The boke of husbandry·
Fitzherbert, John, d. 1531., Fitzherbert, Anthony, Sir, 1470-1538, attributed name.
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☞ The aucthors prologue.

SIt ista questio. This is the questyon, Whervnto is euerye manne ordeyned. And as Iob saythe, Homo nascitur ad la∣borem, sicut auis ad volan∣dum: That is to saye, a man is ordeyned and borne to do labour, as a bird is ordeyned to flye. And the apostle saythe, Qui non laborat, non manducet: Debet enim in obsequio dei laborare, qui de bo∣nis eius vult manducare. That is to saye, he that laboureth not, shulde not eate, and he ought to labour and doo goddes warke, that wyll eate of his goodes or gyftes, The whi∣che is an harde texte after the lyterall sence. For by the letter, the kynge, the quene, nor all other lordes spirituall and temporal shuld not eate, without they shuld labour, the whi∣che were vncomely, and not conuenyente for suche estates to labour, But who that redeth in the boke of the moralytes of the chesse, shal therby perceyue, that euerye man, from the hyest degree to the lowest, is set and ordeyned to haue labour and occupation, and that boke is deuyded in .vi. degrees, that is to saye, the kynge, the quene, the byshops, the knightes, the iudges, and the yomenne. In the whiche Page  [unnumbered] boke is shewed theyr degrees, theyr aucto∣rytyes, theyr warkes, and theyr occupati∣ons, and what they ought to do. And they so doynge and executynge theyr auctorytyes, warkes, and occupatyons, haue a wonders great study and labour, of the whiche aucto∣rytyes, occupations, and warkes, were at this tyme to longe to wryte. Wherfore I remytte that boke as myn auctour therof: The whi∣che boke were necessary to be knowen of eue∣ry degree, that they myghte doo and ordre them selfe accordynge to the same. And in so moche the yomen in the sayde moralytyes and game of the chesse be set before to labour, de∣fende, and maynteyne all the other hyer esta∣tes, the whiche yomen represent the common people, as husbandes and labourers, therfore I purpose to speake fyrste of husbandrye.


¶ The table.

