THE FOVRTH BOOKE OF WARRE DISCOVRSES AND MARTIAL DISCIPLINE.
The first Dialogue:
VVherein is declared the election, office, and dutie of a Sergeant Maior, with sundry points of Militarie discipline, &c. and marching of the Armie.
TRuly (Captaine) this order for passing of Straights, doth cō∣tent me wonderfull well: and me thinkes, hauing ready men, and good officers, verie easie and readie to be perfourmed. But now (I pray) if there restes no more to be spoken herein, begin to shew vs the choosing & office of a Sergeant Maior, which in day of battel, seemeth an office of great importāce.
I did at the begininng of my second booke, declare vnto you, that a Prince leuying an Armie royall, doth by his Councel (or Coun∣cell of warre,* if there be any such in the realme) appoint first a most sufficient Ge∣nerall, then a Camp-maister generall, a Captaine generall of the Cauallery, and a Captaine generall of the Artillerie. The Armie is deuided into sundrie Tertios or Regiments; ouer euery Regiment, a Camp-maister or Colonell. The Colo∣lonell deuides his Regiment into sundrie bandes or companies, and ouer euerie companie a Captaine: euery Captaine hath his Lieutenant, his Alferes or En∣signebearer, his Sergeants, his Caporals, and his Drummes and Phifes. Also eue∣rie Regiment hath his Sergeant Maior; and ouer the whole Campe or Armie, a Sergeant Maior generall: of which Officer I meane now to treate.
The election and office of a Sergeant Maior.
The election of the Sergeant Maior, is made by the Generall, out of such as the Colonels do name vnto him.* His office is, to be the generall minister or offi∣cer of a whole Regiment of sundrie companies, and Superintendent of all the Sergeants of the same. By whose hand and industrie, the Camp-maister or Colo∣nell, doth giue and appoint the orders conuenient to the due gouernement of his Regiment or Armie: as in marching, in encamping, and imbattailing, and in such other matters concerning hereunto: whereby may be gathered the partes, the qualities, the valour, the great skill, experience and diligence, which ought to be in him, who is chosen to this degree of office; being of such importance, that in Page 93 the time of the Greekes and Romaines, this office was credited vnto none; but the Generals them selues did execute the same in their owne person.
The Sergeant Maiors office is of much higher degree,* then any ordinarie Captaine: for euery Captaine doth receiue his directions from the Sergeant Ma∣ior; and the Sergeant Maior from the Colonell or Generall, or from the King or Emperour himselfe, if he bee in field. For hee is barred no gate nor entrie, but is freely suffred to enter,* euen into the Generals tent, or Kings chamber. There∣fore there ought great regard to be had, in the election of this officer. Which be∣ing done in a person of insufficiēcie, doth many times cause great inconueniences to arise: and the person so chosen, for want of skill and naturall instinct, not know∣ing how to vphold his due authoritie, grauitie, and power, doth lose oftentimes his due respect and reuerence of the Captaines, and other officers: whereby it had bene better for him to haue remained a Captaine of a single companie, then to haue risen to this degree of office, being not fit, for skill and nature thereunto.
Then I perceiue that you would wish him that should vse the place of this office, besides his experience and skill, to be also of a naturall inclination be∣fitting the same.
So is my meaning: For besides his long experience and practise in warres, he ought yet to haue a certaine naturall instinct befitting this office: for as much as the most of his actions are to be handled in the face and view of the enemie,* and in place of greatest perill; as ready at euery instant to redresse eue∣ry disorder. He ought besides his long experience, to be valiant, learned, quicke witted, and ready conceited, wise, discreet, and ready both to see, and foresee, as well their owne, as the enemies orders or disorders; preuenting, redressing, and taking aduantage, as time and occurrants shall be offred, not letting slip any occa∣sion offred.
Is the Sergeant Maior to haue any particular companie to himselfe, as the other Captaines of Infanterie haue?
No truly, and that for many good respectes: For in the absence of the Colonell, he hath the commaunde of the whole Regiment, among the Spanish Tertios.
You said that the office of the Sergeant Maior did cōsist in three things; that is, in the good order of marching, in the sure manner of encamping, and in the perfect formes of imbattailing: wherefore I pray discourse more at large thereof vnto vs.
Truly (Gentlemen) if you remember, I haue before at large declared touching the embattailing of men,* the ordering of squadrons, their deuiding in∣to Maniples, and the formes of sundry kinde of battels with vs most in vse: but yet to giue you content, I will repeate some part thereof againe. Wherefore it concerneth this officer to know how to frame his squadrons, to march with the same, and bring them to fight. Now, a squadron of men is, (as before I sayd in folio 45.) A congregatiō of souldiers orderly ranged & set, by the which is pretended to giue vnto euery one such place and roome, as they may fight without hindering one another, and to vnite all their forces together, in such sort that they may attaine to their prin∣cipall intents and end, which is to be victorious or inuincible. So that we ought to thinke that the armie which is best ordered and disciplined, although of lesser Page 94 numbers,* is like to be, by all reason, Lord of the victorie: as Vegetius declareth ve∣ry well, giuing the reason why the ancient Romanes became conquerours of most nations of the world; saying that in greatnesse they were not like to the Almaines, neither comparable in number to the French, neither so subtill as the Aphricanes, nor so strong as the Spanyardes,* nor so furious as the Brittanes, nor so wise as the Grecians, yet did they make easie, and answer all these disaduantages and difficul∣ties, by onely maintaining their people well exercised in armes, and practise of warre, and keeping them well disciplined and reformed in manners. And for as much as squadrons and battels be formed of numbers of souldiers, more or lesse, according to the greatnesse of the armie, it is necessarie that this officer doe per∣fectly know,* and haue in writing, the iust number of euery companie; as how ma∣ny pikes, how many halbardes, and how many shot, and before occasion or ne∣cessitie befall, do make a common habite in his head and memory, framing there∣in many & variable formes of those which are now most in vse, as the iust square of men, and quadrate of ground, and the battels of many sortes of proportions of inequalitie, with all the others whereof before I haue written. To do the which, it is most needefull that he be very skilfull in Arithmetike, for without the same, he should hardly performe his office: and not onely to know how to embattell the companies of his owne Regiment, but of many Regiments together, and of any number:* for that many times the Generall doth commaund to frame a battell of sundry Regiments together; as did the old Duke de Alua at the taking of Lisbo∣na, and conquering of Portugall. Who commaunded, that of the Tertios of Naples, Lombardie, and Sicilia, there should be one battell made and framed; and of the Tertios of Don Rodrigo Sapata, and Don Gabriell Ninio, an other, and of the Ter∣tio of Don Luys Henriques, another squadron: and that out of all the sixe Tertios there should be drawen 2100 shot, to serue to other purposes. And for as much as the Sergeant Maior was not very skilfull and ready herein,* they found them selues much puzzelled in doing thereof; and fell into many faultes, in presence of their Generall and Princes: and in generall iudgement of the whole Campe wherein I then serued.
Truly it was a matter well worth the noting, but is there more sortes of imbattailing then those you haue spoken of before?
I haue already spoken of the most; yet of diuerse nations vsed diuersely; of all which formes I would haue the Sergeant Maior to be skilled and seene, al∣though the conduction of our warres now a dayes,* doth consist more in surpri∣ses, assaults, and batteries, then open field fight, and although the best now in vse, are but two or three, viz. the first square of men, and the square of ground, and their diuision into battallions of that kind, according to the weapons wherewith∣all we now fight.
Which of these do you hold for most assured and strong?
I hold them all for sufficient strong, but the difference which may hap∣pen,* is to be iudged according to the situation and disposition of the ground, and occasions to fight, and by the order that the campe shall obserue. For in some oc∣casions the square of men would be best, as in open field, without aduantage of hedge, ditch, water, marish or wood, or where the enemie is strong in horse, to charge on euerie side: the which iust square of men, in euerie part is found to be Page 95 equally strong, and apt euery way to receiue the charge: the which could not be so,* were the battell ouerlong afront, & narrow in flank, as is the bastard, broad, or base square; but yet in other occasions, where these aduantages are to be found, it were better to fight in broad front, for that thereby, many hands do come to fight at once together in the vantguard, and with more difficultie to be compassed by the enemie, hauing any of the aduantages before spoken of to friend: but most cōmonly, if necessitie, occasion, or situation do not constraine otherwise, the qua∣drat of ground is best, and most vsed, as best proportioned with equall strength in vantguard and reareward (especially against footemen) and also flanked suffici∣ently strong: and which of all other doth occupie least quantitie of ground.
What meane you by Bastard square, Broad square, and Base square.
The Bastard square,* is the battell which conteineth almost twise so many men in front, as in flanke, in proportion as 1 ¾ is to 1: the Broad square is the bat∣tell which conteineth more, or as much, as twise so many men in front, as in flank, as is 2 to 1, or 2 ⅓, which is as 7 to 3: and the Base square, is the battell which con∣taineth almost thrise, or 3 times more in breadth then in depth, which proportion is as 8 to 2, or 3 to 1, or such other proportions of inequalitie, as fol. 51.
You haue before declared at large the maner how to frame all these sorts of battels: therfore it is needelesse to demaund it againe; whereby I perceiue how necessary it is for the Sergeant Maior to be both learned and skilfull in Arithme∣ticke: but doth it import any thing, whether the ranks be of euē number or odde?
No truly,* but a custome vsed amongst vs, without any ground: for battels are to be set according to the number of men, and the same to be framed as the si∣tuation of the ground will permit; therfore the number of Par or Impar doth litle import to the strengthening of the battell: but the due proportioning thereof ac∣cording to the quantitie of your men, to be accommodated to the ground, or si∣tuation; and aboue all,* the braue conduction of the Commaunders and the reso∣lute valour of the souldiers, is the strength and firmenesse of the battell.
What order is to be taken in setting of battels with speede and facilitie, that the confusion of the souldiers disturbe not the same, especially where men be vnruly, euery one thrusting himselfe into the first rankes of the foreward, in such disorder many times, that neither the Sergeant Maior nor Colonels themselues shall be able to frame a battell in good sort?
