Mikrokosmos A little description of the great world. Augmented and reuised. By Peter Heylyn.
Heylyn, Peter, 1600-1662.


*The Kingdome of BOHEMIA containeth Bohemia, the Dukedome of Silesia, the Marquisates of Lusatia, and Morauia.

Bohemia is environed with the Hercynian Forrest, which the Romans could not in long time penetrate. It hath on the East Silesia, & Moravia; on the West Franconia; on the North Misuia and Lusatia,* on the South Bavaria.

*The whole kingdome containeth in circuit 550 miles, in which compasse are comprehended 780 Cities, walled townes, and Castles, and 32000 Villages; all which are inhabited by a people giuen to drink and gluttony, and also to valour and loue of honour; this last quality belonging to the Nobles and bet∣ter sort of people; the former to the Commons: but in more moderate fashion then the other Germans. All of them, rich & poore, noble and base, vse the Sclavonian language.

*The chief Bohemian Captain that euer I read of, was Zisca, who in 11 battailes fought in defence of the Hussites, against the Pope and his confoderats; preuailed and went away victo∣rious; insomuch that at his death he willed the Bohemians to flea him, and make a Drumme of his skinne; perswading him∣self if they so did, they could neuer be ouercome: wherein hee conceied so of himselfe, as Scipio Africanus, and Vortimer king of the Brittaines did of their selues: For the one hauing almost ruined the Commonwealth of Carthage, commanded his body to be buried so, that his tombe might looke toward Africke; and the other hauing expulsed the Saxons out of Brittanie, de∣sired to be interred in the hauen towne of Stonar (in Tanet) the vsuall landing-place of that people; thinking thereby to af∣fright the Carthaginians from Italy, and the Saxons from Brit∣taine.Page  295 The Christian Religion was first preached in this coun∣try by one Bosinous, Anno 900 or thereabouts; since which time they haue continued in it, though not without the admix∣ture of one notable vanity. For one Picardus comming out of the Low-Countries, drew a great sort of men and women vnto him,* pretending to bring them to the same state of perfection, that Adam was in before his fall; from whence they were cal∣led Picards and Adamites. They had no respect vnto marriage; yet could they not accompany any woman, vntil the man com∣ming to Adam, said vnto him; Father Adam, I am enflamed to∣wards this woman: and Adam made answere, increase and multi∣ply. They liued in an Island which they called Paradse, & went starke naked: but they continued not long: for Zisca hearing of them, entred their fooles Paradise, & put them all to the sword, Ao 1416. Before this time also the workes of Wickliffe were brought into Bohemia, by a certain scholler who had beene a student in the Vniuersity of Oxford, which happening into the hands of Iohn Husse, and Hierome of Prague, two men whereof the Country may worthily boast; wrought in their hearts a de∣sire to reforme the Church: a businesse which they prosecuted so earnestly, that being summoned to the councell of Constance, they were there condemned for hereticks, and burned, Anno 1414. yet had their doctrine such deep root in the Bohemians, that it could neuer by warre or persecution be plucked vp; but to this day continueth, though abundantly perfected by the writings of Luther, Calvin, and other painful labourers in Gods Haruest.

The soyle is exceeding fruitfull, and enriched with mines of all sorts,* except of gold. Tinne they haue here in good plenty, the mines whereof were first found out by a Cornishman, bani∣shed out of England, Anno 1240: which discouery of Tinne in these parts, was, as saith my Author, in magnam iacturam Ri∣chardi Comitis Cornubiae, (he meaneth that Richard which was afterward King of the Romans;) and no maruaile, for in those times there was no Tinne in all Europe, but in England. Wood they haue here good store, and in some of their Forrests a beast called Lo••, which hath hanging vnder it's neck a bladder full Page  296 of scalding water; with which when she is hunted, she so tor∣tureth the dogges, that she easily escapeth them.

The principall riuers are 1 Albis, which here hath his foun∣taine, as also hath 2 Egar, 3 Mulda, and 4 Wattz; these three last al exonerating themselues into the first; which runneth through the midst of the Country.