  • FIrst wherby husbande men do lyue. fo i.
  • Of dyuers maner of plowes. fol. eod.
  • To knowe the names of all the partes of the ploughe. fol. ii.
  • ¶ The temprynge of plowes. fo. iii.
  • Page  [unnumbered] ¶ The necessary thynges that belonge to a plowe carte or wayne. fol. iiii.
  • ¶ Whether is better a plowe of oxen or a plowe of horses. fol. v.
  • ¶ The dylygence and the attendaunce that a husbande shulde gyue to his warke in ma∣ner of an other prologue, and a specyall grounde of all this treatyse. fol. vi.
  • ¶ Howe a manne shulde plowe all maner of landes all tymes of the yere. fo. vii.
  • To plowe for pees and beanes. fol. viii.
  • Howe to sowe bothe pees & beanes. fol. viii.
  • Sede of Discrecyon. fol. ix.
  • Howe all maner of corne shulde be sowen. folio. eodem.
  • To sowe barley. fol. x.
  • To sowe otes. fol. xi.
  • To harowe all maner of cornes. fol. xii.
  • To falowe. fol. xiii.
  • To cary out donge or mucke, and to sprede it. fol. xiiii.
  • To set out the shepe folde. fol. xv.
  • To cary wode and other necessaries. fol. xvi.
  • To knowe dyuers maner of wedes. fol. eod.
  • To wede corne. fo. xvii.
  • The fyrste sturrynge, and to mowe grasse. foli. xviii.
  • How forkes and rakes shuld be made. fo. xix.
  • Page  [unnumbered] To tedde and make hey. fol. eod.
  • Howe rye shulde be shorne. fol. xx.
  • Howe to shere whete. fol. xxi.
  • To mowe or shere barley and otes. fo. eod.
  • To repe or mowe pees and beanes. fol. xxii.
  • Howe all maner of corne shoulde be tythed. folio. eodem.
  • Howe all maner of corne shoulde be coue∣red. fol. xxiii.
  • To lode corne and mowe it. fol. eod.
  • The seconde sturrynge. fo. xxiiii.
  • To sowe whete and rye. fol. eodem.
  • To thresshe and wynowe corne. fo. xxv.
  • To seuer beanes, pees, and fetches. fol. eod.
  • Of shepe and what tyme of the yere the ram∣mes shulde be put to the ewes. fol. xxvi
  • To make a ewe to loue her lambe. fol. xxvii.
  • What tyme lambes shulde be wayned. fo. eod.
  • To drawe shepe and seuer theym in dyuerse partes. fo. xxviii.
  • To belte shepe. fol. xxix.
  • To grece shepe. fol. eod.
  • To medle terre. fol eodem.
  • To make brome salue. fol. eod.
  • If a shepe haue mathes, fol. xxx.
  • Blyndenes of shepe and other dyseases, and remedyes therfore. fo. eod.
  • The worme in a shepes fote, and helpe ther∣fore. Page  [unnumbered] fo. xxxi.
  • The bloudde, and remedye if he comme be∣tyme. fol. eodem.
  • The pockes, and remedy therfore. fol. eod.
  • The wode euyl, and remedy therfore. fo. 32.
  • To washe shepe. fol. eod.
  • To shere shepe. fol. eod.
  • To drawe and seuer the bad shepe frome the good fol. eod.
  • What thynge rotteth shepe. fol. xxxiii.
  • To knowe a rotten shepe dyuerse maner ways, wherof some of them wyll not fayle. fol. xxxiiii.
  • To by leane cattell. fol. eod.
  • To bye fatte cattell. fo. xxxv.
  • Dyuerse sickenesses of cattell, and remedies therfore, and fyrste of murren. fol. eod.
  • Long sought, and remedy therfore. fo. xxxvi
  • Dewbolue, and the harde remedye ther∣fore. fol. eod.
  • Ryson vppon, and the remedye therfore. fol. xxxvii.
  • The turne, and remedy therfore. fol. eod.
  • The warribred, & remedy therfore. fo. xxxviii
  • The foule, and remedy therfore. fol. eod.
  • The goute without remedy. fol. eod.
  • To rere calues. fol. eod.
  • To gelde calues. fol. xxxix.
  • Page  [unnumbered] Horses and mares to drawe. fol. xl.
  • ¶ The losse of a lambe, a calfe, or a foole. fol. xli.
  • What cattell shulde go together in oone pa∣sture. fol. xlii.
  • The properties of horses. fol. xliii.
  • The two propertyes that a horse hath of a man. fol. eod.
  • The. ii. propertyes of a bauson. fol. eod.
  • The. iiii. properties of a lyon. fol. eod.
  • The. ix. properties of an oxe. fol. xliiii.
  • The. ix. properties of an hare. fol. eod.
  • The. ix. properties of a foxe. fol. eod.
  • The. ix. properties of an asse. fol. eod.
  • The. x. properties of a woman. fol eod.
  • The diseases and soraunce of horses. fol. xlv.
  • The lampas. fol. eod.
  • The barbes. fo. eod.
  • Mournynge on the tonge. fol. eod.
  • Pursye. fo. eod.
  • Broken wynded. fol. eod.
  • Glaunders. fo. eod.
  • Mournynge on the chynne. fol. eod.
  • Stranguelyon. fol. eod.
  • The hawe. fol. eod.
  • Blyndnesse. fol. xlvi.
  • Vyues. fol. eod.
  • The cordes. fol. eod.
  • Page  [unnumbered] ¶ The farcyon. fol eod.
  • ¶ A malander. fol. eod.
  • ¶ A salander. fol. eod.
  • ¶ A serewe. fol. eod.
  • ¶ A splent. fo. eod.
  • ¶ A ryngebone. fol xlvii.
  • ¶ Wyndgall. fol. eod.
  • ¶ Morfounde. fol. eod.
  • ¶ The coltes euyll. fol. eod.
  • ¶ The bottes. fo. eod.
  • ¶ The wormes. fol. eod.
  • ¶ Affrayd. fo. eod.
  • ¶ Nauylgall. fo. eod.
  • ¶ A spauen. fol eod.
  • ¶ A curbe. fol. eod.
  • ¶ The strynge halte. fol. eod.
  • ¶ Enterfyre. fo. eod.
  • ¶ Myllettes. fol. eod.
  • ¶ The paynes. fol. eod.
  • ¶ Cratches. fol. eod.
  • ¶ Attaynt. fol. xlix.
  • ¶ Grauelynge. fol. eod.
  • ¶ Acloyd. fol. eod.
  • ¶ The scabbe. fol. eod.
  • ¶ Lowsy. fol eod.
  • ¶ Wartes. fol eod.
  • ¶ The sayenge of the frenche man. fo eod.
  • ¶ The dyuersitie bytwene a horse mayster, a Page  [unnumbered] corser, and a horse leche. fol. l.
  • ¶ Of swyne. fo. eod.
  • ¶ Of bees. fol. li.
  • ¶ How to kepe beastes & other catel. fol. lii.
  • ¶ To get settes and set them. fol. liii.
  • ¶ To make a dyche. fol. liiii.
  • ¶ To make a hedge. fol. eod.
  • ¶ To plasshe and pleche a hedge. fol. eod.
  • ¶ To mende a hye waye. fo. lv.
  • ¶ To remoue and sette trees. fo lvi.
  • ¶ Trees to be sette withoute rootes and growe. fol. lvii.
  • ¶ To fell woode for houssholde or to sell. fol. eodem.
  • To shrede, lop, or crop trees. fol. lviiii.
  • Howe a man shoulde shrede loppe or croppe trees. fol. eod.
  • To sell woode or tymbre. fol. lix.
  • To kepe sprynge woode. fo. lx.
  • Necessary thynges belongynge to graffynge. fol. eod.
  • What fruyte shulde be first graffed. fol. lxi.
  • Howe to graffe. fol. eod.
  • To graffe bytwene the barke and the tree. fol. lxii.
  • To nourysshe all maner of stone fruyte and nuttes. fol. lxiii.
  • A shorte information for a yonge gentyll Page  [unnumbered] man that entendeth to thryue. fol. eod.
  • A lesson made in Englysshe verses, that a gentylmans seruaunte shall forget none of his gere in his inne behynde hym. fo. lxv.
  • A prologe for the wyues occupation. fo. eod.
  • A lesson for the wyfe. fol. eod.
  • What thynges the wyfe of ryghte is bounde to do. fol. lxvi.
  • What warkes the wyfe oughte to doo gene∣rally. fo. eod.
  • To kepe measure in spendynge. fo. lxvii.
  • To eate within thy tedure. fo. lxviii.
  • A shorte lesson vnto the husbande. fol lxix.
  • Howe menne of hye degree do kepe measure. fol. eodem.
  • Prodygalytie in outragyous and costelye a∣raye. fol. lxx.
  • Of delycyous meates and drynkes. fol. eod.
  • Of outragious playe and game. fo. lxxi.
  • A prologue of the thyrde sayinge of the phi∣losopher. fo. lxxii.
  • A dyuersytie bytwene predycation and do∣ctryne. fol. eodem.
  • What is rychesse. fo. lxxiii.
  • What is the propertie of a rych man fo. lxxiiii.
  • What ioyes & pleasures are in heuen fo. lxxv.
  • What thynge pleaseth god most. fol. lxxvi.
  • What be goddes commaundementes. fo. eod.
  • Page  [unnumbered] Howe a man shulde loue god and please hym. fol. eodem.
  • Howe a man shoulde loue his neyghbour. fol. lxxvii.
  • Of prayer that pleaseth god verye moche. folio. lxxviii.
  • What thynge letteth prayer. fol. eod.
  • Howe a man shulde praye. fo. lxxix.
  • A mean to put away ydle thoughtes in pray∣enge. fol. lxxx.
  • A meane to auoyde temptation. fol. lxxxi.
  • Almes dedes pleaseth god moche. fo lxxxii.
  • The fyrst maner of almes dede. fo. lxxxiii.
  • The. ii. maner of almes dede. fo. lxxxiiii.
  • The. iii. maner of almes dede. fol lxxxv.
  • What is the greattest offence that a man maye doo and offende god in. fo. lxxxvi.
Thus endeth the table.
Page  1


