The theorike and practike of moderne vvarres discoursed in dialogue vvise. VVherein is declared the neglect of martiall discipline: the inconuenience thereof: the imperfections of manie training captaines: a redresse by due regard had: the fittest weapons for our moderne vvarre: the vse of the same: the parts of a perfect souldier in generall and in particular: the officers in degrees, with their seuerall duties: the imbattailing of men in formes now most in vse: with figures and tables to the same: with sundrie other martiall points. VVritten by Robert Barret. Comprehended in sixe bookes.
Barret, Robert, fl. 1600.

The Captaine Generall of the Cauallery his Ele∣ction, charge, and office.

THE FIRST DIALOGVE.

VVherein is reasoned of the Election, charge, and dutie of this officer: the comparison of the Infanterie with the Cauallerie, with examples of both: and of certaine peeces of seruice to be performed with the horse.

Gentleman.

I Pray now to the Captaine Generall of the horse.

Capt.

The Captaine Generall of the Cauallerie,* is commonly chosen & appointed by the Prince; & for being a charge of so high authority & preheminēce, it is alwayes encommended & bestowed vpon a personage of honour & title, or some very honorable Gen∣tleman, who hath had great experience & practise in warre: considering the great and waightie occasions that commonly therein are offred to be performed and effected with the Cauallerie: and so he that is chosen to this charge, ought to haue in him, all, or the most of the good parts to be expected in a High Lord Ge∣nerall of an Armie, the which may be considered when I come to speake of that officer: referring the same vntill then, except some particular points, which may fall out in questions by the way.

Gent.

Then shall we gladly heare them, & remarke them also; but which thinke you to be of most vtilitie in the warres, either the Cauallerie or Infanterie?

Capt.

In mine opinion the Infanterie is to be preferred, being well instructed and disciplined in their Arte.

Gent.

But I haue heard the contrarie opinion, in approuing the horse; saying, that they are the reputation of the Prince and armie.

Capt.

I hold partly the same estimation of them:* but yet I would gladly haue mine opinion excused: that they are not comparable to deale with resolute foote, except vpon great and manifest aduantage, and in place and ground of very great fauour for them:* For a resolute stand of pikes, with their conuenient troupes of shot, will giue them sore stops, and returnes with dishonour; as hath plainly ap∣peared Page  140 by the memorable battels of our famous kings of England, obtained with their foot cōpanies against the proud Cheualry of France,* as at Agincourt field, & at sundry other their honorable battels. Yea & many times it hath bin seene, that shot companies, alone, being helped by some aduātage, to put them to the foyle, as did the Marquise de Pescara,* with 800 shot onely, breake, foyle, and disorder Charles de la Noye, then vice Roy of Naples, with all his Cauallerie at the battell of Pauia.* Another exāple we haue of the Countie Francisco Carmagnolla (being Cap∣taine Generall of Philip Vicoūt Duke of Myllan his armie) going with six thousand horse against the Switzers, was by them repulsed by the valour and length of their pikes, who hauing regathered his disordered troupes, considering from whence their disaduantage grew, turned head againe vpon the enemy; and he himselfe, and his companies dismounted on foote, and with their Launces in hand framed a foote squadron, and charged the enemy a fresh, and so brake, and ouerthrew them, in number aboue fifteen thousand; who by force of horse could not bee re∣moued: imitating herein Marcus Valerius Coruinus,* who being Consull, & Cap∣taine against the Samnites in the first Punik warre, and in their last battell, not able to breake on thē by reason of their lōg pikes wherewith they defended thēselues, commaunded his horsemen to dismount, and on foote armed as they were, with their Lances to fight with the enemie, whereby he ouerthrew them & put them to flight; with the victorie and their baggage remaining in his hands. And againe in the battell that Constantine Roxianus, Captaine Generall to Sigismund, king of Polonia, had with Basilius the great Duke of Muscouia, by the riuer Brisna, who sur∣mounted him much in horse, three thousand footemen onely, which he had in his armie, wan him that day the honour and victorie. Many examples more might be recited, both ancient and moderne, but I rest with these; remembring that among the ancient Romanes,* their foot was alwayes of more estimation then their horse, holding a true opinion, that the infanterie well disciplined, is the sinew of the warre, the fortresse of the Realme, and the wals of the Citie.

Gent.

