The theorike and practike of moderne vvarres discoursed in dialogue vvise. VVherein is declared the neglect of martiall discipline: the inconuenience thereof: the imperfections of manie training captaines: a redresse by due regard had: the fittest weapons for our moderne vvarre: the vse of the same: the parts of a perfect souldier in generall and in particular: the officers in degrees, with their seuerall duties: the imbattailing of men in formes now most in vse: with figures and tables to the same: with sundrie other martiall points. VVritten by Robert Barret. Comprehended in sixe bookes.
Barret, Robert, fl. 1600.
Page  240

The Election, charge, office and dutie of a Castellano, or Captaine of a Citadell, Castell, Fortresse, or fortified towne, or any other such place of defence.


VVherein is set foorth the parts to be required in a Captaine of a Castell: his loy∣alty, duty, and charge: his care in time conuenient, for all necessaries and munitions: the duty of the souldiers in the defence therof: the order in set∣ting the watch, and placing the Sentinels; with relieuing of the same: with the shutting in of the gates, and their opening againe.


THe guard and keeping of Citadels, Castels, Fortresses, strong Townes and Fortes, are (or ought to be) bestowed vpon such per∣sonages, whose vertue,* valour, experience, wisdome, constancy, and (aboue all) loyaltie, shall merite and best befit the same. And therefore (in mine opinion) the guard and custody of such places, ought to be bestowed and incommended vpon such Captaines and old seruitors, as haue in martiall affaires and actions, spent the greatest part of their time: and whose vertue, valour, magnanimitie, resolution, and (as I sayd) aboue all, loyalty, hath in all the courses of their military life bin well proued, shewed, and made manifest to the world.


*Truly (in mine opinion) it should bee so indeede, but yet we see that in our age such choyses are not so made, but rather fauour and affection commonly carieth all: to the preiudice (no doubt) of many approued old souldiers, and men best befitting the place.


Well, how they are bestowed and incommended, I haue not now to speake; but how (in mine opinion) they should be, and vpon what sort of men, I haue already sayd: which would be no small encouragement vnto all braue min∣ded men,* which follow warres, to singular themselues therein; seeing and know∣ing that their vertues, valour, and good cariage in seruice, should in the end be re∣garded, commended, and rewarded.


But I pray what particular parts would you wish to be in one chosen to this charge and office?


First, I could wish that such should be personages issuing from Gentle and Noble bloud;* or men whose noble actions, and vertues haue enobled them∣selues: of both the which sorts, there might be many examples recited, but time permitteth me not. And besides the former nobility, the Captaine of such a Castell or Fort, ought to be loyall, valiant, vigilant, ready, resolute, and experi∣mented Page  241 in all occurrants of warre; whereby he might both foresee the enemies desseignes, preuent their pretences, and resolutely resist their attempts, and to be most valiant, resolute, and constant in the very points and pinches of furious bat∣teries, fierce assaults, and daungerous mineworkes: whereby the souldiers imita∣ting their Captaine,* shall shew themselues the like: by the which valour, con∣stancy, and vertue, both of Captaine and souldiers, many places of defence, ha∣uing bin made open by battery,* and attempted by fierce assaults, haue neuer∣thelesse beene wonderfully and valiantly defended and kept, to their immortall praise, and their Princes profit and honour. And on the contrary, if the Cap∣taine be carelesse,* cowardly, insolent, disloyall, and trayterous, the end of his acti∣ons are dishonour, shame, and confusion vnto himselfe, and great losse and hinderance vnto his Prince; of both which sorts many examples might be produ∣ced, to the prayse and honour of the first, and to the dishonour and shame of the last.


But if the Captaine should bee disloyall, and practise any secret treason with the enemy, are the souldiers to obey his orders and commaundes, percei∣uing and suspecting the same.