¶ Here begynneth the boke of husban∣dry, and fyrste where by hus∣bande men do lyue.

THe mooste generall lyuynge that husbandes can haue, is by plowynge and sowyng of theyr cornes, and rerynge or bredynge of theyr cattel, and not the one withoute the o∣ther. Than is the ploughe the moste necessa∣ryest instrumente that an husbande can occu∣py, wherfore it is conuenyent to be knowen, howe a plough shulde be made.

¶ Dyuers maners of plowes.

THere be plowes of dyuers makynges in dyuers countreys, and in lyke wyse there be plowes of yren of dyuers fa∣cyons. And that is bycause there be many maner of groundes and soyles. Some whyte cley, some redde cley, some grauell or chyl∣turne, some sande, some meane erthe, some medled with marle, and in many places heeth grounde, and one ploughe wyll not serue in all places. wherfore it is necessarye, to haue dyuers maners of plowes. In Sommer∣setshyre, Page  [unnumbered] about Zelcester, the sharbeame, that in many places is called the ploughe hedde, is foure or fyue foote longe, and it is brode and thynne. And that is bycause the lande is very toughe, and wolde soke the ploughe into the erthe, yf the sharbeame were not long, brode, and thynne. In Kente they haue other ma∣ner of plowes, somme goo with wheles, as they doo in many other places, and some wyll tourne the sheldbredth at euery landes ende, and plowe all one waye. In Buckyngham shyre, are plowes made of an nother maner, and also other maner of ploughe yrons, the whyche me semeth generally good, and lyke∣ly to serue in many places, and specially if the ploughbeame and sharbeame be foure ynches longer, betwene the shethe, and the ploughe tayle, that the sheldbrede myght come more a slope: for those plowes gyue out to sodein∣ly, and therfore they be the worse, to drawe, and for noo cause elles. In Leycestershyre, Lankesshyre, Yorkeshyre, Lyncoln̄, Nor∣folke, Cambrydge shyre, and manye other countreyes, the plowes be of dyuers makin∣ges, the whyche were to longe processe to de∣clare howe. &c. But how so euer they be made yf they be well tempered, and goo well, they maye be the better suffred.

Page  2

¶ To knowe the names of all the par∣tes of the plowe.

