The distinction of Dreames.
THe cause why Auer∣rois dothe rather at∣tribute this passion of Dreamyng to the Imaginatiue parte, is that lyke as the motion of wakynge beginneth from the outwarde senses, and endeth at the memoratiue, euen so dothe the motion of sleepe contrarye begynne from this, and Endeth at the outwarde motions. Wherefore seeyng the same •s a passion of the inner partes, and not of •he memoratiue, nor cogitatiue. For that as hee wryteth, the woorkynge of •hese, is not manifested in the sleepe, there¦fore the same shalbe of the Imaginatiue whiche onelye consisteth in the mouinge •nd continual dooyng and maye also re∣cyue formes of the Memoratiue, when •s the dreame is of insensible matters cō∣•eiued. And of both the like, when as the Dreame is mix••• and of the outewarde •oinge also, lyke as of the hearinge, or of ••e vnderstāding And he further wryteth Page [unnumbered] that when they happen trewe, the same then dothe somwhat declare of that which was in the hower of knowledge, and yet this for the more part not present beyng, for if this woulde happen in the presente and instaunte doynge, that then the same shoulde not forshewe thynges to come but rather matters presente. In that al• thinges to come moue and woorke accor∣dinge to their causes. But how so euer the same bee. yet Aristotle affirmeth, that dreames may be caused by the sheadinge of formes, whiche proceade frome those thinges workinge in the acte. Yet hee per¦happes meaneth, that the same significa¦tion of the dreame, is not caused in the mouing of it. Wherefore howe soeuer be doubted, that the vnderstandinge abstrac¦ted, maye minister Imaginatiuelye the• knowledge of the perticuler indiuiduate whē as the same is of the generall things by the whiche it doth manifestlye appear that certaine are indiuiduates of the sim∣ple substances and certaine of the mixte. So that either they be •uinge and as th• mineralles, or haue lyfe woorking as th• plantes, or otherwyse sensitiue as th•Page [unnumbered] Beastes, or of vnderstandinge as men.
And of the accidentes also, certaine are in the Symples, certayne in the Myxte and certayne in Beastes, and of these be∣sides, certaine are of nature, and certayne by Arte, and of it selfe also, or of happe. So that these not otherwyse mente, but onelye by accidente. Wherefore al the in∣diuiduates of the simple and comp••be by substaunces, and of all other Acciden•es by theymselues haue terminate causes, whiche althoughe they maye bee vnder∣standed by our conceiuinge of theym, yet ••n they not be vnderstanden of theyms•l∣ues, in that these happen not vnder the sē∣•es, nor as thinges to come
But to be briefe, lyke as the Phisition by twooe propositions of whiche the one generall, & intelligible conceiued by arte, and that other particuler and sensible in∣uented of some what, maye prognostic••e vppon sicknesses and health, euen so the knowledge or dreames, may proceade of two causes the one of the vniuersail, that is by the vnders•••dinge, whiche doth il∣luminat the Imaginatiue, and the other of the particuler vnder that. In that Page [unnumbered] dreames for the more parte are caused of those matters, whiche bee knowen to the dreamer. And of this he concludeth that y• knowledge of the imaginatiue, is rather ended at the similitude or kynde of the in∣diuiduate, then at the indiuiduate it selfe. Because that if the same bee illuminated by the vnderstandinge, then is that conti∣nually procured to bee caused like it, with the kynde whithe is more spirituall then the indiuiduat. And a man also doth more comprehend in his dreame then wakinge in the daye tyme, because in a dreame i• more resolued thē that in the daye which• is troubled throughe the doinges of the outwarde senses. And hee concludeth al∣so, that a dreame is none other, then a fantastical appearaunce, whiche the per∣sone sleapynge conceiueth. For if they are of those affections which bee in vs, the• is the same either of the part of the spirit• and in suche sort are they rather causes o• the parte of the bodye, and are signes, bu• those whiche are causes of theim beynge without vs seeing by no maner they ma• be in our power, therefore are they name • accidentes. And a like example may her•Page [unnumbered]•e applyed of the Eclipse of the Sunne, whose cause is the Moone. which runneth •etwene. But the signe, is a starre appea∣•inge in the day tyme, running vnder the •ight of the Sunne, or as the roughnes of •he tongue, which declareth the signe of a •euer. So that a dream is the onely cause •n that whiche imagineth the venerall act •n so much as fantasy doth moue the drea∣•er to that act, which afterward he exer∣•iseth wakinge. Also the signe may onely •e, as when we be moued and led vnto the •nowledge of any matter as the like exā∣••le is written of a certain person, whiche •reamed that himself was throwen into a •ost boate fat of pitche, in the whiche he •hought himselfe to be scalded, & wakinge •pon the feare thereof did after vomit vp much a dust or brent choller. So that this •ream was thē a signe of the matter pre∣•ent, and not the accidēt or cause why this •ente before. And euen the like example, •s he which dreameth these matters, that •re not in our power, like as those which •re caused in the East, graūting that they may happen, yet was not the dreame the cause nor the signe like as he whiche spea∣keth Page [unnumbered] of anye matter wakinge and in the day tyme, although that maye after hap∣pen in the dreame, the same ensued not altogether of the talke, in that not all∣wayes nor oftentymes happeneth the di∣uisions but those, whiche are caused of the others, And for a further knowledge to be vnderstanded, that althoughe drea∣mes forshewe rather matters to com-Yet be many of them paste whiche helpe to the remembringe of those wroughte in the day, and to the vnderstanding of the others, and perhappes to giue warninge of harmes that maye happen. And yet these (after the mynde of Aristotle) doe not of necessitye happen, because if anye hathe dreamed to bee sicke, and hathe in hym selfe the cause of a sicknesse, yet may the sicknesse bee stayed by an other stronger motion of nature. For that in the ayre dooe often times appeare signes of rayne, whiche after enseweth not, and muche lyke to this dooe certen conclude that there are such whiche before the exe∣cution doo cha•nge their determination Also dreames are muche varied, whiche do happen through the doynges wrought Page [unnumbered] before in the day tyme, in that not al are sollicited nor delighted in those, nor the vapoures doo moue in the same sexe, nor the wayes of the common sence to the I∣maginatiue and memorie are caried the lyke in one as in another nor there is not the selfe same maner disposed in one time as in an other. Also to sicke personnes do some fearfull dreames happen, when as the spirits cariynge the vertues of life be aflicted by some euill vapour. And the lyke when anye fearing is moued to crye out, then is sicknesses prognosticated to ensewe.
