The election and office of a Sergeant Maior.
The election of the Sergeant Maior, is made by the Generall, out of such as the Colonels do name vnto him.* His office is, to be the generall minister or offi∣cer of a whole Regiment of sundrie companies, and Superintendent of all the Sergeants of the same. By whose hand and industrie, the Camp-maister or Colo∣nell, doth giue and appoint the orders conuenient to the due gouernement of his Regiment or Armie: as in marching, in encamping, and imbattailing, and in such other matters concerning hereunto: whereby may be gathered the partes, the qualities, the valour, the great skill, experience and diligence, which ought to be in him, who is chosen to this degree of office; being of such importance, that in Page 93 the time of the Greekes and Romaines, this office was credited vnto none; but the Generals them selues did execute the same in their owne person.
The Sergeant Maiors office is of much higher degree,* then any ordinarie Captaine: for euery Captaine doth receiue his directions from the Sergeant Ma∣ior; and the Sergeant Maior from the Colonell or Generall, or from the King or Emperour himselfe, if he bee in field. For hee is barred no gate nor entrie, but is freely suffred to enter,* euen into the Generals tent, or Kings chamber. There∣fore there ought great regard to be had, in the election of this officer. Which be∣ing done in a person of insufficiēcie, doth many times cause great inconueniences to arise: and the person so chosen, for want of skill and naturall instinct, not know∣ing how to vphold his due authoritie, grauitie, and power, doth lose oftentimes his due respect and reuerence of the Captaines, and other officers: whereby it had bene better for him to haue remained a Captaine of a single companie, then to haue risen to this degree of office, being not fit, for skill and nature thereunto.
Then I perceiue that you would wish him that should vse the place of this office, besides his experience and skill, to be also of a naturall inclination be∣fitting the same.
So is my meaning: For besides his long experience and practise in warres, he ought yet to haue a certaine naturall instinct befitting this office: for as much as the most of his actions are to be handled in the face and view of the enemie,* and in place of greatest perill; as ready at euery instant to redresse eue∣ry disorder. He ought besides his long experience, to be valiant, learned, quicke witted, and ready conceited, wise, discreet, and ready both to see, and foresee, as well their owne, as the enemies orders or disorders; preuenting, redressing, and taking aduantage, as time and occurrants shall be offred, not letting slip any occa∣sion offred.
Is the Sergeant Maior to haue any particular companie to himselfe, as the other Captaines of Infanterie haue?
No truly, and that for many good respectes: For in the absence of the Colonell, he hath the commaunde of the whole Regiment, among the Spanish Tertios.
You said that the office of the Sergeant Maior did cōsist in three things; that is, in the good order of marching, in the sure manner of encamping, and in the perfect formes of imbattailing: wherefore I pray discourse more at large thereof vnto vs.
Truly (Gentlemen) if you remember, I haue before at large declared touching the embattailing of men,* the ordering of squadrons, their deuiding in∣to Maniples, and the formes of sundry kinde of battels with vs most in vse: but yet to giue you content, I will repeate some part thereof againe. Wherefore it concerneth this officer to know how to frame his squadrons, to march with the same, and bring them to fight. Now, a squadron of men is, (as before I sayd in folio 45.) A congregatiō of souldiers orderly ranged & set, by the which is pretended to giue vnto euery one such place and roome, as they may fight without hindering one another, and to vnite all their forces together, in such sort that they may attaine to their prin∣cipall intents and end, which is to be victorious or inuincible. So that we ought to thinke that the armie which is best ordered and disciplined, although of lesser Page 94 numbers,* is like to be, by all reason, Lord of the victorie: as Vegetius declareth ve∣ry well, giuing the reason why the ancient Romanes became conquerours of most nations of the world; saying that in greatnesse they were not like to the Almaines, neither comparable in number to the French, neither so subtill as the Aphricanes, nor so strong as the Spanyardes,* nor so furious as the Brittanes, nor so wise as the Grecians, yet did they make easie, and answer all these disaduantages and difficul∣ties, by onely maintaining their people well