The kingdome is not anothers, diuided into Counties and Prouinces; but into the territories and possessions of seuerall Lords.* The chiefe citties of the whole are 1 Prage, the Metro∣polis, seated in the middle of the country, on the riuer Mulda or Multaw. It consisteth of foure seuerall Townes, euery of which hath its peculiar Magistrates, lawes, and customes. The princi∣pal is called the old town, adorned with many goodly edifices, a spacious market place, and a stately Senate house. The second is called the new Towne separated from the old by a ditch of great depth and widenesse. The third called the little towne, is diuided from the old towne by the riuer Mulda, and ioyned to it by a beautifull bridge, consisting of 24 arches; and in this towne is the hill Rachine, on the sides whereof are many fayre and stately houses belonging to the nobility; and on the toppe thereof a magnificent pallace, wherein the Bohemian kings, and the latter Emperours, kept their residence. The fourth Towne is that of the Iewes, who haue here fiue Synagogues, and liue ac∣cording to their owne particular lawes and liberties. Neere vn∣to this Towne was fought that memorable battaile betweene the Duke of Bavaria and Count Bucquoy, Leistenants for the Emperour Ferdinand, with 50000 men on the one side; and Fredericke newly elected king of Bohemia, with the Prince of Anhalt, the Count of Thurne, & 30000 men on the other side. It was fought on the eight of Nouember stylo nouo being Sun∣day; wherein (such was the vnsearchable will of God) the victo∣ry fell vnto the Imperialls, the yong Princes of Anhal, Tourne and Saxon Weimar, with diuers others being taken prisoners; the Bohemian ordinance al surprised; Prage forced to yeeld vn∣to the enimy; and King Fredericke with his Queene compelled to fly into Silesia: a most lamentable and vnfortunate losse, not so this people only, but to the whole cause of religion. The 2dPage  297 Citty of note is Egra, situate on the riuer Eger, on the very bor∣ders o this kingdome; where it confineth with Franconia, and Votland. It was once Imperiall, but in the yeare 1315, it was sold by the Emperour Ldovicus Bavarus, vnto Iohn King of Bohemia, for 400000 marks of siluer. 3 Budwis, a strong town towards Austria. 4 Melmucke on the riuer Albis. 5 Weldawe. And 6 Pilsen, the last town of this Prouince, which yeelded vn∣to the prevailing Imperialls; & then also betrayed vnto Count Tlly, for a summe of money by some of the Captaines of Count Mansfield, who was then absent, and had so long defended it.

The first inhabitants of this Country that we haue notice of were the Bemi, whom Pomponius Mela placeth in this tract, & calleth Gens magna. To these in processe of time were added the Boij;* who being a people of Gallia Cisalpina, fled ouer the Alpes to avoid the bondage of the Romans, and seated them∣selues in Bavaria, by them called Boiaria. Then entred they this region, and mixing themselues with the Bemi, were ioyntly with them called Boibems, afterward Bothemi, and now Bohe∣mi. They continued a free nation til the comming in of the Cro∣atians, and Sclavonians, vnder the conduct of Zechius Ao 550, who with his brother Leches being banished Croatia for a mur∣ther: Leches seated himselfe in Polonia, and Zechius in this coū∣trey, the people whereof in their own language, call themselues Czechians. After the death of this Zechius, the state was of long time in a confused Anarchy, euen vntill the yeare 670: at what time not respecting the progeny of Zechius, the founder of their Commonwealth; they fastned on Crocus a man of good respect amongst them,* and elected him their Duke, Crocus vir iustus & magna apud Bohemos opinionis, princeps electus est, saith Berthol∣dus. Crocus being dead, the Bohemians elected Libussa, the yon∣gest of his three daughters: of whose female gouernment being soone weary, they elected Primistaus for their Duke, and made him husband to Libussa. The rest of the Dukes being 18 in nū∣ber, I willingly paste ouer, and come to Vratistas, whom for his manifold deserts. Henry the 4th Emperour of Germany, created the first king of Bohemia Anno 1086,