No,* in no maner or sort, for although the souldier be bound to obey his Captaine in all military courses and commaundes (as Lieutenant then to his Prince) so long as hee remaineth in the fidelity and true loyalty vnto his Prince; yet hauing once falsified his faith, and lost his loyalty; and thereby turned from a true subiect,* a traytor to his Prince & country; they are in no respect, to follow or obay him: for at the very point of his first conceipt of treason, he is no more the Kings liege officer, nor the true Captaine or Commander of his souldiers, but is become a souldier to the enemie, and an enemy to the Princes souldiers.


But what are they to doe, when they shall see their ensigne to march out before them by their Captaines order and commaund, to surrender vp the place.


As they are not bound to any Captaine except they see his authoritie and warrant from their Prince or Generall;* so being in garrison in any Castell or place of defence, and their Captaine commanding them to issue out, and so to for∣sake the place, they are not to obey him therein, without seeing an expresse order from their Prince or General to that effect: for it is no sufficent excuse for them to say, that they were deceiued by him, vnto whom they were bound to follow and obey, seeing the place to be forsaken, without dismantelling and razing downe the same; and the enemy attending his entrance thereinto; then and in such ca∣ses should the honest souldier refuse the same, electing and chusing another chiefe to gouerne and rule them vntill they haue giuen aduise thereof vnto their Prince or Generall; valiantly resisting all attempts offered by the enemy.


If by chaunce vpon any battery or assault giuen,* their Captaine through pusillanimitie and cowardize, should commaund the souldiers to retire, willing them that they should reserue themselues to serue their Prince in other actions, giuing order to withdraw them within the Citadel, Fort, or Keepe, or vn∣to any other place, where they might thinke to saue their liues without fight or blowes; and so yeelding in fine to the enemie: what are they in such case to doe?

Page  242

*If the Captaine do certainely perceiue & see that they stand ouer any dan∣gerous mines, or in place ouer open to the fury of the battring Artillery; and vpon these occasions should commaund and constraine them to retire and withdraw themselues, they ought herein to beleeue, to follow, and to obey him: but if they should perfectly know and perceiue, that, onely for cowardize and basenesse of mind,* and not constrained thereunto by force of the enemies weapon, he should commaund them to such retiring, in such a case, they ought not onely, not to o∣bey him, but to turne their weapons vpon him, as against a bad officer, and an e∣uill seruant of their Prince, and to expect and hope (by valiantly defending the place or breach, like braue men of warre) for better fortune, then they should find within the Keepe of the Castell or such other place of retraite: and doing otherwise, they are sure to be esteemed infamous, and not worthy to cary armes. For many times it hath bene seene, that many batteries, and forts and many ships and gallions of warre, haue beene lost and taken by the enemies, thorough onely the cold, and fearefull fighting of the defendants: and many againe haue beene as valiantly defended and kept, by a few braue and resolute defen∣dants; that the enemie hath beene constrained to retire, with dishonour, losse, and shame.


*Such Captaines and souldiers as haue thus behaued themselues valiant and resolute, no doubt but the Prince doth, or ought to esteeme of them, to honor them, and to reward them: but the timerous and cowardly Captaines, and fain∣ting defendants, how is the Prince or Generall to deale with them?


Mary to dispose of them according to the quality of their offence, at the least to depose them from their charge and place;* commaunding them to serue as common souldiers, vntill they attaine vnto more valour and skill, fit for a valiant Captaine,* as did the Dictator Lucius Quintius Cincinatus, depose from the Con∣sulship, Lucius Minutius, for his cold and cowardly cariage against Clodius Gracchus, Captaine of the Egues and Vulcies (a people bordering vpon Rome.) For a valiant & resolute Captaine ought neuer to surrender the place committed vnto his defence and charge,* though thereunto constrained by woundes, wants, or such like crosse accidents of warre, except all hope of reliefe be past, and extremi∣ties do abound: no, nor then neither but with honourable conditions, as did Sir Roger VVilliams, and Sir Thomas Baskeruile, with other braue English souldiers and Captaines, at the besieging of Sluys, by the great power of the Prince of Parma.