But of the interpreter of dreames bee ought to be suche a one wh•che hathe perfict knowledge to distinguish the simi∣tude of al matters and to be skilfull in the manners and condicions of the moste peo∣ple. Besides it isirequisite that he bee a personne whiche leadethe an honeste lyfe. For although he may happelye touche e∣uerye kynde of cause, yette is the same difficill to make apparaunte howe so e∣uer the same maye be reduced to the Acte.
Whiche is the chiefe & principal pur∣pose. And further headde the of the Page [unnumbered] interpreter, that hee ought to bee a moste arteficiall iudger, which well knoweth si∣militudes, in that all dreams fall not out right, for in this case euerye one maye ea¦selye indge those dreames as the same happneth of the notes. For that lyke as one beholding a farre of twoo sundrye thynges of like distaunce, and the one of theym hee well knoweth, then throughe this be commeth the better and easelyer vnto the vnderstandinge and knowledge of the other. Also he ought to know how to discusse from like to like. For like as the poetes, which also are named naturall prophetes, do further passe by a small si∣militude of any matter vnto another lyke as in speakyng of the nature of Venus do thereby proceade to discusse the caulmnes of the ayre, & so like in many others. Yet that personne is apter to interprete drea∣mes, whiche otherwyse is not occupyed a∣bout other matters. And that men sumti∣mes, do dreame in the one they apply with the other, so that ye one for the other, they sometyme declare. And it is also written of Hercules, that hee dreamed such drea∣mes at the first, whiche no persone coulde Page [unnumbered] expounde, but dreaminge afterwarde the like was then declared to him, as it after succeded. Also it behouethe the expounder not to be ignorant, howe that the doinges & busines of mē doe daylye alter through the one, and throughe the other by the dis∣position of the bloude and spirits. For these when they bee many and cleare, doo dispose the persone vnto mirth. And the same is named a signe, because men bee∣come sad beyng in the darke, vnto whiche the humor verye subtill and distemperate doth thē dispose them. For otherwyse beynge cleare they dispose the personne to beholde and see hydde matters. But the subtile bumors ouer heated, doe dispose the person vnto Ire, in that these bee en∣gendred of the burning and great heate of the bloud, easely and apte to bee in•amed.
But the grosse and cleare, vnto sports and the bodilye actes of myrth. And often those personnes in whome theese are mul∣•iplyed, seeme to laughe withoute cause, •nd yett as the common prouerbe, is that •othinge vnder heauen but reioyseth, al∣•hough the same somtime may be couered 〈◊〉 vs. And the same also they declare by Page [unnumbered] the motion of theym. For when they bee moued vehemently from the hart toward the outwarde parte of the breaste, then doo they cause Ire, and towarde the part downewarde shamefastnes, but when the mocion succedeth outwarde, then dothe it cause ioye and myrthe. And throughe the lacke also of them eyther in the quan∣titye or qualitye are the sensitiue powers forced to woorke eyther corruptly or di∣mynishedlye, euen in the dreame, espe∣cialye when the wayes and passages be∣twene the Imaginatiue and Cogitatiue, by whiche they passe, bee hiunred or trow∣bled, for then the powers are often decey∣ued. Also the disposition of bloude throughe whoose subtiller parte the spy∣rites are engendred, dooth alter the wor∣kings both wakyng and a slepe. For whē the bloude is cleare, not grosse nor subtyle then doth it ingendre y• lyke spirites, why∣che dispose vnto ioye and myrthe, euē lyke as the distempered, bloude woorketh vn, to that kynd of Ice whiche longe lasteth, & contrary wyse the thin & hot doth worke vnto that which is sone kindled & sone qua¦lifyed, & the waterye, in contrarye maner Page [unnumbered] doth woorke vnto feare. But the grosse bloude distempered in heat, doth worke vnto the sturdim•sse of wil, sadnes, wher∣fore it behoueth the expounder of dreams to inquite orderlye, whether the dreame appeared pleasaunt or otherwyse vnplea∣sante for the knowledge of those dothe geue greate vnderstandinge to hym. And it shalbe necessarye for the interpretoure to consider and knowe what the persone tradeth or occupyeth, & of what birth hee is & what possessiōs he hath & what state he is in for the healthe of bodye & of what age he is also which seeth y• dream. Also a drea•e ought exactly to be told as eyther withoute anye addinge to of matter or ta∣kynge fro, For yt these doo cause great er∣ror vnto the vnderstanding of a truth. Also if any shal doubt or be deceiued in yt tellinge of his dream, then must the inter∣preter nedes be deceyued, in the declaring of the true meanynge thereof. And in all dreames also which haue not a manifeste cause, it behoueth diligenty to mark, whe¦ther they be sene ether in ye night or day ti∣me so yt we may not think to mak differēt of the night afore, frō the daye, or ye night Page [unnumbered] euening from the morning spring, if so be hee hath moderatly eaten before sleape. For that immoderate feedinge dothe not permit matters to be trulye decerned vn∣to the morninge.
Of them which interprete dreames by the colours of the Stars, & by other accidentes.
