The theorike and practike of moderne vvarres discoursed in dialogue vvise. VVherein is declared the neglect of martiall discipline: the inconuenience thereof: the imperfections of manie training captaines: a redresse by due regard had: the fittest weapons for our moderne vvarre: the vse of the same: the parts of a perfect souldier in generall and in particular: the officers in degrees, with their seuerall duties: the imbattailing of men in formes now most in vse: with figures and tables to the same: with sundrie other martiall points. VVritten by Robert Barret. Comprehended in sixe bookes.
Barret, Robert, fl. 1600.
Page  31

THE THIRD BOOKE OF WARRE DISCOVRSES AND MARTIAL DISCIPLINE.

The first Dialogue:

VVherein is declared the order of a Romane Legion, with their deuisions: and the manner of the Grecians Phalanx: also a forme of trayning to be practised and vsed amongst vs, with the vse and handling of each weapon in their kinde: and other militarie points.

Gentleman.

FRiendly Captaine, your yesterdayes Discourses, haue so de∣lighted, contented and enflamed both my selfe, and these o∣ther Gentlemen, that we must needs entreat you to proceed, and to speake somewhat of the higher Officers of the field: wherefore I pray satisfie vs herein.

Capt.

Gentlemen, I would those parts of skill were in me to answere your requestes, and to satisfie your expectations. Neuerthelesse seeing you are so well bent, and inclined to the vnderstanding of Militarie courses; I will, to my best abilitie and knowledge, declare vnto you such matters as I haue found by mine owne experience, eyther learned from the directions of braue Commaunders vnder whom I haue serued, or gathered out of the best authors which haue written vpon this subiect VVarre. Indeede at the beginning of these our speeches, I did not then thinke to haue marched so farre into this Martiall field,* for my fiue or sixe yeares discontinuance from action, had almost driuen all the courses, order and methode thereof out of my mind and memorie: but your curious demaundes and questions, haue both drawen me on, sharpened my wit, and refresht my memorie: wherein if I haue erred, or may misse hereafter (as no man but erreth, some more, some lesse) I submit my selfe to the censure and correction of men more experimented, and of better parts then my selfe.

Gent.

Truely Captaine, you say very well; and I would we had many of no meaner partes, nor of no worse meaning then your selfe, in mine opinion; then no doubt, but our common souldiers should be better instructed, and be better dealt withall, then they now are by some of their Captains. But letting these mat∣ters passe; I pray what order would you wish to be obserued in the trayning of our souldiers here with vs in the countrie, sith we are commanded to traine, and as yet I see litle good order obserued in the same.

Capt.

Touching the true and orderly trayning of your people in this our Mo∣derne Page  32Militia, I haue in generall roued ouer some part thereof alreadie; but not so particularly as such an action would require: wherein I could heartily wish, that, as neere as possible we might, we should reduce ourselues with such armes as we now vse, vnto the forme, manner, and course of the auncient Romanes in their Militia and discipline of warre,* although ages, seasons, and inuentions, haue altered much and many weapons by them vsed.

Gent.

I pray what order did the Romanes obserue in their warres? and how were they armed?

Capt.

The Romanes deuided their foot people of warre into men armed with heauie armour, (or, as we may tearme it, armor complete) and into light armed men.* Those which were light armed, they called by one common name, Velites; vnder which word they vnderstood all such as carried slinges, darts, bowes, crosse-bowes, and such like: the greatest part of whom, were armed with a skull or close Cellat for the head; and had, besides their other weapons, a shield or Target vp∣on their left arme to defend and couer themselues, and did fight or skirmish in straggling sort, a good distance from those that were armed with heauie or com∣plete armour in Squadron. Vnto those may we well compare our shot, especially them of the forlorne hope, or Enfans Perdus, as the French doe terme them. Their people armed with heauie or complete armour,* had first a Cellat or Bur∣gonet, which couered their head, and reached ouer their shoulders: then for their bodie a Cuyrasse, whose flappes or tasses couered their thighes, euen down to the knees; their legges and armes were armed with Greaues and Vambraces: and for their defence they carried a shield of foure foote long, and two foot and a halfe broad, bound about with a band of yron; and for weapon they had a sword, not ouer long, girt vnto their left side, & a short dagger vpon their right; and in their hand a Iauelin or Dart, which they called Pilum, the which at the beginning of their fight they did lance or dart at the enemie: vnto these may we compare our Corslets and Pykes, whereof we frame our battels or battaillions: and our armed halbards, partizans, and other short weapon. Commonly a Romane army con∣sisted of two Romane Legions,* which was a Consuls armie, and of two Auxiliarie legions, which were of their friends or confederates.

Their Legion consisted at the first, but of three thousand footmen, and three hundred horse;* but afterwards encreased vnto 5.6 or 8000. foote. Their legion they deuided into Cohortes, Maniples, and Centuries. Euery legion of 6000. foote, was deuided into ten Cohorts, at 600. to euery Cohort, and euery Cohort into sixe Centuries, after 100. men to euery Centurie: and euery Centurie into foure Maniples, after 25. souldiers vnto euery Maniple, or into fiue Maniples, at 20. souldiers to euery Maniple.* Moreouer, euery legion was deuided into 3. partes, or orders of battels, into Hastati, Principes, and Triarij. The Hastati were set in the front of their armie, in order of Squadrons thicke and sure; behinde them were placed the Principes, but with the order of their Squadrons more rare and thinner. After these againe were ranged the Triarij, but with the order of their Squadrons, much more thinner then the Principes.

Now their slingers, darters, archers, or crosse-bowes, and such light armed, were placed without these Battels,* or Squadrons on the flanks and front, between the horsemen and their armed battell: as we do, or ought to do (in mine opinion) Page  33 our shot, some filers of Pykes, Halberds, and such other short weapon.

Gent.

What sort of men thinke you fittest to be chosen for souldiers, and to be trayned; and what order in their trayning?

Capt.

I suppose,* men of the better sort, from the age of eighteene yeares vn∣to thirtie yeares, are fittest to be chosen. Now the signes whereby to coniecture the persons most apt for warres, by the Phisiognomie, and proportion of bodie, are these: The eyes quicke, liuely & piercing; the head and countenance vpright; the breast broad and strong; the shoulders large; the armes long; the fingers strong and synowie; the belly thinne; the ribbes large; the thigh bigge; the legge full, and the foote leane and drie: for whosoeuer is of this disposition, and with these conditions, cannot chuse but be nimble and strong, which are two quali∣ties, chiefly to be required in a souldier.

I could wish that those Bandes which are appointed to be trayned (for of the Officers I haue spoken before) should be by their Captaine,* Muster-maister, and other Officers, trayned at the least once euery moneth, or oftener, as the wea∣ther and season will permit: and euery Caporall, with his Cabos de Camera, to traine and instruct their Esquadra, especially of shot, once euery weeke, or once euery fortnight at the least: ensigning them the vse of their weapon, and order of sleight skirmish:* For often practise maketh men readie, especially and shot, the which without readinesse and skill is a weapon of litle aduantage; and in the hands of perfect souldiers, is a weapon of great aduantage, and of wonderfull execution.

Now the seuerall companies, hauing bene well applyed and taught for a time by their Captaine and other officers,* I would wish, should once euery three monethes, meete and ioine some foure or fiue companies together, in some con∣uenient place, then and there to bring them into such formes as should be need∣full for so many companies. And once a yeare at the least, all the companies of the whole shire to meete in some most conuenient place together, then and there to be instructed in the orders how to march,* how to encampe, and how to fight: deuiding them into so many parts or battaillions, as vnto their chiefe Officer shall seeme good.

Gent.

What course would you wish the Captaine of a single companie to ob∣serue in the trayning of his souldiers?

Capt.

First hauing his companie leauied and chosen of the better sort of peo∣ple, as is said,* let your rawe Captaine, (for so I terme those which neuer were in action) prouide himselfe, if possible he may, of a good Lieutenant, and a suffici∣ent Sergeant, and a skilfull Drummer. Then let his people be suted with such sort of weapon as is appointed. The which I would wish to be (as I haue said before) to euery hundred of men, 25. muskets, 25. Calliuers, and 40. or more of pikes and corslets, and the rest, short weapon; as halberds, swordes and targets, and such like.

Now hauing suted euery man with a conuenient weapon, I would wish your Muster-maister, if your Captaine haue not the skil (for your Muster-master ought to be a man of experience) first to declare vnto them the partes that ought to be in a souldier in generall,* as before is declared; then to ensigne them the right carriage of their armes and weapon: then to knowe the seuerall soundes of the Page  34 Drumme: next to learne to keepe his ranke and file orderly; and so to march ey∣ther swift or slowe, step by step with the sound of the Drumme; then how to keep their array, being cast into a ring, or any other forme; with the comming out a∣gaine, and returning into a counter-ring; and out of the same into a march, and counter-march: then how to make their Alto or stand, and how to double their rankes, vntill they bring themselues into a iust square of men, if their numbers will permit it; and how to double their ••les, eyther vpon the left or right hand, and so to fall off againe, both from file and ranke: and being in squadron, how to turne their faces on either, or any part, making front on any flank or traine, as oc∣casion shall be offered. Then the perfect vse and managing of euerie weapon in his due nature and kind:* and so by a continuall vse they may (by good instru∣cters) become soone to be ready souldiers.

Gent.

Here be manie good parts vnder a few words; but they are too briefe for me to vnderstand: wherefore I pray dilate more at large thereof: and first, what meane you by the cariage of his weapon?

Cap.

*To discourse vpō al these points particularly, it wold be ouer long: & might better be shewed in act thē in words: yet to satisfie you somewhat herein, I will speak of the particulars here & there, as I shal be occasioned, & shal cal thē to me∣mory. First therfore,* the soldier that is appointed to cary a calliuer, is first to be en∣signed how to cary his peece vpon his left shoulder, with his flaske at his girdle, or hāging by at Port-flask, or Flask-leather vpō the right thigh, & vpō the left side of his girdle, to haue his touchboxe fastened by the string, hanging downe somwhat long by the strings, sufficient to be taken, and to prime his peece with touch-pow∣der: and on his right side a Bullet bagge or purse of canuas, or leather for bullets. Also some three or foure yards of match, in seuerall peeces hanging at his girdle, with one peece of match of a yard long in his left hand, holden fast by the third finger of the same hand, hauing the one or both the endes of the same, lighted, or fired.* Also to be prouided of a priming iron or wyer, of a steele and flint stone, to strike fire vpon any suddaine occasion, either to spare the burning of match, or to fire their matches if the same do chance to go out. Then how to charge his peece, either with his flask or bandelier, & thē to let slip the bullet down into the barrell after the powder, and to ramme the same with paper, tow or such like, thrusting the same downe with the scouring stick, if time will permit: or else (a more readier way) thus; After that the bullet is slipped downe vnto the powder, to put after the same some two or three cornes of powder, which will wedge fast the bullet. This being done,* let him hold his Calliuer with his left hand, (as in his charging hee ought to do the like) griping the same by the stocke, somewhat neare vnder the cock, betwixt his thombe and foure fingers; then, holding the nose of his peece somwhat vpward (for not to endāger his fellows) to take the one end of his lighted match, with his forefinger, midle finger, & thōbe of his right hād, & so to cock the same, hauing a regard that it may fall due within the pan: finally if it be a crooked stock peece, to set the same vnto the left side of his breast, retiring his right foot some halfe step behind the left, or aduancing the left foot some halfe pace before the right,* and so to take his due leuel: & holding the hindermost part of the stocke betwixt the thombe and fore-finger of his right hand, & with the other three fin∣gers to draw to the serre,* & so to discharge his peece with agility hauing done the Page  33 which,* to retire souldier-like, and charge againe, giuing place to his next fellow, or seconder. But being a straight stocked peece (the which I hold for the better) he is to place the same vpon the right side of his breast, fast against his shoulder, leuelling and discharging, as aforesaid. And for other armes he is to be fitted with a short sword, and meane dagger, and a Spanish morion. Now the musketier is to cary his musket vpon his left or right shoulder;* for it importeth not much on whether, so they obserue the order of the first rancke, with his Forke or rest in his left hand, fastned about his hand wrest or little finger by a string, hauing his flask and touchbox fitted as before is sayd, or hauing a bandalier, the same to be ouer the left shoulder,* and vnder the right arme. Now to charge the same, he must hold his musket with his left hand, hauing his rest trayling by the string, and put the but end of the stocke vpon the ground, then with his flaske or ban∣dalier to charge his peece with powder, slipping downe the bullet into the barrell after the same, and to fasten it with two or three cornes of powder, as is aforesayd; then to clappe the musket into his forke, planting the lower end or pike of the rest into the ground neare vnto his left foote, and resting the but ende of the stocke vpon his left thigh,* then to prime his pan with touch powder. And ha∣uing his match ready, as before is sayd, to take the peece of match that hangeth by the midle or third finger of his left hand, betwixt the thombe and fore finger of his right hand, and with his middle finger to measure at what length to cocke the same,* to fall with a proportioned length into the pan. The which being done, let him retire his right foote somwhat backe, and stand firme vpon the same: and holding fast both the musket and rest with his left hand, to raise the but end of his musket from his thigh vnto his breast, and to fasten the same firme and close vnto his right shoulder and brest,* holding fast the sayd hinder part of the stocke betwixt his right thombe and fore finger, drawing downe the serre with the other three fingers, and so taking due leuell to discharge. Hauing perfor∣med the which, let him vncocke his match, clap his musket vpon his shoulder with a halfe turne, and so retire, trailing his rest or forke by the stringe, and giuing place to others,* go charge again: finally for other armes, a reasonable short sword, a meane dagger; with no morion, but a faire hat and feather.

Gent.

Thus I perceiue your fiery shot haue many busie skils, without know∣ledge of all the which it is hard to become a perfect shot.

Capt.

True;* and therefore often to be practised: But here let the muster-maister and trayning Captaine be well aduised not to suffer their shot to cary any bullet about them, in time of their trainings, and fained skirmishes, for feare of danger, that might thereby ensue among themselues. But now and then after their training,* to take euery shot single, and to see him charge his peece orderly with pouder and bullet as aforesaid; and hauing a great but erected to that pur∣pose (the which ought to be in euery hundred or Baily-wicke) to cause them to leuell, and discharge at the blancke thereof, orderly one after another: encoura∣ging those which do make the fairest shot.

