The moste pleasuante arte of the interpretacion of dreames whereunto is annexed sundry problemes with apte aunsweares neare agreeing to the m atter, and very rare examples, not like the extant in the English tongue. Gathered by the former auctour Thomas Hill Londoner: and now newly imp rinted.
Hill, Thomas, b. ca. 1528.

Certain demaundes and their answers both of sleepe and of those matters, through which, some time we dreame

ANd firste why olde men do not so well sleepe, and dreame the lyke as yonge men do seeinge they take more rest. Unto which Auerrois thus answearethe, that for so much as olde men are of coulde com¦plexion, althoughe they maye feede suffi¦ciently, yet haue they naturall heat ouer weake in theim, so that they can not well digeste the same and of this the fumes of the meat in the stomacke are not sente vp∣warde. But the yong men haue naturall heat intensed, through which they diggest their meate wel, and of this send vp much fume out of the stomacke vnto the braine whiche cause theym so to dreame. Why is it, when in the dreame appeareth some Page  [unnumbered] fearefull matter. that then the personne sweateth, and waketh vpō the same. Un∣to which the philospher thus answereth, that to the man appeareth then that ter∣rible matter to be present, aud wyth ene∣mies And nature also beyng careful of y health of man, doth both send forth heate and spirites from the harte vnto the out∣ward members. So that nature iudgeth it suche a ferefull matter, disagreeing to the man, that throughe the concourse of the spirites about the harte, the harte of this is wrong together, and the mā ther∣by weakened of the same.

Why men commonly are not wont to dreame in the beginning of the night. To which the Philosopher thus answereth, that the firste digestion is then occupyed, in whiche the sumes of the meate muche ingrossed are sent vp, that mightely stop, and so cause the persō that he cannot thē dreame. And those also stop the passages, not onely to the outward sences, but vnto he organe the keper of tymes.

Whye affirmeth Aristole thar a wic∣ked person often foreseethe euil dreames, To whiche is thus answered, that as the Page  [unnumbered] condicion of the wickednes dooth incline and dispose the persone vnto the often cō∣siderynge of the same, euen so is bee mo∣ued to dreame those thinges whiche were a good whyles together thought vpon in the day tyme, in that they soner come to mynde. Soo that the luxuriouse per∣son is often moued to dreame of women, the drunkarde of sundrye wyues, and y theefe of sundry thefts. Why dreames which are caused in the morning, be par∣fiter and to more reason, then the others in the night tyme. To which the philoso∣pher answeereth that in the morning the midle deuision betweene y common sēce and the Organe reseruatiue is sufficient quiet, throughe whiche the fumes of the meat eleuated then, are sufficiente weake, and of this cause trewer, and parfytter dreames

Whye it is tht at to a manne beeynge a sleepe appeare he that hee flyeth or fal∣leth from an highe place. To whiche the philosopher thus answeare the, that the same proceadethe of the indisposition of the humors of certeine spyrites and va∣poures. Whereof in the body sometimes Page  [unnumbered]••che fumes are very lighte, and of this use the man to thinke that he flyeth. But somtimes the fumes are ouer grosse nd cooled by the brayne, and do then dis∣end to the harte and through this it see∣eth then to the mā that he falleth from highe verye deepe

Why is it that a man sometimes drea∣meth of those thinges, whiche in all his yfe he neuer possessed nor saw, To which he philosopher thus aunswereth, that in he slepe is a certayne compositiō of fan∣asies, through whiche composition such ppearance is called. Lyke as when any haunge the kynd of golde on a hyll, then o him appeareth in his slepe to haue sene golden hill

Whye is it that the similitudes of hinges sometymes in the sleepe dooe ap¦peare broken, and sometymes defoure∣med. The reasone of this is in that the otte vapour is hindered to be shed forth hat seeketh the Uentricle or Organe in which the similitudes are, wherefore of y troubled, they are then not perceiued nder a proper forme, & for that they may omtymes be caused of those which were Page  [unnumbered] neuer perceiued or decerned, and that he∣auelye sleapyng they dreame nothing, 〈◊〉 that the powers of the spyrite or the ima¦ginatiue is hindred to passe vnto the act

And by the same reasone in a manner some dreame nothynge al their lyfe tym becaue the plenty or aboundance of moistures causeth the grosser spirites, and 〈◊〉 confoundeth the similitudes. But A••stotle doth attribute this to a drines an coldnes of complexion, for these as th philosopher affirmeth do hinder the asc••ding of vapours, whiche like happene•• to olde persones, by reason of age.