MEn that be no husbandes, maye for∣tune to rede this boke, that knowe not whiche is the ploughe beame, the sharebeame, the ploughe shethe, the ploughe tayle, the stilte, the rest, the sheldbrede, the fen brede, the roughe staues, the ploughe fote, the plough eare or coke, the share the culture, and ploughe mal. Perauenture I gyue them these names here, as is vsed in my countre, and yet in other countreyes they haue other names: wherfore ye shall knowe, that the ploughe beame, is the longe tree aboue, the whiche is a lytel bente. The sharbeame is the tre vnder neth, where vpon the share is set, the ploughe sheth is a thyn pece of drye woode, made of oke, that is set fast in a morteys in the plough beame, and also in to the sharebeame, the whiche is the keye and the chiefe bande of all the plough. The plough tayle is that the hus∣bande holdeth in his hande, and the hynder ende of the ploughebeame is put in a longe slyt, made in the same tayle, and not set faste, but it maye ryse vp and go dowe, and is pyn∣ned behynde, and the same ploughe tayle is set faste in a morteys, in the hynder ende of Page  [unnumbered] the sharebeame. The plough stylte is on the ryghte syde of the ploughe, whervpon the rest is set, the rest is a lyttell pece of woode, pyn∣ned fast vpon the nether ende of the stylt, and to the sharebeame in the ferther ende. The sheldbrede is a brode pece of wodde, fast pin∣ned to the ryghte side of the shethe in the fer∣ther ende, and to the vtter syde of the stylte in the hynder ende. The fenbreds is a thyn borde, pynned or nayled moste commonly to the lyft syde of the shethe in the ferther ende, and to the ploughe tayle in the hynder ende. And the sayde sheldbrede wolde come ouer the sayde shethe and fenbrede an inche, and to come past the myddes of the share, made with a sharpe edge, to receyue and turne the erthe whan the culture hath cut it. There be two roughe staues in euery ploughe in the hynder ende, set a slope betwene the ploughe tayle and the stilt, to holde out and kepe the plough abrode in the hynder ende, and the one len∣ger than the other. The plough fote is a lyt∣tell pece of wodde, with a croked ende set be∣fore in a morteys in the ploughe beame, sette fast with wedges, to dryue vppe and downe, and it is a staye to order, of what depenes the ploughe shall go. The ploughe eare is made of thre peces of yren, nayled faste vnto the Page  3 ryght syde of the plough beame. And poore men haue a croked pece of wode pynned faste to the ploughbeame. The share is a pece of yren, sharpe before and brode behynde, a fote longe, made with a socket to be set on the fer∣ther ende of the share beame. The culture is a bende pece of yren sette in a morteys in the myddes of the plough beame, fastened with wedges on euery syde, and the backe therof is halfe an inche thycke and more, and three inches brode, and made kene before to cutte the erthe clene, and it must be wel steeled, and that shall cause the easyer draughte, and the yrens to laste moche lenger. The blough mal is a pece of harde woode, with a pynne put throughe, set in the plough beame, in an au∣gurs bore.

¶ The temprynge of plowes.

NOwe the plowes be made of dyuers maners, it is necessarye for an hous∣bande, to knowe howe these plowes shulde be tempered, to plowe and turne clene, and to make no reste balkes. A reste balke is where the plough byteth at the poynte of the culture and share, and cutteth not the ground cleane to the forowe, that was plowed laste Page  [unnumbered] before, but leaueth a lyttell rydge standynge betwene, the whiche dothe brede thistyls, and other wedes. All these maner of plowes shulde haue all lyke one maner of temperyng in the yrens. Howe be it a man maye temper for one thynge in two or thre places, as for depnes. The fote is one: the setting of the cul¦ture of a depnes, is a nother: and the thyrde is at the ploughe tayle, where be two wed∣ges, that be called slote wedges: the one is in the slote aboue the beame, the other in the saide slote, vnder the plough beame, and other whyle he wyll set bothe aboue, or bothe vn∣dernethe. but alway let hym take good hede, and kepe one generall rule, that the hynder ende of the sharebeme alway touche the erth, that it may kyll a worde, or elles it goth not truly. The temperynge to go brode and na∣rowe is in the settyng of the culture: and with the dryuinge of his syde wedges, forewedge and helewedge, whiche wolde be made of drye woode. and also the settynge on of his share helpeth well, and is a connynge poynte of husbandry, and mendeth and payreth moch plowyng: but it is so narowe a point to know, that it is harde to make a man to vnderstande it by wrytynge, without he were at the ope∣ration therof, to teache the practyue. for it Page  4 muste leane moche in to the forowe, and the poynt may not stande to moch vp nor downe, nor to moche in to the lande, nor into the fo∣rowe. Howe be it, the settynge of the cul∣ture helpeth moche. Somme plowes haue a bende of yron tryanglewise, sette there as the plough eare shulde be, that hath thre nyckes on the farther syde. And yf he wyll haue his plough to go a narowe forowe, as a sede fo∣rowe shulde be, than he setteth his fote teame in the nycke nexte to the ploughe beame. and yf he wyll go a meane bredth, he setteth it in the myddell nycke, that is best for sturrynge. and if he wolde go a brode forowe, he setteth it in the vttermoste nycke, that is beste for fa∣lowynge: The whyche is a good waye, to kepe the bredthe, and soone tempered, but it serueth not the depenesse. And some men haue in stede of the plough fote, a piece of yron set vpryghte in the farther ende of the ploughe beame, and they calle it a coke, made with. ii. or thre nyckes, and that serueth for depenes. The plowes that goo with wheles, haue a streyghte beame, and maye be tempred in the yron, as the other be, for the bredth, but their most speciall temper is at the bolster, where as the plough beame lyeth, and that serueth both for depnes and for bredth. And they be Page  [unnumbered] good on euen grounde that lyeth lyghte, but me semeth, they be farre more costly than the other plowes. And thoughe these plowes be well tempred for one maner of grounde, that tempre wyll not serue in an other maner of grounde, but it muste reste in the dyscretion of the housbande, to knowe whanne it gothe well.

¶ The necessary thynges, that be∣longe to a ploughe, carte, and wayne.