exercised in armes, and practise of warre, and keeping them well disciplined and reformed in manners. And for as much as squadrons and battels be formed of numbers of souldiers, more or lesse, according to the greatnesse of the armie, it is necessarie that this officer doe per∣fectly know,* and haue in writing, the iust number of euery companie; as how ma∣ny pikes, how many halbardes, and how many shot, and before occasion or ne∣cessitie befall, do make a common habite in his head and memory, framing there∣in many & variable formes of those which are now most in vse, as the iust square of men, and quadrate of ground, and the battels of many sortes of proportions of inequalitie, with all the others whereof before I haue written. To do the which, it is most needefull that he be very skilfull in Arithmetike, for without the same, he should hardly performe his office: and not onely to know how to embattell the companies of his owne Regiment, but of many Regiments together, and of any number:* for that many times the Generall doth commaund to frame a battell of sundry Regiments together; as did the old Duke de Alua at the taking of Lisbo∣na, and conquering of Portugall. Who commaunded, that of the Tertios of Naples, Lombardie, and Sicilia, there should be one battell made and framed; and of the Tertios of Don Rodrigo Sapata, and Don Gabriell Ninio, an other, and of the Ter∣tio of Don Luys Henriques, another squadron: and that out of all the sixe Tertios there should be drawen 2100 shot, to serue to other purposes. And for as much as the Sergeant Maior was not very skilfull and ready herein,* they found them selues much puzzelled in doing thereof; and fell into many faultes, in presence of their Generall and Princes: and in generall iudgement of the whole Campe wherein I then serued.
Truly it was a matter well worth the noting, but is there more sortes of imbattailing then those you haue spoken of before?
I haue already spoken of the most; yet of diuerse nations vsed diuersely; of all which formes I would haue the Sergeant Maior to be skilled and seene, al∣though the conduction of our warres now a dayes,* doth consist more in surpri∣ses, assaults, and batteries, then open field fight, and although the best now in vse, are but two or three, viz. the first square of men, and the square of ground, and their diuision into battallions of that kind, according to the weapons wherewith∣all we now fight.
Which of these do you hold for most assured and strong?
I hold them all for sufficient strong, but the difference which may hap∣pen,* is to be iudged according to the situation and disposition of the ground, and occasions to fight, and by the order that the campe shall obserue. For in some oc∣casions the square of men would be best, as in open field, without aduantage of hedge, ditch, water, marish or wood, or where the enemie is strong in horse, to charge on euerie side: the which iust square of men, in euerie part is found to be Page 95 equally strong, and apt euery way to receiue the charge: the which could not be so,* were the battell ouerlong afront, & narrow in flank, as is the bastard, broad, or base square; but yet in other occasions, where these aduantages are to be found, it were better to fight in broad front, for that thereby, many hands do come to fight at once together in the vantguard, and with more difficultie to be compassed by the enemie, hauing any of the aduantages before spoken of to friend: but most cōmonly, if necessitie, occasion, or situation do not constraine otherwise, the qua∣drat of ground is best, and most vsed, as best proportioned with equall strength in vantguard and reareward (especially against footemen) and also flanked suffici∣ently strong: and which of all other doth occupie least quantitie of ground.
What meane you by Bastard square, Broad square, and Base square.
The Bastard square,* is the battell which conteineth almost twise so many men in front, as in flanke, in proportion as 1 ¾ is to 1: the Broad square is the bat∣tell which conteineth more, or as much, as twise so many men in front, as in flank, as is 2 to 1, or 2 ⅓, which is as 7 to 3: and the Base square, is the battell which con∣taineth almost thrise, or 3 times more in breadth then in depth, which proportion is as 8 to 2, or 3 to 1, or such other proportions of inequalitie, as fol. 51.
You haue before declared at large the maner how to frame all these sorts of battels: therfore it is needelesse to demaund it againe; whereby I perceiue how necessary it is for the Sergeant Maior to be both learned and skilfull in Arithme∣ticke: but doth it import any thing, whether the ranks be of euē number or odde?