And it importeth much, that the souldiers also, which are to be chosen and appointed for the guard and defence of any fortresse,* towne, or Castell, should be men of good experience in warres, wise, sober, valiant; and aboue all, to haue no signe nor tatch of disloyalty or treason. For many times disloyall souldiers haue bin cause of the losse and ruine of many strong places, yea in despight of their Commanders and Captaines teeth.

And to the end that his souldiers commit no such foule disloyalties, or any dis∣ordered mutinies,* it behoueth the Captaine to entreate them well, and with all humanity and kindnesse; thereby binding them rather to loose their liues in defence of his reputation and honor, then to commit any vilety or treason, as ma∣ny times hath bin seene.

Page  243Also the Captaine of a Castell or Fortresse,* ought to prouide and procure all things necessary and fit for defence of the place, as wel for the munition & artille∣ry, as for all prouision of victuals conuenient for their maintenance and foode: al∣wayes soliciting his Prince for the same; & that in good & conuenient times, that nothing be found wanting in time of neede & seruice:* through which negligence, many times sundry strong Forts haue bin lost, & many braue actiōs ouerthrowne; whereof we haue too many examples extant before our eyes.

Moreouer it behoueth the Captaine not to be ouer credulous:* for many haue bin deceiued by coūterfeit letters & false messages, as was Captaine Sansier, who being at the guard & defence of San Desyre for Francis the French king, & being beleaguerd by the Emperor Charles the fift, by meanes of counterfeit letters, sur∣rendred vp the place, to the dammage of his king, and to his owne reproch & dis∣honour.* The like stratageme was practised by the Marquis de Guasto vnto Carolus Drusio, Captaine of Mondeuy in Piemont; surrendring thereby the place commit∣ted to his charge.


If the Captaine do chance to dy, or be slaine in the defence of this Castel, what orders are the souldiers to obserue in their gouernement thereof, vntil their Prince do giue other order and commaund?


The souldiers in garrison within such Fortresse or place of defence, are to elect & chuse the most sufficient & principallest man amongst them (except there be any Lieutenant,* son, or other kinsman of the sayd Captaine, vnto whō by right the same doth appertaine) & such one preferred before the rest, him to sweare, ac∣cording to the custome, to be loyal & true, & to do his best to defend the same frō the enemies: & also to render the same again vnto the Prince or Lord therof, whē¦soeuer it shall be demanded. The like order is to be taken by the Captaine of the Castel, towne, or Fortresse, with his Lieutenant, if at any time, vpon occasion, he is to depart out of his place of charge.


And if it fortune that the Captaine be taken by the enemy at any sallying forth; & the enemy would constraine him to deliuer vp the sayd place, is the Lieu∣tenant and souldiers bound to obey him, if he require the same?


No truly, although they should see the enemies to kill & murder him for the same:*or their fidelity & alleageance is no more due vnto him, being taken, & held prisoner, as it was whilest he was free, but vnto their Prince, who oweth the Castell.

Page  244

VVherin is declared and recited the orders obserued by the Spaniards, in the Ci∣tadels of Millan and Antwerp: their order of watches, guards and Sen∣tinels: their sundry visitings and reuisitings; and relieuings at sundry times: the parts and duties of the officers therein: their singular care in the good guarding thereof, with sundrie other Martiall points, neces∣sarie to be noted.


WHat orders are obserued in the guards and keeping of such Castels Forts, and places of defence?


They are not alike in euery Fort or place; neither is there the like garrison and places of guard in one, as is in another: there∣fore I cannot precisely satisfie you herein: for I haue seene very little in any of our English townes of strength and Fortresses, for that wee haue very few (Barwicke onely excepted:*) but to giue you some content, I will de∣clare vnto you the orders obserued by the Spaniards in the Castell of Millan, which is one of the principallest Forts in Europe.*

The guardes and order of watches obserued in the Castell of Millan.