ANd nowe some affirminge the arte of deuining by dreams, do teach yt things whiche appeare in the proper nature dooe forshe we good: like as dreaming to see the earthe whiche of her nature is colde and drye, and of this sheweth the dominion of the Melancolie humor in that person. And the lyke whereas they wryte, that to see drye trees or cleft, doth after signify perill of lyfe, which if that should be true, thē many husbandmē and fellers of trees shoulde die, because they often dreame of suche businesses which they earnestlye go about and busy them selues in. And in the like sort this is not true, that to see in the sleepe deformed thynges, that the same foresheweth a sicknesse to come, neyther is this also true, if that a thinge deformed of nature doth then appeare farre to the Page [unnumbered] dreamer, that the farrenes doth forshewe an euill, for that some do thinke to see ar∣tificial garments should signifie a deceit, in that vnder these is the truethe often co∣uered. Nor it disagreeth not that to se fil∣thye thynges in the sleepe, that the same doth declare corrupt humors, because the stincke maye proceeade of the outwarde meanes or bee represented by the kyndes reserued and then shoulde it rather argue the goodnes of smelling. And althoughe the body greeued, maye be sayde to argue many humors, yet maye it declare that the expulsiue matter is shed forth to the cary∣ringe downe of the groundes, or that the sinewes or mouinge powers of the spirite are hindered & stopped throughe some va∣pour or humor greuing, wherof it faileth not vnder the propre working that it may be attributed to one cause, wt dependeth of many. But well consideringe that the •ayre is the outward cause of dreames, be∣cause in the first it receiueth the impressiō of the starres, and after touchethe the bo∣dies of men and beastes, whiche are alt•¦red of it yea in the daye tyme, like as ap∣pearethe in the nighte Rauen and Owle, Page [unnumbered] whiche (as moste men affirme) by his syn∣ginge ouer the chamber of the sicke, is pro¦gnosticated shortlye after deathe, because as men say these, lyke as many other bea∣stes are more easelye chaunged in the re∣spec•e of men, for that those are not occu∣pyed with earnest cares, but that the ayre in this case doth not onely touch outward∣lye, but by the passages or poores the sence enterethe. And where that others say, that to see in the sleepe cleare and brighte formes doth signifie that the bodies not to bee altered, this also is vn∣true because this maye happen, when the melancholie humoure lyke to the sande, doth purge & cause cleare visible spirites, and then althoughe the clearenes of the formes, doth declare the goodnes of these sences, yet is the cause euill in it selfe, bee∣cause it declareth the dominion of that hu∣mour. Nor it is to be doubted, when si∣milytudes appeare darklye, or shadowed with cloudes, but that they maye declare a troublinge of the visible spirites, and when those tende vnto a witnes, then do they signifye mattery humors, and when the shadow appeareth smal, then doth the Page [unnumbered] harme soone ceasse, and when it sheweth to the syght as water or earthe, then the harme shal bee the greuousser, and the flo∣wer apte to bee resoined. But wher some affirme, when the sleeaper dreameth to see starres shadowed with fyer or by a thynne cloude, that the same doth argue the dominion of choller, whiche rather maye declare an indisposition of the eyes eyther present or to come. And wher they also afirme, that when the starres ap∣peare to the dreamer that they are so bu∣sted, that they can not bee decerned of him, that the same is a note of death, especially if the personne then dreamynge the lyke should be sicke as though the stars coulde not then helpe hym. But this trulye is rather a matter to bee laughed at, that to prognosticate death of the impedimente of fight. Yet certaine doo allowe when the starres seame to the dreamer to moue swiftlye, that thē they prognosticate great Ire or madnes to ensew and that the inor∣dinate motions also of theym, to declare sadnes and heauines to ensue. For the selfe same doothe the inordinat motion of any matter argewe. And graunte that Page [unnumbered] the order shoulde declare the goodnes of the organe, yet rather dothe it expresse the disposition of the powers of the sensitiue spirit, or of naturall heat. Wherefore in the like matters, are the other qualityes and proporc•ions of thinges, referred to the dreamer, considered.
Certain demaundes and their answers both of sleepe and of those matters, through which, some time we dreame
ANd firste why olde men do not so well sleepe, and dreame the lyke as yonge men do seeinge they take more rest. Unto which Auerrois thus answearethe, that for so much as olde men are of coulde com¦plexion, althoughe they maye feede suffi¦ciently, yet haue they naturall heat ouer weake in theim, so that they can not well digeste the same and of this the fumes of the meat in the stomacke are not sente vp∣warde. But the yong men haue naturall heat intensed, through which they diggest their meate wel, and of this send vp much fume out of the stomacke vnto the braine whiche cause theym so to dreame. Why is it, when in the dreame appeareth some Page [unnumbered] fearefull matter. that then the personne sweateth, and waketh vpō the same. Un∣to which the philospher thus answereth, that to the man appeareth then that ter∣rible matter to be present, aud wyth ene∣mies And nature also beyng careful of y• health of man, doth both send forth heate and spirites from the harte vnto the out∣ward members. So that nature iudgeth it suche a ferefull matter, disagreeing to the man, that throughe the concourse of the spirites about the harte, the harte of this is wrong together, and the mā ther∣by weakened of the same.
Why men commonly are not wont to dreame in the beginning of the night. To which the Philosopher thus answereth, that the firste digestion is then occupyed, in whiche the sumes of the meate muche ingrossed are sent vp, that mightely stop, and so cause the persō that he cannot thē dreame. And those also stop the passages, not onely to the outward sences, but vnto •he organe the keper of tymes.
Whye affirmeth Aristole thar a wic∣ked person often foreseethe euil dreames, To whiche is thus answered, that as the Page [unnumbered] condicion of the wickednes dooth incline and dispose the persone vnto the often cō∣siderynge of the same, euen so is bee mo∣ued to dreame those thinges whiche were a good whyles together thought vpon in the day tyme, in that they soner come to mynde. Soo that the luxuriouse per∣son is often m•oued to dreame of women, the drunkarde of sundrye wyues, and y• theefe of sundry thefts. Why dreames which are caused in the morning, be par∣fiter• and to more reason, then the others in the night tyme. To which the philoso∣pher answeereth that in the morning the midle deuision betweene y• common sēce and the Organe reseruatiue is sufficient quiet, throughe whiche the fumes of the meat eleuated then, are sufficiente weake, and of thi•s cause trewer, and parfytter dreames
Whye it is tht at to a manne beeynge a sleepe appeare he that hee flyeth or fal∣leth from an highe place. To whiche the philosopher thus answeare the, that the same proceadethe of the indisposition of the humors of certeine spyrites and va∣poures. Whereof in the body sometimes Page [unnumbered]••che fumes are very lighte, and of this •use the man to thinke that he flyeth. But somtimes the fumes are ouer grosse •nd cooled by the brayne, and do then dis∣end to the harte and through this it see∣•eth then to the mā that he falleth from highe verye deepe
Why is it that a man sometimes drea∣meth of those thinges, whiche in all his •yfe he neuer possessed nor saw, To which •he philosopher thus aunswereth, that in •he slepe is a certayne compositiō of fan∣•asies, through whiche composition such •ppearance is called. Lyke as when any •haunge the kynd of golde on a hyll, then •o him appeareth in his slepe to haue sene • golden hill
Whye is it that the similitudes of •hinges sometymes in the sleepe dooe ap¦peare broken, and sometymes defoure∣med. The reasone of this is in that the •otte vapour is hindered to be shed forth •hat seeketh the Uentricle or Organe in which the similitudes are, wherefore of y• troubled, they are then not perceiued •nder a proper forme, & for that they may •omtymes be caused of those which were Page [unnumbered] neuer perceiued or decerned, and that he∣auelye sleapyng they dreame nothing, 〈◊〉 that the powers of the spyrite or the ima¦ginatiue is hindred to passe vnto the act•
And by the same reasone in a manner some dreame nothynge al their lyfe tym becaue the plenty or aboundance of moi•stures causeth the grosser spirites, and 〈◊〉 confoundeth the similitudes. But A••stotle doth attribute this to a drines an• coldnes of complexion, for these as th• philosopher affirmeth do hinder the asc••ding of vapours, whiche like happene•• to olde persones, by reason of age.
