The theorike and practike of moderne vvarres discoursed in dialogue vvise. VVherein is declared the neglect of martiall discipline: the inconuenience thereof: the imperfections of manie training captaines: a redresse by due regard had: the fittest weapons for our moderne vvarre: the vse of the same: the parts of a perfect souldier in generall and in particular: the officers in degrees, with their seuerall duties: the imbattailing of men in formes now most in vse: with figures and tables to the same: with sundrie other martiall points. VVritten by Robert Barret. Comprehended in sixe bookes.
Barret, Robert, fl. 1600.
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THE FOVRTH DIALOGVE.

VVherein is set downe the forme, order, and Arithmeticall rules, for an encampe∣ment, both horse and foote, with the quantitie of ground for euery man and horse, his roome and station, and the plats to the same, &c.

Captaine.

NOw for the better declaration of these allodgements and en∣camping, we will giue an example with his figure. To en∣campe therefore an Armie in Campania, with his due mea∣sures, well proportioned, according vnto the seate and place, it is necessarie to know the superficies or face of the quarters of the Cauallerie and Infanterie, with their due places and streets, and other things necessary to the seruice of the campe.

And for example;* Let vs suppose to make an encampement of 36000 figh∣ting men: that is to say; 1000 men at armes; 3000 Lanciers, and 2000 light horse and Hargulutiers: and of footemen 15000 shot, 12000 pikes, and 3000 short weapons.* Vnto euery man at Armes, we will allow 8 lodgings, and vnto euery Lancier and Hargulutier we will allow 4 lodgings: and vnto euery roome or lodging, as well of Lanciers and light horse, as men at Armes, we will giue 50 superficiall foote of ground, which shalbe 5 foot in breadth, and 10 foote in length, as in this figure may appeare.

[illustration]

And vnto euery foote souldier,* with his furniture, we will allow 64 superfi∣ciall foote of ground for his lodging: which shall be 8 foote in length, and 8 foote in breadth, as appeareth by this figure.

[illustration]

This being knowne, you shall then in the most commodious place about the Page  156 middest of the ground where you meane to encampe,* set vp the Generals stan∣derd, and about the same, stake out a square plat of ground of fiftie or threescore pases square, for the Generals pauillion and place. Then shall be lined out two straight streetes, which shall come to cut or crosse one another at right angles in the middest of the Generals place;* the which are called the principall streets, or Captaine wayes, extending East and West, and North and South, or as the seate and region will permit. At the head of euerie one of the which, shall be a guard and watch toward the enemie,* and an issuing out of the Campe. The which two long streetes, crossed at right angles, as is aforesaid, commeth to quar∣ter your encamping ground into foure equall parts, the center whereof shall be the Generals pauillion and place, and the other allodgements and quarters to be distinguished as in the Plat following shall at large and particularly appeare.*

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Page  157

The first plat of encampment.

An encampment of 30000 footemen, and 6000 horseme, allodged and fortified in an open Campania: hauing a riuer running on the one side.

  • Sorted 15000 shot.
  • Sorted 12000 pikes.
  • Sorted 03000 short weapons.
  • summe 30000 footemen.
  • Sorted 1000 men at armes.
  • Sorted 3000 Launciers.
  • Sorted 2000 Light horse shot.
  • summe 6000 horsemen.

[illustration]

In this first figured plat of encampement of 30000 footmen and 6000 horsemen, distinguished and quartered as particularly aboue appeareth, I haue seated the Generall with some other chiefe Com∣manders, in the center of all the men of warre, as by their seuerall descriptions may be seene. I haue moreouer distinguished the said camp into the vsual names of Vauward, Battel, & Rereward, the pikes and shot, marked with the letter A, do belong to the Vauward, vnto whom do answere the Launciers, marked with the sayd letter A. And those marked with the letter B; do betoken the battell; vnto them do answer the men at armes, marked with B, also. And those marked with the letter C, are for the rere∣gard, vnto whom do answer the light horse or Carbins, signed with the like letter C. The farther decla∣ration, practike rule, and order of the said encampement, shall on the next side following be at large declared and shewne.

Page  158

The second figure of encampment.

This figure denoteth an incamping in a valley betwixt 2 hils, with a small riuer running in the midst: the one of the sayd hils being neare vnto the campe, is to be fortified as appeareth: and the other being a suffi∣cient distance off; not.