Whye is it that some persones neu•• dreame, nor dreamed all their lyfe tyme The philosopher thus aunsweareth, th•• suche personnes are either ouer moiste 〈◊〉 quality, and the braine to much running so that the kyndes cannot abyde, or such are ouer dry that the kyndes in them ca not be imprinted. So that in both sortes the Organe is ouer muche vnquieted.

Why doth it sometme appeare to vs that the sighte maye bee chaunged fro the one sensible and yet altered from th other. To whiche the philosopher aun•••ereth, Page  [unnumbered] that the same happeneth when 〈◊〉 that altereth, that the other should be t to chaunge, lyke as the mouinge of a rge or shippe, whiche then causethe to ppeare that the earth moueth withal, cause this motion is lyke to that which e earthe shoulde cause, if the earth did oue, yet the errour may bee corrected, rough the vpper power.

Whye doo some persones begin firste•• dream, when they come vnto olde age. o whiche the philosopher thus aunswe∣th, that they throughoute their whole me of youthe are ouer muche mouing nd occupyed, soe that they can not all 〈◊〉 at seasone dreame. And this procea∣th throughe the inwarde heat, whiche continuallye resolued of the nourishe∣ente. For in olde age suche euapora∣••ons beginne to cease, throughe the wea∣nes of heate, and hereof beeginne they 〈◊〉 dreame.

Whye is it that it appeareth often to 〈◊〉 in sleape, bothe to see & heare matters. o which the philosopher Aristotle thus unswereth, that to the motion ceassing y whiche the formes are troubled, the Page  [unnumbered] similitude then of the matter which was seene doth represente the acte of seeynge, and heard, the act of hearyng, by whiche they were caused.

Why is yt that the vertuous men and studiouse, haue often plesaunter dreames then the wicked and vicious persons. T whiche the Philosopher Aristotle thus aunswerethe, that the vertuous bestow theym selues in dooynge good woorkes and of this the kyndes of the good woor∣kes are reserued and such vertuouse per¦sones doo dreame of suche lyke matters, whiche appeare to them as very delecta¦ble. But the euill persons whiche doo wicked woorkes, the kyndnesse of thos euill are reserued, throughe whiche they often dreame, wicked dreames.

Whye is it that suche wakened out of sleepe, be myndefull of their dreames, and not of the woorkes doone in their sle∣pe. To whiche the Philosopher thus aunswereth, for that whether the form of the dreame remayninge imprynted i the Immaginatiue parte, or for that the woorkinge of theym was caused by the Organes shutte of theym selues, anPage  [unnumbered] dissolued by accidente. Therfore the si∣mylitudes of the matters caused, coulde not bee differred or caried vnto the com∣mon sence or ymmagination, in that the particulers wear bounde. Yet are they sometymes stirred vppe and moued for∣warde, for that vnto a stronge motion in the Orgaue, the sence maye ensewe the motions of the mouing spyrites

And a stronge motion I mean, in that this maye heate and resolue the moisture stoppinge the commone sence. Nor it is not necessarye, that for that tyme they shoulde be depryued by a voluntarye mo∣tion in that althoughe the senses maye bee harmed throughe the distemperate∣nes and diminution of the spirites, yet is not in that season the sence of fanta∣sye taken away, whiche is onely cause of the same.