Whye is it that some persones neu•• dreame, nor dreamed all their lyfe tyme The philosopher thus aunsweareth, th•• suche personnes are either ouer moiste 〈◊〉 quality, and the braine to much running so that the kyndes cannot abyde, or such are ouer dry that the kyndes in them ca• not be imprinted. So that in both sortes the Organe is ouer muche vnquieted.
Why doth it sometme appeare to vs that the sighte maye bee chaunged fro• the one sensible and yet altered from th• other. To whiche the philosopher aun•••ereth, Page [unnumbered] that the same happeneth when 〈◊〉 that altereth, that the other should be •t to chaunge, lyke as the mouinge of a •rge or shippe, whiche then causethe to •ppeare that the earth moueth withal, cause this motion is lyke to that which •e earthe shoulde cause, if the earth did •oue, yet the errour may bee corrected, •rough the vpper power.
Whye doo some persones begin firste•• dream, when they come vnto olde age. •o whiche the philosopher thus aunswe∣•th, that they throughoute their whole •me of youthe are ouer muche mouing •nd occupyed, soe that they can not all 〈◊〉 at seasone dreame. And this procea∣•th throughe the inwarde heat, whiche continuallye resolued of the nourishe∣•ente. For in olde age suche euapora∣••ons beginne to cease, throughe the wea∣•nes of heate, and hereof beeginne they 〈◊〉 dreame.
Whye is it that it appeareth often to 〈◊〉 in sleape, bothe to see & heare matters. •o which the philosopher Aristotle thus •unswereth, that to the motion ceassing •y whiche the formes are troubled, the Page [unnumbered] similitude then of the matter which was seene doth represente the acte of seeynge, and heard, the act of hearyng, by whiche they were caused.
Why is yt that the vertuous men and studiouse, haue often plesaunter dreames then the wicked and vicious persons. T• whiche the Philosopher Aristotle thus aunswerethe, that the vertuous bestow• theym selues in dooynge good woorkes and of this the kyndes of the good woor∣kes are reserued and such vertuouse per¦sones doo dreame of suche lyke matters, whiche appeare to them as very delecta¦ble. But the euill persons whiche doo• wicked woorkes, the kyndnesse of thos• euill are reserued, throughe whiche they often dreame, wicked dreames.
Whye is it that suche wakened out• of sleepe, be myndefull of their dreames, and not of the woorkes doone in their sle∣pe. To whiche the Philosopher thus aunswereth, for that whether the form• of the dreame remayninge imprynted i• the Immaginatiue parte, or for that the woorkinge of theym was caused by the Organes shutte of theym selues, an•Page [unnumbered] dissolued by accidente. Therfore the si∣mylitudes of the matters caused, coulde not bee differred or caried vnto the com∣mon sence or ymmagination, in that the particulers wear bounde. Yet are they sometymes stirred vppe and moued for∣warde, for that vnto a stronge motion in the Orgaue, the sence maye ensewe the motions of the mouing spyrites
And a stronge motion I mean, in that this maye heate and resolue the moisture stoppinge the commone sence. Nor it is not necessarye, that for that tyme they shoulde be depryued by a voluntarye mo∣tion in that althoughe the senses maye bee harmed throughe the distemperate∣nes and diminution of the spirites, yet is not in that season the sence of fanta∣sye taken away, whiche is onely cause of the same.
Whye is it that persones hoate by na∣ture or eatynge hoate meates and vapo∣rouse, do dreame muche. The reasone of this is for that verye muche hoate va∣poure doothe sharpen the spyrites whi∣che placed in the Motion doe mooue forwarde the kyndes restinge in the me∣mory, Page [unnumbered] so that the dreame is caused of the representing of them. And Aristotle wry¦teth, that throughe the boathe humours, dreames are caused of matters a longe ti∣me reserued, for althoughe these maye a∣byde in the Organs▪ quieter, yet through a strong motion of heate brought backe, may so cause dreames, or to dreame after. Why appeareth it to the mā dreaminge that the dreame is somtymes true, and somtyme aunsweareth not the lyke at al. The cause of this is, in that it some tyms happeneth that in such a dreame the iud∣gement or knowledge of the vertu intel∣lectiue cōcurreth with a sensitiue vertue but sometimes the same doth not concur: therefore when it doth concur, the man iudgeth the dreame to bee false & the rea∣son is in that the intellectiue vertue doth correcte the sensityue. But when it doth not concurre or accorde then doth it ap∣pear to the man that the dreame is trew. Why is it that certayne sleapynge doo exercise the workes of persones waking. The reason is, for that not simplye they doo slepe, nor properly bee wakinge al∣thoughe the vapour in the tyme of sleape Page [unnumbered] dooth stoppe the Organe of the common sence, and repelleth the heate and spyrits toward the harte. Yet sometymes wyth that vapoure dothe some pe•mixte kynde of be he mente concupiscence, or feare. or boldenesse remayne. For this when it mo∣ueth the onely Organe of fealyng in this beginninge, yf then from that kynd •f his fantasie also is moued seeynge it is the beginninge of the locall motion, there∣fore sleapynge it is moued by it selfe, and when the foresayde causes bee base and weake, that is to saye, not mouing out of the place, and when they be stronge, then doo they moue from place to place. And because the spirites and Organe are di∣stinct sences from the Organes, the mo∣tions therfore of them are for the more-parte not reasoned of, but seynge they be not muche distaunt, for that cause is not speache hyndered in them, so that the Or∣ganes be not occupyed or indisposed, for then doo they shewe foolishenes muche lyke vnto the condition of the sicke. And because the lower mēbers whiche be the instrumentes of motion are lesse hindred in respecte of the vpper whiche obeye to Page [unnumbered] the sence therfore those are lowsed vnto the motion, and not vnto the sence, and because the qualitye of the eyes is of the natu•e of water, therefore are they slo∣wer opened to see abrode then the other members to moue. But althoughe suche walke wyth the eyes shutte, and that ra∣ther by a happe, yet sometymes by For∣tune or by Custome they come vnto the place in the daye tyme immagined, not by sighte in that the eyes are then shutte but of the inward fantasie by which they walke in the darke, like as in the lighte or daye tyme or rather this by a happe. And although they bee then without fee∣lynge, yet the other senses do obaye in as muche as they may to the mouinge po∣wers. But sometymes they think to kill a mā, and sometymes that they theym selues are deade, because the fantasye doothe y∣agine that whiche eyther it conueytethe or feareth.