[illustration]

You are to vnderstand that in this figured incampement, the letter A doth signifie the places of armes of the quarters of the Cauallery and Infantery, with the Generall his place in the middest; and also the place of Armes generall: and all the streets and spaces betwixt the trenches and the lodgings or quarters. The letter B doth signifie the quarters of the Launciers, and light horse: the letter C, the quarters of the men at Armes: the letter D denoteth the quarter of the Infantery, pikes, and shot: the letter E, the place of munition of the Artillery: the letter F, the allodgements of the chiefe officers, and Noblemen: the letter G, the marketplace; the place of munition of victuals: the letter I doth signifie the roomes for the pīoners, artificers, and the cattell that is to be slaughtered for the vse of the campe (with this prouiso, that there be none slaughtered within the trenches, nor any garbage, nor other filth there to be suffered.) Finally the letter K denoteth the fort vpon the hill, or little mount.

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Page  159
Capt.

In the first of these two figured plats of encampement of 30000 foote∣men, and 6000 horsemen,* distinguished as there appeareth; I haue dissigned for the Generals pauillion and place, 80 pases square, comprehending therein the breadth of the two maine streets, of 20 pases each in breadth. Vpon one quar∣ter of the Generals place, is lodged the Lord Marshall and his retinew; vpon ano∣ther quarter is lodged the Treasurer, with extraordinary Gentlemen and Embas∣sadors: vpon another quarter is the munition of victuals; and vpon the last quar∣ter, is made the place of market: euery of these 4 quarters, and places containing their narrow front, butting vpon the maine street South & North, & East & West, 45 pases and in length 63 pases, fronting along the small crosse streets. Round a∣bout three of the said quarters, is drawne a smal streete, of 10 pases broade, and on the other part is a streete running, of 15 pases broade: without the which streets, vpon the one side of the Generals place, and the other two places of the Lord Mar∣shall, and munition of victuals,* I haue quartered the 1000 men at armes in 4 little quarterets containing in euery quarteret 250 men at armes: allowing for euery man at armes 6 allodgements, and 2 allodgements for his place of armes, which are 8 allodgements; containing euery allodgement 50 superficiall foote of ground,* that is, 10 foote in length, and 5 for breadth. Now, the working thereof is thus: multiply the 1000 men at armes by 8 allodgements, it maketh 8000 al∣lodgements, the which 8000 multiply againe by 50 foote superficiall, which is allowed for euery allodgement, and it maketh 400000 superficiall foote; the which 400000,* deuide by 25, it commeth out to be 16000 pases superficiall, for 25 superficiall foote, do make a superficiall pase. So the 1000 men at armes doe require, 16000 pases superficiall for their quarters, and place of armes. Now to deuide these 1000 men at armes into 4 litle quarterets, each quarteret cōtaining 250 men at armes, deuide the 16000 pases superficiall by 4, and the product will be 4000 superficiall pases for euery quarteret, whose square roote is 63, for the square of each quarteret, being quartered one way, with the great maine streete of 20 pases broade,* and the other way with a lesser streete of 10 pases broade. Now to know the square side of all these 4 quarterets, extract the quadrat root of the 16000 superficiall pases, being 126 pases, and that is the due square of euery side. Finally to know what square of ground, the place of armes for these thousand men at armes shall containe, multiply the 1000 men at armes by two allodge∣ments of euery man, and it amounteth 2000 allodgements: then againe mul∣tiply these 2000 by 50 foote superficiall for each allodgement, and it maketh 100000 superficiall foote, this 100000 superficiall foote, deuide by 25, to bring them into superficiall pases, and it produceth 4000 pases superficiall; of this 4000 pases superficiall take the quadrat roote, which commeth out to be 63 pases square, little more.

Thus the place of armes of these 4 little quarterets, cōtaining in them all 1000 men at armes, doth containe 63 pases square, besides the breadth of the two streets, which crosse the quarters, not comprehended therein. Vpon the other side of the Generals place, and also without the two other places of market, and Noblemens lodgings, Southward, I haue dissigned the 2000 light horse, or Car∣bins, deuided from the same by a street of 10 pases broade: vnto euery light horse I haue allowed 3 allodgements, and one allodgement for his place of armes, which doe make 4 allodgements for euery lighthorse. Now to multiply the Page  160 2000 light horse by 4, and it produceth 8000 allodgements: then I multiply a∣gaine the 8000 by 50 foote, and it amounteth vnto 40000 foote superficiall; then to bring thē into superficiall pases, I deuide the 4000000 foot by 25 (for 25 super∣ficiall foot, do make a superficiall pase) and the product will be 16000 superficiall pases,* for their quarters and places of armes. Now, to repart these 2000 light-horse into 4 litle quarterets, ech quarteret cōtaining 500 light-horse, I deuide the 16000 pases superficiall by 4, and the product is 4000 superficiall pases, for eue∣ry quarteret, the square roote whereof is 63, being quartered one way with the great maine streete of 20 pases broade, running North and South, and the other way with a lesser streete of 10 pases broade, running East and West. Now againe, to know the square side of all these 4 quarterets; take the quadrat roote of the 16000 superficiall pases, which is 126 and little more, and that is the due square of euery side of all the 4 quarterets, not comprehending the breadth of the 2 streets which crosse the same therin; and the ½ of 126, which is 63, is the iust square side of euery one of the 4 little quarterets. And now lastly to know what quantity of ground the place of armes for these 2000 light horse will require,* I multiply the 2000 light horse by 1 allodgement, which is 50 superficiall foote, and it ma∣keth 100000 superficiall foote, the which 100000 I deuide by 25, so it commeth out to be 4000 superficiall pases, the quadrat roote whereof is 63 and a litle more, and so much containeth their place of armes, besides the breadth of the aforesayd two crosse streets, the which do enlarge their place of armes by so much. Thus are the men at armes lodged vpon one side of the Generals place, and the light horse vpon the other side, as in the plat plainely appeareth.