But I haue heard say, that in these warres of Netherland, after that the Gran Commandador dyed, & that the states reuolted, with determination to cleare their countrey quite of the Spaniardes,* that Don Alonzo de Vargas, who had then the Spanish Cauallerie in charge, did great exploits therewith, in encounters which he had with the state, foote and horse.

Capt.

*It is true; But you must consider that those were old and experimented souldiers, resling vpon a valiant resolution; the others, Bisonniòs and raw people, raised vp vpon a suddain conceipt: in which actions is maruellously to be marked the difference betweene men of experience and Bisonnios, the braue carriage of the one, and the bad conduction of the others; as appeared in the reencounter at Tilmont,* and at the succouring of Captaine Mountsdock, being taken by them of Mastrich: and most notably in the sack of Antwerpe, where not to the number of 5000. Spaniardes, inclosed within their Citadell, gaue the ouerthrow and foyle, vnto aboue 16000. of the Antwerpians, brauely armed, encamped within their owne towne. In like sort, at the ouerthrow of Gibleo; where not aboue 600. horse of Don Iohn de Austria his troupes,* defeated aboue 15000. of the states, most strange and wonderfull; onely for want of good leaders, and good conductours; the enemy espying the aduantage of their simple conduction and ouersight. But Page  141 you must vnderstand, that in the most of these actions they were alwayes well bac∣ked with braue companies on foote: but had they bene matched with equall ene∣mies, these their matters of maruell had neuer bene chronicled.

Marry I say,* that the Cauallerie is precisely very necessary for many peeces of seruice: as to make incursions, to pursue the flying enemy, as in the battell where the Duke of Saxonies troupes were broken, and himselfe taken neare the ri∣uer Albis. And againe, to giue a suddein charge vpon the enemies flankes, or rere∣ward; and to espie aduantage if the enemy disaray, as before is said in the battell of Gibleio: and againe, to scoute, to discouer, to guarde any conuoy, or to surprise any conuoy;* and to relieue with money any besieged place; as did Captaine Arrio those that were besieged in Pauia: to carrie victuals or munition for a neede and pinch to a distressed Scance: to passe ouer riuers, and to stop the furie of the cur∣rant, to render the passage more easie for the footemen; as was seene in the pas∣sing through the riuer Albis.* And when the Emperour Conradus passed with his armie ouer the riuer Meandrus, and there defeated a great number of Turkes: & also to shock with the enemies horse, to make Caualgadas, or great marches, for any sudden surprisall or Camizado, each horse carrying, for neede, a footeman behind: and to gaine, with speede, any straight or passage, to scoure the coastes, to espie the enemies desseignes and courses, to conduct, or to spoyle forrage; with many other peeces of seruice accidentall in warre.

THE SECOND DIALOGVE.

VVherein is declared the difference, and armings of the Cauallerie; with the proper seruice pertaining to each difference: the partes to bee expected in such as serue on horsebacke.

Gentleman.

HOw is your Cauallerie differenced and armed?*

Capt.

In these our dayes, the Cauallerie is most commonly diffe∣renced in three sortes: Into men at Armes, or Companies of Ordi∣nance termed by some; but now litle in vse: Into demy Lances, now called Lanciers, and into shot on horseback, named Hargulutiers or Hargubuziers, or Carbins, Petranels, and Pistolliers.

The Man at Armes is armed complete,* with his cuyrasses of proose, his close helmet with a beuer, a gorget, strong pouldrons, vambraces, gauntlets & taisses; a strong Lance well headed with steele, an arming sword; and at his sadle bow, a mace, well mounted vpon a strong & couragious horse, hauing a deepe & strong sadle, with the two cuissets of Pistoll proose, his horse barded with a sufficient Pe∣ctron, crinier & chieffront &c. a strong bridle, double rayned, wherof one to be of wyer were not amisse against the blow of a sword.* These Men at Armes were wōt to haue fiue or six horses attendant vpō each one. In this Cōpanie of Ordinance, are few, but men of qualitie & Gentles of good birth: the charge thereof is great.