Whye is it that suche hauinge bygge heades be louers of sleepe. The reason is for that they easelye receiue and retayne the vaporous fumes of theym, also the Page [unnumbered] moister braynes are apter to slepe, whose neare workinge is a vapoure wythoute doubte. Why is it that wyne doth some∣tymes cause sleepe, and sometymes to wake. The reason is for that when it is druncke moderatly, it doth then cause sleepe, in that the vapoures of the wyne doo not trouble but easelye moysten and stoppe the wayes by whiche the spyrites and heare passe whereas wakynge, it do∣ethe otherwyse. But when the person drinketh muche, or y• the wyne is strong, then dooth it dulle and vexe the powers, and instrumentes of the spyryt, whiche at that tyme placed in the motion, dooe force the persone to wake. And although
Nature troubled sometymes, these doe cause astonishement, yet do they not then perfitelye sleepe.
Whye is sleepe caused moore and lon∣ger, by lyinge on the righte syde then on the lefte. The reasone is, for that as Aristotle wrytethe, wee doo more wake lyinge on the righte syde, yet sleepe is caused of the contrarye causes. Or for that the ryghte syde is more wearied in 〈◊〉 daye tyme, whiche of these neede the Page [unnumbered] the more reste, nor vppon this syde also, doth the harte labour.
Why is it that onely man whyles hee sleapeth, boweth downe in his sleapyng. The reason is, for that the powers and spirites gyuing sense and motion drawen inwarde, doo not then suffer the bodye to be stayed vpright or for that the vpright∣nes of the fourm in man may cause of the same that the foresayde powers and heat by their owne nature may bee caried vp∣warde or determined by the proper kynde yet by drawinge downe those from the members, it behoueth that they fal as to the heades of beastes, of their owne na∣ture goo not vpright. And for that the as¦cending of those in the beasts is not so ea∣sely caused, therfore the members in thē seeyng they remayn not altogether desti∣tute of helpes, they staye vp themselues the surer and better.
Why doo beastes sleape a lesser time then they do wake. The reason is, for yt the superfluityes multiplyed by perfect digestion can not aptlye bee sente of na∣ture without the body by one onely expul¦sion. And, seeing we may often ryse to put Page [unnumbered] away those, therfore is sleape oftentymes broken. Or rather for that the greater part of the woorkings necessary to life, & in whiche mans perfection consisteth, is perfourmed in the daye tyme, and not in sleape, in whiche man differethe not from plantes or beastes, and whom nature fin∣deth vnto the ende of waking, for that we sleape quieter, & wake with more delight.
Why do mē affirme, that sleape much helpeth to digestion. The reason is, for that the same happenethe not to euerye thinge, but rather in that whiche is cau∣sed for the comfort of the whole body, as of the stomack and liuer, vpon which the powers and heate more vnited dooe con∣uerte themselues, and be shorter lynes for they bee in a manner in the midle of the creature. But to the other particuler members is the foode digested sence, and if that lacketh anye thinge then the heate ingendred suffiseth them, which may as wel be caused in the day time as in sleepe.
Why do some wryte that the marishe or watery places cause sleape. The reasō is, for that from these are vapours ingros¦singe and coelynge the ayre caused, which Page [unnumbered] breathed in or drawen in wyth the breath that spirites refuse, as contrarye to Na∣ture it selfe whiche is cleare and pure, so that throughe the drawinge in of these, sleepe enseweth. Or rather for that the grosse ayre brethed or entered in by the pores of the body, dooth by his grossenes greeue at the firste the brayne, and after carried vnto the common sence, dooth of the same compell sometimes to sleepe.
Whye doo the tellinge or hearinge of tales sometymes cause, and sometymes put away sleepe. The reason is as yt is sayde that in some parsones the grosse moisture aboundeth, which if it so happe∣neth that through laboure in the hearing it is resolued into a vapour, then are they taken with slepe or rather moued to slepe but the humour subtile in leane or cholle∣ricke persons, do moore sharpen, and of this in the prickinge compell the person rather to wake: Why affyrmeth the phy∣losopher, that sleeping he thinketh some tymes or through a small noyse to heare thunder, or through a litle fleume sweet stillinge to the tongue doothe then thinke to taste or eat milke, and so lyke in many Page [unnumbered] others. The reason of these ys, that as they saye by nighte, the outwarde sences bounde in the respecte of the motions frō without do perceyue the inwarde far big∣ger, whereof the common sence or other vertue dreamynge is deceyued, in that he iudgeth those to be of other sensible mat∣ters, then in dede they be. And Aristo∣tle wryteth that the small motiones in sleepe do appere bigger thē in the day ty∣me, because the sences in this occupyed a¦bout many matters, eyther perceyue not those, or els discern thē far lesser. And for that hee thinketh those sometymes to be rather as honnye then mylke, happeneth eyther throughe the indisposition of the spyrites or lyfe of the dreamer or of an o∣ther cause, so that of particuler matters, no firme rule can bee geuen.