The care to redresse this inconuenience toucheth the Sergeant Maior;* and therefore he ought to giue aduise and warning vnto euery companie before they come to this point, that they beware of such confusion, disorder, and disobe∣dience; notifying vnto them that the Ensigne or Ensignes which were of the ward that day, should frame the first rankes of the vantgard; and the Ensignes or Com∣panies that had the ward last before, should successiuely follow; and those which were afterward to haue the ward, to succeede them againe, and then next such as first were gathered to the squadrons.
Moreouer giuing aduisement to the officers, that they suffer none of the soul∣diers of their bande to come without their armour,* by peece-meale and vnfur∣nisht: for by such faults, although that by the aforesaid reasons, the vantguard ap∣pertaineth vnto them, yet they loose their preheminence, for comming so ill ar∣med; and iustly may others, better armed, be placed in their roomes.
And if (perhappes) vpon the Alarme giuen (as commonly it falleth out) all the Companies in Armes, doe ioyne and gather together, vnto the Corps de guarde or place of assemblie, in such a case, what is the Sergeant Maior to do?
*He shall frame together that confused and disordered body, placing the Captaines before: and shall draw his battell from out one of the flankes, or out of the rereward, as he shall finde it most commodious: the which he shall doe with great facilitie, and thereby shall defraude those that were cause of such confusion: and it shall serue vnto two good effectes: the one, he shall frame his battell with speede, and the other, he shall by this meanes chasten the vnruly and disobedi∣ent, by leauing them in the rereward, who seeing this order taken by the Sergeant Maior, will euer afterwardes, be more obedient and tractable to be set in order.
But the battell or squadron of pikes being set, in what order is the same garnished with shot, and how many and great shall the sleeues thereof be, and how farre distant placed from the pikes? for I haue heard different opinions therein; whereof, although you haue sayd somwhat already, yet I pray, let vs heare something more of the same.
No souldier is ignorant, that the squadron of pikes being set, is to be impaled or girdled with shot,* as many rankes of shot, as pikes. But the due and naturall girdling indeede, ought to be no more shot in ranke, then that the pike may well couer and defend, especially where the enemie doth abound in Caual∣lerie. And so vnder the defence and fauour of the pike, there cannot conuenient∣ly stand aboue one ranke of three shot at the most, and so many (in mine opinion) should the girdling conteine: the which girdling shot, kneeling vpon one knee, vnder the couert of the couched pikes, should, at the charging of the horsemen, discharge their vollie in their face and bosome,* which would bee no small gal∣ling vnto them. But when this daunger of horse is not to be feared, then the im∣palement may be made of more shot in a ranke, at the discretion of the Sergeant Maior, according to the quantitie of shot contained in his companies, and the rest of the shot to be deuided into sundry small troupes (as I sayd before) to troupe round about the battell,* with some reasonable distance from the same: the which manner of small troupes, I esteeme to be farre better then the sleeues con∣teining great numbers, and more ready to be brought to skirmish, euery seuerall troupe to be led forth by his Caporall, and some Captaines to ouersee the whole.
Moreouer, I would thinke good, at euery angle of the battell to be placed a good squadron of Muskets, which should serue to flanker it euery way, euen as the Caualleros or Trauassos do the curtaine of a fort: so that a well framed battell or squadron of pikes, well impaled with shot, and anguled with squadrons of Mus∣kets, seemeth a Castell with his curtaines Caualleros, and ditches: the manner whereof being framed of expert & resolute men, is of wonderfull force, the which was well to be seene in the iorney of Caruā in Barbarie, where Don Aluaro de Sandy, with 4000 Spanyardes,* foote souldiers of great valour, made a braue famous re∣traict, the space of 4. or 5. myles in a champion field, being be set and charged by Cydearfa, king of the Moores, with aboue twentie thousand horse, at the least fiue or six times, with the losse of onely 80 men of his; and the slaughter of seuen or eight hundred of the enemy. Which is a gallant example what braue footemen may do, being conducted by a good chiefe.
Your orders and reasons doe like me very well: but yet of one thing I stand in some doubt, and would gladly bee resolued therein, which is, that our bandes and companies of infanterie, haue commonly two thirds of shot, vnto one third of pikes, so that the battell empaled, sleeued and anguled with shot, there will yet abound and remaine good store of shot neuerthelesse. Now where should those be bestowed, to bee safe from the fury of horse, if the enemy should therein greatly abound?
Your question is good, and I my selfe haue bethought me many times thereupon: wherefore if your ground be such that the enemies horse may charge you but vpon two parts at the most at once, then may the shot retire safely on the contrary parts: but if you be imbattailled in open Campania, without any aduan∣tage for you, and your enemy very strong in horse, and you few horse or none to reanswere them,* then (in mine opinion) the surest way is thus (as I sayd be∣fore) in speaking of lining of battels with shot, first to place 5, 6, and 7 rankes of armed pikes, or more, and girdle them with 5 rankes of shot, close vnder the gard and shelter of the pikes, on the out side: then againe within those first rankes of pikes, 3, 4, or 5 rankes of shot, then certaine rankes of pikes, and then shot a∣gaine; and so consequently, as your numbers and occasions shall require, as in this figure appeareth.
Here is to be noted that in such cases where your battel may be charged on euery part or side, that then those rankes in flanke which haue a wider distance then those men which are in front, doe march vp closer together, whereby they may make the front of equall strength and distance, of station euery way.
Page 98In this figure first you see placed the girdling shot 5 in a ranke, vnder the gard and succour of the pikes,* then 9 rankes of pikes, then certaine rankes of shot, and then pikes againe; and so consequently to the center, where is placed the ensignes, and short weapon, and munition. The girdling shot vpon the very charging of the enemies horse, and at the couching of their pikes, may (kneeling vpon one knee, the better to be vnder the couert of the pikes) discharge in the bosome of the enemy, not aboue twentie pases of: and then the pikes being couched, the o∣ther rankes of shot, contained within them, are to discharge close ouer the heades of the couched pikes before them, and so successiuely as the other pikes shall bee couched the shot contained within them shall discharge. So thus (in my conceipt) would this order containe in safetie, the most part of your shot, and bee sufficient strong, and a great gauling vnto horse.
This order I thinke to be good, where the enemy aboundeth in num∣ber of horse. But now I pray tell vs what order is the Sergeant Maior to take and obserue, when these companies do march?
Herein consisteth great skill,* care, direction, and discipline; for gene∣rally men be loth and vnwilling to be tied to any strict and painefull order, espe∣cially Besonnios, wanting practise and patience; for vpon euery light occasion, they will breake and disaray, as when they come to any straight or vnplained way, or when they feele themselues a litle wearied or chafed with heate, running on euery side disorderly to seeke water,* which often times hath bene cause of many defeat∣ments. And many times againe vpon small occasions doe they dismande them∣selues, the cause thereof growing from the ouer remisnesse and negligence of the officers, in not correcting at first, such disorders with rigour and seuerity, as the vrgentnesse of the cause would require, and for that they want the care and di∣ligence to redresse such mismeanours, as hereafter I will speake of, declaring first what the Sergeant Maior is to doe, being in Campania: which is to go take the or∣ders to be obserued from the Generall, and to know whether his tertio or regi∣ment is that day to haue the vantgard, battell, or reareward; the which he is to do the night before that the army is to march, although that the General many times for many good respects, will not make the same knowne, vntill the very houre of marching.
And this shall he do chiefly that day, which toucheth his regiment to haue the vantgard. And therefore it is alwayes important for him to know the wayes most commodious,* and most salliable for the souldiers and companies out of the campe: for many Sergeant Maiors hauing erred herein, haue found themselues puzzelled, confused, and ashamed in presence of their Generals, guiding their regiments by wayes pestered with cartes, wagons, and baggage of the campe. And at other times for conducting them through passages so difficult and com∣bersome, that they haue bene constrained to breake their arraies. For at the re∣mouing of a campe, the prauncing and neighing of horses on euery side, and the crossing of cartes,* baggage and carriages, and the noise of drummes and trum∣pets, is such and so great, that (if he be not very preconsiderate in the same, and know well the way, where hee is to conduct his companies) he runneth many times into those inconueniences: and chiefly when the campe doth dislodge by night, or in dayes mistie and darke, for then is the daunger most to bee doubted: Page 99 therfore it importeth much, that the Sergeant Maior be very skilfull in the regi∣on and countrey where they are to passe,* and to know the distances from place to place, and the qualities of the wayes and passages, with their straights, and inclo∣sures, their hils, vallies, riuers, brookes, lakes, moores, meddowes, fields, open or enclosed, forests, woods, thickets, or whether the countrey be stony, plaine field, or ditched, and all difference of situations of grounds, as well of the hils, and high mountaines, as of the plaine and champain; to the end, that he may consider, fore∣see, preuent,* and prepare for euery place where the enemy may annoy him. For many times one regiment is to march alone, and then doth it touch the Sergeant Maior to haue the care and speculation hereof, as it doth the Campe-Maister Ge∣nerall when the whole army marcheth, for that it befall him not, as it did vnto the Romaines in the Furcas Caudinas and vnto many other through the like misre∣gard.* And for more security hereof, they are to procure faithful and trusty guides, and skilful way leaders, to the end not to be beguiled and abused, as Hannibal was, when he warred in Italy against the Romaines, who willing to leade his army vnto Cassinum, was led and guided vnto Casilinum, to be put into the hands of Quintus Fabius Maximus, Generall of the Romaines his enemies.
Now the order being knowne,* and the way reknowledged, and the houre of re∣mouing at hand, he is to commaunde the drumme maior to sound the call Recoia or assembling, and euery Captaine of infantery to cause their baggage to be trus∣sed vp and laden, and shall straight wayes draw foorth his ensignes out of their quarter into the place of armes, and there shall frame his battell or squadron, re∣parting their Captaines into such places as concerneth them that day, and shall dispose and appoint the Sergeants of ordinary bandes in such sort, that euery one may know what part he hath to gouerne and set in order. And for as much as it is seldome seene, that the wayes, fieldes, and passages be so large, that the whole battell may march all in front, he is to frame his ordinances arraies or Maniples no greater, then that the same may march commodiously and at ease thorough the same, the order whereof I haue at large declared in folio 62, 67, 68 and 92: al∣wayes prouided, that he quarter or deuide not his battell (if the passage will so permit) into no lesse then the third part of the front thereof, as thus, if the front be of 27 pikes, the Maniples or ordinance shall be of 9, and if 21 in front, then the deuision or quartering shall be of 7 in front, and so of other numbers: for he is to conduct his companies so well disciplined and ordered, that occasion being of∣fered, hee may with speede and readinesse frame and set his battell, or bat∣tallions, reparting the Captaines and officers in places most conuenient, as be∣fore is sayd.