Now for the Pike,* which the Spaniards do tearme Sen̄ora y Reyna de las armas, the Queene and mistresse of weapons. The souldier which carieth the same, is to bee well armed with a good corslet, furnished with his gorget, Morion, tasses, pouldrons, vambraces, and gauntlets also; to be armed as he ought to be; whatso∣euer Page  34 opinion other men may hold to the contrary, supposing a bare payre of Cuy∣rasses onely sufficient: but I am of opinion, that the armed Picquier ought to bee armed in all points (as I haue said) for defence: and then to offend, to be weapo∣ned with a good Pike of ground Ashe,* of seuenteen or eighteen foote long at the least, well and strongly headed, with the cheekes three foote long, or there a∣bout: and for other weapon,* to weare a good short sword and dagger: for the dagger is a weapon of great aduantage in Pell mell.

*And if it be replied, that the souldier so heauie armed, is not for any great march,* or speedy execution; I say, that among well ordered Regiments, there are also yet some vnarmed pikes, that is without any corslet, or, at the most, the bare cuyrats onely and morion, the which the Italians do call Picche secche. Now these are reserued & imployed in such peeces of light seruice.* And the Picquier, either armed or vnarmed is to be shewed and taught the carriage and vse of his pike;* as first to tertiar or carry the same orderly vpon his shoulder, holding the same with his foure fingers vpon the vpper part of the staffe, & his thombe vnder the staffe, neare vnto his shoulder, basing downe the blunt end thereof, to aduaunce the point, and poizing the pike with an equall poize vpon his thombe and shoulder, alwayes in march keeping the lower end of his pike on the one side of his fore∣mans legge still aduertising that in march the pike is to be carried vpon the right shoulder, of euery souldier throughout euery file, sauing the vtmost file on the left side of the arrayes or ordinances, which are to carry their pikes vpon their left shoulders onely, alwayes regarding how those of the foremost rankes doe carry their weapon, the rest to do the same throughout euery ranke and file following: for order and forme do require the same.* Next hee is to be taught how to plant his pike on the ground, at any stand or Alto: then how to arbolare or aduaunce his pike, that is; to reare his pike vpright against his right shoulder▪ and with his right hand stretched downe vnto his thigh, to hold the same neare vnto the but-end be∣twixt his foure fingers and his thombe, stretching his forefinger downeward vn∣to the but-end of his pike, and so aduaunce the same vpright & high against his right shoulder, resting and staying the same with his right hand against his right thigh and knee,* as before is sayd. Now this is to be done at such times, as being brought into a Ring, and serreyng close shoulder to shoulder, then to aduaunce their piks in this sort at the enclosing thereof, & so to continue vntill they fall out of the ring againe into a larger march. Also the same is vsed by some, at their arri∣uing vnto the corps de guard, at the setting of the watch before their chief Com∣mander or officer; euen as the first ranke shall arriue into the corps de guard, some ten or twelue pases from the place of their stand; to arbolare their pikes; and so rancke after ranck, carrying them in the same order vntill they come vnto their place of station, there to make Alto, and to plant their pikes vpon the ground, as the squadron is formed.* But principally, the souldiers marching in squadron, and vpon point to come to the push of the pike with their foote enemy, then are they first to aduaunce their pikes, as is said, bearing the same orderly with the right hand against the right thigh, and the left hand aboue neare about the shoul∣der, and so to charge vpon the left hand and push,* standing firme and sure vpon the left foote. But if the squadron be charged with any troupes of the enemies horse,* then must the Picquiers cowch their pikes fast vnder the right foote, hol∣ding Page  37 the same 〈…〉 the left hand, and bow downe the point thereof against the breast of the hore,* hauing his right hand ready to draw his sword, if occasion shall be offered.

Now how necessary and auayleable this continuall vse and practise is, may easi∣ly be gathered from the sundry victories of the auncient Romanes. Who both in their Campes and Garrisons had their Tesserarios (which were as our Sergeant Maiors) to ensigne and teach their people of warre the vse and managing of their armes,* at all idle and vacant times. The old souldier, sometimes once in a day, and the Tirones, which we terme Bisognios, or new souldiers, twise in the day, or as occasion serued: so were their people alwayes ready and perfect. And againe they did not onely practise them in the knowledge of their weapons, but many times also did conduct their Companies for their recreation into the field, there causing them to run,* to leape, to iumpe, to wrastle, to throw the sledge, to pitch the barre, and such like exercises; and sometimes also to learne to swim, as a qua∣litie very befitting a souldier. Moreouer, they did many times cause their souldi∣ers, as well foote as horse,* to march armed at all points, euen as it were to serue a∣gainst their enemie, once or twise in a moneth, euery man carrying his owne pro∣uision and victuals, and giuing and receiuing the charge, euen as in hostile fight: and this did they for the space of ten miles, fiue out, and fiue home. Thus with these exercises they brought their people to be able, quicke, and ready to serue v∣pon all occasions, and did more good seruice with twentie thousand of such so trained and practised,* then with thirtie or fortie thousand of raw and vntrained men: But to haue a souldier to be very perfect, and a good executioner indeede, it is needfull to haue bin in some good peeces of seruice, & to haue seene men to fall on both sides,* which doth flesh & harden a souldier very much. Finally the good Picquier ought to learne to tosse his pike well, with the due handling of the same, and to be skilfull therein; sith it is the weapon he professeth: for 100 of ready pikemen, are better then 200 that know not the vse of the weapon. Now the halbarders ought to be fully armed with a corslet as is the Picquier; but in mar∣ching he is alwayes to beare the same on the right shoulder,* holding the lower end thereof, with his right hand almost close to his right thigh and knee.

Gent.

You haue well discoursed touching the caryage and handling of the calliuer, musket, pike, and halbard. But now, I pray what meane you by doubling your ranke and file?

Capt.

By ranke I meane euery row, or order of men, standing shoulder by shoulder,* either in march or squadron, reaching a long from the one side of the squadron vnto the other. And by file, I vnderstand all the line, order, or row of all the souldiers standing consequently one after another, from front to the traine, either in march or squadron. Now, the doubling of ranke or file is thus. First suppose your company to be of 100 pikes (as for the shot we will speake of here∣after) and you would bring them into a iust square of men:* first search out the Cubike roote of your number, and it is 10; then (after the first order) you shall cause them by the sound of the drum,* to embattell, to march vp in single files, at 10 men in euery file, & the head man of euery 10 to be a Caporal or Cabo de Ca∣mera; and as the first 10 is come vp vnto the place where you meane to frame your squadrō, cause them to make Alto; then cal vp the second file, at 10 per file, causing Page  38 them to march vp close pouldron to pouldron of the first tē, and there to firme & stand: then the third file, then the fourth and so consequently the rest, vntill your squadron be formed: your ensigne marching vp in the middle file, as in this fi∣gure may appeare.

[illustration]
Here you see them drawne vp in single files, at 10 men in euery file: and so your squadron is framed, 10 files, and 10 rankes or 10 in flanke, and 10 in front.

An other order is thus: you may march them vp in 2, 3, 4, or 5, files at once, and 10 rankes (for the number euen or od importeth nothing) if at 2 files at once,* then are they marched vp and framed at fiue commings vp: if at 3 files at once, then at three marchings vp at 3 files per Maniple, which make 9 files, and 1 single file, at 10 men per file: which maketh your iust square of men. Now if you will march them vp, by 4 files at once, they are 2 marchings or Maniples, at 4 files, 10 rankes, and one Maniple, at 2 files per Maniple, and so againe is your squadron for∣med. And againe if you would march them vp by 5 files at once, and 10 rankes, they come vp in 2 Maniples, and so is your squadron iustly framed.

*Your squadron being thus framed & set, at 10 rankes, & 10 files, thē to double the rankes, you shall cause vpon an other sound of the drum, those of the second ranke, to step in betwixt them of the first ranke, beginning either vpon the left or right hand first, as you will: and the 4 ranke to double the 3, and againe the 6 ranke to double the 5, and the 8 ranke to double the 7, and finally the 10 to double the 9, so shall your battell or squadron come to be 20 in breadth, and 5 in length or depth; or 20 files and 5 rankes, which is in forme of a battell of double front as by these figures appeareth.

Page  39

[illustration]

Here you see the rankes doubled into 20 files and 5 rankes. Then cause them vpon another sound of the drumme,* to fall of, or backe againe into their former places: and so to double againe vpon the other hand, and fall off againe. Now, to double the file;* cause the second file to double the first either vpon the left or right hand, as it shall please you to begin, and the fourth file to double the third, and the sixt the fift, and the eight the seuenth, and the tenth file to double the ninth, as in these figures following may appeare.

[illustration]

Page  40And here you may see the file doubled, reduced into fiue files, at 20 men per file, vpon the right hand: the like you shal cause them to do vpon the left hand: ha∣uing first caused them to fall off from their file, bringing them into their former square againe.

Then shall you go vnto the traine of your battell or squadron, and vpon ano∣ther sound of the drumme,* you shall command all your souldiers to turne their faces vpon a sudden towards you: then causing them to double both ranke & file that way, as you did the other way before: thus with a litle paines taking and pra∣ctise, you shall soone bring your souldiers to be ready and skilfull in these altera∣tions of formes, and many more. The like may be done with any other greater numbers, either in battels or battallion, or by making the front of any flanke.

Gent.

But to what end serueth all this?

Capt.

Marie, to many good purposes: For the first order of doubling the ranks (besides the readinesse it breedeth in the souldiers) doth serue to alter vpon a sud∣den your grand square of men,* into a square of ground, or into a battell of dou∣ble front, and to many other purposes, in framing of many small battallions one grand square. And againe, the second order in doubling of the files, doth serue to many such other purposes: as if vpon a sudden your foot enemy shall come to charge you vpon the flanke, then by doubling their files, and suddenly turning their faces vpon the enemie, they shall make of flanke the front, and so bee ready with double hands, either to receiue or giue the charge. For those battels of square of ground, or battels of double fronts, do bring many hands to fight at once: being verie aduantagious for footmen against footmen, as reason and ex∣perience proueth and sheweth.

And againe, if you draw or diuide your battell or battallions into maniples, to march through straights or narrow passages,* this order of doubling the files is verie ready and auaileable, as thus. If your battel or squadron be of 5184 pikes, whose square roote is 72: now your passage will permit but 8 men to march in front; then must you diuide your square root 72 by 8, so commeth it to be 9 ma∣niples of 8 men in rank or breadth. And say yet againe, that the straight or passage doth fall yet more narrow, or straighten lesse, then to containe 8 men in front, thē cause euery maniple, at the verie entring of the straight, to double their files, and so of 8 you shall make 4 files per maniple: the which being shouldred vp close to∣gether, will containe no more roome in breadth then the 8 did before. And ha∣uing passed the straight, cause them to fall into their former proportion, and so maniple after maniple in passing the straight.

Gen.

But if the squadron or maniple were of od nūbers, it wold not so fal out.

Capt.

*That importeth not: for the od file or rank which resteth vndoubled, may in passing of the straight, close vp shoulder to shoulder vnto the rest, obseruing their proper stations in files; and if the passage will not permit that, then to fall backe after the traine of their maniple, & hauing passed the straight, to sleeue vp in file, pouldron to pouldron of their fellowes, and so to fall into their former pro∣portion. The like of any other od numbers may be done with very great facility.

Now, for as much as I entend to frame both figures and tables of sundry sorts of battels and battallions, in our discourse following▪ I will at this instant bee the more briefe; supposing this, at this present to suffice. For he which conceiueth and Page  41 vnderstandeth this well, may do the like with any other numbers great or small.

Gent.

And what course do you appoint the shot belonging to those numbers of pikes, to obserue in these alterations of proportion?

Capt.

The shot appertaining vnto euerie such number,* may be practised in the like or semblable sort, either alone by themselues, or placed in two grand sleeues along by the flanks of their squadron or battallions.* As for example: If vnto the former number of 100 pikes, there were proportioned & suted 100 shot, calliuer and musket, these would I draw out into 5 per rank, which would make 20 ranks. Those 20 ranks would I cut off or deuide in the middest, so should I haue 10 ranks for to sleeue the one flanke of the battallion, and 10 ranks for the other flanke, at 5 men per ranke, or 5 files in euery ranke, which is all one. These 2 sleeues being placed, may be doubled with the pikes by ranke or file, for practise sake only. But if you were engaged to fight with the enemie, I would wish all great sleeues of shot to be deuided into many small troupes, the one still to second another: as hereaf∣ter shall be declared & shewed. And lo here another order: the 2 grand sleeues be∣ing al musketiers, as the battell or battalliō doth aduance & march on toward the enemy,* & comming once within reach of the musket, then the first ranks of these sleeues of muskets many discharge in marching in this sort. The first ranks step∣ping some two or three paces forward, & there those of the right sleeue to step one halfe pace toward the right hād, & those of the left sleeue, one half pase toward the left hand, hauing in the meane space made themselues ready, and cocked their matches, then with readinesse & expedition all those of thē first ranks, their mus∣kets being vpon their rests or forks, to discharge at once, and keep their station, & charge againe, permitting other rankes to proceed before them. Then presently those of the second ranke to step vp iust before the first rank, as the battell or bat∣tallion marcheth, and so to discharge as their former fellowes had done before: & then the 3. rank before the 2. & the 4. before the 3. and so all the other ranks con∣sequently with this kind of double march: and at the traine of the last rank, those of the first to follow vp againe:* and so consequently the rest. But if it chance their squadron of pikes to be distressed, & forced to retire, they are to discharge at the e∣nemy, retiring backe, vpon a countermarch, as these figures following shal plain∣lie denote vnto you the maner and order.

[illustration]
The First Figure.
[illustration] Page  42
The second Figure with the Muskets discharging in marchings.
[illustration]
The third Figure vpon the retrait, the shot discharging vpon a Counter-march.

*There is yet another order of discharging of troupes of Muskets in vollie, the which I haue seene vsed by the Italian and Spaniard, thus. Your Musketiers be∣ing deuided into sundrie troupes, of 30, 40 or 50 in a troupe, the one to se∣cond the other: then the two first troupes standing vpon the two angles of your squadron or battell, may bee drawne vp by two officers, by three, foure or fiue at the most in a ranke: and the said officers being at a sufficient di∣stance to discharge, shall cause the Musketiers to close somewhat neere, shoulder to shoulder, and so wheeling them about in figure of a halfe Moone, shall at their due semi-circle, or halfe compasse, cause the Mus∣ketiers Page  43 to make Alto; and clapping their muskets on their rests, close one by an others shoulder, and each one hauing a care to his forefellowes, they shall at one instant, discharge altogether at one vollie vpon the enemy, and so retire, giuing place to other troupes: the maner and forme whereof shall by these figures fol∣lowing appeare.

