a French vvord, is the middle of a battell, or other things.
  • Centinell, a Spanish vvord, and signifieth the souldier vvhich is set to vvatch at a station or post, a certaine distance from the Corps de guard, or in a certaine litle garret or vvatch house vpon the vvalles, or at certaine places in the field without the ring of the Campe.
  • Centuria, vvas amongst the Romaines, a companie of Souldiers to the number of 100: whose Captaine vvas called Centurio.
  • Cohort, was, amongest the Romaines, the 10 part of a Legion.
  • Chieffront, a French vvord, is the arming for the forehead of the horse.
  • Conuoye, a French vvord, is a certaine guard of souldiers, sent to conduct and guard, victuall, victualers, marchants, munition, and such like, from one place vnto another.
  • Contra Round, an Italian vvord, is a certaine number of commanders and officers going, visiting the Corps de guard, vvatches, Sentinels, and also the Roundes, to see if they performe their duties and be vigilant and carefull.
  • Colonell or Coronell, a french vvord, is the commander of a regiment of certaine companies of souldiers, called with the Spaniards Maestre del Campo.
  • Contrafront, or spurre, is the inner part of the vvall of a bulwarke.
  • Citadella, an Italian vvord, is a Castell or spacious fort, built, not onely to defend the City, but also to keepe the same in awe and subiection, as that at Antwerp, Millan, and Na∣ples, &c.
  • Cornet, a French vvord, is the ensigne vvhich is caried by the Launciers.
  • Corps de guard, a French vvord, is the body of a vvatch, of a certaine number of souldiers set for such purposes.
  • Corslet, a French vvord, is the armour of a foote souldier, complete.
  • Criniere, a French vvord, is the armings of the horse mane or necke.
  • Cuisset, is the armings of a horseman, for his thigh vnto the knees.
  • Cuyratz, a French vvord, is the arming of the body, the breast part and backe part only, either of horseman or footman.
  • Colours, a vvord vsed by vs, for the Ensigne, being of variable colours.
  • Curtine, a French vvord, is the long vvall running leuell from bulwarke to bulwarke.
    D E
  • Enginero, a Spanish vvord, is one skilfull in fortifications, and other machines and stratagems for warre.
  • Escalada, a Spanish vocable, and is the skaling of a wall or fort with ladders.
  • Esquadra, a Spanish vvord, is a certaine part of a company of souldiers of some 20 or 25 souldiers vvhose chiefe is che Caporall.
  • Fila, an Italian vvord, is the order, row, or line of all such souldiers as do stand or march conse∣quently on after another, in ordinance or aray of battell, extending from the front vnto the traine of the battell.
  • Flancque, a French vvord, is the side of any squadron of men.
  • Fronte, a French vvord, is the face or forepart of a squadron or battell.
  • Front, is also the forepart of a vvall or bulwarke.
  • Forlorne Sentinell, a compound vvord of Dutch and French: and is a souldier either horseman Page  [unnumbered] or footeman, set to vvatch and espie the enemies desseignes, neare vnto the enemy, and with∣out the vvord: for sundry consideratins.
  • Garrita, a Spanish vvord, is a little vvatch house or towre, for the souldier to stand in at Sen∣tinell, seated vpon the walles.
  • Grueues, a French vvord, is the arming for the legges, from the knees downeward.
  • Guantlet, a French vocable, is the arming or gloue to the hand.
  • Guidon, a French vvord, is the ensigne vvhich is borne vvith the shot on hosebacke.
  • Hargubuzier a French vvord, and is the souldier, carying and vsing a peece called a calliuer or Hargubuz.
  • Harguluttier, an Italian and French vvord, and is the souldier seruing on horsebacke, vnar∣med, vsing a calliuer with a snap hance.
  • Infanteria, an Italian vvord, is all sort of foote souldiers.
    K L
  • Launcier, a French vvord, is a souldier on horsebacke, armed and vsing a Launce for his chiefe vveapon, but not so heauily armed, as is the man at armes, and therefore of some called a Demilance.
  • Legion, amongst the auncient Romaines, vvas certaine companies of their people of vvarre: con∣sisting of 5 or 6000 footemen, and 300 horsemen.
  • Maniple, is a part of so many rankes and files of souldiers thoroughout a battell or squadron of pikes, drawne foorth to march thorough any straight or narrow passage.
  • Maestre del Campo, vvith the Spaniards, is as our Coronell vvith vs.
  • Mayordome, is vvith the Italian and Spaniard, the steward of a house; but in vvar he is the stew∣ard and Guardian of the munition for vvarre.
  • Moderne warre, is the new order of vvarre vsed in our age,
  • Miditerraneall, is Inland countrie, or countries distant from the sea.
  • Maritime, is sea coast countrie, or countries adioyning vnto the sea.
    N O
  • Orecch one, an Italian vocable, is the part of a bulwarke vvhich is called by some, the pome, guard, or shoulder.