But tell vs how is he to repart them, and who shall go in the vantgard; which in the battell, and who in the reareward; and in what part shall the Colours be placed, that this readinesse and quicke dispatch, might be performed in setting the battell as you speake of?
The order I haue partly spoken of before;* but to giue you content, I will repeate it againe: therefore me thinkes that the order to be obserued therein, is thus. That the shot of the forlorne hope, and the shot of the right flanke (be∣ing deuided into many small troupes as I said) should march before, then next, the girdling shot, of the said right side; after them should follow the ordinances and Maniples of pikes, in such sort & order as before is declared: & to the end that Page 100 the ensignes go not crossed either in one sort or other,* he is to place them alone af∣ter another, within so many rankes of pikes, so that when soeuer he brings his Maniples vp together pouldron to pouldron, to the framing of his battell, they may still remaine in their conuenient places, which is in the center.
Then after the pikes shall follow the girdling shot of the left flanke, and last of all in the reareward shall follow the troupes of shot belonging to the left flanke, and reareward, and hauing passed the straight, and the squadron formed, then may they repaire each girdling shot,* and troupes to their due and conueni∣ent roomes, as before; of which orders of Maniples, and quartering of battels, I haue before declared at large.
Is there any meaning or misterie in marching the left or right side shot before in the vantgard.
None truly, that I know of, more then that in all our actions we ought to incline what we can vnto perfection: and as the right hand is the more perfect and noble,* from thence it is reason, that wee begin to frame our battels, and in that place also to begin to disseuer them.
The munition, and baggage belonging to the Companies, where are they to goe, to cause least hinderance, and to passe in most security?
The consideration that is to bee had when an army doth march, is, that if the enemy be knowne to be on head the vantgard, vpon the way you are to passe, then let the munition and baggage be placed in the reareward;* and per contra, if the enemy be found to be in the reareward, then passe your baggage to the for∣ward: and if on the right side, then conuay it to the left; and if on the left side, then transport it vnto the right, with the like consideration, and in this sort shall the campe be alwayes a wall and defence vnto the munition and baggage. And if in marching the enemy do offer to fight, the munition by this meanes, shall be no let or hinderance at all. And besides all this, there ought to be sent abroade cer∣taine Hargulutiers or light horse,* to scoute before the munition and carriage, to preuent the suddain incursions of the enemies stragling horse. The same order ought also to be obserued in the marching of one regiment alone. But in case that there were no enemy, and they might march through places plaine, safe, and secure, the munition and cariage ought alwayes to passe in the foreward, with a sufficiēt gard of pikes, shot, and short weapons; & that for good respect, & because it is very commodious for the souldiers, that when they come well wearied to their quarter, they may find their tents ready pitched, and many times their forrage pro∣uided, and not to stay attending and expecting the same, comming many times, wet, dirtie, ouer tired, and halfe dead with hunger: and again if by hap any of the ca∣riages do fal, the owners of the baggage may help to redresse, wherby to saue their baggage and furniture: which could not be done if it marched in the reareward.
But if it should happen, that in none of these sayd parts, the baggage might march in safety (as in Barbarie, or other Champaine countrey, where the enemies number consisteth most of horse) & we not hauing sufficient numbers to answer them, what is then to be done, where the enemy may charge on euery side?
*Then in the center of the battell, or betwixt the squadrons, with their conuenient gard, as before is sayd: for besides that little which the souldier hath, and carrieth the same there, it is reason he defend and keepe it; so in the like sort he is to procure that the enemy detrusse him not thereof, neither the enemy to glory Page 101 that perforce he hath dispoiled vs of any thing,* for the great part of reputation which is lost thereby: but if the same may not bee conserued without manifest danger, and the squadrons thereby to bee disaraied, then ought it to bee forsaken and left: the which many braue commanders haue not onely done, but some haue left their carriage to the enemy of purpose, to the ende that by rifling the same they might fall into some disorder; by which meanes and pollicy they might the sooner defeat them, and obtaine the victory: as did Prospero Colonna and the Mar∣quis de Pescara at the battel of Vicentia in Italy, whereat the Venetians, and the Cap∣taine: Marquis Aluiano were broken and ouerthrowne.
The foote souldiers horses and their boyes, where are they to go when they them selues mount on horse backe, and their boyes do cary their weapon and armour in their Maisters roomes?
I would wish as few horses as might be with the foote companies, but on∣ly for some officers and sick persons:* but for such as be, it is manifestly knowne, that it is forbidden by al good discipline of war, that no foot soldier do passe out of the campe or alodgement on horsebacke, neither on horsebacke to enter into the same, but alwaies at sallying he acccompany his colours, at the least a mile, and be∣fore the arriual to their allodgement, the like. To do the which, their horses may go by one side of the battell, if the way will permit it; and if not, then at the traine therof, vntil they haue licence granted to mount; and yet not that to be permitted, vntill their foot Captaine be first mounted; and then may they mount on horse∣backe, and put them selues in order with the Captaine or officer that is to con∣duct them, and to this effect should the Sergeant Maior name and appoint some one. And if they be of the shot of the vantgard, then are they to follow their vant∣gard troupes of shot; and if pike men, then to follow their arraies or Maniples of pikes: and in like sort shall the Hargabuziers of the reareward do, placing them∣selues in the traine of their troupes, and shall set their boyes and pages with their armes in their roomes and places, to the end that if occasion be offered, euery mounted souldier may alight, and steppe to his roome and place, without disor∣dering their ordinance or arrayes at all. In the like sort shall such foote souldiers as haue boyes carrying their armes, do: and when occasion is for the souldier to take him to his armes,* hauing receiued the same from the boyes, let the boyes be shif∣ted out of the battell: for I hold it not for good, as I haue seene some Sergeant Maiors, to place those boyes neare vnto their Ensignes, either before or after them: for by this meanes may the battell bee disordered and broken, and none of those which mounted on horsebacke, can readily find their due roomes and places. A thing which the Sergeant Maior should greatly regard, to keepe his companies alwayes in good order.
In their marching should not the souldiers make stayings and pausings, to ease and rest themselues.
It is very necessary that they make some Altoes or standes to ease them,* and that they might refresh themselues with such short victuals as they beare along with them, and by a litle reposing, they may breath and ease them of the wearinesse of the way, and so conserue themselues in good order. For although the souldier be neuer so much practised and inured, and though the shot may suf∣fer the wayes trauell without any great pawsing, yet the pikemen, as men laden Page 102 with their armour, are not able to endure the same, especially in dayes of scor∣ching heate,* without daunger of sicknesse, or brusing of their bodies. Therefore the Campe-maister or Sergeant Maior ought to be very considerate and carefull, to cause the standes to be made, as the commoditie shall be offred, and necessitie require it, to the end, no disgrace might befall them. And for that it hath bene somtimes seene, that the Sergeant Maiors taking litle regard here unto, haue con∣ducted their Regiments very disorderly,* making a long trace file or lyne (as it were) of them: the vantguard distant from the rereward at the least three or foure myles; in such sort, that by much lesser numbers then the numbers of their owne companies, they may many times, be beaten and ouerthrowne: as it chaunced vnto the French armie in Lombardie, being defeated by Antonio de Leyua, gouer∣nour there, for the Emperour Charles, at their marching towards Viagrass•, their Commaunder,* the Countie Sanpaule being taken: for hauing passed too forward with his vantguard, leauing behind him more then was conuenient, the Countie Guido de Rangon with the ariereward, who had the charge thereof. The Sergeant Maior is therfore to be carefull, to make alwayes his standes and Altoes neare vn∣to some good waters, the officers taking great care & watchfulnesse, that in those stoppes and stayings, the souldiers dismeanour not themselues, nor range not disorderly vnto the next adioyning places, nor runne into orchardes, nor gardens to rifle and spoyle, for it is contrary to good militarie discipline.
When the campe doth march, passeth the Sergeant Maior on foote or on horsebacke?
*On horsebacke; For vnto this officer onely is his horse allowed him, and at all times to ride, and into euery part, and vpon any occasion, and to trauerse and passe through the Arrayes of the battell, visiting, prouiding, and ordering all things concerning the same; and also to take the word from the Generall: and being on horsebacke, if he chaunce to meete him, he is not to alight, as some vn∣skilfull Sergeant Maiors are wont to do. For the sollicitude, care, and readinesse, apperteining to this office, is such, and so great, that it requireth he enioy such a preheminēce.* Neither yet in the day of battell ought he to dismount, nor enter in∣to rāke with the other Captaines, as some will seeme to say; for in the fight he ser∣ueth but for one, but being on horsebacke, he may value for many, in viewing, re∣uiewing, ordering & redressing many & sundry occurrāts, which in such times are offered, importing many times the good successe of the victorie, & therfore he is to go armed but lightly,* with a short baston or trunchion in his hand, which shall serue him to apart horses, cariages & baggage, which oftentimes do disturbe & hinder the squadrons, & to shew and point with the same some things that he cō∣maundeth, and orders that he ordaineth to be done, and sometimes to correct therewith the disobedience of vnruly souldiers: whereat no man ought to be of∣fended, or take it for any affront, sith it is done for corrections sake.
In what part ought the Sergeant Maior to stand or go, when the armie doth march?
The ordinarie place of the Colonell is the vanguard; and so the Serge∣ant Maior,* being his officer, by whom he sendeth his Commaundes vnto the Cap∣taines, Ensignes, and Officers, ought alwayes to be neare vnto his person.
But if the enemy be knowen to be behind or after your rereward?