Next, vpon the West part of the Generals place, and without the two quarters or lodgings of the Marshall and Treasurer, with a streete of 10 pases broade be∣twixt, I haue lodged the 3000 launciers in 6 little quarterets,* containing each 500 launciers; vnto euery launcier I haue giuen 3 allodgements of 50 superficiall foote per allodgement, and 1 allodgement for his place of armes; the which are in all 4 allodgements to euery Lancier. Now, I multiply the 3000 launciers by 4 allodgements, & it amounteth 12000 allodgements, the which 12000 I multiply againe by 50 foote superficiall, and it maketh 600000 superficiall foote, the which 600000 superficiall foote to bring them into pases, I repart by 25, and it produceth 24000 superficiall pases. Now this 24000 superficiall pases, I deuide againe by 6 (for that I allodge the 3000 lanciers in 6 quarterets) and the product will bee 4000 superficiall pases for euery quarteret, the quadrat roote whereof being 63 little more, is the due square of pases euery way, of euery one of these 6 quarterets:* then againe I repart the 6000 lanciers by 6, and there cōmeth forth 500 launciers to bee allodged in euery quarteret. Now to giue vnto these 3000 launciers their conuenient places of armes, I allow vnto euery 1000 launciers their place of armes cōtained betwixt two quarterets, allowing for the same vnto euery Launcier one allodgement of 50 superficiall foote; to doe the which, I multiply the 1000 launciers (which are contained within each two quarterets) by 50 foote superficiall, being the content of one allodgement, and it amounteth 50000 superficiall foote, the which 50000 superficiall foote, to bring them into pases, I deuide by 25, and it produceth 2000 superficiall pases; the quadrat roote whereof being 45 pases little lesse, is the due square of the place of armes allowed Page  161 for 1000 lanciers, allodged within two quarterets (as in the plat appeareth) be∣sides the breadth of the streets which do deuide the same, by so much enlarging euery place of armes. Thus the 3000 launciers are deuided and allodged into 6 quarterets & vnto euery two quarterets is apointed their place of armes, as in the first plat of encampment may appeare.

Next vpon the out sides of these 6 quarterets of launciers,* and about the men at armes, and the place of victuals and market place, and lastly about the Carbines or lighthorse, haue I drawne and staked out a streete of 15 pases broade, to sepe∣rate the horse companies from the foote, as by a red line there drawne will ap∣peare. Then round about this said streete,* haue I quartered & allodged the 30000 footemen into 30 quarterets, distinguished by streets of 10 pases broade, contai∣ning in each 1000 footemen, and vnto euery two quarterets their place of armes. Now to do the which, I haue giuen vnto euery footman for his allodgement 64 superficiall foote of ground, and vnto euery one 32 superficiall foote of ground for his place of armes, both the which summes do make 96 superficiall foote of ground for euery foote souldier with the place of armes. This being done, I multiply the 30000 footemen by 96 superficiall foote, and it commeth vnto 2880000 superficiall foote of ground for the quarters of these 30000 footemen, the which 2880000 superficiall foote, I deuide by 25 to bring them into superfi∣ciall pases (for 25 superficiall foote do make a superficiall pase) and it produceth 115200 superficiall pases. Now, for as much as I doe bestow and place these 30000 footemen, round about the Generals Pauillion and place, and wthout the ring of the horsemens quarters (for the more surer guard of the Generall, and better defence of the horsemen, who are longer time in arming then are the footemen, if the enemy should offer any suddaine attempt) and for that I thinke good to deuide them into 30 quarterets;* I doe repart the sayd 115200 superficiall pases by 30, and the product will be 3840 superficiall pases for euery quarteret; the square roote whereof being 62 pases (litle lesse) is euery quarteret of 1000 foote∣men, square by euery side.