Vnto euery Companie of these doth belong,* one Trumpet, one Ensigne, one Guidon, and one Cornet: the Ensigne ouer the Men at Armes, the Cornet ouer the Lanciers, and the Guidon ouer the shot on horsebacke. Now by reason of Page  142 their heauie arming, their marches are but slow; and not lightly marching except the campe dislodge: and then to keepe an equall place with the foote campe, deui∣ded into good squadrons vpon either side of the battell,* with a cōuenient distance from the same: for being too neare, many inconueniences doe many times hap∣pen, especially hauing charged or encountred the enemy; and driuen to retire, do hazard many times to disaray their owne battell.* Their seruice is commonly, es∣pying aduantage to breake vpon the squadrons of pikes, to encounter the ene∣mies horse, and to relieue their owne light horse, if by hap they bee put to a re∣trait. But a good squadron of pikes,* of resolute men, well empaled and girdled with musket, doth greatly discredit their auncient reputation now in these our dayes.

*The arming of the Lanciers, is a good paire of cuirats, the fore part of Pistoll proofe, a strong cask with his open visier, of like proofe, two l'ames of his poul∣drons, two or three of his taisses of Pistoll proofe also, the rest, his pouldrōs, vam∣braces, gauntlets,* taisses and cuissets, as light as may be: a strong Lance well poin∣ted, a good curtilace, and short dagger, and a Pistoll at his saddle bow in a case of leather:* a strōg saddle with his two cuissets for the knees; and well mounted vpon a strong horse vnbarded, and their cassackes of the colour of the Ensigne.

*I suppose these Lanciers, for most peeces of seruice, farre better then men at armes, especially as our warres are now conducted. They ought to know how to manage well a horse, runne a good carrier, breake surely a Lance, to bee ready with their arming sword and pistoll. Their place of march & seruice is before the men at armes a good distance, in troupes or squadrons, with their Cornet in the middest, or within the third ranke before. They serue to many purposes, and to most peeces of seruice, as well to breake on a squadron of pikes, first shaken or disarayed by shot, as to encounter the enemies horse, to backe & succour the Pe∣tranels and Hargulutiers being distressed, to conduct their owne, and to detrusse the enemies conuoy in companie with the Carbines and other shot, to surprise the enemies troupes vpon any aduantage spied: and in generall, good for most peeces of seruice fit for horse; whereunto the men at armes are both too heauie and vnapt.

*The Petranell and Pistolier is armed with a good paire of Cuyrats of pistoll proofe, and open Burganet, as is the Lancier, a paire of well arming pouldrons, one gauntlet for the ridle hand, no vambraces, but in steede thereof some other easie arming, and lighter mounted then the Lancier is, with a good saddle and bridle according;* then weaponed with a good short sword and dagger, a Petra∣nell peece, which is with a snap-hance, or, one long pistoll, as the French now vse thē, fastened in a case of leather, at the saddle bow, or else a paire of pistols in one case as do the Rytters;* their seruice is (as before of the Lanciers) in most peeces of nimble seruice; and are of most annoyance vnto the pikes, being not well guar∣ded with shot.* Their place of march is next before the Lanciers and so in their ser∣uices, by whom they are seconded, marching in troupes like sleeues of shot, se∣conding one another in order. They must bee skilfull to manage their horse; to learne him to trot,* to stop well, to wheele readily, for their actions are not vpon the spurre, as the Lanciers are, but to skirmish brauely vpon the face of the ene∣my, discharging, & wheeling about, one troupe seconding another; and to breake Page  143 in also if occasion be offered. They are very good against foote shot, if they be not friended with hedge, ditch, or some such place of aduantage: in their middle troupes is the Guidon placed.*