In such case he shall remaine in the rereward,* but to assist there in such sort, as he forget not to make the Alto or stand sometimes, and to stay vntill he hath passed through all the arrayes of the marching squadrons or armie. And if he finde that the Sergeants do not their duties, in keeping the souldiers in good order and array, he shall seuerely reprehend them for the same, being a thing of such importance, and that no negligence be found in conseruing due order and array, so that none might be broken if possible it were. And if the arrayes be bro∣ken, as somtimes it happeneth by reason of the straight passages, it behoueth him to be very ready & vigilant to redresse them againe, and if to do the same it should neede to make a stand, an officer is presently to be sent to the Sergeant Maior: and neither Captaine, Alferes, nor any other officer to passe the word, stand, either to this effect or any other, as it oftentimes falleth out, crying stand, or march, from hand to hand, vnlesse the necessitie be so vrgent, as not permitting time to signi∣fie the same vnto the Camp-maister or Sergeant Maior. For by reason of this a∣buse of euery officer to passe and giue the word, vpon euery small occasion there do succeede many inconueniences, and is as much as to vsurpe the preheminēce, which onely is due to the Camp-master, as head of the Regiment, and vnto the Sergeant Maior, as guide of the battell. And therefore it is very necessarie, that the souldier or officer which so shall do, to be well punished for the same. And the Sergeant Maior is to be carefull, that the Captaines and souldiers which are on horsebacke, do alight, & set themselues into the arrayes, a good myle before they come vnto their allodgement, the which ought to be first viewed by himselfe, or his coadiutor, somewhat before the companies do arriue, and at their arriuing to frame his battell in the place thereof, and not to suffer any souldier to passe vn∣to his quarter, or to dismaunde himselfe in the order, vntill the whole Regiment be all entred; and he, or his coadiutor in his name, comming vnto the compa∣nies, do licence them to their lodgings and quarter.
The which ensignes are placed in the front of the quarter of euery company, all in one ranke, and from thence downeward the souldiers to be lodged. And the Sergeant Maior shall not permit nor suffer any cariage or baggage to be put before them, nor pestered within the place of armes, neither any fire to be there made, nor any other impediments; for from thence forward, it is onely a place of armes or assembly, and is to bee left free and vnpestered for onely the battell when it is to be set.
THE SECOND DIALOGVE.
VVherein is declared, of the encamping of an army: the placing of the corps de guardes, scoutes and Sentinels:* their seuerall duties: the order of visiting and reuisiting the Sentinels, and their relieuing and changing: the order of giuing and taking the word, with sundry other martiall points, appertaining to such cases.
IN lodging and emcamping the regiments or army, the which being set∣led, the Sergeant Maior, what is he then to do?
Presently to draw forth a corps de guard, about threescore or fourescore pases from the face of the encamping, of some fiue and twenty or Page 104 thirtie souldiers, and those are to bee of one of the companies which was of the watch the night before, sith that vntill a fresh watch doe enter, and the 24 houres bee fully accomplished, it appertaineth vnto them that entred therein before, except a whole company be set there by day to the ward; and in such case it belongeth to the companies of shot,* if there be any particular shot companies in the campe. And this Corps de guarde which is to bee drawne out, is to be set in the selfe same place where the company of the watch is to bee placed at night.
2This being done, hee is to reknowledge his quarters very well, and to see if there be any neede to raze plaine any places, that the souldiers may commodi∣ously sallie foorth to the Alarme for it falleth out many times, that the compa∣nies be lodged in orchards, gardens, vine-yards, and among bushes, from whence they cannot come but with some difficulty, the which he is to redresse; and to make plaine and easie any thing that may empeach and hinder the speedy setting of the battell, and framing of the squadrons; which as well for this purpose, as for the for∣tifying of the campe, and leuelling the wayes and passages for the artillery, with such other seruices,* there is alwayes in the campe certaine companies of pioners, the iurisdiction of whom doth belong vnto the Generall of the artillery, or to the Campe-maister Generall, vnto whom he is to repaire, to prouide him with speede of such as shall be needefull.
3And if the whole army be there, he is to go vnto the Camp-maister Generall, and know of him how many ensignes of his regiment are to be put to the watch, and in what place or part, and what companies are to gard the munition, and in other most conueniēt places for the seruice & security of the campe; & such as are to go abroade to discouer, and to scout, and who are to prouide wood, water, and other necessaries; and what companies are to assist in making the trenches, and bulwarkes, and other fortifications, reparting the same workes amongst all the bandes of his regiment (for vnworthy is he the name of a souldier, which will not put to his helping hand in such cases) in sort that euery one haue their share of the labour in order. But if he be with his owne regiment alone, it then concer∣neth him to reknowledge, foresee, and to prouide and giue order for all: and to place the Sentinels in such order and distance, that no man may passe out, nor en∣ter into the quarters of the alodgement without their view and sight. And if his regiment be ioyntly with the other regiments or tertios of the same nation, or of another, he is to conioyne with the other Sergeant Maiors, and consult, counsell, and concurre with them touching the placing of the gards and Sentinels: so that there may be found no negligence nor imperfection, sith all this office consisteth in care, vigilancie, readinesse, and order.
*It concerneth him also, to go vnto the Generall for the word, and to receiue the order and course to be followed the next day, and to go presently vnto the Campe-maister to shew him thereof: although that sometimes the Campe-maisters or Colonels themselues doe take the word and order from the Generall, and giue the same vnto the Sergeant Maiors, yet properly the doing therof doth appertaine to the Sergeant Maior his office.
*And as touching the watches and gards, he ought to haue great consideration, not to place them, if the enemy be at hand, before the entring in of the night: for Page 105 he ought to preuēt, if possible it might be, that the enemy perceiue not where he setteth his watches and Sentinels.
And when it were time hee shall call together the company or companies,* which should bee of the watch; the which are to be aduertised thereof from the morning, by the Drumme Maior of the regiment, and he is then to set them in their places, the which as I said, ought to be reknowledged and viewed, and shewed vnto the Sergeants of such companies where they are to place their Sentinels, and he is to appoint them what order they are to keepe in going their roundes: alwayes reseruing a particular care, to visite and reuisit all the before appointed matters and orders.
And if he shall find any negligence or carelesnesse in such officers, he is to re∣prehend and chasten them with such seuerity as the case and cause shall require, for in the not executing the same, he becommeth to be contemned, vnrespected, and his commandes and orders misprised: and so by consequence to introduce a very corrupt discipline.
What distance from the quarters and campe should the gards and wat∣ches be placed and set.
In encamping an army, it is accustomed most commonly to entrench round about the quarters thereof, for more security and strength to the allodge∣ment: and when it is so, the companies which haue the ward, are alwayes to sal∣lie to gard the trenches, which is the wall of the campe. But in case there bee no trenches, the Corps de gard (in mine opinion) is not to be placed aboue 70, or 80, pases distance (as I haue said before) from the front of the allodgements in his place of armes; yet somtimes there be found ditches, bottoms, and vallies so strong, that it shall be good for the gards to be placed there, although they be far∣ther distant off,* then I speake of; for such strengths by nature do serue and stand in steede of ditches and trenches. But not finding such naturall fences, the wat∣ches are to be placed, as before I haue sayd. For thus, as well for the security of the quarters, as for (if neede should require) to succour those companies, it is better they be placed neare then farre off. And it is to be noted, as a thing of great importance, that great silence be kept in the body of the watch, at the least all ru∣mour and lowd noises are to be excluded,* and in their conuersations to talke mo∣destly, stilly, and with low voices.
And the Sentinels, what distance should they stand from the Corps de guard?
About thirtie pases,* litle more or lesse.
And how farre the one from the other?
There ought to be no more distance betwixt them, then that they may easily discerne one an other, how darke soeuer the night be. For the Sentinels, be∣ing the wall of the campe, & which do serue that no body may enter in, nor passe out thereof,* without being seene and discouered, now if they should be placed too wide a distance off, that would not follow, which is pretended.
And those Sentinels are they to be single?*
No, but double, for foure eyes may see and discerne better then two, and because, if sleepe do assaile them, or could, the one (opprest with sleep) might walke, and the other stand vigilant at the watch, with all stilnesse and silence, and Page 106 without talking, with open eyes, and ready listening eares; for many times it chan∣ceth to heare that, which the obscurenesse of the night will not suffer to see: and if they do perceiue,* heare, or see any thing, whereof they ought to giue aduise to the officers, let the one go thither, and the other stay, and not to leaue the Sentinell post forsaken: and therefore, for these and such like causes, it is much more safer, requisite,* and needefull that they be double. But those which are set yet 30 pases farther, are to be single, which of some are improperly called forlorne Sentinels, not hauing the word, as the doubles haue, the which are to be placed in the same distance,* as are the first, and commaund and order giuen, that in descrying any thing, they are to retire to the post of the double Sentinels, and giuing aduise and notice of what they heard or saw, are to returne to their places, without giuing the Alarme:* but in case that there were any notable number of horse or foote dis∣couered, in retiring vnto the double Sentinels, & all three perceiuing the same for certaine, and affirming it, then the Alarme is to be striken, and in other sort, not: For many times, vnto one man alone, feare or imagination doth cause few peo∣ple to seeme many, and many things to seeme to be, which are not indeede: and at no time, is the Alarme to be striken in the campe without good and vrgent cause. For remedie whereof it is a matter of great importance, that the Sergeant Maior,* euery night, at different houres, doe ordinarily visite and reuisite the wat∣ches and Sentinels, as well to see that they obserue and performe his orders and commaundes, as to the ende that the officers and souldiers, vnderstanding his courses taken, be more vigilant and carefull in their watches, fearing to be punish∣ed if they incurre into any defaults and negligences.
What call you the forlorne Sentinell, sith you say, they are improperly so termed?*
The proper forlorne Sentinell is that, which is set, either on horse-backe or foote, as necessitie shall require, neare vnto the enemies campe; to the end, to espie and giue aduise if any companies or troupes shall sallie thereout, or if the campe do remoue secretly. And this such Sentinell is to be placed in some part so neare vnto the enemie, that being discryed and seene, he shall with great diffi∣cultie retire and escape:* and is neuer set but vpon necessitie of such like aduises: As when Frauncis the French king, did relieue and victuall Landresie, which the Emperour Charles held besieged, who determined to giue him battell the next day before he were departed; and so Don Fernando de Gonzaga, who was Gene∣rall, commaunded Captaine Salazar that he should that night put himselfe neare vnto the enemies campe, therby to vnderstand their desseignes and intents: but he missed to effect the same.* So the French retired in safetie and wel without any per∣ceiuing thereof. And thus these Sentinels haue not the word that is kept in our camp, for the incōuenience that might hap, if being takē by the enemy, & corrup∣ted with rewards or otherwise, they thereby might know our word: but he ought to haue a differēt contersigne, that when he returnes, he may be knowne thereby.