Whye is it that persones hoate by na∣ture or eatynge hoate meates and vapo∣rouse, do dreame muche. The reasone of this is for that verye muche hoate va∣poure doothe sharpen the spyrites whi∣che placed in the Motion doe mooue forwarde the kyndes restinge in the me∣mory, Page  [unnumbered] so that the dreame is caused of the representing of them. And Aristotle wry¦teth, that throughe the boathe humours, dreames are caused of matters a longe ti∣me reserued, for althoughe these maye a∣byde in the Organs▪ quieter, yet through a strong motion of heate brought backe, may so cause dreames, or to dreame after. Why appeareth it to the mā dreaminge that the dreame is somtymes true, and somtyme aunsweareth not the lyke at al. The cause of this is, in that it some tyms happeneth that in such a dreame the iud∣gement or knowledge of the vertu intel∣lectiue cōcurreth with a sensitiue vertue but sometimes the same doth not concur: therefore when it doth concur, the man iudgeth the dreame to bee false & the rea∣son is in that the intellectiue vertue doth correcte the sensityue. But when it doth not concurre or accorde then doth it ap∣pear to the man that the dreame is trew. Why is it that certayne sleapynge doo exercise the workes of persones waking. The reason is, for that not simplye they doo slepe, nor properly bee wakinge al∣thoughe the vapour in the tyme of sleape Page  [unnumbered] dooth stoppe the Organe of the common sence, and repelleth the heate and spyrits toward the harte. Yet sometymes wyth that vapoure dothe some pemixte kynde of be he mente concupiscence, or feare. or boldenesse remayne. For this when it mo∣ueth the onely Organe of fealyng in this beginninge, yf then from that kynd f his fantasie also is moued seeynge it is the beginninge of the locall motion, there∣fore sleapynge it is moued by it selfe, and when the foresayde causes bee base and weake, that is to saye, not mouing out of the place, and when they be stronge, then doo they moue from place to place. And because the spirites and Organe are di∣stinct sences from the Organes, the mo∣tions therfore of them are for the more-parte not reasoned of, but seynge they be not muche distaunt, for that cause is not speache hyndered in them, so that the Or∣ganes be not occupyed or indisposed, for then doo they shewe foolishenes muche lyke vnto the condition of the sicke. And because the lower mēbers whiche be the instrumentes of motion are lesse hindred in respecte of the vpper whiche obeye to Page  [unnumbered] the sence therfore those are lowsed vnto the motion, and not vnto the sence, and because the qualitye of the eyes is of the natue of water, therefore are they slo∣wer opened to see abrode then the other members to moue. But althoughe suche walke wyth the eyes shutte, and that ra∣ther by a happe, yet sometymes by For∣tune or by Custome they come vnto the place in the daye tyme immagined, not by sighte in that the eyes are then shutte but of the inward fantasie by which they walke in the darke, like as in the lighte or daye tyme or rather this by a happe. And although they bee then without fee∣lynge, yet the other senses do obaye in as muche as they may to the mouinge po∣wers. But sometymes they think to kill a mā, and sometymes that they theym selues are deade, because the fantasye doothe y∣agine that whiche eyther it conueytethe or feareth.

Whye is it that suche hauinge bygge heades be louers of sleepe. The reason is for that they easelye receiue and retayne the vaporous fumes of theym, also the Page  [unnumbered] moister braynes are apter to slepe, whose neare workinge is a vapoure wythoute doubte. Why is it that wyne doth some∣tymes cause sleepe, and sometymes to wake. The reason is for that when it is druncke moderatly, it doth then cause sleepe, in that the vapoures of the wyne doo not trouble but easelye moysten and stoppe the wayes by whiche the spyrites and heare passe whereas wakynge, it do∣ethe otherwyse. But when the person drinketh muche, or y the wyne is strong, then dooth it dulle and vexe the powers, and instrumentes of the spyryt, whiche at that tyme placed in the motion, dooe force the persone to wake. And although

Nature troubled sometymes, these doe cause astonishement, yet do they not then perfitelye sleepe.

Whye is sleepe caused moore and lon∣ger, by lyinge on the righte syde then on the lefte. The reasone is, for that as Aristotle wrytethe, wee doo more wake lyinge on the righte syde, yet sleepe is caused of the contrarye causes. Or for that the ryghte syde is more wearied in 〈◊〉 daye tyme, whiche of these neede the Page  [unnumbered] the more reste, nor vppon this syde also, doth the harte labour.