Page  298Berthold. & Dubrav.The Kings and Dukes of Bohemia.
1 Vratislaus the brother of Spitigneus the last Duke of Bohemia, was by Henry the 4th at Mentz created king.
2 Conrade brother to Vratislaus, notwithstanding that his brother had three sonnes, was elected Duke of Bohemia.
3 Brecislaus sonne to Vratislaus, the two sons of Con∣rade being reiected, is by the Bohemians chosen.
4 Borivorius, the 4th sonne of Brecislaus, is chosen by the Bohemians, his elder brothers then all liuing.
5 Sutopulcus cosen german to Borivorius, by the con∣sent and fauour of the people deposed Borivorius, & cau∣sed himselfe to be elected in his place.
6 Vladislaus II, brother to Borivorius, preferred by the people to the throne before Otho the brother, & Hen∣ry the sonne of Sutopulus the last Prince.
7 Sobeslaus brother to Vladislaus, promoted to the State before the sonne of Vladislaus.
8 Vladislaus III, sonne to Vladislaus the 2d (the foure sonnes of Sobeslaus omitted) is chosen & crowned the 2d King, by Fredericke the Emperour; but deposed by the States: because he was not by them formally elected, ac∣cording to their priuiledges and customes.
9 Vldaricus, the 3d sonne of Sobeslaus, his elder bre∣theren yet liuing; was by the people elected in the roome of Vladislaus, and his sonne Fredericke; whom the Empe∣rour Fredericke had by force established in the throne.
10 Sobeslaus II, 2d sonne to Sobeslaus, was by Frede∣ricke aboue named expell'd; & he alo by the Bohemians.
11 Conrade grandchild to Otho the brother of Suo∣pulcus, elected by the Bohemians in place of Fredericke: be∣tweene which two Princes there was continuall warre.
12 Wenceslaus vnkle vnto Conrade, and sonne of Otho aforesaid, was preferred before many neerer the successi∣on. Him Primislaus expelled, but fearing his returne quit∣ted Prage.
13 Henry Bishop of Prage, a stranger to the bloud, Page  299 was by a generall consent elected Duke.
14 Vladislaus IV, brother to Primislaus, the sonne of Wenceslaus, being put by; succeeded Henry: and soone af∣ter resigned.
15 Primislaus elected by the Bohemians, and by the Emperour Philip crowned the third king of Bohemia at Mentz, was brother to Vladislaus the 4th.
16 Ottacarus, notwithstanding that Wenceslaus his elder brother, had beene crowned in his Fathers life time; was acknowledged King. He was slaine in battle by Ro∣dlphus the Emperour.
17 Wenceslaus II, sonne to Ottacarus.
18 Wenceslaus III, sonne to Wenceslaus, the last of the Bohemian Princes of the male line.
19 Rodolfus, sonne to the Emperour Albertus, is by the potencie of his Father, and the Election of the States, seated in the throne; being otherwise a stranger to the bloud royall of Bohemia.
20 Henry Duke of Carinthia, husband to Anne, the 2d daughter of Wenceslaus the 2d, is chosen by the Bohe∣mians: but being weary of his gouerment, they elect Iohn of Luxenbourg. Finally, Henry was murdered by one of his Nephewes.
21 Iohn of Luxenbourg, sonne to Henry the seauenth Emperour, and husband to Elizabeth youngest daughter to Wenceslaus the 2d, is elected: the Lady Anne yet liuing.
22 Charles sonne to Iohn, & Emperour of that name the 4th; the author of the Golden Bull.
22 Wenceslaus IV, Emperour also, in whose time the troubles of the Hussites, and the valour of Zisca was fa∣mous.
23 Sigismund, brother to Wenceslaus, maketh himselfe king by force; and at his death commendeth Albertus D. of Austria, the husband of his daughter Elizabeth, vnto the Lords.
24 Albertus Duke of Austria, elected vpon the com∣mendations of King Sigismund, by the Bohemian Lords.
Page  3001440
25 Ladislaus, sonne to Abert, who being the bro∣ther of two sisters, commended yet one George Pogiebra∣chius vnto the States, as fittest to succeed him.
26 Georgius Pogibrachius, neither by affinity or cō∣sanguinity of the bloud: And he though he had three sons; yet for the benefit of his Country, aduised the Nobles af∣ter his death, to elect the King of Poland.
27 Ladislaus II, King of Poland, and sonne to Eliza∣beth, the younger daughter of Albert Duke of Austria; the issue of Anne the elder sister still liuing; elected King of Bohemia.
28 Ludovicus, sonne to Ladislaus, crowned & elected by the meanes of his father then liuing.
29 Ferdinand, Archduke of Austria, brother to Char∣les the fift, and husband to Anne sister to Lodovicus; by his letters reuersall acknowledgeth that hee was chosen King of Bohemia, not of any right, but of meere free will, according to the liberties of that Kingdome.
30 Maximilian, eldest sonne of Ferdinand, was in his Fathers life time, and at his suit, elected king Ao 1549.
31 Rodolfus Emperour of Germany, and second sonne to Ferdinand of Austria; elected King.
32 Mathias brother to Rodolfus, was at the ioynt suit of them both, nominated and appointed King of Bo∣hemia, by the generall consent of the States; during his brothers life time, An viz: 1608, which denomination they both protest in their letters reuersall, should not bee to the preiudice of the liberties and ancient customes of that Kingdome.
32 Ferdinand II, Duke of Grats, was by Mathias a∣dopted for his sonne, and declared by vertue thereof suc∣cessour to the Crowne of Bohemia, but neuer formally & legally elected: for which cause amongst others hee was by the States reiected; in like case as Vladislaus the third had formerly beene.
33 Frederick Electour Palatine, the strongest German Prince of the Calvinists, and most potent by his great alliances, Page  301 was elected King of Bohemia: and crowned at Pragu, together with his wife on the 5th day of Nouember. This Prince is de∣scended from the Lady Sophia, sister to Ladislaus the 2d, King of Poland and Bohemia: and hath to wife Elizabeth, daughter to Iames King of Great Brittaine, and Anne of Danemarke, de∣scended from the Lady Anne, daughter of Albertus of Austria, and elder sister to Elizabeth wife to Ladislaus the 2d aboue na∣med.