BVt or he begyn to plowe, he muste haue his ploughe and his ploughe yren, his oxen or horses, and the geare that be∣longeth to them, that is to say, bowes, yokes, landes, stylkynges, wrethynge temes. And or he shall lode his corne, he muste haue a wayne, a copyoke, a payre of sleues, awayne rope, and a pykforke. This wayne is made of dyuers peces, that wyll haue a greate re∣paration, that is to saye, the wheles, and those be made of nathes, spokes, fellyes, and dowles, and they muste be well fettred with wood or yren. And if they be yren bounden, they are moche the better, and thoughe they be the derer at the fyrst, yet at lengthe they Page  5 be better cheape, for a payre of wheles yren bounde, wyl weare. vii. or. viii payre of other wheles, and they go rounde and lyght after oxen or horses to draw. Howbeit on marreis ground and soft grouud, the other wheles be better, bycause they be broder on the soule, and will not go so depe. They must haue an axiltre, clout with. viii. waincloutes of yren. ii. lyn pinnes of yren in the axiltre endes. ii. axil pynnes of yren, or els of tough harde wodde. The bodye of the wayne of oke, the staues, the nether rathes, the ouer rathes, the crosse somer, the keys and pikstaues. And if he go with a hors ploughe, than muste he haue his horses or mares, or both his hombers or col¦lers, holmes whyted, tresses, swyngletrees, and togwith. Alsoo a carte made of asshe, bycause it is lyghte and lyke stuffe to it as is to a wayne, and also a cart sadel, bakbandes, and belybandes, and a carte ladder behinde, whan he shall carye eyther corne or kyddes, or suche other. And in many countreys theyr waynes haue carte ladders bothe behynde and before. Also an husbande muste haue an axe, a hachet, a hedgyngebyll, a pyn awgur, a rest awgur, a flayle, a spade, and a shouell. And howe be it that I gyue theym these na∣mes, as is most comonly vsed in my contrey, Page  [unnumbered] I knowe they haue other names in other countreyes. But hereby a manne maye per∣ceyue many thynges, that belonge to husban∣dry, to theyr greate costes and charges, for the mayntenance and vpholdyng of the same. And many moo thynges are belongynge to husbandes than these, as ye shall well per∣ceyue, er I haue made an ende of this trea∣tyse. And if a yonge husbande shulde bye all these thynges, it wolde be costely for hym: wherfore it is necessarye for hym, to lerne to make his yokes, oxe bowes, stooles, and all maner of plough geare.

¶ Whether is better a plough of hor∣ses or a plough of oxen.

IT is to be knowen, whether is better a plough of horses, or a plough of oxen, and therin me semeth oughte to be made a di∣stinction. For in some places, an oxe ploughe is better than a horse plough, and in somme places, a horse ploughe is better: that is to say, in euery place, where as the husband hath seueral pastures, to put his oxen in, whan they come fro theyr warke, there the oxe ploughe is better. For an oxe maye nat endure his warke, to labour all daye, and than to be put Page  6 to the commons, or before the herdman, and to be set in a folde all nyghte without meate, and go to his labour in the mornynge. But and he be put in a good pasture all nyghte, he wyll labour moche of all the daye dayely. And oxen wyl plowe in tough cley, and vpon hylly grounde, where as horses wyll stande stll. And where as is noo seuerall pastures, there the horse plowe is better, for the hor∣ses may be teddered or tyed vpon leys, bal∣kes, or hades, where as oxen maye not be kept: and it is not vsed to tedder them, but in fewe places. And horses wyl goo faster than oxen on euen grounde or lyght grounde, & be quicker for cariage: but they be ferre more co∣stly to kepe in winter, for they must haue both hey and corne to eate, and strawe for lytter, they must be well shodde on all foure fete, and the gere that they shal drawe with is more co¦stely than for the oxen, and shorter whyle it wyll last. And oxen wyll eate but straw, and a lyttell hey, the whiche is not halfe the coste that hors is must haue, and they haue no shoes, as horses haue. And if any sorance come to the horse, or waxe olde, broysed, or blynde, than he is lyttell worthe. And if any sorance come to an oxe, waxe old, broysed, or blinde, for. ii. s. he maye be fedde, and thanne he is Page  [unnumbered] mannes meate, and as good or better than euer he was. And the horse, whan he dyethe, is but caryen. And therfore me semeth, all thynges consydered, the ploughe of oxen is moche more profytable, than the ploughe of horses.

¶ The dylygence and the attendaunce that a husbande shulde gyue to his warke, in maner of an other prologue, and the speciall grounde of all this treatyse.

THou husbande, that intendeste to gette thy lyuynge by husbandry, take hede to the sayenge of the wyse phyloso∣pher, the which sayth, A dhibe curam, tene∣mensuram, et eris diues. That is to saye, Take hede to thy charge, kepe measure, and thou shalt be ryche. And nowe to speke of the fyrste artycle of these. iij. s. A dhibe curam. He that wyll take vpon hym to do any thinge, and be slouthefull, recheles, and not diligent, to execute and to performe that thynge, that he taketh vpon hym, he shall neuer thryue by his occupation. And to the same entente saythe our lorde in his gospell, by a parable. Nemo mittens manum suam ad aratrum Page  7 respiciens retro, aptus est regno dei. The spirytuall constructyon of this texte, I remytte to the doctours of dyuynitie, and to the greate clarkes, but to reduce and brynge the same texte to my purpose, I take it thus, There is noo man, puttynge his hande to the plough loking backewarde, is worthy to haue that thynge, that he oughte to haue. For if he goo to the ploughe, and loke backewarde, he seeth not, whether the plough go in rydge or rayne, make a balke, or go ouerthwarte. And if it so do, there wyll be lyttel corne. And so if a man attende not his husbandrye, but goo to sporte or playe, tauerne or ale house, or slepynge at home, and suche other ydle warkes, he is not than worthy to haue any corne. And therfore, Fac quod venisti, Do that thou comest fore, and thou shalte fynde that thou sekest fore. &c.