Why is it that onely man whyles hee sleapeth, boweth downe in his sleapyng. The reason is, for that the powers and spirites gyuing sense and motion drawen inwarde, doo not then suffer the bodye to be stayed vpright or for that the vpright∣nes of the fourm in man may cause of the same that the foresayde powers and heat by their owne nature may bee caried vp∣warde or determined by the proper kynde yet by drawinge downe those from the members, it behoueth that they fal as to the heades of beastes, of their owne na∣ture goo not vpright. And for that the as¦cending of those in the beasts is not so ea∣sely caused, therfore the members in thē seeyng they remayn not altogether desti∣tute of helpes, they staye vp themselues the surer and better.

Why doo beastes sleape a lesser time then they do wake. The reason is, for yt the superfluityes multiplyed by perfect digestion can not aptlye bee sente of na∣ture without the body by one onely expul¦sion. And, seeing we may often ryse to put Page  [unnumbered] away those, therfore is sleape oftentymes broken. Or rather for that the greater part of the woorkings necessary to life, & in whiche mans perfection consisteth, is perfourmed in the daye tyme, and not in sleape, in whiche man differethe not from plantes or beastes, and whom nature fin∣deth vnto the ende of waking, for that we sleape quieter, & wake with more delight.

Why do mē affirme, that sleape much helpeth to digestion. The reason is, for that the same happenethe not to euerye thinge, but rather in that whiche is cau∣sed for the comfort of the whole body, as of the stomack and liuer, vpon which the powers and heate more vnited dooe con∣uerte themselues, and be shorter lynes for they bee in a manner in the midle of the creature. But to the other particuler members is the foode digested sence, and if that lacketh anye thinge then the heate ingendred suffiseth them, which may as wel be caused in the day time as in sleepe.

Why do some wryte that the marishe or watery places cause sleape. The reasō is, for that from these are vapours ingros¦singe and coelynge the ayre caused, which Page  [unnumbered] breathed in or drawen in wyth the breath that spirites refuse, as contrarye to Na∣ture it selfe whiche is cleare and pure, so that throughe the drawinge in of these, sleepe enseweth. Or rather for that the grosse ayre brethed or entered in by the pores of the body, dooth by his grossenes greeue at the firste the brayne, and after carried vnto the common sence, dooth of the same compell sometimes to sleepe.

Whye doo the tellinge or hearinge of tales sometymes cause, and sometymes put away sleepe. The reason is as yt is sayde that in some parsones the grosse moisture aboundeth, which if it so happe∣neth that through laboure in the hearing it is resolued into a vapour, then are they taken with slepe or rather moued to slepe but the humour subtile in leane or cholle∣ricke persons, do moore sharpen, and of this in the prickinge compell the person rather to wake: Why affyrmeth the phy∣losopher, that sleeping he thinketh some tymes or through a small noyse to heare thunder, or through a litle fleume sweet stillinge to the tongue doothe then thinke to taste or eat milke, and so lyke in many Page  [unnumbered] others. The reason of these ys, that as they saye by nighte, the outwarde sences bounde in the respecte of the motions frō without do perceyue the inwarde far big∣ger, whereof the common sence or other vertue dreamynge is deceyued, in that he iudgeth those to be of other sensible mat∣ters, then in dede they be. And Aristo∣tle wryteth that the small motiones in sleepe do appere bigger thē in the day ty∣me, because the sences in this occupyed a¦bout many matters, eyther perceyue not those, or els discern thē far lesser. And for that hee thinketh those sometymes to be rather as honnye then mylke, happeneth eyther throughe the indisposition of the spyrites or lyfe of the dreamer or of an o∣ther cause, so that of particuler matters, no firme rule can bee geuen.

Or when the same should happen that Nature expelled from anye principall member anye moysture lyke as ••ewme in purpose as vnto taste, or wyndye Hu∣mour as vnto hearyng, and if now by rea¦son of the firste that which sheddeth forth vnto the Organe of taste is smalle in res∣pect, yet the sences whiche perceiued and Page  [unnumbered] dooe retayne the cause of the former mo∣tion to haue bene bigge in his beginning or parhappes with a bigge and strong en¦forcement of nature expelled, therfore the imaginatiue couetynge to expresse y trou∣blesomnes which it perceyueth as bigge doth so moue other customed formes to represente inwarde tastes, as of Mylke.