It is recorded that in the quarrells betweene Fredericke the second and Pope Innocnt the fourth, the Emperour sent the Pope these verses.

Roma diu titubans, varijs erroribus acta
Corruet, & mundi desinet esse caput.
Fata volunt, stell{que} docent, avium{que} volatus,
Quòd Fredericus ego malleus orbis ero.
Rome tost with diuers errours downe must fall▪
And cease to be the mistresse of this Ball.
For loe the fates decree, Starres, Birds, foretell;
That I a Fredericke shall the whle world quell.
That which that Fredericke then spoke in a hopeful desire of re∣venge, and a vehemency of anger, had (I hope) some prophetical relation to the sacred person of this Fredericke: and that it may fall out accordingly, I beseech the God of battles, and Lord of hosts, so to protect & comfort him in this time of his trouble, that he may yet liue to tread vpon the necke of the Romish Ad∣der, and outstae the Antichristian Basiliske, till his enimies are made his footstoole.

The reuenewes of this kingdome may amount to 3 millions of Crownes yearely, considering that the following Countries are vnders its subiection.

The Armes are Mars,* a Lion with a forked tayle, Luna crowned Sol.

2 SILESIA is bounded with Bohemia,* on the West; Bran∣denburg, on the North; Polonia, on the South; Hungarie and Moravia, on the East. It is in length 240, in breath 80 miles, and diuided equally by the riuer Odra, who here hath its origi∣nall.

Page  302*The former inhabitants of this Prouince, and Lusatia were the Quadi, against whom, when M Antoninus the Emperour made warre: he had vnawares run himselfe into such a straight, that his army was environed with mountaines one way, and e∣nimies the other. To this (as calamities ge seldome alone) was added the extraordinary heat & drouth then being. To the Em∣perour thus put to his plunges, came the Captaine of his guard; telling him th•• he had in his Army a legion of Christians (M∣liens he calleth them) which by prayer to their own God could obtaine any thing. The Emperour sendeth for them, desiring them to make supplications for the Army; which they did and God Almighty that neuer turneth a deafe eare to the prayers of his seruants, when they are either for his glory, the Churches, or their own good; scattered & vanquished the Quadi with thun∣dershot and artillery from heauen; and refreshed the faint and dying Romans, with many a gentle and pleasing showe. This miracle purchased to that Legion, the sirname of 〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉, i. e. the thunderer; and induced the Emperour to honour mn f that holy profession, and to make an end of the 4th persecution. Ao Ch. 174.