*There is ordinarily in the Castell of Millan 30 postes, or places of guard, whereof the first 15 from 4 to 4 souldiers in each, are in the three Rauellins, and in the Tenaza or Keepe, which stands without the body of the Castell; for being places of most importance and trauailes: and the other 15 are within; from 3 to 3 souldiers, euery night deuiding euery of them into three quarters, and euery day, as hereafter followeth.

*In these 30 postes doth euery day remaine one souldier at the Sentinell; and those that do remaine ouer, are reparted and placed into the 3 Corps de guards of the gates: euery night there entreth foure Caporals into the watch: the one go∣eth into the Tenaza, with the souldiers which are to enter into the same; and there doth continue and assist vntill the next morning, hauing first the order giuen him, what he is to doe, if the Alarme be giuen or striken.

The other three do remaine within the body or place of the Castell, and are de∣uided into their quarters. The first, in the time of winter maketh his Roūds & coū∣ter Roundes for sixe houres,* with 4 souldiers in Round and contra Round. The second roundeth the Modorra, or second watch, for fiue houres; with other 4 souldiers in Round and counter Round. And the third doth Round from that ex∣pired time, vntill day light or dawning, with other foure souldiers in like sort, in Round and contra Round: in such maner and sort, that the Sentinels, as well with∣in, as without, are visited at the least, ten or twelue times euery houre a peece.

*There entreth into the Rauellynes 4 Gunners for watch; the rest do remaine Page  245 within the body of the Castell.* One of the chiefe officers doth keepe his watch euery night vpon the walles, and there are the Castellane, his Lieutenant, Cap∣taine, Alferez and Sergeant. And neuerthelesse that which toucheth them by du∣ty, they do euery one giue a turne vpon the walles once euery night, in such sort, that of all these the Sentinels are visited ordinarily euery night. Two houres be∣fore the shutting in of the euening,* doth the Sergeant set the watch; and vntill the gates be shut fast, doth no souldier within the Castell know where he is to be placed, or his post; and in setting the same, hee goeth with those that are to re∣maine in the Tenaza and Rauelines: and with these there goeth sixteene other souldiers with two Caporals,* accompanying and attending vpon the keyes wherewith the porter doth locke the gates, and draw-bridges, and the Sergeant doth taste and proue with his hand, euery locke so locked and shut.

The principall gates and draw-bridges of the Castell,* are drawne vp, and shut in at the edge of the euening; and the Alferez doth feele and proue them, and the Lieutenant, and Captaine standeth present to see the same so done: and hauing locked and shut all fast and sure, all these three officers, with the Sergeant and twentie souldiers do go cary the keyes vnto the Castellanes lodging,* or vnto the Lieutenants lodging, if the Castellane himselfe bee not within the Castell. The Sergeant receiueth and taketh the word from the Castellane or his Lieutenant,* and giueth the same vnto the other officers and Caporals which are of the watch, and then presently vnto all the other Sentinels, which are first vpon the walles within the body of the Castell:* and vnto those which watch without in the Raue∣lines and Tenaza, the word is not giuen at all. After that the gates of the Castel be shut in, there goeth a Cabo de squadra or Caporal, with two other soldiers round a∣bout to view and reknowledge the same; and to know and see what strangers there remaine within;* as in the tauerns and victualing houses, in the butchery, in the bakery, & among the Gun-makers, the Gun-powder-makers, & Armourers and such like. And of all such as he findeth there, he giueth account and notice vnto the Captaine, or Alferez, or Sergeant; and these againe do aduertise the Castel∣lane, and in his absence the Lieutenant. And in the day time a Gunner with an o∣ther officer, goeth to reknowledge and view all the Artillery of the Castell, as wel those within, as those without in the Rauelines.

In the morning after that the drumme hath striken the Aluarado, or breaking vp or discharging of the watch,* the Alferes, with twenty souldiers and foure Ca∣porals goeth vnto the lodging of the Castellane to receiue the keyes, and then go∣eth to open the Tenaza, and Rauelines: and then commeth the Corps de guard of the principall gate, and ringeth a little bell to call together and assemble those that are at the watch: and after being together, they do open the Castell gates, with all the watch and other officers present in this maner.