What order is obserued in the day of the Word?
*I haue already told you, that the Sergeant Maior doth take the same from the Generall, and giueth it vnto the Sergeants, and they vnto the Caporals and Sentinels: but with this consideration, that the Sergeant Maior giue not the same vnto the Sergeants, being in Campania, vntill the very instant that they set the Sentinels and watch: And if they be in towne of garrison, Citadell, or For∣tresse Page 107 of defence, not vntill the shutting in of the gates, and the Sergeants & Ca∣porals not to giue it vnto the Sentinels, vntill the very point of their placing at their standes or postes.*
You say here, that the Sētinels should haue the Word; but I haue heard say, that among our English seruitours in the Low Countreis, the Word passeth no further then the Caporals; and the Sentinels not to haue the Word at all.
Indeede among raw souldiers there is good reason for the same, for the sundry inconueniēces that might otherwise follow thereon. But with the Spanish Tercios, where they be experimented men, aswell in militarie actions, as in firme loyaltie to their king, this order hath bene obserued, as I speake of.
Then the Caporall hauing the Word, and the Sentinell, not: what is the Sentinell to do, when occasion is to demaund the Word?*
The Sentinell finding any occasion, is to cause the partie to stand, and presently with an audible voyce to call his Caporall; who with speede, from the Corps de guard, repaireth to the Sētinels post, & there himself taketh the Word.
What order is obserued among the officers and souldiers in taking the Word the one from the other? being a thing of such importance, we would glad∣ly know it.
When any Officer or Captaine of the Round,* will, vpon any occasion, draw neare vnto the Sentinell, the Sentinell, being a shot, ought to cock his bur∣ning match, hauing the peece charged and primed, and so to present it, and be∣ing a pike man to Terciar or charge his pike, and no farther off, then that with so low a voyce, as they may but vnderstand one another, to demaund the Word, and in like order and consideration ought the officer or Round to giue it vnto the Sē∣tinell, when he commeth to visite it; the which Sentinell, ought by no meanes to suffer any person to come neare vnto him, except he giue him first the Word, no although he knew him to be his Captaine or Sergeant Maior, or Camp-maister: for the souldier being set at the Sentinell is not bound to acknowledge any per∣son, for to permit him to approch vnto him, but such as shall giue him the Word which was giuen by the Generall, and so to the guardes, by the mouth of the Ser∣geant Maior: which is the •eanes and instrument vsed in warres, to exclude all suspectes, & decits: For we see, the sight and hearing is easily deceiued, although it be by day, then how much more by night; as was well to be seene by Publius Considius one of Caesars Captaines, a man esteemed for valiant and skilfull (as one who had serued in the armies of Lucius Sylla, and Marcus Crassus) whom Caesar sending to reknowledge and view the campe of the Heluetians his enemies, with certaine spies, & to see if Titus Labienus had gained & possessed a hill, whereunto Caesar had sent him, he missed & erred so much in the reknowledging thereof, that he came running vnto Caesar, & told him, that the hil, which he had cōmanded Ti∣tus Labienus to gaine, was already possessed by the enemy, being quite the con∣trary; which caused that Caesar failed to defeat the enemy that day. And therefore in cases of such importance, there ought great care and consideration to be had.
And againe the officer or Round, whē he goeth visiting the post or Sentinels, if he find them ready & vigilant (being that which is expected) he hath no neede to approach alwayes vnto them,* but to passe along and visite the rest: and if he finde them all with this watchfulnesse & ready, let him returne to his Corps de guard.
I haue heard say, that the Sentinell ought not to suffer any person to passe by without giuing him the word; and me thinks that you say, that the officer or Round, finding the Sentinell waking & vigilant, and hauing seene them, may re∣turne to his Corps de guard without giuing the Word.
*The obligation and duty of the Sentinell is, not to permit any person to passe in or out from the campe, without giuing him first the word, neither yet to come neare where he standeth: but if the officer or Round do passe through the Sentinels within distance of 8 or 10 pases, it is sufficient that hee speake, and passe by, and is not bound to giue the Word. But if in case they were to come from out of the campe, he is in no wise to suffer them to come neare to reknowledge him, although it were at the abouesaid distance without giuing him the Word: and if happely such person will not giue it,* he may discharge at him, as at his enemy. And although he giue him the Word, he is not to permit him to enter freely in∣to the campe, but to accompany him vnto the double Sentinels, & consigne him vnto them, for that one of thē may forthwith, conuey him to the Corpo de guardia, and there deliuer him to the Sergeant, or Alferes, or to the Captaine of the com∣panie, who are bound to giue present aduise thereof vnto the Sergeant Maior, vn∣to whom it concerneth to conuey him to the Camp-maister, or Generall, if the case so require.
*When the Alarme is giuen, are all the Sentinels to retire to their Corps de guards.
No sir; for they neuer should forsake their postes without licence of their officer, and that they doe withdraw them, except those which do giue the Alarme; who seeing so great a furie of the enemies to come vpon them, which they are not able to withstand, that then indeede they ought to retire to their Corps de guards?
In such occasions doe all the Ensignes, which are at the watch make a squadron together,* or euery one apart?
They all ioyne together in that Corps de guard, which standeth most cō∣modious for a place of armes, the which the Sergeant Maior ought to shew them before hand; whither also the rest, which are in their quarters, should repaire; but not those which are guarde to the General, nor those that do guard the munitiō, nor out of the place of armes, or at the guarde of the quarters, for those are not to leaue their postes or stations; but of the others the Sergeant Maior shal frame his battell or squadron with all possible speede & diligence: and then shall presently enquire the cause of the Alarme, the which being knowne, he shall presently by his officers, giue aduise vnto the Regiments next vnto him, and aboue all, he is to aduertise his Camp-maister and Generall; without order from whom, the com∣panies already set in battell may not returne to their quarters and guardes. And so the Sergeant Maior, after they be fully satisfied & assured that they may disbād and breake vp, hee ought to demaund licence of the Generall for the same, and shall returne to set his postes as before they were. And if he shall perceiue it to be needfull to reenforce and strengthen his guardes, he ought to do it with more or lesse numbers, as the necessitie shall require it.
I haue heard that some Sergeant Maiors do draw out of their principall Corps de guards where their ensignes & companies do stand, & the first Sētinels, Page 109 other small Corps de gards;* but I know not to what end?
That Sergeant Maior doth not amisse: for that Corps de guard is of those souldiers which are for the Sentinels, and Round that night; for that the officer, when he is to relieue and change them, may find them more ready. And these Corps de guardes do serue also, that the Sentinels may haue succour neare at hand, if neede should require: and againe, they helpe also to keepe the guardes more vigilant, and the souldiers more ready to the seruice of their ensignes.
THE THIRD DIALOGVE.
VVherein is declared, some orders to be obserued by the Sergeant Maior, in the very fact of armes: and in surprises and Camisadas, and Ambuscados: and to be a ge∣nerall procurer of the souldiers good.
WHat orders is the Sergeant Maior to obserue, in the times of fight with the enemy?
The Sergeant Maior cannot keepe any certaine rule therein, considering the diuersitie of chaunces, stratagems and po∣licies, which in euery moment do happen in warre.
But in the action of battell, he is to see, and to foresee (as before I sayd) as well their owne, as their enemies orders, and disorders; to redresse with all valour, rea∣dinesse, and skill,* what is needfull in his owne squadrons, and to espie euery aduan∣tage vpon the enemy: and valiantly to animate, order and encourage his soul∣diers to valour, vertue and honour; and that with couragious and honourable words: and if by fortune any of his squadrons be disordered and broken, he must with all speedinesse, courage, and skill redresse the same.
But if any men in the rankes of his squadrons be hurt or slaine, either by the enemies great shot, or otherwise, so that wanting there those men which so are slaine or hurt, how are these rankes to be refurnished, so that it may be done without confusion?
The order of the Romanes,* as I haue already sayd, was to fight in order of battallions, the one to second the other, which is a very strong order of fight, were men expert and skilfull therein: And the manner of the Greekes was in Pha∣langia; which is a iust square of men, whom we do therein imitate: which manner of square of men is, each man standing consequently in ranke, and in file one after other: so that if any of the first files or rankes be slaine or hurt, the next soldier suc∣ceeding the same man hurt or slaine, is to step vp into his place & roome, and the next after to follow him; and so successiuely one to follow another, euen vnto the center or traine of the squadron: in such sort that alwayes the formost rankes be fully furnished.
And what is to be done with those hurt and slaine men, for me thinkes they should be looked vnto.*
The Spaniardes haue a laudable custome, which is, that they haue cer∣taine men appointed of purpose, to retract and draw foorth of the squadrons, such men as be hurt, and to bring them vnto the chirurgians: and for such as bee Page 110 slaine right out, to conuay them away, so that their slaine numbers is neuer light∣ly knowne to the enemy. Which order I would wish to be receiued and obserued amongst vs.
What other parts are there yet in him to be required?
*Moreouer the Sergeant Maior ought to be very expert, and to be very skilfull, and well aduised, in the course which is to be kept in giuing a camisada: as that was, which was giuen vnto the Prince of Oranges army by the Spaniards, when he came to relieue graue Lodwike his brother, being besieged within Mouns in Henault, by Duke d'Alua, which was such, that he was faine to raise his campe, and retire toward Germany. Now in such cases, the Sergeant Maior must con∣duct his souldiers with great silence, euen to the place of the enemies campe, and there shall he commaund them to put their shirtes vpon their armour, at one in∣stant making ready to effect their desseignes, whereunto they shall passe with all speede and resolution, before that the enemy may be aduertized thereof by their Sentinels. And also when other great occasions are offered, where it is needefull to carry the souldiers with great silence, secrecie, and stilnesse, he is to be their guide; as did the Sergeant Maior Valleio, when Mondragon with his regiment pas∣sed ouer the riuer Schalt, to succour their friends besieges in Targoes.