No truly,* but a custome vsed amongst vs, without any ground: for battels are to be set according to the number of men, and the same to be framed as the si∣tuation of the ground will permit; therfore the number of Par or Impar doth litle import to the strengthening of the battell: but the due proportioning thereof ac∣cording to the quantitie of your men, to be accommodated to the ground, or si∣tuation; and aboue all,* the braue conduction of the Commaunders and the reso∣lute valour of the souldiers, is the strength and firmenesse of the battell.
What order is to be taken in setting of battels with speede and facilitie, that the confusion of the souldiers disturbe not the same, especially where men be vnruly, euery one thrusting himselfe into the first rankes of the foreward, in such disorder many times, that neither the Sergeant Maior nor Colonels themselues shall be able to frame a battell in good sort?
The care to redresse this inconuenience toucheth the Sergeant Maior;* and therefore he ought to giue aduise and warning vnto euery companie before they come to this point, that they beware of such confusion, disorder, and disobe∣dience; notifying vnto them that the Ensigne or Ensignes which were of the ward that day, should frame the first rankes of the vantgard; and the Ensignes or Com∣panies that had the ward last before, should successiuely follow; and those which were afterward to haue the ward, to succeede them againe, and then next such as first were gathered to the squadrons.
Moreouer giuing aduisement to the officers, that they suffer none of the soul∣diers of their bande to come without their armour,* by peece-meale and vnfur∣nisht: for by such faults, although that by the aforesaid reasons, the vantguard ap∣pertaineth vnto them, yet they loose their preheminence, for comming so ill ar∣med; and iustly may others, better armed, be placed in their roomes.
And if (perhappes) vpon the Alarme giuen (as commonly it falleth out) all the Companies in Armes, doe ioyne and gather together, vnto the Corps de guarde or place of assemblie, in such a case, what is the Sergeant Maior to do?
*He shall frame together that confused and disordered body, placing the Captaines before: and shall draw his battell from out one of the flankes, or out of the rereward, as he shall finde it most commodious: the which he shall doe with great facilitie, and thereby shall defraude those that were cause of such confusion: and it shall serue vnto two good effectes: the one, he shall frame his battell with speede, and the other, he shall by this meanes chasten the vnruly and disobedi∣ent, by leauing them in the rereward, who seeing this order taken by the Sergeant Maior, will euer afterwardes, be more obedient and tractable to be set in order.
But the battell or squadron of pikes being set, in what order is the same garnished with shot, and how many and great shall the sleeues thereof be, and how farre distant placed from the pikes? for I haue heard different opinions therein; whereof, although you haue sayd somwhat already, yet I pray, let vs heare something more of the same.
No souldier is ignorant, that the squadron of pikes being set, is to be impaled or girdled with shot,* as many rankes of shot, as pikes. But the due and naturall girdling indeede, ought to be no more shot in ranke, then that the pike may well couer and defend, especially where the enemie doth abound in Caual∣lerie. And so vnder the defence and fauour of the pike, there cannot conuenient∣ly stand aboue one ranke of three shot at the most, and so many (in mine opinion) should the girdling conteine: the which girdling shot, kneeling vpon one knee, vnder the couert of the couched pikes, should, at the charging of the horsemen, discharge their vollie in their face and bosome,* which would bee no small gal∣ling vnto them. But when this daunger of horse is not to be feared, then the im∣palement may be made of more shot in a ranke, at the discretion of the Sergeant Maior, according to the quantitie of shot contained in his companies, and the rest of the shot to be deuided into sundry small troupes (as I sayd before) to troupe round about the battell,* with some reasonable distance from the same: the which manner of small troupes, I esteeme to be farre better then the sleeues con∣teining great numbers, and more ready to be brought to skirmish, euery seuerall troupe to be led forth by his Caporall, and some Captaines to ouersee the whole.