[illustration]
Troupes or squadras of muskets at 50. per troupe 5. in ranke.

Gent.

Your calliuers or small shot, would you haue them to discharge in these maners and orders before spoken of and figured?

Capt.

No;* but I would with the calliuers or small shot to be deuided into sun∣dry small troupes, of 20, 30, 40 or 50 in a troupe; and by their seuerall officers to be led vp, and to skirmish in single file, discharging readily one after another in file, and so wheeling about vpon the left hand, to retire, giuing place vnto o∣thers to second them, and to fall into their forme of troupe againe; and then re∣charging aduisedly to be ready to come vp to second others, as their turne com∣meth; of which maner of small troupes, shall often in our discourses following, be denoted and shewed. Now to conclude these orders of training, I will set downe one point more to be obserued by one single company, or two, or three companies ioyntly comming into the Corps de gard to their watch, reseruing many other particular matters vntil I come to treat of the office of the Sergeant Maior, where many Militarie points shall be at large discoursed. You must note that euery single company marching & training alone,* their pikes are first ranked by 3, 4, 5, 6 or 7 or more in a rancke, according to their number (the number of euen or od, in ranke importeth nothing, as I sayd before) hauing their ensigne, and halbards contained within the center or middle ranke of their pikes. Then the shot is to be ranked altogether with the like number of men in a ranke, and Page  44 then to cut them off, or deuide them at the middle ranke; leading the one halfe of them vnto the forefront of the pikes,* and there to place them in euen files with the pikes, and the other halfe is to be brought vnto the traine of the pikes, and there filed in like maner, alwayes regarding to place the muskets of the first halfe of your shot, in the formost rankes, and those of the other halfe, in the hindermost ranke. Now thus marching on, and comming to the place of Corps de gard, the shot of the vantgard are to make Alto, or stand, then the pikes to march vp by, them; and the first ranke of pikes comming vnto the formost ranke of the shot, to make Alto also, and then the pikes to double their rankes, as before is declared, to bring themselues into squadron, euen ranke for ranke with the shot. This being done, then the other shot of the rereward is to march vp vpō the other hand of the pikes, ranke for ranke with the said square of pikes: and so is your squadron or battallion formed as by these figures following may appeare; where I suppose one or two companies together in march,* containing in all 100 pikes, and halberds, & 100 shot, they march on 5 per ranke; the shot of the vantgard makes their stand, then do the pikes march vp by them, & comming vnto their formost ranke of the shot do stand also; and there double their rankes, so are they 10 rankes, and ten files: lastly commeth vp the shot of the arereward & garnisheth the other flanke, euen ranke with ranke, and so is the squadron framed and garnished with shot.

[illustration]

Page  45Thus me thinks that I haue sufficiently intreated of this order of training, as for other sortes of imbattailing we will hereafter speake of, as occasion shall be offered.

THE SECOND DIALOGVE.

VVherein is declared of quadrat battels, both of men and ground: opinions tocuhing the mingling of short weapons with the pikes, and lyning of battells with the same confuted: the framing of battels of pikes in three sorts: the placing of shot about the batell, with the places of the horse and artillery.

Gentleman.

TThen I pray passe to your other officers of warre.

Capt.

There be many petie officers vsed amongst vs, as Clarke of the band, Drummer, Forrage maister, Scout maister, Trench ma∣ister, Quarter maister, Caporals of the field, & such like, of whom I will speake particularly nothing; but including them vnder the charge of other superior officers: of the which I will begin with the duty of a Sergeant Maior, whose office is of such importance, care, industry and skill, espe∣cially in day of battell, that I must be constrained before I enter into the parts of his office, to describe the orders of fights and battels most vsed in these our mo∣derne wars, as a thing most pertinent vnto the aforesaid officer, touching the sun∣dry formes of battels vsed by antiquity; wherein (in mine opinion) the Romaines did most excell: I will speake, at this instant, litle more then what is sayd be∣fore, considering that ages, times, occurrents, inuentions and customes haue altred, and dayly doth, what antiquity thought best and best assured.

The formes of battels in our time are not many, yet euery man almost hath a seuerall opinion thereof; but common reason and experience hath made most men confesse and agree, that of all formes the square battell, be it either of square of men, or square of ground, is the most assured, most strong, and most apt to bee reduced into any other forme.

Gent.

What meane you by this word Battell?

Cap.

By the word Battell, I vnderstand in this place a whole vnited body of souldiers well disciplined, all armed with pikes, to fight in day of battell, an act of armes, with good hope of victory, the which for more security hath the front, the traine, and the two flankes of complet corslets, to the end that being assayled or charged, they may make the face or front of any or euery side or part; and vali∣antly receiue the charge, and may also charge and breake the enemy, and at∣taine the victory.* Now in this body I vnderstand neither the shot, nor cauallery, the which are to haue an other order to another end.

Gent.

Are these battels framed in one sort onely, or in more, or in many, or in how many; or what maner I pray are they made?

Capt

Your curious demand deserueth answer, I tolde you before that many sorts of battels haue beene framed by valiant and expert Captaines: but the best approued, and most vsed now, is the square battell, be it either of men or ground.

Page  46
Gent.

I would gladly know the reason why they make their battels square; and what is meant by square of men and square of ground.

Capt.

*Battels are made square, & so vsed, for that they are apt to frame the Front of euery side or part, which could not be if they were Triangles, or of any other forme vsed by antiquitie. And it doth much import that the Front be gaillard and strong: for the front once broken, the battell stands in hazard. And againe, to ser∣rie or close Pouldron to Pouldron the square forme is best: for that they close e∣quallie together, & strengthen the front to the victorie. And this shall suffice tou∣ching the Quadrat.* Now, concerning the difference of square of men, and square of ground, I say: that the square of men is, when there be so many men in front as in flanke, or so many in length as in breadth; and this sort of battell com∣meth to bee in ground two times, and one third more long then broade, and a Quadrat of ground will bee of men two times and one third more broade then long.

Gent.

In how many maners may these square battels be made?

Capt.

Were the Companies all of pikes, with corslets complet and not mixt with bare pikes, (which is not lightly to bee found) the framing of any of these sorts of battels would be very ready and easie, and might be soone brought into any proportion without confusion: the which being of pikes armed and vnar∣med, will require more care,* labour, and paines, to the framing thereof. Now therefore I say, in three sorts or maners, most auaileable and most commo∣diously are battels framed in these dayes, consisting of armed and vnar∣med pikes.

1 The first manner is when an army doth march with the one halfe of the armed pikes in the foreward, and the other halfe in the reareward of the vn∣armed pikes. Now in the body of this battell I vnderstand no short weapon, (but reserue them to another place and vnto another purpose, as before I haue sayd, and will heareafter speake more thereof) but all pikes, for the battell thereby wold be more readily framed, more brauer in sight, and more stronger to fight, in mine opinion.

2 The second fashion is, when the army marcheth company by company, with their armed pikes in the foreward and reareward of euerie particular com∣panie.

3 The third order is, when an armie marcheth Maniple by Maniple, with the armed pikes in the Front and traine of euery particular Maniple. And besides this, when the armed pikes which do serue to arme the two flankes, do march the one part before, & the other part behind, and these also are called Maniples: for a Maniple is here called so many rankes throughout the battell, as the battell is in length,* at so many per ranke as they march in ordinance or array. And although the armed pikes which doe march at the head or taile of the arrayes of Maniples to arme the two sides, if it happen at any time that they march not to the full length of the battell, yet neuerthelesse when they be put vnto their office to arme the two sides, although they be not in length to the length of the battell, at so many in rank as is appointed to arme the two flankes, yet are they called Ma∣niples also. And againe, any part of shot or pikes, that be drawne a part, to be set to defend any straight, or to scarmush, may also bee called a Maniple: but Page  47 being shot,* are fitter called troupes, after the french word.

Now of these sundry sorts of imbattailling of men, as well of proportions of e∣quality as of inequality, and of battallions of the same nature, as well euen as odde battallions, seruing to the framing of crosse battels with such other like, I will frame certaine calculations or tables, the which shall serue to sundry numbers of men & orders, according to the iudgement of the skilfull souldier, which shall be in the last booke of these discourses.

Gent.

But me thinkes you are not much affected to haue any halberdes or billes in your battell, which is contrary to our opinion and custome: for we call them the gard of the ensignes, and slaughter of the field.

Capt.

Truly,* I would not wish any such weapon in the body of a standing battell, if we might be prouided otherwise of pikes: my reasons are these. For the pikes being Terciard or charged ouer hand to encounter a battell of foot∣men, or couched vnder the foote to receiue any troupes of horse, do one of them fall so proportionally within or after another; euen as their rankes of men are di∣stant in their seuerall stations, the second following the first, the third the second, and the fourth following the third, and so consequently euery ranke se∣conding one another, that it seemeth it were as good for a man to come vpon a brasen wall (if they stand resolute) as vpon such a battell of pikes, except they should be marched or encountred with the like weapons and proportions. Now if this be the best course to receiue or charge footmen, then no doubt (not be∣ing thus mingled with short weapons) it must needes be the best battell to re∣ceiue a charge of horse.

Gent.

Although you disalow and disproue to haue your battell of pikes mingled with short weapon; yet would you not alow them about the ensignes in the center of the battell?

Capt

For what purpose in the center of the battell?

Gent.

To defend the ensignes with hand blowes.

Cap.

I suppose it an error.* For who doth not know that if the enemy be like to be victor, the armed pikes will yeeld backward as they feele themselues distressed, so as when the pikes are in such maner crashed and clustred together, that they can no longer charge and push with their pikes, then will the throng or presse in the center be so great, that the halberds and bils shall haue little roome to strike; nay short swords will hardly haue rome at that instant either to thrust or to strike. I would thinke daggers would do more execution at that time, and in that presse vntill one side fall to flight:* so I see no reason at all for halberds or bills to haue place in a battell or stand of pikes: Besides the vnseemely shew they make either by themselues in the center, or mingled among pikes.

Gent.

So I perceiue you would quight exclude all halberds and bils out of your battell, and so not at all to be vsed.

Capt.

Conclude not so short vpon me, because I giue them no place within the body of the battell. For if you remember, in our former discourses, at the e∣quall sortment of weapons, I allowed to euery hundred of men 8 or 10 halberds. The which bils and halberds with other short weapons as swords and targets,* and long swords, and such like, shall serue as in a place of best seruice for them, to mingle with your naked troupes of shot, and also (placed with some pikes) for Page  48 the gard of the cariage and munition and ordinance, or for execution if the ene∣my begin to breake and slye, with sundry such seruices not contained in the bo∣dy of the battell.

Gent.

Well, you haue satisfied vs herein; but what thinke you of sundry other opinions touching the lining of battels with shot or bowes?

Capt.

*Touching such lining I will shew you mine opinion against them. Now first for that kind of lining which is vsed in placing a pike and a shot, I am sure that the shot cannot be so hurtfull to the enemy, as they will weaken the battell: my reason is this. No army, I am certaine, shall be so ordered, that the battell shall be left bare without his troupes of shot before, to keepe the enemy doing in skir∣mish, vntill the battels be ready to ioyne, and charge or couch their pikes: at that instant haue the shot, that line the battell, their time to serue, euen as the pikes are couched,* and not before. Now let men of consideration and experience iudge, whether it be possible for them to discharge aboue one shot a peece, and that not aboue three rankes of them; and thereupon, whether those shot can at that time of seruice be such a strength to the battel, as if an armed pike were in the roome. I do suppose the battell would be much stronger, if the shot were rid from thence, and pikes in their places. Then it falleth out, that this kind of lining is not good.* Now, touching another kind of lining with shot, which is 3, 4, 5, 6, or 7, rankes of pikes; and then 3, 4, or 5 rankes of shot, and then pikes, and then shot a∣gaine. In deede this kind of lining is the most tollerable, and yet not without his discommodities: for if such a battell ioyne with a battell of foote, the shot cannot play vntill the rankes of pikes before them are broken; which cannot be, but that their owne men and their enemy shall be mingled pell mell one among ano∣ther. Then tell me by reason, how those shot can serue that are the lining, but they must needes kill as well their owne men, as their enemy, being thus min∣gled at all aduentures. And if this be the end of their seruice (as indeede it is) by a forced necessity to kill without choise, then must it needes follow, that they are rather hurtfull then seruiceable in that place: farre better therefore pikes in their romes.

*And now for your lining with bowes, a combersome tying weapon in a throng of men; it must needes bee concluded by reason, that where calliuers, which are no tying weapons, are yet vnprofitable, in that place how can bowes, to which it requireth such elbow rome, and are so troublesome, be any wayes in that sort commodious or to be allowed?

Gen.

Your reasons and conclusions haue wonderfull well liked vs; wherefore now I pray returne againe to your framing of battels of pikes only, without short weapons.

Capt.

I told you before, that battels are made most auaileably, and most commodiously, in three maner of wayes: shewing you euery seuerall order, and that when time shoulde permit, I would frame tables for the easie ordering of each.

Gent.

But shall your tables serue for the framing of one whole bodie of a bat∣tell, or for more?

Capt.

*These tables shall serue to make either one, two, or three battels of an army, or so many as shall be requisite and needefull, either to offend the enemy Page  49 or to defend; and also according to the situation of the ground, and shall serue on∣ly to haue in a readinesse and memory, all that which a battell well ordered would require, according to the ground where it shall be; so that there shall neede no more but to commaund the men to be marshalled into the order that shall bee appointed to the framing of the battell, according to the situation of the ground. But first I will set you downe orderly a table of proportionall numbers, in such proportion as one would make the breadth of the battell to haue vnto the length, and so many will set downe of proportionall numbers, as shall suffice to make euery sort of battell,* that may be more large then long, or equall; as hereafter shall appeare. And now of proportionall numbers, I will begin to speake of those which be in proportion of equality: as 1 to 1, 2 to 2, 3 to 3, 4 to 4, and 5 to 5, and 6 to 6, and so of more; prouided they bee of equall comparison the one to the other. But yet to frame a battell, those shall be taken which be in least propor∣tion, as 1 to 1, and those numbers which are of equall comparison, as 1 to 1, doe serue onely to make the battell quadrat of number of men: that is, so many men in breadth as in depth of the battell. But when you will make a battell that may be of more men in breadth then in depth, then shall you take the numbers which be in proportion of inequality, so much as you wold haue the battell to be of more men in breadth then in depth;* as 3 to 2, or 5 to 3, or 7 to 4, and such like, as shall be found in these tables following of numbers compared the one to the other in inequality: beginning with those of the least proportion.