Now to giue vnto euery two quarterets their place of armes, containing each quarteret 1000 footemen,* is in both 2000 men, allowing to euery foote souldier 32 superficiall foote for his place of armes, I doe multiply the 2000 men by 32, and it amounteth vnto 64000 superficiall foote; then to bring them into pases, I deuide the 64000 pases by 25, and there commeth out 2560 superficiall pases, whose quadrat roote is 50 and little more, the which 50 pases is the due square of euery side of the place of armes belonging vnto 2 quarterets, besides the breadth of the streete which deuideth the sayd two quarterets; for by so much the more is the place of armes enlarged. Thus are the 30000 footemen lodged, and deui∣ded into 30 quarterets, containing each quarteret 1000 men; and euery square side of the sayd quarteret, doth containe 62 pases; and vnto euery 2 quarterets, is giuen their place of armes, extending each way 50 pases, besides the breadth of the streets that cutteth the same in the middest, whereby the places of armes be so much enlarged.

And because that the shot are more ready then the pikes, I haue placed almost all the shot in the ring of almost all the outmost quarterets,* to bee ready to skirmish with the enemy (if he should attempt any thing) whilest the other Page  162 foote and horse do arme themselues: the which shot being in all 15000, I haue distributed thus. In the 4 quarterets which are vpon the 4 angles of the allodge∣ments, I haue placed 750 shot, & into euery one of the other outermost quarters there is set 500 shot, being 20 outmost quarters, besides the 4 angles; so there is bestowed about the ring of the allodgements 10000 shot: more in the 4 corner quarterets 3000 shot; and the other 2000 shot are placed in the 4 other inmost quarterets, amongst the halberds and short weapons: finally, all the pikes are pla∣ced in the quarterets within the shot; as in the first plat of an encampement doth particularly appeare.

*Moreouer, vpon the North east angle of the encampement, I haue desseigned the place of munition of the Artillery, of 160 pases square; and on the South east corner of the encampement,* is there left 2 other smaler places of 65 pases broade, and 160 pases long, seruing for victualers, butchers, cookes, bakers, and such like: and without them againe, is there another long place for horses, oxen, and cattell seruing the campe: and vpon the South side of the encampement are lodged, the wagoners, carters, laborers, & some pioners: & again vpō the North side of the en∣campement,* and by the place of munition of the Artillery, is placed first, the gun∣ners, and some officers of the Ordinance, and then the carpenters, wheel-wrights, smiths, labourers, and some pioners, as there seuerally appeareth. And betwixt the place of munition of the Ordinance, & the victualers place in the midle front of the encampement, due east is placed the place of Armes general, containing in breadth 280 pases, and 160 pases in length, East and West, and vpon the after front of this place of Armes generall is placed, armourers, cutlers, and such like, and at the one front of the 2 places of the victualers, cookes, and bakers, are placed taylors,* shomakers, and such like. Moreouer the encampement is deuided East, and West with 9 streets, and it is deuided North and South, with 6 streets, of which, the 2 maine streets do containe in breadth 20 pases, and the 4 others (li∣ned with red, East, & West, North, and South) 15 pases broade a peece, and the rest (being small streets) of 10 pases broade euery one. Finally, the ordinance is placed, about 60 pases distant from the ring of the encampement, with a good vaumure cast vp before them; and the Artillery planted vpon the same. Last of all, is there a running trenche cast round about the Campe,* about 80, or 100 pases distant without the vaumure of the Ordinance. All the which matters do particu∣larly appeare in the aforesayd plat of encampement: but if this Campe were to continue any long time vpon some seat or place, then must it be more strōger for∣tified, with deeper ditches, stronger bulwarkes, and scances, thicker terraplenes, higher caualleros and mounts, to scoure with the Ordinance round about the Campe, or otherwise fortified in such strong sort, as the prudent Camp-maister, with his skilfull enginers shall thinke good and deuise. The lodgings and tentes of the Chiefe Commanders both of horse and foote,* may be seated on the front of euery their places of armes. To conclude I giue aduertisement of one thing worthy noting: that there bee no slaughter house kept within the Ring of the Campe,* or any garbadge left; or any other thing of annoyance or stinke, and also that you encampe in no infectious place, least the corrupted ayre do infect your people; as it did the French Kings campe before Naples.

Page  163This aforesayd calculation,* methode, and rule of encamping, will serue for example for another sort of encamping vpon any situation, of what num∣ber of men soeuer. But it must bee thoroughly conceiued, practised often, and the due measures well considered: and hauing all the aforesayd points per∣fectly in sence and memory, there may bee made any encamping verie readily; with the due proportion and measures of the quarters, places, streets, and all o∣ther parts necessary to the same encampement, vpon what situation soeuer it be: as by the aforesayd writings, rules, methode, and desseignes, may bee vnderstood and learned,