Moreouer, I would thinke good, at euery angle of the battell to be placed a good squadron of Muskets, which should serue to flanker it euery way, euen as the Caualleros or Trauassos do the curtaine of a fort: so that a well framed battell or squadron of pikes, well impaled with shot, and anguled with squadrons of Mus∣kets, seemeth a Castell with his curtaines Caualleros, and ditches: the manner whereof being framed of expert & resolute men, is of wonderfull force, the which was well to be seene in the iorney of Caruā in Barbarie, where Don Aluaro de Sandy, with 4000 Spanyardes,* foote souldiers of great valour, made a braue famous re∣traict, the space of 4. or 5. myles in a champion field, being be set and charged by Cydearfa, king of the Moores, with aboue twentie thousand horse, at the least fiue or six times, with the losse of onely 80 men of his; and the slaughter of seuen or eight hundred of the enemy. Which is a gallant example what braue footemen may do, being conducted by a good chiefe.
Your orders and reasons doe like me very well: but yet of one thing I stand in some doubt, and would gladly bee resolued therein, which is, that our bandes and companies of infanterie, haue commonly two thirds of shot, vnto one third of pikes, so that the battell empaled, sleeued and anguled with shot, there will yet abound and remaine good store of shot neuerthelesse. Now where should those be bestowed, to bee safe from the fury of horse, if the enemy should therein greatly abound?
Your question is good, and I my selfe haue bethought me many times thereupon: wherefore if your ground be such that the enemies horse may charge you but vpon two parts at the most at once, then may the shot retire safely on the contrary parts: but if you be imbattailled in open Campania, without any aduan∣tage for you, and your enemy very strong in horse, and you few horse or none to reanswere them,* then (in mine opinion) the surest way is thus (as I sayd be∣fore) in speaking of lining of battels with shot, first to place 5, 6, and 7 rankes of armed pikes, or more, and girdle them with 5 rankes of shot, close vnder the gard and shelter of the pikes, on the out side: then againe within those first rankes of pikes, 3, 4, or 5 rankes of shot, then certaine rankes of pikes, and then shot a∣gaine; and so consequently, as your numbers and occasions shall require, as in this figure appeareth.
Here is to be noted that in such cases where your battel may be charged on euery part or side, that then those rankes in flanke which haue a wider distance then those men which are in front, doe march vp closer together, whereby they may make the front of equall strength and distance, of station euery way.
Page 98In this figure first you see placed the girdling shot 5 in a ranke, vnder the gard and succour of the pikes,* then 9 rankes of pikes, then certaine rankes of shot, and then pikes againe; and so consequently to the center, where is placed the ensignes, and short weapon, and munition. The girdling shot vpon the very charging of the enemies horse, and at the couching of their pikes, may (kneeling vpon one knee, the better to be vnder the couert of the pikes) discharge in the bosome of the enemy, not aboue twentie pases of: and then the pikes being couched, the o∣ther rankes of shot, contained within them, are to discharge close ouer the heades of the couched pikes before them, and so successiuely as the other pikes shall bee couched the shot contained within them shall discharge. So thus (in my conceipt) would this order containe in safetie, the most part of your shot, and bee sufficient strong, and a great gauling vnto horse.
This order I thinke to be good, where the enemy aboundeth in num∣ber of horse. But now I pray tell vs what order is the Sergeant Maior to take and obserue, when these companies do march?
Herein consisteth great skill,* care, direction, and discipline; for gene∣rally men be loth and vnwilling to be tied to any strict and painefull order, espe∣cially Besonnios, wanting practise and patience; for vpon euery light occasion, they will breake and disaray, as when they come to any straight or vnplained way, or when they feele themselues a litle wearied or chafed with heate, running on euery side disorderly to seeke water,* which often times hath bene cause of many defeat∣ments. And many times againe vpon small occasions doe they dismande them∣selues, the cause thereof growing from the ouer remisnesse and negligence of the officers, in not correcting at first, such disorders with rigour and seuerity, as the vrgentnesse of the cause would require, and for that they want the care and di∣ligence to redresse such mismeanours, as hereafter I will speake of, declaring first what the Sergeant Maior is to doe, being in Campania: which is to go take the or∣ders to be obserued from the Generall, and to know whether his tertio or regi∣ment is that day to haue the vantgard, battell, or reareward; the which he is to do the night before that the army is to march, although that the General many times for many good respects, will not make the same knowne, vntill the very houre of marching.