A table of proportions, of so much as you would haue the battell to containe in breadth of number of men vnto the length.

Proportion of Equalitie.

As 1 to 1, that is, the battell to containe so many men in breadth as in length.

Proportions of Inequalitie.

That is, the battell to be more broade then long, or more in front then in flanke.

As 2 to 1, that is, the battell twice so broade as long.

3 to 1, that is, three times so broade as long.

4 to 1, that is, foure times so broade as long.

5 to 1, that is, fiue times so broade as long,

6 to 1, that is, sixe times so broade as long.

[illustration]
[illustration] Page  50

To bring these fractions into whole numbers of proportion, you must worke thus: Multiply the whole number by the denominator of the fraction, and adding thereunto the numerator of the said fraction, the proportiō is found: as for exam∣ple, to haue the battell to containe two times, and a third more broade then long▪ I seeke in the table 2 ⅓ whereof the whole number is 2, and the fraction is ⅓. Now multiply the whole number 2, by the fractions denominator 3, and it maketh 6, whereunto ad the fractions numerator, which is 1, and it amounteth 7, so is 2 ⅓ in proportion as 7 is to 3, and so must you worke any the like numbers.

In all these aforesayd proportions, to make the battels of proportion of equali∣ty, that is as broade as it is deepe, or of inequality, which is more in breadth then in depth, both these wayes is to bee vnderstood of men, and not of ground; for of the proportions of ground I will speake hereafter.*

Gent.

Me thinks I vnderstand touching the proportions of equality, and ine∣quality, & that is so broade as deepe, or more in breadth then in depth, vnderstan∣ding of men, both of the one manner, and the other; but I would gladly (Cap∣taine) that you would shew it vs by example, for so we shall the better conceiue of the matter.

Capt.

I will most willingly: Therefore to begin, I will set downe to make a square battell of number of men, that is, so many men in front as in flanke: And let our whole number be 5000 men, of armed pikes, and single pikes one with ano∣ther. Now to frame this quadrat battell, you shall take in the aforesaid tables, the numbers of proportions of equality, which are as 1 to 1. Then must you set downe your rule in this sort:* Setting downe first the proportion of equality for the first and second number, and the number of men for the third number, thus 1 prime, 1 second, 5000 third. This being done, multiplie the 3 number which is 5000, the number of men by 1, the second number, and it maketh still 5000, (for 1 doth neither multiplie nor deuide) then deuide the said first multiplied number 5000 by 1 the first number, and it maketh yet 5000. Now out of that 5000, you shall take the quadrat roote, which is 70. So 70 rankes of men shall your battell containe,* both in breadth and length; and there will remaine 100 men. For 70 multiplied into itselfe resulteth 4900, the which deducted out of 5000, there resteth 100 men, the which 100 men deuide by 70, so will there arise one more ranke of men, and yet will there remaine 30 men ouer, the which one ranke shall be ioyned vnto the 70 rankes aforesayd, so are they 71 in breadth and 70 in length: but to the end you may better vnderstand me, I will go shewing the same by figures, whereof this shall be the first.

Page  51

[illustration]

And the 30 men which do remaine out of the body of the battell, they shall be reserued for other purposes.

And this square battell of number of men may be done in a more shorter and readier way,* thus. Take the quadrat roote of 5000 simply, which is 70, and with this 70 deuide the 5000 men, so will there come 71 for the breadth of the bat∣tel, and there will remaine 30 men. And thus your battell will containe 70 rankes in length, and 71 men per ranke in breadth, with 30 men remayning as afore∣sayd. Now although the battell be more broade then long, or more men in front then in flanke by one ranke, yet is it neuerthelesse, after the order of warre, called a square battell of men.

The table drawne aforesayd for the proportion of equality, that is, that the battell do containe so many men in breadth as in length, shall serue also to shew the order which is to bee obserued in the battels that are to be be made of more men in front then in flanke, that is, in proportion of inequality, as hereafter I will shew you, giuing you to vnderstand that all the figures shall haue their scala de∣uided into pases,* and euery geometricall pase into 5 foote, of the which measure of feete I haue here vnder set downe the fourth part, which is three inches, for that Page  52 euery foote is deuided into 12 inches, to the end you may conceiue what quantity of ground euery battell of pikes would require, allowing for euery mans station set in aray to fight, 3 foote in front, that is, from pouldron to pouldron, and 7 foote in flanke, that is 3 foote before, and 3 foote behind, for the vse of his weapon, and one foote for his owne station.

[illustration]

Gent

By this your example you haue satisfied me wonderous well, in giuing me to vnderstand how to set a battell quadrat of any number of men, which is so many men in front as in flanke: yet would I desire to know how to arme or impale this battell with armed pikes, both front, tayle, and the two flankes, considering that few armies haue all their pikemen furnished with corslets complete.

Capt.

True, there are few armies that haue scarse the one halfe of their pikemen armed with corslets, which is a great part of the strength and beauty of the battell, therefore we must seeke a course how to impale any battell with such armed pikes as they haue:* to do the which these rules following shall serue to impale any bat∣tell, as well of proportion of inequality, as of equality, the foreward, the reareward, and the two flankes, with pikes and armed corslets. Now I suppose the whole num∣ber of pikes to be 5000, as well armed as vnarmed, whereof there be 2000 armed pikes with corslets; the sayd 2000 I will repart into two equall parts, by 2, or taking the ½ of 2000, which is 1000: and with this 1000, will I impale the two flankes, and with the other 1000 will I arme the front and traine of the battell.* Now first to arme the two flankes of the battell with 1000 armed pikes, I will deuide 1000 by 70, which is the depth or flanke of the battell, and the product will be 14 rankes of pikes to arme the flankes of the battell, with 20 pikes of surplussage: the 14 rankes shalbe halfed, or deuided into halues, which is 7 rankes; with the which 7 rankes I will arme the one side, and with the other 7 rankes the other side of the battell, or more or lesse vnto any side, as occasion or neede shall require: as in this figure following shall appeare.

[illustration]

Page  53And the 20 armed pikes which before remained,* shall be added vnto the other 1000 which are to arme the front and rearegard of the battell, so they are 1020 pikes armed: with these 1020 armed pikes, shall the front and rereward be armed thus; first deduct the 14 rankes, which went to arme the two flankes of 70 men in length, out of 71, which is the breadth of the battell, so resteth 57 rankes for the breadth: with this 57 deuide the 1020 armed pikes, and there will come foorth 17 rankes of armed pikes, to arme the head and tayle of the battell: and of these 17 rankes you shall set 9 rankes in the front, and 8 rankes in the reareward; with more or lesse on either, as neede and cause shall require: as by this 3 figure following shall appeare.

[illustration]

Thus this square battell of men commeth to be in length 70 rankes, at 71 men per ranke in front with 9 rankes of armed pikes in the vaward, and 8 rankes in the reareward: and with 7 ranks of armed pikes at each side in length, as you see. And remaining 51 armed pikes out of the impalement, the which you may place at the angles or corners of the vnarmed pikes, as ye see in the 4 figure, or where you shall thinke fittest for the defence and strength of the battell; and not to leaue them out, (for being part of the square) as you did the 30 pikes which before re∣mained Page  54 at the enlarging of so many men in ranke in the first figure. The which 51 armed pikes are now placed in the angles of the battell, as in the 4 figure before may appeare: that is, with 7 rankes at 2 men per ranke in the fore angles, and 6. rankes at 2 men per ranke in the reareward angles.

Gent.

O how it delighteth me to haue learned of you, how to arme or impale a battell. But now would I faine know if there be this number of men in the bat∣tell by you supposed, with the 30 at first remaining.

Capt.

To know if there be in this battell the number of 5000 men, with the 30 which aduaunced at the first framing of the battell,* do thus: multiplie the length by the breadth, that is 70 by 71 men, & it amounteth 4970 men; vnto the which adioyne the 30 which remained, so will they amount vnto 5000 pikemen, armed and vnarmed, as before was set downe, to set the said battell, in the first figure, which is your demaund.

Gent.

This is verie easie; but now would I faine know, if they haue the propor∣tion of equalitie.

Capt.

That you shall know thus: deuide the breadth by the length, as to repart 71 by 70, the product is 1. And although that 1 do remaine of the breadth, yet it is called a square battell neuerthelesse.

Gent.

Captaine, I am well satisfied in vnderstanding the proportion that a battell hath in breadth to the length: but now would I gladly know how long and large is this square battell of men, I meane how much ground it will occupie?

Capt.

First you must vnderstand (as I told you before) that euery man martial∣led in battell array to fight,* will require in his station, 3 foot of ground in breadth, that is from shoulder to shoulder, and 7 foote of ground for length, that is 3 foot for before him, 3 foote for behind him, and 1. foote of ground for his own station. This being noted: then must you multiplie the 71 rankes of men in front by 3 foote, and they will amount vnto 213 foote, and the 213 foote shall be deuided by 5 foote, accounting 5 foote to a pase, and the geometricall pase to conteine 2 or∣dinary going steps or pases of a man: so will there come forth 42 pases and 3 foot. By this reckening will the battell conteine 42 pases and 3 foote.

And now to know the length thereof in ground, you shall multiplie the 70. rankes of length of the battell, by 7 foote, so will there come 490 foote, the which 490 foote you must deuide by 5 foote (which is a pase) & there ariseth 98 pases; & so doth the battell conteine in length 98 pases of ground. Thus the square battell of number of men commeth to conteine more ground in length then in breadth about 2½ twise & third, as you haue seene in the 3 and 4 figures of the square bat∣tell of men. Thus you haue vnderstood of a battell, square of number of men, with their armed pikes in front, in traine, and the two flankes: which is in such order as the said battell should be framed vpon the point to fight.

Gent.

I haue very well vnderstood the order that should be kept, to know how broad and long is the battell of ground: but I beseech you to shew me now, the order to be obserued in the framing of the said battels, so that there should neede no more but the Sergeant Maior, to appoint the souldiers the order they should keepe, for to frame and order the said battell with speede and in readinesse.

Capt.

*Truly, your demaund is good, sith that speedinesse is the proper and pe∣culiar part of the arming of these battels. To do the which you shall worke thus: The armed pikes which are in the 2 flankes shall be accommodated and placed in Page  55 the front and in traine of the battell, as in the calculation of the 3 and 4 figure, whereas there be 70. rankes, at 14 men per ranke, that is 7 men in ranke for the ar∣ming of euery flanke,* then multiplying 70 by 14, do amount 980 armed men; and 980. armed men you shall deuide by 57. which is the rest of the breadth of the battell, (being of vnarmed pikes) & there resulteth 17 rankes, at 57 armed men per ranke. Of the which 17 rankes, at 57 men by ranke, there shall be adioyned 9 rankes vnto the front, and 8 rankes vnto the traine of the battell, with the other 9 and 8 ranks, which were before of armed pikes at the front and traine: So the bat∣tell shall be in length or by flancke 87 rankes, at 57 men per ranke in front, with 18 rankes of armed pikes at the foreward, and 16 rankes of armed pikes in the reareward, as in this figure following shall appeare.

[illustration]

Page  56*And the 11 armed Pikes which remained at the last deuision, when it shalbe time to arme the two flankes of the battell with speed, then vnto one of the two flanks shall they be added, which is vnto that flanke where the same shall bee found wanting.

Gent.

Me thinks that I vnderstand sufficiently, how to arme and set a battell with celeritie and speed at euerie occasion as shall be offered, and also the order to be obserued in setting a battell of equalitie, which is as manie men in breadth as in length: but now I would gladly learne how to frame a battell of inequality, which is of more men in breadth then in length?

Capt.

*Sir, knowing how to frame the calculation of the proportion of equali∣tie, that is, as many men in breadth as in length of a battell, it shall be verie easie for you to do that of inequalitie; which is a battell more broade then long: yet ne∣uerthelesse will I giue you the instruction of the proportion of inequalitie. Now put the case, that you will frame a battell of proportion of inequalitie, which is of more men in breadth then in length, and that your number be 5000 men, of ar∣med and vnarmed Pikes, as afore is sayd of the Square battell of men. And put the case that you will frame this battell ⅓ times more in breadth then in length (for this proportion is more vsed then any other in warres) for that this is the pro∣portion which commeth to make a battell quadrat of ground, wherein most men are brought at once to fight in front. And to make this battell you shall take in the table 2 and ⅓ which is in proportion as 7 to 3: and these two numbers are to be set downe for the first, and second thing. Now to haue the length of the battel, the second number is set downe for the second thing, and the number of men which you wil haue to be embattailed for the third as hereunder appeareth. Then proceed as is done in framing the Square battell of men.*〈 math 〉. Then multiply and deuide as before is said. The same order is to be obserued in euery other proportion of battels, which you would make of more men in breadth then in length, tearmed by some Englishmen, Bastard square, Brode square, and Base square, or by some others, Twise fold Battels. To worke the which, now multiply 5000 the third, by 3 the second, and they make 15000: and this 15000 shall be deuided by 7 the first, whereof the product is 2142, and 6 men remaining, of which 6 make no accompt. Now of 2142 extract the quadrat roote, which is 46 and 26 yet remaining, of which 26 make no reckening also, as before is said: and, this 46 (the roote of 2142) is the length of the battell. Now, the breadth or front thereof shall be found by deuiding the 5000 men by 46 the length of the battell, and there will come 108 men in ranke for breadth of the battell, and 32 men re∣maining, the which 32 men shall stand out of the battell, as before is said in the Square battell of men. Thus shall this battell containe in flanke 46 rankes, and in front 108 men per ranke, as in this sixt figure will appeare. And there will re∣maine 32 men, which are not contained within the bodie of the battell.

Page  57

[illustration]
The sixt figure. Bode 108 men in ranke.

Gent.

Now hauing vnderstood how to frame this battaile of proportion of in∣equalitie, which is of more men in breadth then in length, in euerie proportion with facilitie, shew me how to arme the same with armed pikes.

Capt.