¶ Howe a man shulde plowe all ma∣ner of landes all tymes of the yere.

NOwe these plowes be made and tem∣pered, it is to be knowen, howe a man shoulde plowe all tymes of the yere. In the begynnynge of the yere, after the feast Page  [unnumbered] of the Epiphany, it is tyme for a husbande to go to the ploughe. And if thou haue any leys, to falowe or to sowe otes vpon, fyrste plowe them, that the grasse and the mosse may rotte, and plowe them a depe square forowe. And in all maner of plowynge, se that thy eye, thy hande, and thy fote do agree, and be al∣waye redy one to serue a nother, and to turne vp moche molde, and to lay it flat, that it rere not on edge. For if it rere on edge, the grasse and mosse wyll not rotte. And if thou sowe it with winter corne, as whete or ry, as moche corne as toucheth the mosse, wyll be drow∣ned, the mosse dothe kepe such wete in it self. And in some countreys, if a man plowe depe, he shall passe the good grounde, and haue but lyttel corne: but that countrey is not for men to kepe husbandry vppon, but for to rere and brede catell or shepe, for elles they muste go beate theyr landes with mattockes, as they do in many places of Cornewayle, and in som places of Deuonshyre.

¶ To plowe for pease and beanes.

HOwe to plowe for pees and beanes, were necessarye to knowe. Fyrst thou muste remember, whiche is mooste cley Page  8 grounde, and that plowe fyrste, and lette it lye a good space, er thou sowe it: bycause the froste, the rayne, the wynde, and the sonne may cause it to breake smalle, to make moche molde, and to rygge it. And to plow a square forowe, the bredthe and the depenes all one, and to laye it close to his felow. For the more forowes, the more corne, for a generall rule of all maner of cornes. And that may be pro∣ued at the comynge vp of all maner of corne. to stande at the landes ende, and loke toward the other ende. And than may ye se, howe the corne groweth.

☞ Howe to sowe bothe pease and beanes.

THou shalt sowe thy peas vpon the cley grounde, and thy beanes vpon the bar∣ley grounde: for they wolde haue ran∣ker grounde than pease. How be it some hus∣bandes holde opynion, that bigge and styffe grounde, as cley, wolde be sowen with bigge stuffe, as beanes: but me thynke the contra∣ry. For if a dry sommer come, his beanes wil be shorte. And if the grounde be good, putte the more beanes to the pease, and the better shall they yelde, whan they be thresshed. And Page  [unnumbered] if it be very ranke groūde, as is moche at eue∣ry towne syde, where catel doth resort, plowe not that lande, tyll ye wyll sowe it. for if ye do, there wyll come vppe kedlokes and other wedes. And than sowe it with beanes. for if ye sowe pees, the kedlokes wyll hurte them. and whā ye se seasonable time, sow both pees and beanes, so that they be sowen in the be∣gynnynge of Marche. Howe shall ye knowe seasonable tyme? go vppon the lande, that is plowed, and if it synge or crye, or make any noyse vnder thy fete, than it is to wete to sowe: and if it make no noyse, and wyll beare thy horses, thanne sowe in the name of god, but howe to sowe? Put thy pees in to thy hop¦per, and take a brode thonge of ledder, or of garthe webbe of an elle longe, and fasten it to bothe endes of the hopper, and put it ouer thy heed, lyke a leysshe: and stande in the myddes of the lande, where the sacke lyethe, the whiche is mooste conueniente for the fyl∣lynge of thy hopper, and set thy lefte foote before, and take an handefull of pees: and whan thou takeste vp thy ryghte foote, than caste thy pees fro the all abrode, and whan thy lefte fote ryseth, take an other handeful, and whan the ryght fote ryseth, thā cast them fro the. And so at euery. ii. paces, thou shalte Page  9 an handful of pees: and so se that the fote and the hande agree, and than ye shal sowe euen. And in your castynge, ye muste open as well your fyngers, as your hande, and the hyer, and farther that ye caste your corne, the better shall it sprede, excepte it be a greatte wynde. And if the lande be verye good, and wyll breke small in the plowynge, it is bet∣ter to sowe after the ploughe, thanne tarye any lenger.

¶ Sede of discretion.