And this shall he do chiefly that day, which toucheth his regiment to haue the vantgard. And therefore it is alwayes important for him to know the wayes most commodious,* and most salliable for the souldiers and companies out of the campe: for many Sergeant Maiors hauing erred herein, haue found themselues puzzelled, confused, and ashamed in presence of their Generals, guiding their regiments by wayes pestered with cartes, wagons, and baggage of the campe. And at other times for conducting them through passages so difficult and com∣bersome, that they haue bene constrained to breake their arraies. For at the re∣mouing of a campe, the prauncing and neighing of horses on euery side, and the crossing of cartes,* baggage and carriages, and the noise of drummes and trum∣pets, is such and so great, that (if he be not very preconsiderate in the same, and know well the way, where hee is to conduct his companies) he runneth many times into those inconueniences: and chiefly when the campe doth dislodge by night, or in dayes mistie and darke, for then is the daunger most to bee doubted: Page 99 therfore it importeth much, that the Sergeant Maior be very skilfull in the regi∣on and countrey where they are to passe,* and to know the distances from place to place, and the qualities of the wayes and passages, with their straights, and inclo∣sures, their hils, vallies, riuers, brookes, lakes, moores, meddowes, fields, open or enclosed, forests, woods, thickets, or whether the countrey be stony, plaine field, or ditched, and all difference of situations of grounds, as well of the hils, and high mountaines, as of the plaine and champain; to the end, that he may consider, fore∣see, preuent,* and prepare for euery place where the enemy may annoy him. For many times one regiment is to march alone, and then doth it touch the Sergeant Maior to haue the care and speculation hereof, as it doth the Campe-Maister Ge∣nerall when the whole army marcheth, for that it befall him not, as it did vnto the Romaines in the Furcas Caudinas and vnto many other through the like misre∣gard.* And for more security hereof, they are to procure faithful and trusty guides, and skilful way leaders, to the end not to be beguiled and abused, as Hannibal was, when he warred in Italy against the Romaines, who willing to leade his army vnto Cassinum, was led and guided vnto Casilinum, to be put into the hands of Quintus Fabius Maximus, Generall of the Romaines his enemies.
Now the order being knowne,* and the way reknowledged, and the houre of re∣mouing at hand, he is to commaunde the drumme maior to sound the call Recoia or assembling, and euery Captaine of infantery to cause their baggage to be trus∣sed vp and laden, and shall straight wayes draw foorth his ensignes out of their quarter into the place of armes, and there shall frame his battell or squadron, re∣parting their Captaines into such places as concerneth them that day, and shall dispose and appoint the Sergeants of ordinary bandes in such sort, that euery one may know what part he hath to gouerne and set in order. And for as much as it is seldome seene, that the wayes, fieldes, and passages be so large, that the whole battell may march all in front, he is to frame his ordinances arraies or Maniples no greater, then that the same may march commodiously and at ease thorough the same, the order whereof I haue at large declared in folio 62, 67, 68 and 92: al∣wayes prouided, that he quarter or deuide not his battell (if the passage will so permit) into no lesse then the third part of the front thereof, as thus, if the front be of 27 pikes, the Maniples or ordinance shall be of 9, and if 21 in front, then the deuision or quartering shall be of 7 in front, and so of other numbers: for he is to conduct his companies so well disciplined and ordered, that occasion being of∣fered, hee may with speede and readinesse frame and set his battell, or bat∣tallions, reparting the Captaines and officers in places most conuenient, as be∣fore is sayd.