To arme this battell of inequalitie, that is, more men in front then in flanke, I wil shew you verie easily. Let vs suppose to arme this battel round about, the front,* the traine, and the two sides proportionally, according to the propor∣tion that the breadth of the said battell hath vnto the length of the same, which is, as 7 vnto 3. Adde the said 7 vnto 3, and it is 10: so shall it be as 10 to 3. Then see in 5000 men, how many be armed with corslets, and I set that there be 2000, as before is said in arming the Quadrat battell of number of men. Now shall you part these 2000 armed pikes into two proportionall parts, as 10 to 3, the one part to arme the two flanks,* the other to arme the vaward and rereward of the battell; then place downe your rule in this sort. If 10 require ⅔ what 3/2000. Now multiplie 3 the second with 2000 the third, and it resulteth 6000: and this 6000 deuide by 10 the first, so will there come 600 armed men; and these 600 armed men shal be to arme the two sides: and deducting 600 out of 2000, there resteth 1400 ar∣med men, the which are to arme the front and reregard of the battell. Now must these 600 armed men be reparted by the length of the battell, that is, by 46. so will there come 13 in ranke for the length. And of these 13 rankes, you shall place 7 per ranke on the one side, & 6 per ranke on the other side of the battel in length, as in the figure on the next page appeareth.

Page  58*And there remaineth 2 ar∣med

[illustration]
men, the which shall be ioyned with the 1400 armed men, and it maketh 1402, & with these 1402 shall the vaward and rereward of the battell be armed. Now for to arme this frōt & traine of the battell, there shall first be de∣ducted 13 rankes of armed men of the length, out of 108 ranks, the breadth of the bat∣tell, and there will remaine 95, and the 1402 armed men shall be deuided by this 95, and there will come 14 ranks at 95 men per ranke of ar∣med men. Now of these 14 rankes there shall be placed 7 rankes at the front, and 7 on the rereward of the battell. So the battell shall containe in length or by flanke 46 rankes at 108 men by ranke in front, with 7 armed men per ranke on the one side, and 6 armed men per ranke on the other side of the battell in flanke, and 72 armed men remaining, the which you shall place where you shall thinke best, as here appeareth in figure.

[illustration]

Page  59Now the 72 men remaining, I haue placed in the 4 angles, as in this 8 figure aboue appeareth:

Gen.

I perceiue how to arme a battell of proportiō of inequalitie, the vaward, the reareward, & the two sides: But (I pray) tell me, the battell being thus framed, how I may know whether this battell hath this proportion of his breadth to his length, that is 2 times and ⅓ more broade then long or as 7 to 3.

Capt.

To know if the length to the breadth of the battell hath his proportion,* as 7 to 3, you shall deuide 108 the breadth, by 46 the length, the product wil be 2, and 16 remaining, which is about ⅓ of 46 a litle more.

Gent.

But how shall I proue, that in this battell of inequalitie there be the 5000 men conteined?

Capt.

Thus: multiplie the breadth of the battell 108, by 46 the length, and they will amount 4968, vnto the which adde the 32 men which remained, and the summe is 5000.

Gent.

Now I beseech you to declare vnto me the length & breadth of ground, that the battell of inequalitie doth occupie.

Capt.

Marrie,* thus: It shall be supposed to allow 3 foote in breadth, and 7 foote in length for euery souldier, or litle more or lesse, as shall be thought good: Now multiplying 3 foote with 108 men, the breadth of the battell, it will amount 324 foote, and 324 foote shall be deuided by 5 (accounting 5 foote to a pase) thereof will come 64 pases and ⅘, which is 4 foote, and that is the breadth of the battell.

And to know the length of the battell, multiplie 46 rankes of length by 7 foote, there will come 322 foote: and deuide the sayd 322 by 5, there will come 64 pases and ⅖, which is 2 foote, for the length of the battell: which will bee neare about the length of proportion: and this is the perfect battell of ground.

Gent.

I pray, let me aske you, In what manner might I accommodate the cal∣culation of the battell, to the end that it might be done with dispatch and rea∣dinesse, as you haue shewed me before in the Quadrate battell of number of men?

Capt.

To doe this:* deduct 13 rankes of armed men which are in the two flankes in length, out of 108 men in breadth, there will rest 95 per ranke in breadth of the battell. Then shall be sought in 13 men by ranke in length, how many armed men by multiplying 46 of length, by 13 rankes, will amount 598, and 598 shall be deuided by 95 the product will be 6 rankes of men, at 95 per ranke of armed men, and 28 armed men remaining: And of these 6 rankes of armed men, there shall be put 3 at the head, and 3 at the taile of the battell, with the other 7 rankes which were there before: And so the battell shall con∣teine in length 52 rankes, at 95 men per ranke in breadth, with 10 rankes at the head, and 10 rankes at the taile of armed men, as I will shew you in this 9 fi∣gure following: and there remaines 28 armed men, the which at the time that this battell is made, shalbe placed in one of the flankes, for there they want, as be∣fore is said in the account of the 5 figure of the Square battell of men.

Page  60
Gent.

I rest so well satisfied with

[illustration]
your good discourses and de∣monstrations, that I finde my selfe more and more desirous to demaund of you other particu∣larities: wherefore I pray you to shewe mee the manner to march, and set a battell with speed, occasiō offering to fight.

Capt.

Willingly, as farre as my small skill wil extend. Ther∣fore touching the order of mar∣ching, and out of the order of the said marching, to set a bat∣tell with speed; I say that there are three manners obserued in the making therof: of the which before that I declare their or∣ders one by one, I will with bre∣uitie repeate all that which be∣fore I shewed you.

*I haue told you before, how to make the Calculation of battels, as well of the squares of men, as of Proportiōs of inequalitie, containing more men in breadth then length (termed by vs En∣glishmen Bastard squares, Broade squares, and Base squares.) And I haue told you of the proportion of the breadth vnto the length: and moreouer, how brode and long will the said battels containe in ground: the which instructions will serue to frame any other battell, that may be more brode then long in any other propor∣tion, with the helpe of the Tables which before I haue shewed you: for in the same may be found euerie proportion that shall be needfull, to frame any battell which may be more brode then long in number of men, or equall.

Now wil I shew you the maner how to frame a battell with speed; and this shal be by the instructions of the tables before giuen.* And this battell shal be speedily set after the order of the three maners of marching, as at the beginning I told you. The first maner is, when the companies do march with one part of the armed Pikes at the foreward, and an other part at the rereward of the vnarmed Pikes, as I will shew you in the tenth figure.

In this case, hauing the Table in memorie, onely there resteth to commit vnto two expert officers (as Caporals of the field, or such like) at the time of setting the battell, that the one go vnto the head and the other vnto the traine of the Orde∣nances or Arrayes: and let him that stands at the head, cause or commaund to turne or wheele either from the right hand, or from the left (as shal be most con∣uenient) 95 rankes, at 10 armed men per ranke, and hauing finished, to set the 95 rankes at 10 armed men per ranke, he shall cause them to turne their fa∣ces from that part whither the Ordinances or Arrayes do looke, as you shal see designed in the eleuenth figure on the page next following.

Page  61

[illustration]

Page  62Then besides this, let him place 32 rankes of the arraies of the vnarmed pikes at the backes of the armed pikes, so many as they be rankes in length in the battell of the vnarmed pikes, as in the 8 table before figured appeareth; afterward let him go from hand to hand, drawing out of the arraies 32 rankes of vnarmed pikes, and set them one by another shoulder to shoulder, as I haue demonstrated in the 12 figure, and as I will shew you in this 13 figure.

[illustration]

Page  63And as the Arraies of the vn∣armed

[illustration]
Pikes shall be placed shoulder to shoulder one of another, at the backes of the first 10 rankes of the armed Pikes; then the Officer which stādeth with the armed pikes for the traine, shall drawe forth 95 rankes, at 10 men per ranke of armed pikes, and place them with their shoul∣ders to the backes of the vn∣armed pikes, as in this 14 figure shall appeare.

This being done, let the

[illustration]
Officer of the Vanguarde draw out three rankes of the armed pikes, and arme the one flanke at 7 men in ranke; and he that is at the Reregard, let him take 3 ranke of his armed pikes, & arme the other flanke, at 6 men in ranke, as in this fif∣teenth figure appeareth.

Page  64And there remaines 72 ar∣med

[illustration]
men: the which shall be placed in the angles of the Battell, in such order as I shewed you in the decla∣ration of the fourth figure; and as here againe in this sixteenth figure shall ap∣peare.

Or otherwise accōmodate

[illustration]
those 72 armed men afore∣said (being of the number contained within the bodie of the battel) thus: let there of them be made 2 rankes, to set vnto the one or vnto the other flanke of the bat∣tel, where you shal see most need & occasion, for the de∣fence and strength thereof. But now they shalbe placed one ranke vppon the one flanke, and another vppon the other flanke of the bat∣tell; as here in this seuen∣teenth figure shall plainly appeare.

And there will yet remaine 8 armed men, to place where you shall thinke good. Aduertising you, that if you should haue set the 72 armed men which be∣fore remained, at the head or tayle of the battell, it would not haue reached vnto one whole or full ranke vnto the breadth of the battell: for an intire ranke of the Page  65 inner part of the battell in breadth is 95 men, that is, so many as the breadth of the vnarmed pikes do containe. Thus the battell declared by the aforesayd 17 figure will be in length 46 rankes, at 108 men per ranke in breadth, with the 7 rankes of armed pikes in the front, and 7 rankes in the reareward, and with 8 men per ranke of armed pikes on the one flanke, and 7 men by ranke of armed pikes on the o∣ther flanke, as in the aforesayd 17 figure appeareth, with the 8 men which remai∣ned, placed in the body of the battell.

Gent.

Assuredly (Captaine) this order seemeth wonderfull good. But now vnto the other two orders which you spake of.

Cap.

Touching the second maner of framing of battels. First the calculation or table of the battell must be had in memory (as before is sayd) in what proportion the said battell would be framed, and the army marching company by company, as I will shew you in the 18 figure: euery captaine shall be commanded by the Ser∣geant maior, to make so many rankes of their pikes as the length of the battell shall containe, as in the 18 and 19 figures shall appeare. Now let vs suppose the sayd battell to containe in length 52 rankes, with 10 rankes of armed pikes at the head, and as many at the trayne, as is shewed in the declaration of the ninth and 14 figures, and that euery Captaine doe make 52 rankes, with 10 armed pikes before, and 10 behind, as in the 18 figure is shewed. And if a∣ny Captaine be found which hath not to accomplish that number, let him ioyne with another Captaine, and betwixt them both let them make vp that number of 52 rankes. This being done, Captaine by Captaine shall set their rankes shoul∣der to shoulder the one of the other, and shall so frame the battell 52 rankes in length, with 10 armed pikes by ranke before, and 10 behind. After that shall bee framed the battell, as I will shew you in this 20 figure following. This being done, one of the 4 Caporals of the field, shall go vnto the head, and another vnto the reareward: then he which is at the head, shall take away from the front of the battell 3 rankes of armed pikes, and arme therewith one of the flankes▪ at 7 men per ranke in length, adioyning vnto them the 28 armed pikes, which he lacketh to furnish out the length of 46 rankes at 7 men per ranke, as is said in the declara∣tion of the 9 figure.

And the other Caporall or officer, which is at the traine of the battell. He also shall take away or draw foorth from the traine 3 rankes of armed pikes, and arme with them the other side or flanke, at 6 men per ranke, in length of 46 rankes. So shall the battell bee formed 46 rankes long, at 108 men per ranke in front or breadth, with 7 ranks of armed pikes in frōt, & as many in traine, & with 7 armed men per ranke on the one flanke, & with 6 men by ranke, on the other flanke armed pikes: as I shewed in the 8 figure of the table and also in the 21 figure following.

And there will remaine out of the body of the battell 32 men, and they shall bee placed as I sayd in the last of the third order, at the beginning: moreouer there remaines 72 armed men.

You must note and conceiue, that in the 18 figure, where the companies do march one after another by fiue in a ranke, and in the 19 figure, where they do come vp shoulder to shoulder to the framing of the battell, as may appeare, although the full number of companies do not there appeare, as is requisit: yet it is to be conceiued that they do consequently one follow another, but want of rome in paper cutteth them off.

Page  66

[illustration]

Page  67And the 72 armed pikes remaining, which are of the number contained with∣in the body of the battell, shall be placed either in the foure corners of the vnar∣med pikes, as in the 16 figure may be seene; or else in each of the two sides or flankes, as in the 17 figure appeareth, where there is one ranke adioyned vnto the one flanke, and another vnto the other flanke; or else you may arme and strength with the same 72 armed pikes, any one of the flankes, as neede or occasion shall require.

Gent.

You haue described the first and second order of imbattailing excellent well, in mine opinion, therefore (I pray) proceede to the third.

Capt.

The maner of the third order is thus,* When the armie is caused to march Maniple by Maniple, with their armed pikes in vantgard and rearegard of euery particular Maniples; and with one Maniple all of armed pikes, which mar∣cheth in the vantgard of the Maniples which haue their vnarmed pikes in their middle or center: the which Maniples of all armed pikes, is that which serueth to arme the one flanke of the battell. Besides this, there marcheth another Maniple of all armed pikes, after all the Maniples; and this Maniple serueth to arme the o∣ther flanke of the battell. And the Maniples must march the one after the other, as in the figure appeareth.

Now, there resteth how to bring those into Maniples of this last order, which do march in the full length of the battell, with their armed pikes in front and traine; the which shalbe done in this sort. Let it be supposed (as the 17 figure of the second order doth shew) that there shall be drawne foorth 15 men in ranke of armed pikes in length of the battel, which serue to arme the two flanks, out of 108 men per ranke, the breadth of the battell, there resteth 93 men per ranke for breadth or front. And these 93 must be diuided into so manie parts, as one would that the Maniples should march in ordinance or arraies, the one after another, as the way will permit.