Or when the same should happen that Nature expelled from anye principall member anye moysture lyke as ••ewme in purpose as vnto taste, or wyndye Hu∣mour as vnto hearyng, and if now by rea¦son of the firste that which sheddeth forth vnto the Organe of taste is smalle in res∣pect, yet the sences whiche perceiued and Page [unnumbered] dooe retayne the cause of the former mo∣tion to haue bene bigge in his beginning or parhappes with a bigge and strong en¦forcement of nature expelled, therfore the imaginatiue couetynge to expresse y• trou∣blesomnes which it perceyueth as bigge doth so moue other customed formes to represente inwarde tastes, as of Mylke.
And the selfe same iudgmente is of the small noyse in respecte of hearyng, which throughe the foresayd causes thinkethe ye same bygge, and so mouethe the kynde of thunder otherwyse ment or thought be∣fore.
And why do some wryte, that such de∣uisinge or vnknowen matters, doo often falla sleape. The reason is, for that the dayly beholdinge of matters, doth hinder the disgestion of nourishment, but vndy∣gested, the humours then do easely, eua∣porate vp to the head & cause the dreame to appeare otherwyse, Then as they vn∣derstande and be delighted, Because the diligente marking, and considerynge of the matter, doothe then cause the parson to wake. And of this when any readeth not vnderstandinge the matter, hee there∣vppon Page [unnumbered] dothe often tymes fall a sleepe.
Because the spirites & power through the indeuoure and agitation weakened doo retourne inwarde, that they maye reste, after whiche ensewethe sleepe, ra∣ther through y• laboure, whiche also doth often conuerte the humour into a vapour
Why do the sicke and dronken parsons geue somtymes in their sleape angry and frowarde woordes and sometyms gentle & honest wordes. The reason of this is for that the spyrites vexed by an euill or ob¦scure humoure do then cause feare after whiche then ensuethe hatred, that so for∣ceth the persō to speake frowardlye espe∣ciallye beynge a babler by nature. But when the spirites be cleared, then do they dispose that person vnto a hope, and so to talke quietlye and gentlye
Why is it that certaine beastes sleepe wythe the eyes oppen, lyke as the Hare and fyshes. The reason is, for that the fyshes do lacke eye liddes, whiche verye nature hath denyed theym, in that they lightlye waked maye sone succor and de∣fend them selues. And the hare when she is pursued or hunted after doothe at no Page [unnumbered] tyme hyde her selfe▪ in the wood amonge bushes, leaste her eyes alwayes open and vncouered, myghte so bee harmed wythe bryers and thornes.
Why is it, that the remembraunce of the euil past, doth not take awaye sleepe, lyke as otherwyse of matters to come. The reason is, for if the same shoulde bee true and bothe laborious, yet of that to come by reason of the feare annexed, is the same wythe carefulnes. soo that thys letteth him to slepe, whereas of the kno∣wen, it troubleth hym litle or nothing at all. Why do some sometymes declare to see or to haue seene in their slepe Deuils, and somtimes saints or Angels. The rea∣son is, for that althoughe deuils of their propper nature haue no coloure at all, yet because by this especialye as bye the black, they are manifested to the peo∣ple, therefore whan it so happeneth that the adust humoure or fume doth occupye the spirites and and passages, then the co∣gitatyue ruled by thē, doth cause the dre∣amers to belene y• y• similitudes or black kyndes to be very diuils in that they are then caused corruptlye to decerne. And al Page [unnumbered] though there can not bee caused one only dreame of all the kyndes whiche are re∣serued in the remembraūce, yet are there ymagined many diuills, in that they are comprehended vnder a certayne vnicye of blackenes imagined. And euen lyke, when the foresayd similitudes and ways are affected wythe the redde couloure of bloudde mixed wythe flewme whiche for that the same is white and the other redd therfore through, the worthines of the co∣lours, they think thē those to be ether An∣gels or saints in yt both these wer wōt to bee so painted. And that y• bloud also doth dispose the sicke to gladnes, appeareth in the swan, whiche drawinge nere to death singeth, because her subtil bloude is then dispersed in the ventricles of the harte. Yet sometymes those bee trewe deuilles, whiche shewe themselues sodeinlye, bee∣fore the soule departethe out of the mans bodye vnto a greater payne, or rather parhappes that God will, that suche call to remembraunce their wicked dedes, and that the sick in conscience may therof re∣pente, and amend before death.
Of the opinions of phi∣sitions iu dreames.
THe phisicions also dooe obserue, that dreames in a maner doo declare y• dis∣posicion of our bodies, as eyther to helth or sicknes, whiche parhappes oughte ra∣ther to bee searched out and learned by Arte. Yet say they, that when sleapynge men see blacke visiones, lyke as the drye earthe obscure or deade men, these they and such like, do forshewe customed sicke∣nesses to be caused of the melancholy hu∣moure, and they also warne vs then to consider whether that visione towched the whole body in that the sickenes folo∣weth vniuersall, lyke as of the agewe or leaprye, for if in any part alone the party∣culer shalbee & that it hath nothinge tou∣ched that it signifyeth vppon the indispo∣sition of the spyrites, throughe whiche some sadnes is wonte to happen in the spirite and the selfe same they declare of the bloud For when it doth offende in the lyke or in asmuche, then doth he thinke to see redde and ayeryal matters, and what soeuer is pleasaunte to beholde so that a Page [unnumbered] hote and moist qualitye is prognosticated vppon the motion or indisposition of the same, and then doth it in lyke sorte either touche the whole body, or but parte, And the lyke is to be sayde of choller, when as it semeth to hym to see cytrene or fyerye matters, or contentions. And the flewme in lyke sorte, when as it seemeth to him to see the whyte, watrye, glasse, or clammye, and other lyke proportioned matters to that humoure, wyth the fore∣sayde consideration. And allthoughe these maye perhappes yelde to the place of the signes yet by them may not the bo¦dely or inwarde nor premitiue causes bee founde, oute of these, as by the same ap∣peareth. in that they do depend of the go∣uermente of the sixe naturall thinges by which they be knowne without the drea∣mes, and of the first also, in that seldome when wee doo dreame, wee dooe then see those touched, excepte, that when they do foreshew the harde expressions or proper∣ly the nightmare by whiche are wonte to bee prognosticated the sicknes named A∣poplexiae. And many also of these which as they say do cōmonly happen to health Page [unnumbered] full parsons, withoute sicknes folowing Neither do the sayings declare the cause for somuche as it is manifest that the sub∣till vapour of bloude, or flewme euer hea∣ted by laboure or sicknes may cause drea∣mes to shew of choller, wt in dede beareth not sway in the body, or els is sone resol∣ued or fumeth away.