But tell vs how is he to repart them, and who shall go in the vantgard; which in the battell, and who in the reareward; and in what part shall the Colours be placed, that this readinesse and quicke dispatch, might be performed in setting the battell as you speake of?
The order I haue partly spoken of before;* but to giue you content, I will repeate it againe: therefore me thinkes that the order to be obserued therein, is thus. That the shot of the forlorne hope, and the shot of the right flanke (be∣ing deuided into many small troupes as I said) should march before, then next, the girdling shot, of the said right side; after them should follow the ordinances and Maniples of pikes, in such sort & order as before is declared: & to the end that Page 100 the ensignes go not crossed either in one sort or other,* he is to place them alone af∣ter another, within so many rankes of pikes, so that when soeuer he brings his Maniples vp together pouldron to pouldron, to the framing of his battell, they may still remaine in their conuenient places, which is in the center.
Then after the pikes shall follow the girdling shot of the left flanke, and last of all in the reareward shall follow the troupes of shot belonging to the left flanke, and reareward, and hauing passed the straight, and the squadron formed, then may they repaire each girdling shot,* and troupes to their due and conueni∣ent roomes, as before; of which orders of Maniples, and quartering of battels, I haue before declared at large.
Is there any meaning or misterie in marching the left or right side shot before in the vantgard.
None truly, that I know of, more then that in all our actions we ought to incline what we can vnto perfection: and as the right hand is the more perfect and noble,* from thence it is reason, that wee begin to frame our battels, and in that place also to begin to disseuer them.
The munition, and baggage belonging to the Companies, where are they to goe, to cause least hinderance, and to passe in most security?
The consideration that is to bee had when an army doth march, is, that if the enemy be knowne to be on head the vantgard, vpon the way you are to passe, then let the munition and baggage be placed in the reareward;* and per contra, if the enemy be found to be in the reareward, then passe your baggage to the for∣ward: and if on the right side, then conuay it to the left; and if on the left side, then transport it vnto the right, with the like consideration, and in this sort shall the campe be alwayes a wall and defence vnto the munition and baggage. And if in marching the enemy do offer to fight, the munition by this meanes, shall be no let or hinderance at all. And besides all this, there ought to be sent abroade cer∣taine Hargulutiers or light horse,* to scoute before the munition and carriage, to preuent the suddain incursions of the enemies stragling horse. The same order ought also to be obserued in the marching of one regiment alone. But in case that there were no enemy, and they might march through places plaine, safe, and secure, the munition and cariage ought alwayes to passe in the foreward, with a sufficiēt gard of pikes, shot, and short weapons; & that for good respect, & because it is very commodious for the souldiers, that when they come well wearied to their quarter, they may find their tents ready pitched, and many times their forrage pro∣uided, and not to stay attending and expecting the same, comming many times, wet, dirtie, ouer tired, and halfe dead with hunger: and again if by hap any of the ca∣riages do fal, the owners of the baggage may help to redresse, wherby to saue their baggage and furniture: which could not be done if it marched in the reareward.
But if it should happen, that in none of these sayd parts, the baggage might march in safety (as in Barbarie, or other Champaine countrey, where the enemies number consisteth most of horse) & we not hauing sufficient numbers to answer them, what is then to be done, where the enemy may charge on euery side?
*Then in the center of the battell, or betwixt the squadrons, with their conuenient gard, as before is sayd: for besides that little which the souldier hath, and carrieth the same there, it is reason he defend and keepe it; so in the like sort he is to procure that the enemy detrusse him not thereof, neither the enemy to glory Page 101 that perforce he hath dispoiled vs of any thing,* for the great part of reputation which is lost thereby: but if the same may not bee conserued without manifest danger, and the squadrons thereby to bee disaraied, then ought it to bee forsaken and left: the which many braue commanders haue not onely done, but some haue left their carriage to the enemy of purpose, to the ende that by rifling the same they might fall into some disorder; by which meanes and pollicy they might the sooner defeat them, and obtaine the victory: as did Prospero Colonna and the Mar∣quis de Pescara at the battel of Vicentia in Italy, whereat the Venetians, and the Cap∣taine: Marquis Aluiano were broken and ouerthrowne.