Now say that I will haue the Maniples to march by 5 in a ranke, then must I deuide the 93 (the breadth of the battell) by 5, whereof commeth Maniples 18, which shall containe in length rankes 46 at 5 men in a ranke; and one Maniple remaining at 3 men per ranke; the which Maniple is also 46 rankes in length, at 3 men in rankes. Notwithstanding it shall march (in marching) at 5 men in ranke after all the Maniples aforesayd. And the 18 Maniples doe march with 7 rankes of armed pikes before, and 7 rankes after: and the Maniple of 3 per ranke, shall, at the time of setting the battell, distend to the shoulders of the o∣ther Maniples at 3 per ranke, with 7 rankes, armed pikes in front, and 7 rankes ar∣med pikes in trayne. And the other two Maniples of armed pikes, which serue to arme the two flankes, the one marcheth in the vantgard, and the other in the reare∣ward of the Maniples which haue their vnarmed pikes in the middle (yet at 5 in ranke) as appeareth in the 22 figure, and at the instant that the battell is to be set, the Sergeant Maior shall accommodate and fasten the Maniples of all armed pikes, that marcheth in the foreward of all the Maniples, into 46 rankes, at 8 men armed per ranke, and the other Maniples shall follow from hand to hand, poul∣dron to pouldron, the one to the other, as the 23 figure and 24 declareth, begin∣ning with the armed Maniple, which armeth the flanke at 8 men in ranke by length. These Maniples thus brought shoulder to shoulder, one to the other, then

[illustration] Page  68
Page  69 shall follow that Maniple of and per ranke (the which yet marcheth at 5 per ranke in array) and shall distend vnto the shoulders of the other Maniple, at 3 per ranke, with 7 armed pikes in front, and 7 in traine. After all this shall follow the other Maniple of all armed pikes, and shall stretch foorth vnto 7 in a ranke vnto the shoulder of the other Maniples, to arme the other flanke of the battell. And thus is the battel framed 46 rankes in length, at 108 men by ranke in breadth, with 7 rankes of armed pikes in front, and 7 in traine, and with 8 armed pikes in ranke, on the one flanke, and 7 in a ranke on the other flanke, of armed pikes, as in the 24 and 25 figures: and there remaines 32 armed pikes, the which shall be pla∣ced as I said before, in the last maner of the third order.

Aduertising you,* that although I haue giuen order and examples to arme the front, traine, and both flankes of the battell, in forme and manner as I haue set downe in the 24 and 25 figures, with placing the armed pikes which remained out of them which armed the front, traine, and both the flankes of the battell, in the angles & flankes of the sayd battell, as by their seuerall figures may be seene; yet, notwithstanding the aforesayd examples, they may be placed where most neede and occasion shall serue to strengthen the battell, either in front, in traine, or in any flanke. So may you also, as occasion shall require, set more armed pikes vpon any part, for the more strength and securitie of the battell. And this much may suffice,* touching the body of a formed battell. Next ensueth, the fierie wea∣pons, Muskets and Caliuers, how they should be placed.

Gent.

I pray let vs vnderstand the order of them also.

Capt.

As the armed pike is the strēgth of the battell,* so without question, is the shot the furie of the field: but the one without the other is weakened the better halfe of their strength. Therefore of necessitie (according to the course of warres in these dayes) the one is to be coupled & matched with the other, in such conue∣nient proportion, that the aduantage of the one may helpe the disauantage of the other. For a stand of pikes, though neuer so well armed, being charged & assailed with the like, or a lesse number of shot, by euery mans iudgement would haue the worse, & not able to abide the field, vnlesse they had shot, to answer their enemies shot. In like sort, any troupe of shot, though neuer so braue & expert, being in o∣pen field, hauing no stand of pikes, or such other weapō, nor hedge, ditch, trench, or rampier, to relieue and succour them, could not long endure the force of horse, especially Launciers.* Now the due sortement and matching of these weapons to offend, and defend, and to aide one another, as aboue is sayd, of the best experi∣mented is accounted thus: Vnto euery 100 men, to haue one third pikes (with some few short weapon) and two thirds Calliuers.

But were the one halfe (or more) of your shot, Muskets, as the Spanyardes most commonly now vse, and so to be wished with vs also, then lesse number of shot would serue and more of pikes,* (as I sayd at the beginning of our discourses.) For euery Musket, considering the wonderfull execution of that weapon, may be va∣lued for two Caliuers. Touching the placing of these fierie weapons about the body of the battell, there hath bene, and yet is, sundry opinions. Of some of them I haue already spoken in these discourses, namely, of lyning of battels with shot, or short weapon, by me disliked; hauing there declared my reasons for the same.

But before I come to the placing and ordering of shot (for being a weapon not skilfully and warily vsed, is of more daunger to our selues then to the enemy Page  70 sometimes) I will put you in minde of one notable ouersight in our shot (espe∣cially of the crooked stockt Calliuer;*) For many souldiers ouer-curiously carrying and conueying their peece with the nose downeward, and striuing to be seene nymble and quicke in discharging, (not considering that one shot well bestowed, auayleth many vnaduisedly spent,) haue let slipt the bullet out of their peeces bar∣rell vpon the ground, before the discharging thereof. Whereby it commeth to passe many times, that an hundred shot, hauing in skirmish discharged their peece three or foure times a peece, against two hundred of the enemies, and scarce slaine two of them. A great indiscretion, & to be better regarded and amended; the which may easily be done thus,* either after hauing charged and slipt the bul∣let out of his mouth into the barrell of the peece, by mounting the nose thereof somewhat vpward, holding his peece firmely with his left hand, or else by stop∣ping after the bullet, which is easily done, onely by putting two or three cornes of powder into the peece after the bullet.

*In placing the shot about the battell, some do vse to flanke the two sides of the battell with sleeues of shot, by 11, 13, 15, or 17 in a ranke, or more or lesse, as they shall thinke good; and place the sayd sleeues of shot, 10 or 12 foote distant from the armed pikes; and the rest of their shot in 4 great troupes at the angles of the battell, without the sayd sleeues, seruing for hornes or wings vnto the battell, and the horsemen to be placed without them againe, as in these figures follow∣ing appeareth.

[illustration]

*But (in mine opinion) this order is not so good, as if the shot were deuided in∣to sundry small troupes, trouping round about the battell the one to second the other: placed in forme as hereafter shall follow thus. First, your graund square (or more battailions if you will) being set,* then impale or girdle the same round about with shot, by 3, 5, or 7, or more, in a rank (according to the proportiō of the battell, neare adioyning vnto the armed pikes, to be by them guarded from the Page  71 horse,* if neede were; The rest of the shot deuide into many small troupes by 30 40, or 50 in a troupe, to troupe round about the battell, with some reasonable di∣stance from the same, to maintaine skirmish or fight which way soeuer the ene∣mie approch: Prouided that the same troupes be still maintained, one to second another, that the battell may be by them shadowed, to the end that the skirmishes or troupes of the enemies may not haue that aduantage, to play with their shot vpon your battell: for hee is but a foolish shot, that shooteth at, or among light skirmishers, where he may discharge vpon the body of his enemies battell, which standes thick together,* and is a fayre marke to shoot at; for the armed pikes once ouerthrowen, which is the strength of the field, the victorie by all likelyhood is like to ensue.

The empalement, especially in the front, I would wish to be Muskets, some 3 or 5 in a ranke, according to the greatnesse of the battell; and those not to dis∣charge,* vntill the battels approch within 20 pases distant, and then throughly to discharge in vollie vpon the face of the enemy: the which cannot chuse, but must slay many, and wound a number in the enemies front; the effect whereof shall breede great encouragement vnto you, and disencouragement, and weakening to the enemy. You may also (if you please) place at euery corner of your battel a squa∣dron of Muskets, neare vnto the girdling shot, at 50 Muskets in each squadron, or as occasion shall require; who, vpon the enemies battell approching, wheeling a litle about, in forme of a halfe Moone, shall discharge their volly all at once, vpon the body of the enemies battell. What execution the Musket performeth, such as haue bene in good actions doe know very well; and scarcely to be beleeued of those which neuer saw any seruice. The figure of this battell, empaled with shot, cornered with Muskets, and trouped round about with the rest of their shot, win∣ged with horse, as men at armes (if they haue any) and Launciers, and light horse, with the place of the field ordinance, and forlorne skirmishers, shall hereafter ensue, on the other side of the leafe.

Page  72

[illustration]
The imbattailing of 5200 pikes, armed and vnarmed, short weapon 1300, muskets 3250, calliuers 3250. And of 〈◊〉 armes, 400: and Launces 1000, and 600 hargulutiers, with 14 field peeces.

Page  73And if you would fight with the same number of men in sundry battallions of the same kind; deuiding them into 3 battallions, distinguished by vangard, battell, and reareward, worke thus: first deuide your grand number of men, which is 4968, by 3 and the product will be 1656 men for euery battallion.* Now, to frame their battallions in the same proportion that your grand square was of, which was, as 7 to 3, couch downe your number thus: 7—3—1656. Multiply, and deuide, and the product will come foorth 709, of the which extract the cubike roote, which is 26 men for the length or depth of the battallion; by this 26 de∣uide the number of men for your battallion being 1656, and the product will bee 63 men, for the breadth or front of each battallion. Now the order to march these battallions vp to fight (wherein must be considered the ground, and diuerse other aduantages) the one to second the other, behold here in figure, where the vangard (being formost) hauing encountred the enemy, and finding themselues weake, re∣tireth orderly, and the battell aduanceth, who ioyning with the vangard, do both together giue a second charge, & being yet distressed, the reareward marcheth vp close by the battell, & renew the fight a fresh; of the which order of battell, and bat∣tallions, there shall be both figures & tables extant in our last booke. The shot & horse belonging to these numbers, are to be deuided, and placed by the Campe-Maister Generall, and Sergeant Maior Generall, on grounds of most aduantage.

[illustration]
or if it be thought good, the vantgard may be pla∣ced in the middle, the battell on the right wing, and the reareward on the left wing; as the ground, occasion, and the commanders opinion shall con∣curre, and euery battallion to haue his proporti∣onall shot deuided into sundrie troupes, the one to second another, as before appeareth.

Page  74*In the before figured battell, I haue placed and set downe the shot, and short weapons, belonging vnto the proportion of the said battell, as here following shall particularly be declared.

First, the battell or bodie of pikes, armed & vnarmed (containing in number 4968,* as in the figure before appeareth) I haue framed in proportion of inequa∣litie, being 2⅓ times more in breadth then in length in number of men (called commonly a broad square) which is in proportion as 7 to 3, which proportion co∣uereth the due quadrate of ground,* as before I haue at large recited, being impa∣led round about with 7 rankes of armed pikes, at 108 men per ranke in front, and 46 rankes in flanke. For the furnishing of which battell with shot, and short wea∣pon, in due proportion to the same, I haue presupposed this course and order fol∣lowing; after the rate to euery 100 men;* 40 pikes, 10, halberds and short wea∣pon, 25 Muskets, & 25 Calliuers. Which battell conteineth pikes 5200, (where∣of is within the body of the battell, 4968 pikes) halberds and short weapon 1300, Muskets 3250, Calliuers, 3250; being in all 13000 men sorted and suted with weapons as appeareth, and seuerally placed to fight (as I suppose) to most aduan∣tage, thus.

First the body of the battell containeth pikes 4968 armed and vnarmed; be∣ing 108 in front, and 46 rankes in flanke; the which body is inuironed or gird∣led with Muskets at 5 in ranke round:
*1640
4 Squadrōs of Muskets, at the angles of the battel, at 50 per squadron.
0200
30 Troupes of shot, on the one flanke, at 30 in a troupe, amounteth.
*0900
30 Troupes of shot on the other flanke, at 30 in a troupe, amounteth
0900
17 Troupes of shot, in the forlorne hope, at 30 in a troupe, amounteth
0510
46 Troupes of shot, in the reareguarde, at 30 in a troupe, amounteth
1380
Summe totall of the shot bestowed about the battell.
5530
More shot is bestowed about the guarde of one part of the artilliarie
0350
More shot placed in guarde of the other part of the artilliarie
0350
Finally there is shot left to guarde the munition, summe
0270
Thus you see the whole number bestowed, amounts
6500
Halbards and short weapon 1300 bestowed as followeth.
06 Troupes short weapō, mingled with the shot on the one flank at 30.
0180
06 Troupes short weapon, mingled with shot, on the other flanke at 30.
0180
05 Troups short weapō, mingled the forlorne hope, shot at 30 in tr. 0.
*0150
08 Troups short weapō, mingled with the shot in the reareguard. at 30.
0240
More short weapon with the one part of the artillerie to guard
0200
More short weapon with the other part of the artillerie
0200
Finally the rest of halbardes and short weapon, are with the munition
0150
Thus also is bestowed the whole number of short weapon
1300

*Finally, there remained 232 pikes, the which are placed in two squadrons, with the rest of the halbardes and short weapon, containing in each squadron 116 pikes and 200 short weapon as in their seuerall figures may appeare. Aduertising moreouer,* that out of the body of the battell may be drawen some small number of pikes, to be employed with the other pikes and halbardes, at the guarde of the artillerie and munition: which roome shall serue for Drummes, Phiphes, Chirur∣gians, and hurt men: where also is the place of the Generall, if he thinke good; Page  75 But with this prouiso, that you draw not so many pikes frō the heart of your bat∣tell, that you leaue the same heartlesse.

To conclude; The said battell is winged with 2 squadrons of men at armes;* at 200 in each squadron, with 2 troupes of Launciers,* at 500 in euery troupe; and with 2 troupes of hargulutiers,* and other shot on horsebacke, at 300 horse in eue∣ry troupe. And before them againe is placed 14 peeces of field ordinaunce,* in two parts, hauing by them their guardes of shot and pikes, as appeareth.

Thus haue you here seene in figure the embattailling, and bestowing of 5200 pikes,* 6500 shot, and 1300 short weapon: and of 400 men at armes, and 1000 Launciers, and 600 hargoletiers, imbattailled and placed, and ready engaged to fight, as particularly aboue appeareth.

Gent.

Truly, for mine owne part I haue litle skill to iudge, but in mine opinion, this seemeth wonderfull strong for one battell: but me thinkes, you haue framed your battell of more men in breadth then in length.

Capt.

So it is;* For I haue set 108 men in breadth, and 46 rankes in length: the reasons thereof I shewed you before: for by this meanes there commeth more hands at once to fight in front, and the flankes notwithstanding sufficient strong, especially hauing any aduantage by the seat, which battell commeth to be an e∣quall square of ground, and a broad square of men, in proportion of inequalitie, as 7 is to 3,* that is two times, and a third of men more broad then long.

But for these formes of battels, as they bring most hands to fight at once; so are they not equally strong on each side, as is the iust square of men: wherefore it behoueth the leaders thereof,* to haue a care to the situation of the ground, and to procure (as neere as they can) that the enemie may charge but in the front, so shall they be wonderfull strong either against horse or foote. And to encounter any foote enemie (for no great force of enemies horse may be brought into one Ile, I suppose) no forme more strong then this, for one onely battell.

Gent.

Why, are there vsed more battels then one in one fight?

Capt.

Yea truly,* and with great reason and aduauntage, were men experte and skilfull. For as it is venturous to set ones fortune vpon the brunt of one sole bat∣tell, so is it daungerous to frame many batallions, except men be very skilfull and well practised therein, by reason of the difficultie in seconding one another. And againe it is rarely seene in our dayes, that men come often to hand-blowes, as in old time they did: For now in this age, the shot so employeth and busieth the field (being well backed with a resolute stand of pikes) that the most valiantest and skilfullest therein do commonly import the victorie, or the best, at the least wise, before men come to many hand-blowes.