  • Parapet, an Italian vvord, is the vpper part of the vvall, vvhich shadoweth the souldiers from the sight and annoyances of the enemy.
  • Pendent, is the bending or slopenesse of the Parapet outward.
  • Pelmell, a French word, and signifieth the mingling of men together, buckling by the bosome one with another.
  • Percluis, a French word, is the grate, either of iron or wood, framed within a gate or port of a citie or Castell, to be let fall or slipped downe, to barre the enemies entrance.
  • Page  [unnumbered]Pectron, a French word: is the arming of the brest of the horse.
  • Place of armes generall: is the place of assemblie, where the people of warre are ranged in order of battell.
  • Phalanx, a Greeke word: an order of imbattelling of men in one graund square, vsed by the Gre∣cians.
  • Pietranelli, an Italian word, and is the souldiers seruing on horsebacke, well armed with a paire of Cuyrasses, and weaponed with a fire-locke peece or snap-hance.
  • Pistollier, a French word; and is the souldier on horse backe, armed as the Pietranell, weaponed with a pistoll.
  • Pouldron, a French word, and is the shoulder arming.
  • Posta, a Spanish word, and is the place or station where the Sentinell souldier is set to stand at guard and watch.
  • Quarter, is the part of a Campe, whereon any companies, or numbers of horsemen or footemen be quartered and lodged.
  • Quarteret, is the diminutiue of quarter.
  • Ranke, is the row, order or aray of soldiers standing shoulder by shoulder, extending from flanke to flanke throughout the battell or ordinance.
  • Rauelline, or Tenaza, a Spanish word: and is the vttermost boundes of the wals of the Castell or skances without the walles.
  • Rampier, a French word, and is a fortification or wall of earth.
  • Regiment, a Dutch word, is a number of sundry companies vnder the charge of a Colonell.
  • Recoia, a Spanish word: and signifieth the call or assembling of the souldiers together into the place of armes, by the sound of the drumme.
  • Ronda, an Italian and Spanish word: and is a company of certaine souldiers and officers, which do go visiting the Corps de guards, Sentinels and watches at sundry houres in the night, to cause them obserue order: and to see whether they be vigilant and ready.
  • Roupt, a French word; and signifieth the breaking of a squadron, troupe, or battell, and turning to flight.
  • Sallie, a French word: and is an issuing foorth of men to skirmish or fight: and is also a secret issue for the souldiers to passe out of a wall, bulwarke, or fort.
  • Srerée, a French word: and is when the souldiers in squadron do ioyne and locke close together, thereby to become the more strong.
  • Serracenesca, a Spanish word: and is the percluis or grate of a gate.
  • Skance, a Dutch word: and is a small fortresse built of turffe and earth, commonly vsed in the low countries.
  • Scalada, a Spanish word, is a skaling of a wall with ladders.
  • Spontone, an Italian word: is a small long instrument of iron, sharpe at the ende, to thrust thorough anie loade of haie, straw, or such like, to proue if any souldiers lie hidden within the same.
  • Squadra, a Spanish word: and is a certaine part of a company of some 20, or 25 souldiers, whose chiefe is the Caporall.
  • Squadron, a Spanish word, and is a great number of souldiers pikemen reduced in arraies to march and also is a certaine companie of musketiers framed in order to march of fight, and is also a certaine number of men, aranged in order to march, or charge.
  • Taladro, a Spanish word, and is an instrument or engine to mount any peece of ordinance vp into Page  [unnumbered] Cariage.
  • Taisses, a French vvord, and is the arming of the thighes, annexed vnto the forepart of the Corslet.
  • Terraplene, an Italian vvord, and is the earth that is rampired and filled vp vnto the inside of any vvall or bulwarke.
  • Tertio, a Spanish vvord, and is a Regiment of souldiers.
  • Tertiare, a Spanish vvord, and is to third the pike, either to beare the same vpon his shoulder, or to charge the same euer hand.
  • Trauessa, a Spanish vvord, and is a flanker of a wall.
  • Tragon, is the reareward of the squadron, or battell.
  • Trench, a French vvord, is the ditch about the vvall.
  • Tenaza, a Spanish vvord, is a little hold or Keepe made of one Curtine or Bulwarke.
  • Vanbraces, a French vvord, and is the armings for the arme from the pouldrons downeward to the hand vvrest,
  • Vanguard, a French vvord, and signifieth the forepart of the battell.
  • Vollie, a French vvord, and is vvhen any kind of shot do discharge altogether.
  • The Word, vvhich vve call the vvatch Word, and is by the French called Mot de guet, and by the Spaniard En nombre: vvich is a vvord or name deliuered by the Generall or other high Commander, to be giuen vnto other officers and souldiers, standing Sentinell at their postes, vvhereby their vvatches are nightly gouerned, &c.
Toute Puissance, honneur, glorie & louange, so it à nostre bon Dieu eternel.