And in Ambuscados, which are to be done in places of couert; as woods, thic∣kets, hollow wayes, or hils, he is to be carefull that the souldiers be silent and with∣out noise, for not to be discouered, vntill their espials and watches, appointed for that purpose, doe giue them the signe of the conuenient time of their sodaine charge vpon the enemy.
Also it is the Sergeant Maiors part to be sollicitous and diligent with the prince or Captaine Generall of the army, and the other superiour officers, for the proui∣ding of armour, and other necessaries for the companies of his regiment, and for the other munitions of powder, match, lead, and victuals: the which he shal cause to be reparted vnto the Sergeants of the bands, to be by them deliuered vnto the Caporals, who are to distribute the same among the companies.
And to conclude, he ought to be the vniuersall procurer of the souldiers good, procuring their payes, and that they be succoured in their necessities and wants. And if there be any hurt men or sicke, hee is to procure that they may be caried with all care, vnto the hospitals or such places deputed for the same, prouiding them of cariages, necessaries, and guides if neede require. To do all the which he hath all the officers of the regiment for helpers and ministers; which are to as∣sist and obey him, For the cariage-maister is to furnish him with cartes, and cari∣ages as shall be needefull, and the furrier maior, to prouide and bring munition at the day of battell: and the Sergeants to assist him, to set the squadrons and to keepe the companies in order and array: and the ensignes and Lieutenants to giue and notifie the orders and commandes to the gards for the seruice of the companies: and the drumme maior to proclaime and sound the generall com∣mandes, bandos, and lawes of the field, and to giue warning vnto the Captaines, and companies, which are to haue the watch: and the Caporals of the field, being his Coadiutors, to assist and helpe him in all matters, and actions generall tou∣ching his office, with whom he is to consult, and communicate his proper autho∣rity vnto the best experimented of them (with leaue of his superiour comman∣ders) Page 111 and vnto which Coadiutor the Captaines and officers ought to be obe∣dient,* as vnto the Sergeant Maior him selfe, receiuing also from him their or∣der and commaundes: and therefore it behoueth that he be a verie sufficient per∣son, of good deserts, and knowen to bee such; to the ende, that the respect which is borne to him for his office sake, be not lost, if the partes requisite in such a personage be not found in him. It toucheth not onely the Sergeant Maior to be a generall maister of all Militarie discipline,* and the vniuersall procurer of all necessarie things for the souldiers bodies (as I haue sayd) but he is also pre∣cisely bound to be the procurer of their soules health, by punishing and ba∣nishing all publike crimes and sinnes out of euerie Band and Companie, as leud keepers of common women, theeues, pilferers, disordered persons, and drunkardes, bawdes and brawlers, and all such as liue infamousely, and aboue all to be verie carefull not to suffer anie blasphemer, yea, if it were possible, not to haue anie swearing by the name of God, sith that with all these sinnes the di∣uine Maiestie is highly offended: which if herein he haue the care that is requi∣red, he shall not faile to be well reputed,* fauoured and esteemed of the Prince, vnder whose ensignes he warreth, and also bee blessed of God, both in heauen and earth.
THE FOWERTH DIALOGVE.
VVherein is treated of the office, dutie and partes of a Sergeant Maior, entring with his regiment into a fortresse or towne of garrison, to keepe the same: and the orders therein to be obserued, both of officers and souldiers.
GOod Captaine, you haue verie well and largely declared the office, parts and duties of a Sergeant Maior, lying in the field and Campe; wherefore I pray let vs now intreate you to shew the parts of his office entring with his regiment into a fortresse or towne of garri∣son, to defend and keepe the same.
Hauing found you so kind and curteous (Gentlemen) I can do no lesse but endeuour my selfe to content you in what I may:* and therfore I say, that when anie regiment doth enter into anie fortresse, towne, or castell, to reside there for the defence thereof, the Sergeant Maior is presently to reknowledge and viewe euery part of the same, both within and without, and to consider the parts most necessarie where to place the Corps de guards, and to set the Sentinels: and also to marke the most conuenientest places for the Rounds to passe, and to see the place or places of assembly or Armes, whereunto the Captaines and Companies are to gather and assemble, if in case anie alarmes be giuen: and this being done, he is presently to deuide the Companies according as he shall see it most conue∣nient for the guard and custodie of the place. And of this repartition (communi∣cating it first vnto his Colonell) he is to giue an order and instruction in writing, firmed with his hand vnto the Captaines and Ensignes of euerie Companie, reseruing a copy thereof himselfe, to the ende that no officer might with reason excuse himselfe, if hee should chance to commit any fault or negligence in any Page 112 thing touching the guard of that which was commaunded him, seeing it was deli∣uered him in writing.
*And because there is great consideration and care to bee had in deuiding the guardes of a Fort, Hould, and Towne of defence, chiefly if any enemy army be expected to the same, notwithstanding that in all other times this care and foresight is to be obserued in this function:* he should in no case assigne vnto eue∣ry company the part of the wall or bulwarke which they are ordinarily to keepe: for the most often that townes haue beene taken by practize, tracto, or treason, the principall cause hath beene, that the Sentinell or officer, which so selleth the place, hath knowne the part and quarter where ordinarily hee was to guard and watch, whereof wee haue many examples: and therefore hee ought to as∣semble, and gather into the place euery euening, the companies which are to bee that night of the watch, and that they draw lots, or cast the dice for the quar∣ters which shall concerne them to keepe: and the troupes or squadraes, and Sentinels shall obserue the same order: in such sort that neither any companie, may foreknow his quarter, nor yet the squadra, what part of the wall doth ap∣pertaine vnto them, vntill the very houre that the watches be set, and placed in the same.
Now this partition being made (as is sayd) hee is to consider very well, whether the Corps de guard, where the company or companies are to enter into and stand, be fit and commodious; and also those of the gates and caualleros. And if they haue neede of repairing, let him cause it foorthwith to be done, and also the garrits and watch houses, where the posts and Sentinels are to be placed, and whether they bee sufficient to defend and keepe out the raine: and this to be done at the charge of the city or towne, as is accustomed. And if the Rounds cannot commodiously passe round about the wals, he is to cause it to be accom∣modated foorthwith. And must see, that there be sufficient store of torches, cres∣sets, linkes, and lanthornes, as well to be kept in the Corps de guard, as for the roundes and counter roundes. In placing the companies which are to haue the watch,* the Sergeant Maiors do vse different orders; for some do set them in the morning, and others in the euening; sooner, or later, as they shall thinke good. But in mine opinion, if necessitie did not otherwise constraine, I would alwayes set them (especially in sommer time) an houre before the sunne setting, as well for that the souldier should come supped, and so should haue no occasion there∣fore to go out of the watch, as for that vntill the shutting in of the gates, no soldier should be permitted to disarme himselfe, giuing them to vnderstand how foule it is, and ill beseeming the profession of a souldier, that no sooner they are entred into the Corps de guard, but that their Corslets be hanged vp vpon the wals: yea and some doe vse it in the Campe, hauing the enemies army at hand, the which fault is intollerable, and they ought not to do it, vntill they see their Alferes disar∣med first, on whom they ought to fixe their eyes, to imitate, as they do on their en∣signes in the field,* to follow.
At the opening of the Gates, the Sergeant Maior ought to appoint the Sergeāt or Sergeants, that be of the gard, that they be present at the shutting & opening of the same, and the souldiers alwayes to betake them to their armes, not suffe∣ring anie to carrie cloake, mantle or such like thing, to trouble them at that in∣stant, Page 113 and that there first passe foorth at the wicket (which serueth for that pur∣pose) fiue or sixe souldiers, who shall discouer, take knowledge, and viewe, se∣uentie or eightie pases out abroad into the fields: and finding all things safe and secure,* the gates shall be opened, first suffering the in-people to passe foorth, and that not by throngs, as commonly is vsed, but by litle and litle orderly; especially if there be cariages, cartes, or baggage: and vntill all those be passed out, he shall suffer none to enter in, neither permit them to approch nigh vnto the gates. And the issuing out of the people being ended, with the like regard and order ought the out-people to enter; alwayes hauing in the Corps de guard of the gate, both by day and night, two Sentinels, one at the weapons, and the other in the field; and that euerie one of these should haue a Spontone,* or a long sharpe iron, to the end, that when any waine, wagon, or cart, laden with hay or such like, doe passe by, he may therewith thrust the same thorough, to know if there be any deceipt therein hidden. For a Garrison may easily be deceiued by such guiles and strata∣gemes. Like as Caesar de Napolie did attempt at Turine,* although he effected it not, being preuented by the aduise and diligence of a Smith, an inhabiter of that place.
He is to cause wood to be prouided for all the guardes,* although that cold weather constraine it not, for that to light their matches it is alwayes needfull to haue fire. And that in the Corps de guard there be place commodious to hang vp their Corslets, and to accommodate their peeces in good order: seeing not one∣ly that it is necessarie, that the souldiers may with speede and readinesse betake them to their Armes, if in case the Alarme be striken, but also to auoyd all con∣fusion, and also for the adorning of the Corps de guard.
And when the Ensignes or companies shall enter for guard or watch into the place, the Sergeant Maior is to be present, and he ought not to suffer then anie gaming Tables;* but the souldiers to receiue in their Colours with great respect and reuerence, sith they represent the authoritie Royall: and in doing the con∣trarie, it repugneth all good Militarie discipline. And he is to keepe a good ac∣count and reckening with the souldiers that serue in euerie Companie, according to the muster that they made, whereof he is to haue fede and certificate from the Pay-maister or Treasurer, and knowing thereby, that they bring to the guard and watch, much lesser number of people then they receiue pay for, he ought to take a reckening of the officers of the Companies, and for being carelesse herein, ma∣nie souldiers do serue manie times but badly. And he ought not to suffer, that in their entring in or going out from the watch,* there want anie peece of their Cor∣slets, or Morian to the shot, neither that they serue with rustie armour, nor of the antique fashion; neither that anie Pike do want his head, cheekes, or arming; for that in hauing them, it doth not onely beautifie the squadron, but it maketh it to seeme more then it is,* which is a circumstance of great importance, sith all the apparitions which may yeeld terror to the enemie, are to be esteemed, and much accounted of.