Gent.

But your battell thus framed, and engaged to fight, what order take you therein then?

Capt.

It is hard for any man to giue any direct course,* before the enemie bee knowen and seene. For the occurants of warre bee so manifold and strange, that sometimes vpon a moment, the first resolutions and courses taken are to be alte∣red: as was well to be seene in our actions with the Spanyardes in anno 1588 at sea. Where our first determinations and appointed orders, were vpon our ioy∣ning with the enemie quite altered, and chaunged; and so changing dayly, as oc∣casions were offered. And in land seruice more occurrantes do befall hourely, Page  76 which hereafter we will speake of.

*But now partly to answere your demaund: First the enemie discouered, appro∣ching, and engaging vs to fight, happely some skirmishes may be begun by the hargoletiers and light horse; but the battels approching and comming within shot, the field ordinance, on both sides (if there be any) begin to go off, at which artillerie the first puzzelling doth commonly begin, each part attempting to sur∣prise the others ordinance: then the loose shot in the forelorne hope on both sides begin to disband and fall to flat skirmish: their office performed, hauing bene well bearded, they retire to the flankes and reareward of the battell, from whence they are supplied and continually seconded with other fresh troupes, so still maintaining fight, till the horse do offer to charge, the which are commonly en∣countred with horse againe: if not, then the shot retire behind their stand of pikes, and are then also aided with their halberdes and short weapon, and some halfe pikes mingled among them;* vpon whose charging, the Muskets of impaling and the squadrons at the angles doe roundly bestow their vollie in the face of the enemie, then the pikes are couched fast vnder the right foote, guarding the gird∣ling shot vnder their succour; the which girdling shot, are to kneele vpon their right knee vnder the couched pikes, & closing close together do stād with resolute hart, hand, and body, holding the pike at a reasonable distance, in the left hand, & their swordes ready drawen in their right hand of the first 3, or 4, rankes, being sure to stand firme, and couching their pikes point to the breast of the horse, for that is the place of most aduantage.* A squadron of pikes thus couched and hand∣led by resolute and honest men, I cannot see how any troupe of horse dare venture vpon them: and if they do, yet not able to breake farre in, if men stand resolute: so of force must they retire with losse and disaduantage. But if they be encountred with equall numbers,* proportions, and force of pikemen, then (if they will) they aduance their pikes vntill they come to the push, then with charging ouer hand to thrust and push couragious and valiantly; at which time valour and skill is shewed, as second meanes of victorie, but God the first cause and giuer of all.

Gent.

In few wordes you haue finished a battell: But your leaders and Com∣manders, how are they this while employed?

Capt.

Euery one according to his office & place, to encourage & animate the souldiers, to redresse with speed any disorders happening in their own troupes, to espie the disorders or negligence of the enemy, taking aduantage vpō such occa∣sion: with sundry other points, which in their seuerall duties shall be declared.

The second Dialogue, wherein is declared the order of many ancient formes of imbattailing.

Gentleman.

YOu spake of more sortes of battels, I pray therefore declare vnto vs their orders, how many, in what formes, and to what vses.

Capt.

Although I haue before somwhat touched the same, not minding to medle farther then with our fights now most accustomed,* yet neuerthelesse drawen on by your good and curious demaundes, I will, the best I can, particular∣ly describe them. Therefore, as I haue before declared of all formes of battels now in our age most in vse, best approued, and best allowed of, is the iust square Page  77 of men, as equally strong on euery side, and most fit, and best assured for the open field; and out of which quadrate all other formes may easily be reduced. Next vn∣to that,* and most aduantagious (indeede) to fight, is the quadrate of ground by good regard had, wherein many hands are brought at one time to fight. Of both the which formes I haue before largely discoursed, as well the manner how to frame them, as their due sortement with weapons, and shot to the same; I will now speake somewhat of the rest, of the which there are many sorts seruing in old time vnto many purposes (but now with vs quite out of vse) as the Diamant battell,*the VVedge battell or Triangle, the Sheers battell, the Saw battell, the Moone battell, the S¦DG battels and the Crosse battell, with such like, and chiefly the battell compounded of sundrie battallions; the which last recited, of all others, I thinke to be the most strong and aduantagious,* were men expert, skilfull, and ready: but raw, as in our dayes they be, very difficult and dangerous to be handled.

The nearest therefore vnto the square of men,* is the Diamant battell; vnto the framing whereof, out of the said square, there needeth no more, but whereas the leader stood before on the square of the battell, let him appoint another to go to the next corner or angle thereof, and willing the pikes to turne their faces vpon him, and they shall straight, out of the square, march into a Diamant proportion: which forme when you are disposed to alter, do no more but appoint the leader to the square, where he first stood, commaunding the pikes to turne their faces v∣pon him, and they shall forthwith march into a square battell againe. The facili∣tie is great both herein and in all others, and that without any confusion, as by their seuerall figures following shall appeare; the which I haue framed of 25 let∣ters, the better to giue you to vnderstand.

[illustration]

And againe out of the Diamant forme may be reduced two triangles, by cut∣ting or diuiding the same in the middest at the two flat angles, as in this figure of a Diamant forme may appeare by the prickes running along: & of 2 triangles may be framed a Sheeres battell and of 3 or 4 triangles may in like sort be framed the Saw battell, by ioyning the angles together as in their figures following shall ap∣peare.

Here you see the square reduced into a Diamant forme, with onely turning their faces vnto the right angle E, as aboue appeareth, & so marching on, do fall into a perfect Diamant forme, with two sharpe angles, and two flat. But in their march they will stretch ouer-long, each man from his leadesman, so will it be of Page  78 no force to fight, by reason of their raritie & thin standing, as in the former figure may appeare by F.B. & by L.G.C. & by G.M.H.D. & by VV.R.N.N.E, the two sharp angles;* and so of the rest. To reforme the which fault; First commaund your men to stand in the forme they are; then causing the two sides of the first angle E to stand yet firme, and commaund euery one of the rest (except the said two sides) to march on, one after another, vntill he come to finde himselfe in a due distance, each after his leadsman: thus F. shall march vp towardes B. vntill he finde A. to be his left-side fellow, thē there to rest: thē againe G. shall proceede towards C. vntill B. be his side fellow, L following him vntill F. be his side fellow, then shall H. passe forward toward D. vntill he finde C. to be his side fellow, M. following, H. & Q. fol∣lowing M. Then shall I. step vp betweene D. & K, and N. following I, & R. follow∣ing N, and VV. following R. Likewise O, shall go nearer vnto K. vntill he finde P. his right side fellow, and N. on his left side: S. shall follow O, and X. shall follow S: then shall T. proceede towardes P, and Y. follow T. Lastly Z. shall step vp betweene &. and Y: So is there framed a perfect triangle or wedge battell; as in this figure fol∣lowing shall appeare.

[illustration]

Here haue you seene, how out of a square of men hath bin first reduced a Dia∣mant battell simple; and out of the Diamant a triangle or wedge battell in perfect order to fight, which is with 1. man in the first ranke, 3 in the second, and 5 in the third ranke, & so consequently augmenting 2 in euery ranke, with the Ensigne in the middest. Now, by this order out of 2 iust squares of men, are reduced 2 trian∣gles; and of two perfect Triangles,* is formed a Perfect Diamant battel, by ioyning the two rereward parts together. But first out of the one Triangle must be drawen the last ranke of all, the which may be placed at the latter point of the Diamant battell, or else as the Sergeāt Maior shall thinke good. The figures of both which squadrons reduced into Diamant formes, and from Diamants into 2 Triangles, lastly adioyning the 2 Triangle backe parts together, is formed a perfect Diamant battell fit to fight; as by their seuerall figures here following may be seene.

Page  79

[illustration]
*

These two squadrons shal be reduced into 2 triangles, in manner as aforesaid, which will be in forme following.

[illustration]
*

In these 6 former figures, I haue declared the order how, out of 2 squadrons of men, to bring them into 2 Diamant formes simple, and out of 2 Diamant formes single, to reduce them into 2 perfect Triangles, by causing all their middle ranks to march vp, vntill they find their leadsman before them in their due distance: the which 2 Triangles, being thus perfected (as in the 4 and 5 figure may appeare) and ioyning the two backe parts together, do make this perfect Diamant forme to fight, as here by the 2 figures following shall appeare. But of the second fi∣gure Page  80 I haue drawen the latter ranke of one of the Triangles, being nine men, and placed them at one of the corners.

[illustration]

Now, touching the Sheeres battell, the same is to be made of 4 battallions of equal proportiō, working, as before you did with the Diamant & Triangle battels: the which 4 battallions being reduced (as before is sayd) into 2 triangles, and ioy∣ning their two corners together, is framed the Sheeres battell, as here you see.

*

[illustration]

Loe here the Sheere battell framed of 4 battallions; to backe the which you must draw vp 2, 3 or 4 rankes of pikes according to the proportion of the battell, and place them on the backe part thereof, as you see aboue designed by this let∣ter O, where I haue backed the same with 2 rankes, at 18 men in a ranke. And also the same order is to be obserued in the Saw battell, as after appeareth. Next is the Saw battell, which containeth 3 sharpe angles framed of 6 battallions, in such order as the Wedge, & Sheeres battels before wrought, as here in the figure fol∣lowing is designed.

Page  81

[illustration]
*

Thus you see this Saw battell framed and reduced out of 6 square battallions. But there is another order yet to frame these Diamant,* Triangle, Saw, and Sheere battels, which is thus: Place in the first angle or ranke, one man; in the se∣cond ranke 3 men, in the third ranke, 5 men, and in the fourth ranke 7 men; and so consequently adding vnto euery ranke 2 men, vntill you haue finished your bat∣tell into such proportion as you shall thinke good.

Now, there haue I spent more time in those trifling formes and vnused propor∣tions then I needed, but only to giue you content, and to the end to shew, that he, which is a Sergeant Maior,* ought not to be ignorant in any manner of proporti∣ons, as well ancient as moderne; whereby he may be both able, skilfull and ready to frame, alter, and change his proportions, as occasion shall be offered, and that with facilitie and speed.

Gent.

To what intent and purpose were these proportions of Diamant, Tri∣angle, Sheeres, and Saw battels first deuised?

Capt.

The Triangle and Diamant battels were inuented by antiquitie to en∣counter the square,* the Sheeres battell to encounter the Triangle or Wedge bat∣tell, and the Saw battell to encounter the Sheeres battell. All the which are in small vse in our dayes.

Gent.

Will you speake nothing of the Crosse battell, so much commended by some men; nor of the battell compounded of sundry battallions?

Capt.

The Crosse battels haue bene most vsed by the Swedens,* and high Ger∣maines. The forme whereof, be it in sundry battallions seuerally appointed, or in one whole and entire battell all together ioyned, is no doubt, of maruellous great strength and verie excellent conueyance: by reason of the sundry places of safegard and defence ministred to the shot and hurt persons therein. It is commonly framed of 5 battallions or squadrons, 4 in crosse wise, and one in the middle: the which middle battallion may conteine your Ensignes and short weapons: but if it be framed of 4 battallions, with the center vnfilled, then may the center containe the impedimentes and baggage of the armie.

Page  82

[illustration]

*I haue here figured a Crosse battell compounded of 5 battallions, the middle battallion conteineth the Ensignes and short weapons without their shot. And in the second figure I haue set downe the sayd Crosse battell, with their shot be∣stowed, in the 4 voyde angles or corners, in 4 other battallions or squadrons, as may appeare. Now for as much as I intend to frame certaine Tables to the for∣ming of euery sort & maner of all these foresayd battels & battallions of all num∣bers of mē, from the smallest number vnto 10000 pikes, I will leaue at this instant to speake any more therof: hoping this already spoken to be sufficient for any wil∣ling minded Gentlemen, which haue not yet seene wars, & desirous to vnderstand some points of martiall matters: for vnto those do I write, & not vnto the expert souldier, whose skill and experience, annexed with learning I honour and reue∣rence.* For surely speculation without Practise, is but halfe of the Arte, but both ioynt∣ly together maketh the same perfect.

Gent.

Although we haue bin tedious vnto you, yet I pray let vs intreat you, to shew vs the order of the battell compounded of many battallions.

Capt.

*To deuide a small power into many parts, were but dangerous: but ha∣uing a sufficient and competent armie, the maner is now a dayes to deuide them but into 3, distinguished into Vantgard, Battell & Rereward; yet, if men were per∣fect and ready, a sufficient armie might well be reparted into sundry battallions, contained in two or three frōts, neare after the ancient Romanes, the one to supply and second the other a matter of great importance, especially if it shold come to campall fight, by reason of the diuerse breathings and succouring one another; a thing seldome seene in our age.

Gent.

What meane you by a sufficient and competent armie.

Capt.

Not a handfull of men of three or foure thousand, as we vse now a dayes: But I vnderstand that a sufficient and able armie should conteine 12000 pikes and short weapons or there abouts,* and as many shot; making 24000 in both and also 6000 horse.

Gent.

How would you repart these 12000 pikes and short weapon into 3 battallions, distinguished into vantgard, battell, and reareward: or into more bat∣tallions. Page  83 I pray shew vnto vs the order thereof in figures.

Capt.

Of these 12000 pikes and short weapon, behold here in figure 11000 of them (for there is 1000 reserued for other purposes) deuided, first into 3 bat∣tels, or squares of men, and then againe into 9 battallions, and lastly into 12, as by their seuerall figures shall appeare.

[illustration]
The figure of 11000 pikes, reparted into 3 battels.
*

[illustration]
The figure of 11000 pikes deuided into 9 battallions.

Page  84*

[illustration]
The figure of 11000 pikes, reparted into 12 battallions.

Gent.

*The first or vantgard of the 11000 pikes reparted into 3 battels, contai∣neth 4900 piquiers, whose square roote is 70, which is 70 rankes, and 70 men per ranke, or 70 in front, and 70 in flanke, or 70 ranks and 70 files: all which is all one. In the second of those 3 battels, distinguished by name of battell, is contained 3969 pikes whose square roote is 63 containing so many men in front and flanke.* the third of those battels, tearmed by the name of reareward, doth con∣taine 1936 pikes, Lastly,* the cubike roote whereof is 44, and so many it containeth in front and flanke: being all square battels of men.