THere is a sede, that is called Discretiō, and if a husband haue of that sede, and myngle it amonge his other cornes, they wyll growe moche the better. for that sede wyll tell hym, how many castes of corne euery lande ought to haue. And a yonge hus∣bande, and may fortune some olde husbande, hath not sufficyente of that sede: and he that lackethe, let hym borowe of his neyghbours that haue. And his neyghbours be vnkynde, if they wyll not lende this yonge housbande parte of this sede. For this sede of Discretion hath a wonders property: for the more that it is taken of or lente, the more it is. And therfore me semeth, it shoulde be more spy∣spirituall Page  [unnumbered] than temporall, wherin is a greate dyuersitie. For a temporall thynge, the more it is deuyded, the lesse it is: and a spirytuall thynge, the more it is deuided, the more it is. Verbi gratia. For ensaumple, I put case a wyfe brynge a lofe of breade to the churche, to make holy breade of, whan it is cut in ma∣ny smal peces, and holy breade made therof, there may be so many men, women, and chil∣dren in the churche, that by that tyme, the priest hath delte to euery one of them a lyttell pece, there shall neuer a crume be lefte in the hamper. And a spiritualle thynge as a Pater noster, or a prayer, that any man can say, let hym teache it to. xx. a. C. or to a. M. yet is the prayer neuer the lesse, but moche more. And so this sede of Discreciō is but wisdome and reason: and he that hath wysedome, rea∣son, and discretion, may teche it, and enforme other men as he is bounde to do. wherein he shall haue thanke of god: and he doth but as god hath commaunded hym in his gospell, Quod gratis accepistis, gratis date: That thynge that ye toke frely, gyue it frely again, and yet shall ye haue neuer the lesse.

¶ Howe all maner corne shoulde be sowen.

Page  10 BVt yet me thynkethe it is necessarye to declare, howe all maner of corne shuld be sowen, and howe moch vpon an acre most comonly, and fyrst of pease and beanes. An acre of grounde, by the statute, that is to say. xvi. fote and a halfe, to the perche or pole, foure perches to an acre in bredth, and fortye perches to an acre in lengthe, may be metelye well sowen with two London busshelles of pease, the whyche is but two strykes in other places. And if there be the. iiii. parte beanes, than wylle it haue halfe a London bushelle more: and yf it be halfe beanes, it wyll haue thre London bushels: and if it be all beanes, it wyll haue foure London busshelles fullye, and that is half a quarter, bycause the beanes be gret, and grow vp streight, & do not sprede and go abrode as pease do. An acre of good beanes is worth an acre & a half of good pees bycause there wylle be more busshelles. And the beste propertie, that belongeth to a good husband is, to sowe all maner of corne thycke ynough, and specially beanes and barley▪ for commonly they be sowen vpon ranke ground, and good grounde wylle haue the burthen of corne or of wede. And as moche plowynge and harowynge hath an acre of grounde, and sowe thervppon but oone busshelle, as yf he Page  [unnumbered] sowed. iiii. busshelles. And vndoutedly. i. bus∣shell may not gyue so moche corne agayne, as the. iiii. busshels, though the. iii. bushels, that he sowed more, be alowed and set aparte. And i. busshel and an halfe of white or grene pees, wyll sowe as moche grounde, as two bus∣shels of gray pees: and that is bycause they be so smal, and the husband nedeth not to take so great an handful. In some countreys they begyn to sowe pees soone after Christmasse: and in some places they sowe bothe pees and beanes vnderforowe: and those of reson must be sowen betyme. But moste generally, to be∣gyn sone after Candelmasse, is good season, so that they be sowen, ere the begynnynge of Marche, or sone vpon. And specially let them be sowen in the olde of the mone. For thopi∣nion of olde husbandes is, that they shoulde the better codde, and the sooner be rype. But I speke not of hasty pees, for they be sowen before Christmasse. &c.

¶ To sowe barley.

EVery good housbande hath his barleye falowe well dounged, and lyenge ryg∣ged all the depe and colde of wynter, the whiche ryggynge maketh the lande to Page  11 be drye, and the dongynge maketh it to be melowe and ranke. And if a drye season come before Candelmasse, or sone after, it wolde be caste downe and waterforowed bytwene the landes, that the wete rest not in the raine: and in the begynnynge of Marche, rydge it vppe agayne, and to sowe in euery acre fyue London bushelles, or foure at the leaste. and some yeres it maye so fortune, that there co∣meth no seasonabe wether before Marche, to plowe his barley erthe. And as soone as he hath sowen his pees and beanes, than let hym caste his barley erthe, and shortly after rygge it agayne: soo that it be sowen before Apryll. And if the yere tyme be paste, than sowe it vpon the castynge.

¶ It is to be knowen that there be thre ma∣ner of barleys, that is to say, sprot barleye, longe eare, and bere barley, that some menne call bigge. Sprot barley hath a flat eare most comonly, thre quarters of an inche brode, and thre inches long, and the cornes be very great and white, and it is the best barley. Long eare hath a flatte eare, halfe an inche brode, and foure inches and more of length: but the corne is not so greate nor soo whyte, and sooner it wyll turne and growe to otes Bere barleye, or bygge, wolde be sowen vppon lyghte and Page  [unnumbered] drye grounde, and hathe an eare thre ynches of lengthe or more, sette foure square, lyke pecke whete, small cornes, and lyttel floure, and that is the worste barley, and foure Lon∣don bushels are suffycient for an acre. And in some countreyes, they do not sowe theyr bar∣ley tyll Maye, and that is mooste commonly vpon grauel or sandy grounde. But that bar∣ley generally is neuer soo good, as that that is sowen in Marche. For if it be verye drie wether, after it be sowen, that corne that ly∣eth aboue, lyeth drie, and hath noo moysture, and that that lyeth vndernethe, commeth vp: and whan rayne cometh, than sprutteth that that lyeth aboue, and oftentymes it is grene, whan the other is rype: and whan it is thres∣shen, there is moche lyght corne. &c.