The foote souldiers horses and their boyes, where are they to go when they them selues mount on horse backe, and their boyes do cary their weapon and armour in their Maisters roomes?
I would wish as few horses as might be with the foote companies, but on∣ly for some officers and sick persons:* but for such as be, it is manifestly knowne, that it is forbidden by al good discipline of war, that no foot soldier do passe out of the campe or alodgement on horsebacke, neither on horsebacke to enter into the same, but alwaies at sallying he acccompany his colours, at the least a mile, and be∣fore the arriual to their allodgement, the like. To do the which, their horses may go by one side of the battell, if the way will permit it; and if not, then at the traine therof, vntil they haue licence granted to mount; and yet not that to be permitted, vntill their foot Captaine be first mounted; and then may they mount on horse∣backe, and put them selues in order with the Captaine or officer that is to con∣duct them, and to this effect should the Sergeant Maior name and appoint some one. And if they be of the shot of the vantgard, then are they to follow their vant∣gard troupes of shot; and if pike men, then to follow their arraies or Maniples of pikes: and in like sort shall the Hargabuziers of the reareward do, placing them∣selues in the traine of their troupes, and shall set their boyes and pages with their armes in their roomes and places, to the end that if occasion be offered, euery mounted souldier may alight, and steppe to his roome and place, without disor∣dering their ordinance or arrayes at all. In the like sort shall such foote souldiers as haue boyes carrying their armes, do: and when occasion is for the souldier to take him to his armes,* hauing receiued the same from the boyes, let the boyes be shif∣ted out of the battell: for I hold it not for good, as I haue seene some Sergeant Maiors, to place those boyes neare vnto their Ensignes, either before or after them: for by this meanes may the battell bee disordered and broken, and none of those which mounted on horsebacke, can readily find their due roomes and places. A thing which the Sergeant Maior should greatly regard, to keepe his companies alwayes in good order.
In their marching should not the souldiers make stayings and pausings, to ease and rest themselues.
It is very necessary that they make some Altoes or standes to ease them,* and that they might refresh themselues with such short victuals as they beare along with them, and by a litle reposing, they may breath and ease them of the wearinesse of the way, and so conserue themselues in good order. For although the souldier be neuer so much practised and inured, and though the shot may suf∣fer the wayes trauell without any great pawsing, yet the pikemen, as men laden Page 102 with their armour, are not able to endure the same, especially in dayes of scor∣ching heate,* without daunger of sicknesse, or brusing of their bodies. Therefore the Campe-maister or Sergeant Maior ought to be very considerate and carefull, to cause the standes to be made, as the commoditie shall be offred, and necessitie require it, to the end, no disgrace might befall them. And for that it hath bene somtimes seene, that the Sergeant Maiors taking litle regard here unto, haue con∣ducted their Regiments very disorderly,* making a long trace file or lyne (as it were) of them: the vantguard distant from the rereward at the least three or foure myles; in such sort, that by much lesser numbers then the numbers of their owne companies, they may many times, be beaten and ouerthrowne: as it chaunced vnto the French armie in Lombardie, being defeated by Antonio de Leyua, gouer∣nour there, for the Emperour Charles, at their marching towards Viagrass•, their Commaunder,* the Countie Sanpaule being taken: for hauing passed too forward with his vantguard, leauing behind him more then was conuenient, the Countie Guido de Rangon with the ariereward, who had the charge thereof. The Sergeant Maior is therfore to be carefull, to make alwayes his standes and Altoes neare vn∣to some good waters, the officers taking great care & watchfulnesse, that in those stoppes and stayings, the souldiers dismeanour not themselues, nor range not disorderly vnto the next adioyning places, nor runne into orchardes, nor gardens to rifle and spoyle, for it is contrary to good militarie discipline.