But if you demaund why they do fore∣shewe choller, when as a man in sleepe feareth to fall, or thinketh to haue fallē?
The reason is, for that when the same is subtill and of a swift motion, doth then in dispose the spirites. and letteth the mo∣tiue spirites to proporcionate the space be∣twene the bounde, from whiche, and vnto whiche. But the falling either is a discō∣tinuation, or not without these, for that wakinge a man dothe not onelye fal, but throwe himselfe headlong downe, which regardeth not to discende by the ordina∣rye steppes.
Also other phisicions do reduce mens dreames, vnto the inward or bodily cause but these rather do happen of the effectes or cares of the spirite begon in the daye tyme, and they are besydes diuers in di∣uers Page [unnumbered] persones, because, not al personnes occupyed aboute the same, lyke as y• occu∣pyer & idle person, the smith, or hus•and∣man, whereof the selfe same forme dothe shewe one thinge to one person as to the couetouse man, an other thinge to the ly∣beral person, or Musician, another thing to the healthfull, & an other thinge to the sick. Wherfore if it should be so graūted, that the phisition by the argument of the humour rulyng may argu the temperat∣nes or distēperatenes of nature, and vnto the more whiche eyther trouble or helpe, but these contrary of beastes in y• by time do diuers desires aryse of which cā no fir∣me or certayne rule bee giuē but are wōt as it is said to be aplied vnto those which eyther we are by nature, or custome, or by immoderat desire inclined but if those shoulde haue an outewarde cause, then might they signifye many matters vpon the yssue of the busines of ye hap to come, but the signe of this is, as whē dreaming he remayneth after wandringe & amased because the significations thē do not lack which also may be applied to the hauing inward cause of humours. But the cause Page [unnumbered] of the admiration, is either proceedinge through the newe accesse of the outwarde kynde because they happen not customa∣bly, or els when the humour ouer muche ruleth or excedeth in the bodye.
Of the cause of Dreames.
THe causes of all dreames bee on this wyse, firste those whiche are caused of meates and drinckes, as in surfeytes are wont to be is the cause of the mocion whiche properlye is caused of the vapou∣res breathing out of the fo•e. But the sleepe is the reste of the spyrites, and the wakinge, the vehemente motione of theym▪ and the vayne dreame is a certa∣yne tremblinge and vnperfit motion of theym. Therfore al are vayne dreames caused through the spirites lightlye mo∣ued. Wherof whyles we soundly sleepe, we then dreame nothinge at all.
So that all kyndes of vayne dreames in this point, do agree wyth the light motiō of ye spirites, & all do agree in the mat∣ter, for y• the matter of ach is the remem∣braūce of y• sene or heard, for no vain dre∣ames Page [unnumbered] are caused, but through them. As y• lyke for example, when a man in his slepe thinketh to se a monster with thre heads, which hee either hearde of by the discrip∣tion of some or sawe paynted in the lyke sorte, whiche heades he remembred to be on this wyse, as the one lyke a Lyon, the other a serpente or Dragon & the other a Goat. That if anye other straunge matter also a man shall see in his sleepe, or some vnknowen thinge, or deformed Plant then are those none other then vn∣parfite thinges or transposed.
For an vnknowen man is none other, then when a man is vnparfitlye founde.
And the knowledge of this is, that all men, yea the moste knowen beeyng seene far of, are vnknowen. Therfore through the vnperfite knowledge and trāsposing, and mixinge of sightes, are all dreames caused. So that it appeareth that al dre∣ames to agre booth in the efficiente cause and in the matter, for the efficyente cause, is the moderate motion of the spirites, but the matter is the memorye of things seene, eyther whole or vnparfit. For as it is manifest that there be diuers Page [unnumbered] kyndes of dreames, euen so it behoueth y• the causes bee diuers for that throughe them, those are alwais caused.
This moderate motion oughte not al∣wayes to be thoughte so perfit, that this moderation is exquisitely an indiuiduat.
But if the mocion be vehementer, and troublesomer, althoughe it maye bee mo∣derated in the kynde, yet are they called vayne dreames, troubled, vnperfite, and confused. And in this maner doo twoo kyndes of them, aryse, the one whiche is of meate, and is the more confused and vn¦perfyte, yet more fayntly. For that from the meate and drinke the vapours are not soo parfytelye caried as from the humours, whiche so cause drea∣mes more vnperfite & lame, yea and more obscure, in that the vapour is fatter, if the parson drinketh wyne, then of humours
Yet are the kyndes not so stable, doe. moue wyth suche a force, as those whiche are caused by the humors. Wherfore the dreames caused of meate are lesse parfyte lesse agreeynge, and in order, so that they appeare more troubled, confused and di∣uers, then those whiche are caused of the Page [unnumbered] humors, as are contrary, those which are caused of the humors be more stable in or∣der & agreeing, yet lesser troubled and di¦uers, & with lesse force, then those which are caused of meate. And those which are caused wyth a lesser troublinge, and bee clearer, but caused as they were com∣pounde throughe many remembraunces conioyned, do affecte more by the sleepe through that, whiche agreeth that by wa¦kyng in the day time litle. Also they agre for the more parte to those thinges eyther seen, or harde, or imagined the day before or but a fewe dayes before, or els a longe tyme before. And thē do they shew y• order as it were of the whole matter. But those whiche are in an order, and bee wythe the leaste motyon of the spyrites caused gentle, and that without anye a∣gitacion of the vpper causes procured, doe yet more affecte the soule, that wa∣kynge bee maye then bee holden wythe a certayne admiration. And seeynge a man may throughe the effectes, proceede vnto ech causes therfore oughte a traūce to be ineche kyndes.
For if dreames by a greate mocion Page [unnumbered] maye appeare troubled, dyuers obscure, and vnperfite, and that they seeme a litle to agree then shall wee s•ye, that eyther meate, or drincke, or suche lyke matter, was the causer of these.