Finally the Hargulutiers, Carbines, or Hargubuziers on horsebacke not ar∣med at all, or else with light arming: and they haue a good Hargubuze, or a Pe∣tranell, or horsemans peece, as some call it, with a good short sword and dagger well girt vnto him,* mounted vpon a pretie light horse, such as be our Northerne nagges, befitted with a saddle, bridle and furniture correspondent, with a neces∣sarie flaske and touch-boxe for his peece, and a purse at his girdle, with bullets, and his other necessaries.* These and the other shot on horsebacke do serue prin∣cipally for great Caualgadas, they serue to watch, to ward, to discouer, to scoute, to forrage, to skirmish, for Ambuscados, for gaining of a straight, hilles, and ground of aduantage, to be put for a forlorne. Sentinell, to discouer the enemies proceedings,* to spoyle forrages, and to assaile troupes at their lodgings, either in villages, straights, or fields; and if occasion serue, they may alight and serue on foote, either to assaile a straight, to surprise a barrier, to performe an Ambuscado, and in such points of sudden seruice, doe the dutie of foote shot, wherein they may do many good peeces of seruice to the enemies annoyance: who, if the ene∣my bring shot to displace them, they may dislodge, if they find the party vnequall, and betake them to their horse.* And in good conductions they are alwayes secon∣ded with armed Pistols or Lances: for they are not lightly turned out to any peece of seruice vpon armed men, without being accompanied with Lances, or cuyrats on horsebacke, I meane armed petranels or pistoliers. They ought to bee very nimble both to mount on horsebacke, and to dismount; to manage their horse euery manner of way; to be very ready and quicke with their peece, discharging on euery part,* as cause shall require, inuring their horse both to the crack and fire; and learne to performe three actes at one instant, his bridle hand, his peece, and his spurres: wherein consisteth fine skill, with viuacitie of spirite, attained by often vse and practise. For they are the forlorne skirmishers on horsebacke, who hauing performed their dutie doe retire behind their Lanciers and armed pistols. And it is not inough to know how to ride a horse well,* and vnpractised in his peece; neither is it inough to bee skilfull in his peece, and ignorant in his horse: but the one must bee coupled with the other to make a perfect Hargulutier.* For the fierie weapons being in hands of vnexpert men, either on horsebacke or foot, is of all other the most daungerous to themselues; and being in the hands of per∣fect souldiers, is a weapon of most execution and aduantage. To conclude, all these aforesaid mounted people, ought to be seene & haue some skill in diseases of horses, and to know remedies for the same: and if neede require, to set a shoe also. All their baggage doth passe with the munition and baggage of the campe.

Gent.

How are these troupes sorted?

Capt.

The discipline now vsed doth require vnto euery fiue hundred Lances and armed Cuyrats,* one hundred, or one hundred and fiftie of these aforesayd light horse.

Gent.

What course doth this Generall of the horse take with his troupes, in field, campe or garrison?

Capt.

First he taketh a roll of the bands committed to his charge (euen as doth Page  144 a Colonell of Infanterie with his) with the names of their Captaines,* viewing well their mounting and arming, to see it be sufficient: and his seuerall sortes of horsemen disposed in seuerall troupes, as I sayd before; in the morning when the trumpet soundeth to make ready the horse, hee shall repaire to the Lord Gene∣rals tent, to know his pleasure: the which being knowne, he bringeth forth the Generals Ensigne or standard, whereunto his Captaines doe repaire with their companies in a readinesse, whom he ranketh in good troupes, each sort by them selues, with their Cornets and Guidons in middest of their troupes. And as oc∣casion shall be offered, to send them abroad, he shall appoint such as shall watch, scoute and discouer, and others to relieue them againe, committing them to the Scout-maister.

*When the Camp-maister Generall goeth to view the ground to encampe vp∣on, the Generall of the horse sendeth sufficient troupes to attend vpon him.

When the armie entreth into the campe, he shall with all his Cauallerie, re∣maine mounted in the field, vntill the Infanterie be all encamped, & then to enter orderly with his horse troupes, and repaire vnto their allodgements, vsing there∣in indifferencie to each band in their kinde; giuing order vnto his Scoutes that they come not out of the field, vntill the trumpets sound to the watch at night, and Corps de guardes set, and Sentinels brought forth of the campe and placed at their postes.

*He must appoint horses to attend on the Forragers, to guard and defend them till they returne with their forrage.

*He must also appoint a conuenient conuoy of horse to guard the victuallers of the campe, as well from the enemy, as from vnruly souldiers.

*In the order of his skirmishes, encounters, and charges, he must giue order, one troupe to second another, that if the first bee repulsed, being well seconded, they may haue time to regather themselues into order againe, sparing his armed mē frō such skirmishes, & his Lāciers what he may, reseruing them to encounter with their equals, or breake vpon the enemies battell, as occasion is offered: but alwayes hauing a carefull regard,* that his bands charge not too neare the front of their owne foote squadrons, for feare of inconuenience that might ensue; as it fell out at the ouerthrow of Gibleio:* but rather espying what aduantage he may, to charge the enemy in flanke or in rereward. For it is a great point of a man of warre to finde the occasion, and to take it when it comes.

Gent.

But hath he the chiefe ordering of the squadrons of horse in battell, in march, and in allodgement?

Capt.

*No, not the chiefe in those points, for that belongeth to the Lord high Marshall, or Camp-maister Generall, whose office is herein, as the Sergeant Ma∣ior Generall with foote companies.