The chiefe Townes are Presaw, or Vratislauia, built by V∣ratislaus a Duke of this Prouince, and made a Bishops See An 970, or thereabouts. In the yeare 1341, it was totally 〈◊〉 with a happy misfortune; for it was againe reedified with fire stone, so that it is now one of the prettiest Citties of Germ•••. 2 Iagendorfe, or Iegerndorf, the patrimony of Iohannes Georgus o the family of Brandenbrg, who is called Marqese Iagen∣dorse, of whom more anon.* The lands and estates 〈…〉∣sion were giuen by Ladislaus king of Bohmia, vnto Geore•••∣named Piu, of the family of Brandeburg, for the 〈◊〉 good seruices he had done him: but his posterity being 〈…〉 they are allen vnto the present owner 〈…〉 towne of all Bohemia, which was conquered by 〈…〉 Emperour, from King Fredericke. 4 〈…〉∣derberg all on Odra. Here are two Duked 〈…〉Sue••z; the latter whereof is subect to the 〈…〉∣me hath Duke, who is also at the command 〈…〉Page  303Bohema. This Country once belonged to Poland, and was gi∣ven by Henry the fourth, to the new King of Bohemia, Vratis∣l•••, 1087.

3 LVATIA, is bounded on the East & North with Bran∣denburg, on the West with Saxonie; on the South with Silesia. This Country though but little, is able to arme 20000 foot, as good as any in Germany. The chiefe Citties are Gorlitz, & Tra∣〈◊〉 on the riuer Nisse; prembeg and Gottbusse on the riuer Spre which was heretofore called Suevus, and is thought to haue gi∣ven name to the Suevi: this riuer runneth through the whole Country••Bautsen (Budissiuum the Latines call it) the first Towne attempted, and taken by the Duke of Saxonie, when he tooke vpon him to execute the Emperours decree against Fre∣derick the Palatine, then newly chosen King of Bohemia. This Country is called in Dutch Lasis, and is commonly diuided into the higher and the lower. It was giuen also to the new Bo∣hemia King Vratislaus by Henry the 4th, Anno 1087.

4 MORAVIA is bounded on the North, and East with Si∣•••ia on the West with Brandenburg; on the South with Au∣〈◊〉••d Hungay.* It is the most ertile part of Corne in Gr∣many, and hath no small store of Myrrh and Frankincense, which contrary to common custome groweth not on trees, but imme∣diatly out of the earth: & which addeth to the miracle, the Fran∣〈…〉 groweth in the shape and similitude of those 〈…〉 men and women labour most to conceale. Dubra∣i•• th writer of the Bohemian history is the reporter, & Gra∣〈◊〉h name of tht only place where it thus groweth.

〈◊〉 Townes are 1 Brinne, the seat of the Marquesse. 〈…〉 Vniuersity, seated on the Morava of when Ri∣〈…〉3 Terebi z. Isu &c.* The fomer in∣〈…〉 o this Country were the Marcomnni▪ and it is now 〈…〉 It was once a kingdome, the last king of it be∣〈…〉 wo rebelled a••ainst Arnulph the Emperour 〈…〉 had vnder him Bohmia, Poloni, Silesia▪ and Lu∣〈◊〉〈◊〉 which after his death chose themseles seuerall gouer∣〈…〉 till Heny the t• gaue vnto his ew 〈…〉, the Provinces or Silesia & Lusatia; whose for∣tune Page  304Morauia followed, when Sigismund the Emperour gaue it to Albertus King of Bohemia, and Duke of Austria, Ano 1417. It still retaineth a Marquesse, who is tributary to the Bohemian.