Of the deuision of Dreames and order of interpretyng of thē
IT muste needes ensue, that some cau∣ses of effecte, to bee true of all dreames & of the others whiche are caused, & ther∣fore those causes, are eyther bodilye, or not bodilye, and hoth also eyther newe, or before wrought. So that it must uedes ensew, that ther be foure kyndes of drea∣mes. Now the new and bodelye causes, are meate and drincke, lyke as the hea∣des of Garlike, the Coleworts, the Onyones, the Beanes, and what soeuer ascend to the head, and especiallye those whiche engender melancholye. Fur¦ther yealowe choller doothe cause to ap∣peare in sleepe, bothe fyers & fightynge, and Melancholye causethe to appeare in sleepe claye, myer, or dirte, Burialles, graues, imprisonmente, and feare, and Page [unnumbered] bloude causethe to appeare spor•es, fayre places, bloude and purple coloure: and the flewme causethe to appeare waters, showers of rayne and snowe, for that the same is a moyste colde qualitye. But the vncorporate causes precedent are ca∣res cogitations, matter as committed to memorye, feare, hope, gladnes, heauines or sadnes of mynde hatred and loue. But the new are those whiche frame the supe∣rior cause come vnto the soule. For of all the other members al the causes of the di∣uisions doo so agree that many endeuour to place this laste vnder some of the three foresayd. And it behoueth first •o seke out whiche may be of euery kynde, & ther¦fore whiche true and which false, for that none do shewe matters to come, but those whiche are sente frome the superioure cause, and those also whiche are caused of humours. And hereof why those maye bee true it behouethe to shewe, and what truth also may be found in al the kindes.
And after that which bee formes, that maye bee interpreted. And to co•clude the whole tretise as it euidente∣lye appeareth doothe eyther consiste of Page [unnumbered] the difference of thinges seene, or of the maner of seeynge, or difference of the dreaminges. For that by nature men see true dreames, whiche dreame but sel∣dome, and false dreames whiche dayelye dreame. Also suche as be occupyed in greate actions, and businesses, and greately abstayne from meate and drinke nor are troubled wyth feare nor sadnes, doo see and haue true dreames, but suche affected in the contrary manner, doo see false dreames. And for that cause the dreames of Princes, are commonlie true.
And suche of honeste manners trewe faythfull, and godlye, haue for the more parte trewe dreames. And suche whiche are not so godlye, but cruell, yet no deceiuers, see commonlye trewe drea∣mes, and the supersticious parsons, do see very fewe true dreames. Also he whiche is accustomed to see true dreames, to his dreames is more credyte to bee giuen, then to those whiche are of a contrary manner. And men haue truer dreames in the Sommer and the Wynter then in the Springe, and the Harueste, for that in those tymes they Page [unnumbered] often alter. Also quiet seasons, dooe cause true dreames, but the wynde, and boystrouse weather, dooe worke contra∣rye, and the more boysterouse, the ra∣ther falser. Besydes shorte dreames and in order, are truer and moore euy∣dente, and of a cause more constante are caused. And dreames moued or can∣sed in the rysinge of the Sonne, and, be∣fore or after vnto the thirde hower, bee for the more parte trewe. But those dreames at the noone tyme of the daye and at the settynge of the Sonne, bee not so true. For that the sonne is the au∣thour of the true and constante thinges. So that when he shalbe nere the angels, be doth then cause the truer dreames. And the terrour or feare of thinges mo∣uynge a man oute of bedde do often fol∣low true as the lyke happened to Caesar, the daye before he was slayne. And the cō¦dition also whiche is fullfylled by and by of the slepe, when it shalbe without cogi∣tation doth the reason shewe trewe and most certaine dreames. Page [unnumbered] be much before, or after the rysing of the Sunne, it shall then signifye the cause to deginne, or els shal then be accomplished or discouered. Therefore that space shal∣bee referred vnto the whole dreame, as vnto the whole yeare. And nowe as to the qualityes of thinges seene, it is manifest that whatsoeuer are presentlye begone, are sp•dylier accom∣plished, yea and that verye swiftlye those which presently through y• proper course are neare the ende, but those contrarye, do slowly ensue. So that a man must cō∣sider the nature of the dreamer, the age, and the reste needfull, lyke as the weal∣thye persons, and men in aucthority. And whosoeuer also haue a constitute tyme, as Magistrates for a yeare, lyke as the selfe samh custome is vsed in London, by the yearely chosinge of the Mayre. And to be briefe, the tymes of dreames are either presente or shortly after, or a longe tyme after to come or paste, or els a tyme ap∣pointed for that no man can number the yeares, monethes, nor dayes, exept that when the words or peculiar signes decla∣ringe the nombers shall come. Page [unnumbered] And besides these, whatsoeuer dreames shalbe caused in the Kalendes of Janua∣rye, or on Christmas daye, come to passe wythin a yeare after. And if in the Kalē∣des of any moneth, or in the entrance of y• Sonne into anye signe then within a mo∣neth. And if in the same day of the Sun∣nes enteraunce, eyther into the Solstice or Equinoctiall, then shall the effecte en∣sue within three monethes. And if in the houre of the full Moone or Chaunge, thē within xv. dayes after. And if at the Sun¦rysinge on the Sondaye, then within se∣uen dayes after. And if at the new ente∣rance of an office of gouernmente, or en∣terance of a newe house, or of the newe dwellinge in an other countrey, or newe enteringe of a shippe, or in any other be∣ginninge to speake generally before the ende of that bus•••sse, shall the effecte be accomplished.
Also dreames happeninge on Christ∣mas day, and on the day of the salutation of the virgin Marye, shewe maruelous matters to follow, & do also extend their good happes vnto the returne of the next yeare. And the daye of yt resurrection, for Page [unnumbered] that the same is a mouable feast doth, sig¦nify the lyke, yet chaunginge the forme of thinges, as that the parson shall passe out of one condicion of lyfe into an other, or els it declareth that mutation to come in the same yere. And that no new happe besydes of encrease, for the present lyfe, is after promised of the same. And seeyng in all matters, some one may be better & worse, and whiche profiteth and harmeth euen so must it happen in the lyke where∣fore whatsoeuer do remoue impedimen∣tes do cause dreames the truer, for some impediments are of the mynde, others of the bodye, and others whiche hinder and trouble dreames. For the dreames art troubled of these, which declare drea∣mes of an other kinde, like as mea¦tes and wyne, and the veneral acte excessiuely vsed, and troubles of y• mind & sorrow of which a mā must beware