The Castellanes Lieutenant remaineth at the first gate, in the inner part there∣of, with one troupe or part of the souldiers, and the rest of the guard being issued out, they shut the same againe, and goe to open the second gate, where a Cap∣taine and Sergeant with another troupe of souldiers do stay and remaine, and then the guard of the third gate being issued out with the Alferez, they shut also the second; and doe open none of these, neither do the souldiers disarme them∣selues, Page  246 vntill the place of the Castell be very well reknowledged and thoroughly viewed.

*In the first gate of the principall bridge, there remaines in the day time 50 souldiers at the ward, with a Caporall, who taketh account and charge of the opening and shutting thereof; and there is ioyntly with them the Alferez, who keepeth account and reckening with those which enter in from abrode: and if it be any stranger that commeth for some affaires or businesse into the Castel, there goeth with euery such, one souldier of the guard, notwithstanding that they haue passed thorough the hands of the Lieutenant, or in his absence through the hands of the Captaine of Infantery.

*At the middle gate there is another Corps de guard, containing other 30 souldiers, with two Caporals, and with these doth continually assist the Lieute∣nant of the Castell, a Captaine of infantery, and a Sergeant. And there is the as∣sembly and concourse of all the souldiers; so that besides those which be of the watch, there is continually 70 or 80 other souldiers, or more.

*At the gate within the Castell there is 16 souldiers, and with them one Capo∣porall.

Betwixt ten and eleuen of the clocke in the day time they shut the gates, to go vnto their dinner,* and then there goeth vpon the walles, eight souldiers with an officer, which do go the Round and Contra Round, whilest the rest bee at dinner.

The souldiers do remaine at their dinner time one houre, and in opening the Castell gates againe,* they chaunge the postes or wardes vntill three of the clocke; and at that houre againe they go and chaunge them a fresh, vntill it bee night.

And in the opening of the gates after dinner, they obserue the same order as they did in the morning. They haue a consideration and reguard, if the day do in∣crease or diminish,* as concerning the deuiding of the houres, and in opening and shutting the gates, according to the same order.

There hangeth at euery post or watch turret vpon the walles, a little bell at each,* of seuerall soundes, wherewith the Sentinels do answer one another euery quarter or halfe houre.

All the day there goeth continually two souldiers the Round and Contra ound;* the which do chaunge, and are relieued by their quarters (as are in like sort the Sentinels vpon the walles) hauing a care and reguard vnto the Artillery, and to see if any persons not belonging to the Castell, doth come vp vpon the same, without licence of the Castellane, or his Lieutenant: and finding any such person in such manner, they giue knowledge thereof vnto the Castellane or vnto his officers, to the end that the cause might be knowne why any such doth mount vp vnto the walles.

Euery one of the Caporals that are within the Castell, hath his quarter assig∣ned him with his squadra,* and euery night doth visite the souldiers in the same; and see whether they haue their bullets, powder, match, and all other armes in a readinesse; and whether any souldier do lodge or sleepe without the Castell by night, without leaue and licence of his superior officer.

Page  247And euery morning before the opening of the gates,* the said Caporals do giue an account particularly vnto the Captaine of al the faults in this sort committed the which are punished according to the orders that be prouided and made for euery matter concerning the sayd Castell.

Also the higher officers and Caporals haue their quarters deuided & appoin∣ted,* where euery one doth know whither to repaire with the soldiers of his charge, if the Alarme be giuen.

Euery Saturday doth an officer with sixe souldiers go and visite and reknow∣ledge all the Contra Mines.*

The Castellane hath one key of the chest, where all the keyes are locked, and the Lieutenant keepeth another, to the end that if any suddaine occasion be of∣fered, repaire might be made vnto him which is next at hand: these keyes are not the ordinary keyes.

And thus, all these things being knowne and well considered, any Castellane, or Captaine of any Fortresse or place of defence, may alter, adde, or diminish that which vnto him shall seeme good, for the good gouernement and defence of his place of charge.