And the selfe same iudgmente is of the small noyse in respecte of hearyng, which throughe the foresayd causes thinkethe ye same bygge, and so mouethe the kynde of thunder otherwyse ment or thought be∣fore.

And why do some wryte, that such de∣uisinge or vnknowen matters, doo often falla sleape. The reason is, for that the dayly beholdinge of matters, doth hinder the disgestion of nourishment, but vndy∣gested, the humours then do easely, eua∣porate vp to the head & cause the dreame to appeare otherwyse, Then as they vn∣derstande and be delighted, Because the diligente marking, and considerynge of the matter, doothe then cause the parson to wake. And of this when any readeth not vnderstandinge the matter, hee there∣vppon Page  [unnumbered] dothe often tymes fall a sleepe.

Because the spirites & power through the indeuoure and agitation weakened doo retourne inwarde, that they maye reste, after whiche ensewethe sleepe, ra∣ther through y laboure, whiche also doth often conuerte the humour into a vapour

Why do the sicke and dronken parsons geue somtymes in their sleape angry and frowarde woordes and sometyms gentle & honest wordes. The reason of this is for that the spyrites vexed by an euill or ob¦scure humoure do then cause feare after whiche then ensuethe hatred, that so for∣ceth the persō to speake frowardlye espe∣ciallye beynge a babler by nature. But when the spirites be cleared, then do they dispose that person vnto a hope, and so to talke quietlye and gentlye

Why is it that certaine beastes sleepe wythe the eyes oppen, lyke as the Hare and fyshes. The reason is, for that the fyshes do lacke eye liddes, whiche verye nature hath denyed theym, in that they lightlye waked maye sone succor and de∣fend them selues. And the hare when she is pursued or hunted after doothe at no Page  [unnumbered] tyme hyde her selfe▪ in the wood amonge bushes, leaste her eyes alwayes open and vncouered, myghte so bee harmed wythe bryers and thornes.

Why is it, that the remembraunce of the euil past, doth not take awaye sleepe, lyke as otherwyse of matters to come. The reason is, for if the same shoulde bee true and bothe laborious, yet of that to come by reason of the feare annexed, is the same wythe carefulnes. soo that thys letteth him to slepe, whereas of the kno∣wen, it troubleth hym litle or nothing at all. Why do some sometymes declare to see or to haue seene in their slepe Deuils, and somtimes saints or Angels. The rea∣son is, for that althoughe deuils of their propper nature haue no coloure at all, yet because by this especialye as bye the black, they are manifested to the peo∣ple, therefore whan it so happeneth that the adust humoure or fume doth occupye the spirites and and passages, then the co∣gitatyue ruled by thē, doth cause the dre∣amers to belene y y similitudes or black kyndes to be very diuils in that they are then caused corruptlye to decerne. And al Page  [unnumbered] though there can not bee caused one only dreame of all the kyndes whiche are re∣serued in the remembraūce, yet are there ymagined many diuills, in that they are comprehended vnder a certayne vnicye of blackenes imagined. And euen lyke, when the foresayd similitudes and ways are affected wythe the redde couloure of bloudde mixed wythe flewme whiche for that the same is white and the other redd therfore through, the worthines of the co∣lours, they think thē those to be ether An∣gels or saints in yt both these wer wōt to bee so painted. And that y bloud also doth dispose the sicke to gladnes, appeareth in the swan, whiche drawinge nere to death singeth, because her subtil bloude is then dispersed in the ventricles of the harte. Yet sometymes those bee trewe deuilles, whiche shewe themselues sodeinlye, bee∣fore the soule departethe out of the mans bodye vnto a greater payne, or rather parhappes that God will, that suche call to remembraunce their wicked dedes, and that the sick in conscience may therof re∣pente, and amend before death.