Now in the marching of these battels vp to fight, there is great and many con∣siderations to be had;* both for the wind, the sunne, and aduantage of ground, and also the quantity and quality of the enemy: as whether he do exceede more in foote, then in horse; and also their maner and forme of embattailing. All which considerations, and many more, must proceede from the good capacity, sound in∣tendement, and militarie skill of our Generall, and other commanders of our ar∣my; vnto whom if it shall so seeme necessary, and occasion so require, first to leade the vātgard alone to fight, the same is afterward to be seconded by the battel, mar∣ching vp by the right or left flanke of the vantgard, and ioyning with whom, may renew the fight a fresh. And then if it fall out, that they should be againe distres∣sed, the rereward is then to march vp vpon either the right or left side, as cause shall most require, and so ioyning with the other two, to renew againe their en∣counter and fight, wherein both skill valour, and vertue must be shewed.

*And whereas I haue in those battels proportioned 70 men to the depth of the vangard, and but 63 to the battell, and 44 to the rereward, the which drawne Page  85 vp together in that proportion should badly correspond by reason of their diffe∣rent depthes, or flankes; it must be therefore considered, that the first shocke and brunt is commonly the hardest, and no doubt but many men of the first ranks must fall at their seuerall encounters: and comming so to passe (as of necessity it would) then these different proportions should soone come to be different; as a∣ny iudicious men may conceiue.

Secondly,* the said number of the 3 battels are deuided into 9 battallions of the same kind and nature that their grand battels were of, whereof there is made 3 fronts, in the first front is contained 4 battallions or squadrons, with their seue∣rall spaces betwixt. The second front or supply is framed of 3 battallions, with their seuerall spaces betwixt. And the third front or last hope and succour con∣taineth 2 battallions. The which 2 battallions I haue placed vpon the two out angles of the 3 middle battallions; and in the voide spaces betwixt, is placed the impediments and baggage of the army. The seuerall breadth, depthes, and num∣bers of euery of these battallions, are set downe in their seuerall figures.

Gent.

To what purpose serueth the voyde spaces betwixt euery battell?

Capt.

The voide spaces may serue for the troupes of shot to sallie out of skir∣mish with the enemy,* and to retire againe, and also for the 3 battallions of the se∣cond front, to march vp and passe betwixt them, for the battallions of the first front hauing encountred the enemy, and feeling themselues distressed, are warily and orderly to retire with their faces and weapon point bent vpon the ene∣mie. At which retiring the Battallions of the second front, are to aduance fore∣ward, and to passe in betwixt the voide spaces of the first 4 battallions, and so all ioyning valiantly together with the first,* to make a fresh head, and to begin a se∣cond fight. And being then againe distressed, they are all orderly to retire, as is sayd. Then lastly the two battallions of the 3 front, are to aduance the one vp by the one side of the other battallions, and the other vp by the other side of them; or as occasion shall most require: and then finally all ioyntly together to giue a third and finall fight. By which order it should seeme, fortune to abandon them thrice before that they should be quighte vanquished.

And last of all,* the former 3 battels are reparted into 12 battallions of the same kind, distinguished into 3 fronts. The first front whereof containeth 5 battallions, of 961 men in each battallion, whose square roote is 31 with their seuerall spa∣ces betwixt. The second front is framed of 4 battallions, of 961 men each, whose square roote is still 31, with seuerall spaces betwixt euery battallion. And the third front is formed of 3 battailions, containing in each 625 men, whose square roote is 25 for front and flanke. The which three fronts of battallions, are order∣ly to aduance, to charge, to retire, and to recharge, as in the former discourse is described.

Gent.

The shot belonging vnto the said numbers, where are they to be placed and emploied?

Capt.

The shot appertaining vnto euery of these battels and battallions ought to be deuided (in mine opinion) into sundry small troupes; trouping about the said battels and battallions to maintaine skirmish, and some to be placed vpon bankes,* ditches, and ground of aduantage (the situation yeelding such) according to the direction of the Sergeant Maior generall: and the cauallery a reasonable Page  86 distance without the out angles of the battels or battalions,* in troupes and squa∣drons, seruing as wings to the same, and vpon groundes of aduantage and places fit for their seruice, with good regard had, that they passe not on the front of your battallions, for danger of disordering your owne squadrons vpon their retrait, as in folio 72 is described.

Gent.

What quantitie of ground shall these battels and battallions require?

Capt.

*I haue sayd before, that vnto euery picquier at the time of ioyning the charge, is to be allowed for his station in front or breadth, that is, from shoulder to shoulder, at the least 3 foote; and for depth, that is, for before and after 7 foote at the least, for his owne station, and for the vse of this weapon. And the voide spaces betwixt the battallions are to containe in breadth as much as do the bat∣tallions of the second front, within the which they are to aduance and passe: so is it easily to be calculated, what quantity of ground such order of battels and bat∣tallions will require. Moreouer it must be considered, that there must be a con∣uenient space of ground remaine betweene the traine of the first order of bat∣tallions, and the front of the second order, and in like sort from the traine of the second order, vnto the front of the third order: as some 20, or 25 pases betwixt each, or such as the ground will permit, or occasion require.

Gent.

What place is the generall and other chiefe commanders to keepe in these orders of fightes: or are they to be on horsebacke or on foote?

Capt.

The Lord generall is to be well mounted, and the Campe-Maister Ge∣nerall, and Sergeant Maior Generall, are to bee mounted on good geldings, Andadoras and not Corradoras.* Whereby they may speedily passe from place to place, especially the Campe-maister and Sergeant Maior generall, to execute the Lord Generals commands, to keepe the squadrons in order, and to redresse the disordered: as in such occurrants shall be requisite.

The Generall his place, is commonly in the space vpon the front of the second order of the battallions:* from whence he may most conueniently send his directi∣ons and orders: to do the which, besides the Campe-maister and Sergeant Maior Generall, & his Trumpet, and chiefe Drummer, he is to haue attendant vpon him certaine expert gentlemen both on horsebacke and on foote.

The Colonels of euery foote regiment, are with their companies to serue on foote, being arraunged to fight: their due place is the right angle of the first ranke of their squadrōs,* & their Lieutenants in the left angle of the same ranks, the Cap∣taines and other inferiour officers, in ranke also, as their place requireth; as more at large in their seuerall duties is declared.

But in case that a Colonell were in any peece of seruice with his regiment a∣lone, then is hee to employ the place and office of a Generall, for the present ser∣uice. The Ensignes are to be placed in the centre, or neare the center, towards the formost rankes of euery battell or battallion, and to stand in ranke also. Finally of these 12000 pikes and short weapon, there is reserued out, about 1000 to serue to other purposes: as to gard the artillery, munition, and impediments, and such other peeces of seruice.

* There is yet another order of deuiding an army into sundry small battallions, or squadrons of one kind, each squadron containing 100 pikes, 10 in front, and 10 Page  87 deepe, embattailed by single files, of 10 men in euery file, the order and manner whereof is in folio 38, 42, 43, particularly described.

Gent

I pray, how should a regiment or many, or an army be martialled or em∣battailled after this maner?*

Capt.

If you wold haue all your army deuided into battallions or squadrons of that kind, then are the Colonels of euery particular regiment, to cause the com∣panies of their regiment to embattel themselues, vpon a sound of the drumme, in such smal battallions or squadrons of 100 pikes, in euery squadron 10 in front, and 10 deepe, as in folio 38, 39, and 4 may appeare.

And suppose that the 24000 footmen were reparted into 20 regiments, after 1200 into euery regiment: of the which 1200 men there is 600 picquiers, those 600 picquiers are to be embattailed into 6 small squadrons of 100 in each squa∣dron, at 10 in front and 10 deepe. Being thus embattailed into sundry small squa∣drons of one kind, they may with great facility be brought into any proportion you will, as by these figures following may appeare. Where you see embattailed the picquiers of three regiments seueral into their smal squadrons, of 100 in each squadron, at 10 in front, and 10 deepe, all in one front.

[illustration]

Page  88In the first figure you may behold 3 regiments embattailed into 18 small squa∣drons; in the second figure behold the same reduced into a battell of double front, or into a due square of ground, which is twice so many men in front as in flanke: and in the 3 figure, you may see the said 3 regiments brought into a iust square of men; that is, as many men in breadth as in depth: the order whereof is thus.

The first regiment being embattailed into 6 small squadrons, and placed in one equall front, the second regiment (being embattailed in the like maner) is to march vp vnto the traine of the first 6 squadrons, there ioyning squadron with squadron, and answering file with file. After them againe is the other last 6 squa∣drons to march vp vnto the traine of those 6 middle squadrons, and placed euen squadron with squadron and file with file: so that of these three regiments there is made one body of a battell of broade front, or due square of ground, which is twice so many men in breadth as in depth, as by the second figure may appeare.

*Finally, if you shold be occasioned to reduce the said three regiments into one grand battell of equall proportion, or due square of men: then place 4 of these small squadrons in one front, on whose traine 4 other squadrons, are to march vp; and then againe 4 others, and lastly the last foure squadrons; so that squadron with squadron, and file with file, may equally answere one another, as in the third figure may appeare. Where, of 16 of these small squadrons is framed a battell in proportion of equality: which is so many men in depth as in front: and there re∣maineth out two small squadrons, the which are to serue to other purposes, either for a supplie, or to other seruices.

Thus haue you seene these three regiments embattailed and brought into sun∣dry proportions.* Likewise in the same maner may a whole army be ranged and ordered by good conductors, into sundry battallions, and distinguished, either into one, two, or three fronts: as the iust occasions, and the iudicious intendement of the good commander shall concurre and find conuenient.

Gent.

By describing vnto vs these seuerall orders of reparting an army into sun∣dry battallions & squadrons, ye haue contented vs wonderfull well: & it seemeth (in mine opinion) much aduantagious, being discretly and orderly handled. But how should the shot, due vnto those regiments, be placed and ordered?

Cap.

The shot belonging vnto these regiments, deuided into sundry battels, battallions and squadrons, should be reparted into sundry small troupes, of 50 in each troupe, at 5 in front, and 10 in depth, or more, or lesse, as occasion shall pro∣cure; the ordering and placing of which shot doth appeare, in folio 42 43, & 73, & is in many other places described; so that one troupe may alwayes be ready to se∣cond another, and to giue breathing one to another.

Gent.

But what haue you next to speake more of, before you returne to the office of the Sergeant Maior: by reason of whose office you haue made these sun∣dry demonstrations of diuerse and many sorts of battels, and battallions, as a mat∣ter most pertinent vnto the said Sergeant Maior his office.

Cap.

I should now set downe the tables of all these sundry proportions: as first of battels in proportion of equality;* which is the iust square of men; their order of ranking; their deuiding into Maniples, and so marching vp shoulder to shoul∣der, to bring them into their former order of battell, with the marching vp of Page  89 their remainers: their due numbers of girdling shot, and the deuiding of the said battels into sundry battallions of the same kind: then againe, the tables of battels in proportion of inequalitie,* which is more in breadth then depth: with their de∣uisions into battallions of that sort, and the table of euen battallions for crosse battels, and of other proportions, with the quantity of ground that euery of them would require; but time permitteth me not: reseruing the same vnto the last booke of these our military discourses.

But I must now speake something by the way, of marching our battell through straightes, and being passed, how to fall againe into the former pro∣portions.

When you come to any straight,* it must be considered of what widenesse the passages are, and how many men may go in front easily thorow the same; and then may you accordingly, at your discretion, chuse whether you will draw your battell out into the former Maniples, that the same marched in before their com∣ming into battell (as in the seuerall tables thereof shall be shewed) or into more Maniples or parts, if thereunto you shall be compelled by the narrownesse of the place:* which likewise being so wide, that fewer Maniples then you marched vp before, will serue for their diuision, you may accordingly also draw them out into 3, 5, 7, or 9, Maniples, as the nature of the straight, and your iudgement con∣curring together shall thinke meete.* Alwayes prouided, that the ensignes be contained in the middle Maniple: and hauing passed the straightes, you may a∣gaine draw them vp shoulder to shoulder, as in the order of marching in Mani∣ples, is before in folio 62, 63, 66, and 68 declared; whereby easily and without con∣fusion they shall foorthwith fall in their former proportion. But as concerning your shot,* you shall not neede (except the straight be very narrow) to draw them out into any such parts, without it be those in the girdling, which as they stand in proportion in the battell, must be drawne out into Maniples with the pikes, for if mine opinion might be receiued touching the other shot, I would alwayes aduise, that the residue should euer more remaine in many small troupes, not aboue 40, or 50 shot, at the most in a troupe, as before I haue shewed, for that by experience I know the same to be of greatest force, and readinesse for seruice: be it therefore in plaine or straight, or how soeuer, the more troupes your shot be seuered into, the better shall the enemy still be applied;* besides the seconding the one of the o∣ther with such quicke dispatch, shall cause that after the first troupes haue once discharged, they retiring themselues behind all the rest, shall be sure against they come vp againe to haue leasure enough to charge sufficiently and surely, that few shot shall be spent in vaine, as they do when great numbers be clustred together.

Now,* if it should fortune (as most commonly it chaunceth) that the enemy should fight with you in the straight, then must you not draw your battell into those Maniples or parts, but consider whether the straight be such, as will suffice you to go thorough, holding the same proportion that you haue. If not, then con∣sider whether squaring the battell into 4 parts,* you may with so many battallions passe to encounter with the enemy, if so you cannot, it seemeth vnto me the redi∣est and safest way, to deuide your battell into more battallions, as for example: first to proportion them out into 4 or 6, if those bee not conuenient, then into 8, if you Page  90 thinke that will not serue, then into 12 or 16 battallions, or as the passage will permit, which thing may more easily be brought to passe, if the body of your bat∣tell do consist of pikes only, which, were the same of compound weapons, could in no wise bee so odainely done, without great confusion; as a man of any iudgement may conceiue: and as by these figures following shall plainely appeare.

*But before the arriuall vnto such straights and passages, the wise Commander is carefully to consider, and to send sundry scoutes abroade to discouer: and also shall cause (if possible he may) the summities, higher grounds, craggy rockes, thickets, woods, and other places of aduantage, to be first possessed by his owne people, sending to that effect, shot, halfe pikes, and such like.

[illustration]
The figures of quartering a battell.
[illustration] Page  91

In deuiding and quartering of all which, as may appeare, the place of the Ensi∣gnes is still crossed, to redresse the which the Sergeant Maior or Colonell, may place them where he thinketh fittest: drawing out, where euery Ensigne shall stand, one pike; and replace the same pike in the first roome of the Ensigne which at the out drawing of the Ensigne remained voide.

The end of the third booke.