When the campe doth march, passeth the Sergeant Maior on foote or on horsebacke?
*On horsebacke; For vnto this officer onely is his horse allowed him, and at all times to ride, and into euery part, and vpon any occasion, and to trauerse and passe through the Arrayes of the battell, visiting, prouiding, and ordering all things concerning the same; and also to take the word from the Generall: and being on horsebacke, if he chaunce to meete him, he is not to alight, as some vn∣skilfull Sergeant Maiors are wont to do. For the sollicitude, care, and readinesse, apperteining to this office, is such, and so great, that it requireth he enioy such a preheminēce.* Neither yet in the day of battell ought he to dismount, nor enter in∣to rāke with the other Captaines, as some will seeme to say; for in the fight he ser∣ueth but for one, but being on horsebacke, he may value for many, in viewing, re∣uiewing, ordering & redressing many & sundry occurrāts, which in such times are offered, importing many times the good successe of the victorie, & therfore he is to go armed but lightly,* with a short baston or trunchion in his hand, which shall serue him to apart horses, cariages & baggage, which oftentimes do disturbe & hinder the squadrons, & to shew and point with the same some things that he cō∣maundeth, and orders that he ordaineth to be done, and sometimes to correct therewith the disobedience of vnruly souldiers: whereat no man ought to be of∣fended, or take it for any affront, sith it is done for corrections sake.
In what part ought the Sergeant Maior to stand or go, when the armie doth march?
The ordinarie place of the Colonell is the vanguard; and so the Serge∣ant Maior,* being his officer, by whom he sendeth his Commaundes vnto the Cap∣taines, Ensignes, and Officers, ought alwayes to be neare vnto his person.
But if the enemy be knowen to be behind or after your rereward?
In such case he shall remaine in the rereward,* but to assist there in such sort, as he forget not to make the Alto or stand sometimes, and to stay vntill he hath passed through all the arrayes of the marching squadrons or armie. And if he finde that the Sergeants do not their duties, in keeping the souldiers in good order and array, he shall seuerely reprehend them for the same, being a thing of such importance, and that no negligence be found in conseruing due order and array, so that none might be broken if possible it were. And if the arrayes be bro∣ken, as somtimes it happeneth by reason of the straight passages, it behoueth him to be very ready & vigilant to redresse them againe, and if to do the same it should neede to make a stand, an officer is presently to be sent to the Sergeant Maior: and neither Captaine, Alferes, nor any other officer to passe the word, stand, either to this effect or any other, as it oftentimes falleth out, crying stand, or march, from hand to hand, vnlesse the necessitie be so vrgent, as not permitting time to signi∣fie the same vnto the Camp-maister or Sergeant Maior. For by reason of this a∣buse of euery officer to passe and giue the word, vpon euery small occasion there do succeede many inconueniences, and is as much as to vsurpe the preheminēce, which onely is due to the Camp-master, as head of the Regiment, and vnto the Sergeant Maior, as guide of the battell. And therefore it is very necessarie, that the souldier or officer which so shall do, to be well punished for the same. And the Sergeant Maior is to be carefull, that the Captaines and souldiers which are on horsebacke, do alight, & set themselues into the arrayes, a good myle before they come vnto their allodgement, the which ought to be first viewed by himselfe, or his coadiutor, somewhat before the companies do arriue, and at their arriuing to frame his battell in the place thereof, and not to suffer any souldier to passe vn∣to his quarter, or to dismaunde himselfe in the order, vntill the whole Regiment be all entred; and he, or his coadiutor in his name, comming vnto the compa∣nies, do licence them to their lodgings and quarter.
The which ensignes are placed in the front of the quarter of euery company, all in one ranke, and from thence downeward the souldiers to be lodged. And the Sergeant Maior shall not permit nor suffer any cariage or baggage to be put before them, nor pestered within the place of armes, neither any fire to be there made, nor any other impediments; for from thence forward, it is onely a place of armes or assembly, and is to bee left free and vnpestered for onely the battell when it is to be set.