In what order do the Ensignes enter into the place?
Vnto the Corps de guard,* the shot goeth alwayes in the Vantgard, and there arriuing, do open, making a lane or streete, betwixt the which the Pikes do enter, and march in their Arrayes: and (in mine opinion) they should not Page 114 carrie them aduanced vp,* as I haue many times seene vsed, but they should passe in betwixt the shot, with their pikes on their shoulders, marching as they come; and at their ariuing, vnto the head of the shot where the Captaine standeth, without opening or disaraying, and then aduance their pikes, abiding in their rankes, and so from hand to hand, each ranke to do the like: and then the shot at that arriuing and rearing of their pikes, shall draw neare and empale the first rankes on each side, and so consequently the rest, vnto the end of this order; in such sort that the squadron may remaine formed and garnished.* And if by chance two companies do come at once into the place, as many times it chanceth, then ought they ioyntly to forme the squadron, with their shot on each flanke, and the corslets not to breake their arrayes, aduertising that alwayes the ensignes be in the center thereof.
And the companies which stand at the ward, what are they to do when the others do enter?
They must attend ready armed and armes in hand, standing vpon one side of the Corps de guard,* vntill that those companies which do enter, haue fi∣nished their squadron; and then do they march in order towards their lodging, accompanying first their Coulours home.
And the Sergeant Maior is to bee carefull, to visite euery day the Corps de guards,* whereby he shall cause, that neither the souldiers nor officers do absent themselues from their watch, and that there be no brawles nor brables therein. And it doth import much, that hee doe the like in the Roundes and counter Roundes.
*And if any should dismeanor himselfe, breeding question or braule, either in word or deede, he is seuerely to be punished, for the great inconueniences that may ensue thereupon, being so many men together with weapon in hand.
And he is to prouide that the Roundes and counter Roundes be of more or lesse men,* or more or lesse continued, according as neede shall require: but they neuer should returne to their Colours from whence they departed, vntill they haue furnished their quarter,* the which they ought to bestow and spend in gi∣uing turnes about the wals, & veiwing the vigilance and carefulnesse of the Sen∣tinels: and the like ought those to doe, which doe goe their Roundes in the towne.
When the Roundes and counter Roundes do meete, as well in the campe as in a Castle,, who is to giue the Word one to the other first?
The counter Roundes are most commonly of officers, and therefore by reason and dutie the Round is to giue place,* and to giue the Word first vnto the counter Round. But for as much as Captaines themselues do vse to round in the ordenary quarters, it is conuenient, to the end that none may iustly be a∣grieued, and to disbarre all oddes and inconueniences, that the Sergeant Maior (as a person, vnto whose charge and office is the disposing and appointing of the guards,* Roundes, and counter Roundes) do giue order vnto the companies in what manner they are to behaue themselues in this particular point: which shall be, that alwayes the Round to giue place, and giue the Word vnto the counter Round: and thence foorth shall appoint the counter Roundes to be of officers of Page 115 the companies, as is accustomed.
And in case that in the one and the other there be officers, or that both be of souldiers, it is great reason that the Round do yeelde and giue the Word first, for that the counter Rounds be of more preheminence:* the which are not only or∣dained to do the same which do the Roundes: which is to see vnto the care and vigilancie of the guardes and Sentinels, but they are also ordained to see if the Roundes do faile in their duties:* But this is to be vnderstood in case that the supra Roundes be as ordenary as the Roundes: for that when the Colonell or Gouer∣nour of the fort, or the Sergeant Maior doe extraordinarily visite and Round, as they are wont to doe, then is it their part to giue the Word vnto the Round: the which being not aduertised that they be any supra Round, he is bound to giue the Word vnto none but only vnto the Sentinell: and all those which he shall meete, he ought to view, and take account of them, of that which they doe, and whither they go; apprehending such as he shall find faulty, or any other suspected person that he shall fortune to meete. And if by chaunce there passe any body by night out of the fort or garrison, as commonly it happeneth, it is needefull to aduer∣tise the Sergeant Maior thereof, who should thereupon take order to change the Word which the watch had, for the inconuenience that might happen for not doing the same.
And the guardes by day, may they retire without farther order?
No truly, vntill the Sergeant Maior, or his Coadiutor, do come to with∣draw them in such manner as they were set, placing the guardes that are to re∣maine there by day. And for as much as I haue spoken very much touching this officer, I will conclude with saying, that he ought to visite and reuisite at diuerse and different houres, all things that he hath prouided, after their well ordering; and see how they be performed, reprehending and punishing what he shall find worthy punishment. But he ought to do this in good and curteous sort, and so∣ber manner, knowing how to commaund with sweete and gentle words, ha∣uing a naturall grace thereunto, and grauity, whereby to be obeyed, in such sort, that when hee would determine to execute his desseignes, and his superiours charges and commandes, all the souldiers and officers might beare him that due respect and obedience,* which should bee needefull to bring the same to effect. Finally, let the Sergeant Maior be very carefull to prouide good drum∣mers, and men skilfull in their art, especially their Drumme Maiors; for the drumme is the voice of the commander in the field: and besides their skill with the drumme, to be men of good capacity and iudgement; also to speake sundry languages, being behouefull for many important occasions wherein they are to be emploied.
Captaine,* you haue throughly discoursed touching the office of a Ser∣geant Maior; whereby is to be vnderstood how many great and good parts ought to be in the personage called to this martiall function. Now I pray tell what de∣gree of office commeth next.
THE FIRST DIALOGVE.
VVherein is declared the Election, Office, parts and duties of a Camp maister or Colo∣nell, and from whence these names Colonell, and Camp-maister did spring, with some discourse touching the nature of the Spaniardes.
The Camp-maister or Colonell, his Election and Office.
THe next officer, in superiour degree, is the Camp-maister or Colo∣nell. The election of this officer is made by the Prince, with the aduise of his Councell of state and warre. His office is, to be Com∣maunder and Chiefteine ouer the Captaines, and all the other of∣ficers of his Tertio or Regiment:* hauing iurisdiction & dominion ouer them all. Whereby may be inferred and gathered the partes and qualities which ought to be in him, and the great skill and experience in warre; as one who ought to exceede them all, for to know how to commaunde, rule, and gouerne them, with authoritie, prudence and valour. And for as much as in many occur∣rants and occasions, growing and presented in warres, he ought to know how to performe the parts and office of a Lord high Generall,* being alone with the com∣panies of his owne Regiment, as when his Generall commaundeth him to the batterie, or siege of any fort or Citie, or to defend any towne or fortresse, or to warre in open Campania, to giue battell to the enemie, to make incursions, to re∣tire and withdraw skirmishers, to frame bridges ouer riuers, to fortifie himselfe in campe, to conduct artillerie, and many other peeces of seruice to be performed with a band of three or foure thousand men: whereof there are many rare exam∣ples, extant of many braue Colonels, who haue shewed themselues singular here∣in, both English,*French, and Spanish, in our late and moderne warres, brauely behauing themselues, as did Lucius Martius, a Romane Knight, when hee gathe∣red together the relictes of the defeated armies of the two Scipios, hauing had those their two Consuls slaine by Asdruball the Carthagian in a campall bat∣tell. Therefore, I say, for as much as by that which is already spoken, may be vn∣derstood, that he, which is a Campe-maister should be endued and graced with the like good partes and skill,* for to conduct, fight, and gouerne well, as a Cap∣taine Generall, I will leaue to recite now, vntill I come to declare the partes and qualities due to be found in a High Generall of an armie Royall; and from thence shall be considered what concerneth this officer, and so will I at this present, speake onely of such things as hee ought to prouide for the good conduction and gouernement of the companies of his Regiment.
In the time of the Emperour Charles the fift, Frauncis the French king, and Henrie the eight,* king of England, those were intituled Colonels, or, as some will, Coronels, which the Spaniardes do call Maesters de Campo: being yet called Colo∣nels, by the Italians, the French, the Germaines, and by vs Englishmen, so called: by the Spaniardes, Maestres de Campo, for hauing, quited and depriued them the preheminence which they had to elect Captaines and Sergeant Maiors, the Lord Page 117 high Generals reseruing the same vnto themselues, leauing vnto them no more but the commaunde, and authoritie in the administration of iustice, and in the effectes of warre. For commonly the Captainries are appointed by the Prince or Generall:* the Colonell electing vnto himselfe a most sufficient Lieutenant and Alferes, a Sergeant, and Caporals, all men of due sufficiencie, to the ende that his Captaines may imitate him therein; for that, that it importeth much to haue good and skilfull officers, sith from them doth grow the obseruing of good or∣ders, and vnto the armie the due vse and exercise of armes, with the perfection of discipline, and all good partes to the perfection of infanterie, with incourage∣ment to the souldiers, that with them the Colonell may attaine honor, glory, and fame by his actions, and militarie courses.
Thus it seemeth that this name of Camp-maister is but moderne.*
True; Neither the name of Colonell very auncient.
Then, how were those called before time, which had the gouernement of souldiers in armies?
They were called Duces (guides) of which amongst the Romanes there were three sortes,* or differences viz. Duces Militares, Duces Prouinciales, and Duces Limitanei; intituling those, Duces Militares, which went ordinarily with the armies: hauing each, vnder their charge and rule, one thousand men or more, as haue now our Cāp-maisters or Colonels, or rather our Generals. The other, in∣tituled Duces Prouinciales, were those which had all the souldiers of one Prouince, vnder their commaund and charge; as haue the Camp-maisters of the Tertios of Naples, Sicilia, & Lombardie. The third, called Duces Limitanei, were those which had vnder their charge and gouernement, all the men of warre on the frontiers to the enemies, as had our Lord Marchers in England.
Thus the titles of Dukes sprong first from the warres.
So did the titles of Earles,* Marquises and Knights. But now to returne to our matter. The Colonels companie or bande, doth preceede all the other companies of his Regiment, both in place and in all other occasions. And now for to know how to commaund and gouerne all the officers of his band, and of all the other cōpanies in his regiment, he ought most perfectly to vnderstand that which toucheth euery particular officer, euen from the Capo de squadra, vnto the Sergeant Maior: and it would bee a matter of great importance, to haue exerci∣sed, and to haue risen vp through all these offices, the better how to know, and perfectionate his owne: for by knowing this, the Captaine, the Sergeant Maior and all the rest, will walke more warily, and passe more punctually in the accom∣plishing of all their charges and duties, knowing that they haue a commaunder so skilfull, which quickly will perceiue, either their vertues or vices: perswading them to the one, & disswading thē from the other: the which in actions of warre do either greatly helpe,* or greatly hinder.
In the squadra which belongeth to himselfe, out of his owne companie there ought to bee souldiers of great experience and valour, which should be aduan∣taged in their payes, and whom he must esteeme and make great account of, con∣sulting often with them, & with his Captaines & officers of best cariage, & most experience in his companies: For many times a priuate souldier of experience and iudgement, will giue better reasons, counsell and aduise, then many other of Page 118 higher degree: which often hath bene proued, and examples extant.
*He ought to procure that all militarie discipline be duly obserued and that his Captaines, & the other officers vnder his charge, do obey, respect, & honor him, sith they are bound thereunto, as vnto the person of their proper Generall, in all things concerning the seruice of their Prince: and that the souldiers doe obey their Captaines & officers with great humilitie, & reknowledgement, and in like sort that the officers do commaund and gouerne them with cōuenient speeches, and good entertainement and curtesie. And it shall also much auaile him to know the names of his Captaines,* Lieutenants, Alferes, Sergeants & Caporals, and of all the particular souldiers, if it were possible; for in the pinches of warre, it is to great effect, to call a Captaine, officer, or souldier by his proper name.
The Sergeant Maior is obliged (as I haue before declared) to receiue his orders & directions from his Colonell, and with his opinion and appointment, to aug∣ment or diminish the guards. But this to be vnderstood, when there is no Camp-maister Generall in the armie,* whose proper office this is, whom he ought to re∣spect and obey, and to accomplish all orders by him appointed, touching his charge.
In the administratiō of iustice, he is to gouerne with great discretiō & wisdome, executing it with all equitie and right, that his souldiers thereby may both loue him & feare him; for it cōcerneth the Maister of the Campe, to apprehēde, to dis∣charge, & to punish, & also of life & death, in all delicts & cases deseruing such pu∣nishments; and in things and matters committed against the commaunds, lawes, and bandos of the high Generall of the infanterie; and in whose absence he may cōmaund orders & make lawes, and punish those that go against them, and obey them not; For, for the execution of iustice he hath his appointed officers, with their payes for the same; and also he doth iudge and determine their ciuill diffe∣rences & debates, which shall arise among the officers and souldiers of his regi∣ment. And if any do find themselues aggrieued with his sentences,* they may ap∣peale vnto the Lord high Generall or Camp-maister Generall, that being vniust, they may reuoke them; and if not, then commaund them to be executed. And in all these matters touching the administration of iustice, if the Colonell gene∣rall, or Lord high Marshall (being there any such) wil intermeddle therin, he may; and, as superior and preheminent in office, he may commaund, ordaine, do, and vndo; diminish or augment the authoritie and preheminence vnto the Colonell. It concerneth him also to haue regard to the place of victuals or market,* that there be no deceipt vsed against the souldiers; & he is to set the price, waight, & measure of all that is sold, & to put good guardes to see that the marchants & vi∣ctuallers may keepe their stuffe and wares in securitie and safe; and for the same, do the marchants and victuallers pay euery Saterday, for euery staule or booth, some six pence a peece or more; all this, being with his regiment alone, where there is no Camp-maister Generall; vnto whose office this doth properly apper∣taine. He is to be carefull and diligent with the Lord high Generall for his soul∣diers payes:* and see they be prouided of armour, necessaries and needfull muni∣tions, and the same to be distributed, as before I haue set downe: and this he is to do with such earnest diligence and affection, that he may oblige them all to ac∣knowledge and confesse him for their true father, and faithfull Commaunder.
Page 119Among the Spanish cōpanies in Italy,* it is accustomed that no Captaine do en∣tertaine any souldier into his band, but that the Maestre de Campo do first see and approue him, especially of a straunge nation, being not a particular and well knowne personage; for many inconueniences, that may follow thereon.
But I haue heard say,* that the Spaniard permitteth none of a strange na∣tion; though of neuer so good parts and seruice, to ascend vnto any degree of office among them: which is contrary to vs: for our Princes, in time past, haue re∣ceiued, esteemed, and aduaunced, many straungers, being personages of vertue, valour, and desert.
So did the Spaniardes in time past, in the times of their kings of Castillia and Aragon, in their sharpe warres amongst themselues, and against the Moores, wherein many of our nation did singular themselues, & from whom are descen∣ded many of the chiefe houses of Spaine.* But since their wonderfull discouerie of the Indias, by Columba an Italian; their maruellous conquestes therein; their in∣estimable treasures, long since brought home, and continually receiued from thēce; their long cōtinuance in warres, being nuzzelled therein by Charles the fift; the braue Prouinces of Italie and Flanders by him annexed vnto their crown;* with sundry such fauours of fortune, hath inflamed them with such imperious minds, & possest them with such proude and high conceipts, with such iealousie of their honours, as they terme it; and inuested them with such an habite of scorne and pride, that it is a wonder if they permit any honorable Gentleman of a straunge nation, though endued with neuer so many good parts, and serued them neuer so well; to ascend vnto any high degree of commaund amongst them, their enuie is such.* For let vs but throughly marke & consider the actions of the braue Prince of Parma, done in their seruice, yet by them enuied, obscured, and slaundered what they may, and you may easily perceiue the veritie hereof. But what will be the end of their ambition and pride I know not. It may be that God suffereth thē, for the sinnes of some nations, as by Flaunders and France may appeare, and also by their attempts against vs.* But who can tell, whether the Lord vsing them for a minister, as the louing father doth the rod, to correct his beloued children; who, after correction or amendement, casteth the rod into the fire. God graunt vs the spirite of true repentance, the which if we haue, we litle neede to feare the smart of this odious rod. Yet this much I say againe for the Spaniard, that any braue Gentleman, seruing valiantly amongst them, in place of a priuate souldier, shall be esteemed, beloued, and fauoured of them, so he aspire not to commaund: a great signe of ingratefull mindes:* for who knoweth not, that euery braue man of warre beareth a tatch of ambition, and of aspiring minde, deeming their vertue valour, and seruice to deserue degree of charge: a thing not to be misliked, in mine opinion, so it be procured by lawfull and honest meanes. But enuy & fearefull iea∣lousie, is now ouer rife in the world, raigning commonly amongst men, not of the best deserts, fearing a companion with them in office.
Me thinkes,* you haue shewed vs the proud Spaniardes Mappa Mundi; wherefore it were good for vs to crosselyne him what we may.
Proud Spaniard indeede, and ambitious also; his minde neuer resting like Siziphus rowling stone. But it was not so, two or three hundred yeares agone: for then were they poore, and contented to liue quietly with their neighbours, Page 120 and glad of their good wils,* for pouertie made them humble; their humilitie brought them fauour and credit, credite wrought their aduauncement; aduaun∣cement heapt by fortune, brought wealth; wealth bred their pride; their pride sprouted ambition; their ambition begat enuie; and their enuie engendred warres; warres may breed pouertie, and pouertie breedeth peace. Hereupon will I reporte you certaine speeches passed betwixt my selfe, and a young Biscain Spa∣niard, of whom I had the examinatiō, with others his companions, not long since, at Laugharns, a sea coast towne in Southwales. After hauing answered vnto such points and interrogatories, as were vnto him propounded in presence of the Lieutenant of that Shire and other Gentlemen, I demaunded of him againe tou∣ching his kings Armadas, and preparation for warres. Captaine (saith he) our king hath ships but vnwilling mariners, his preparation of the last Summer is now dissolued: his home bound Indies fleet being safely arriued; and his out bound sent away; After this safe arriuall of this his Indian fleet, bringing the sinew of his warres, what he will do, I know not, & euery spring there is speeches of warre; but I perceiue small performance and effecting; and but bad successe yet, especi∣ally against your nation. But how soeuer the game goeth, we, the poore do smart, and I wish the ill yeare to his Eggars and setters on; the Pope, his Clergie, and some his warre Commaunders; who, the warres being ended, should happely liue but hardly;* what nation is there, which our ambitiō hath not warred on? The Italian, the French, the Flemming, and you the English; of the poore Indians I speake nothing, which feedeth him with wealth, which were they cut from him, or should they rebell, or should his fleets fayle him but two or three yeares toge∣ther, he were in hazard to be a beggar. He aspireth all, and aymeth a conquest of his neighbour nations: but God knoweth which of them may arise in the end, and be our confusion: for my Genius suspecteth somewhat; and this was the effect of his speeches.
His speeches were to be mused at, if he spake bona fide.
Bona fide, or not: but such were his speeches. Well now it is time for me to returne to our Colonell, from whom I haue long bene absent, by reason of your demaund.
* He is greatly to respect and honour his Lord high Generall, obeying and per∣forming his commaunds and orders with great care and diligence, procuring to keepe himselfe alwayes in his grace and fauour, being a faithfull counsellour vn∣to him: and to execute his Commissions (hauing first throughly conceiued and vnderstood them) with great, valour, and readinesse. His arming is the proper ar∣ming of a Captaine, but to be alwayes, or most commonly on horsebacke, pro∣uiding and ordering all things most necessary and conuenient for the good go∣uernement of his companies. But if his Regiment should sallie out to battell, and all his Captaines placed in ranke,* hee shall then dismount, and shall guide his companies on foote, for the honour and estimation of the infanterie: as well was shewed at the great muster of all the Spanish armie before king Philip and his Queene at Vadaioz, at the conquest of Portugall: And for as much, as the other parts which may seeme to concerne a worthy Colonell, may be considered, when we come to speake of a Captaine Generall touching his office and charge, I will conclude, concerning this officer, with the wordes of Cicero in his Oration Pro Page 121 Lege Manilia:* declaring the partes of a great Commaunder in warre: which is, great experience in martiall actions; deepe knowledge in histories; a life not spot∣ted with notable crimes; to be magnanimous and valiant; and to be beloued, fea∣red, and followed of his souldiers: and finally to haue fortune to friend.