☞ To sowe otes.

ANd in Marche is tyme to sowe otes, and specially vpon lyght grounde and drie, howe be it they wylle growe on weter grounde, than any corne els: for wete grounde is good for no maner of corne, and thre London bushels wyl sowe an acre.

And it is to be knowen, that there be. iii. ma¦ner of otes, that is to saye, redde otes, blacke Page  12 otes, and roughe otes. Red otes are the beste otes, and whan they be thresshed, they be ye∣lowe in the busshell, and verye good to make otemele of. Blacke otes are as great as they be, but they haue not so moche floure in them, for they haue a thycker huske, and also they be not so good to make otemele. The roughe otes be the worste, and it quiteth not the coste to sowe them: they be very lyghte, and haue longe tayles, wherby they wyll hange eche one to other. All these maner of otes weare the grounde very sore, and maketh it to beare quyche. A yonge housbande oughte to take hede, howe thycke he sowethe all maner of corne, two or three yeres: and to se, howe it cometh vp, and whether it be thycke ynoughe or not: and if it be thynne, sowe thycker the nexte yere: and if it be well, holde his hande there other yeres: and if it be to thynne, let hym remember hym selfe, whether it be for the vnseasonablenes of the wether, or for thyn sowynge. And so his wysedome and dis∣cretion muste discerne it.

¶ To harowe all maner of cornes.

Page  [unnumbered] NOwe these landes be plowed, and the cornes sowen, it is conuenient, that they be well harowed, or els crowes, doues, and other byrdes wyll eate and beare awaye the cornes. It is vsed in many coun∣treys, the husbandes to haue an oxe harowe, the whiche is made of sixe smal peces of tim∣bre, called harowe bulles, made eyther of asshe or oke, they be two yardes longe, and as moche as the small of a mannes legge, and haue shotes of wode put through theym lyke lathes, and in euery bull are syxe sharpe peces of yren, called harowe tyndes, set some what a slope forwarde, and the formes flote muste be bygger than the other, bycause the fote teame shall be fastened to the same with a shakyll, or a withe to drawe by. This har∣rowe is good to breake the greatte clottes, and to make moche molde, and than the horse harowes to come after, to make the clottes smaller, and to laye the grounde euen. It is a great labour and payne to the oxen, to goo to harowe: for they were better to goo to the plowe two dayes, thanne to harowe one daye. It is an olde sayinge, The oxe is neuer wo▪ tyll he to the harowe goo. And it is by∣cause it goeth by twytches, and not alwaye after one draughte. The horse harrowe is Page  13 made of fyue bulles, and passe not an elne of lengthe, and not soo moche as the other, but they be lyke sloted and tinded. And whā the corne is well couered, than it is harowed ynough. There be horse harowes, that haue tyndes of wodde: and those be vsed moche about Ryppon, and suche other places, where be many bulder stones. for these stones wold weare the yren to soone, and those tyndes be mooste commonly made of the grounde ende of a yonge asshe, and they be more thanne a fote longe in the begynnyuge, and stande as moche aboue the harowe as benethe. And as they weare, or breake, they dryue them downe lower, and they wolde be made longe before, ere they be occupied, that they maye be drye. for than they shall endure and last moche better, and stycke the faster. The horses that shall drawe these harowes, muste be well kepte and shodde, or elles they wyll soone be tyred, and sore beate, that they may not drawe. They must haue hombers or col∣lers, holmes withed about theyr neckes, tres∣ses to drawe by, and a swyngletre to holde the tresses abrode, and a togewith to be by∣twene the swyngletre and the harowe. And if the barleye grounde wyll not breake with harrowes, but be clotty, it wolde be beaten Page  [unnumbered] with malles, and not not streyght downe. for than they beate the corne in to the erthe. And if they beate the clot on the syde, it wyll the better breake. And the clot wyll lye lyghte, that the corne maye lyghtely come vp. And they vse to role theyr barley grounde after a shoure of rayne, to make the grounde euen to mowe. &c.

¶ To falowe.

NOwe these housbandes haue sowen theyr pees, beanes, barley, and otes, and harowed them, it is the beste tyme to falowe, in the later ende of Marche and Apryll, for whete, rye and barley. And lette the husbande do the beste he can, to plowe a brode forowe and a depe, soo that he turne it cleane, and lay it flat, that it rere not on the edge: the whiche shall destroy all the thistils and wedes. For the deper and the broder that he gothe, the more newe molde, and the greatter clottes shall he haue, and the great∣ter clottes, the better wheate. for the clottes kepe the wheate warme all wynter, and at Marche they wyll melte and breake, and fal in manye small peces, the whiche is a newe dongynge, and refresshynge of the corne.

Page  16 And also there shall but lyttell wedes growe vpon the falowes, that are so falowed. For the plough goth vndernethe the rootes of all maner of wedes, and tourneth the roote vp∣warde, that it maye not growe. And yf the lande be falowed in wynter tyme, it is farre the worse, for three principall causes, One is, all the rayne that commeth, shal washe the lande, and dryue awaye the dounge and the good moulde, that the lande shall be moche the worse. An other cause is, the rayne shall beate the lande so flat, and bake it so hard to∣gyther, that if a drye May come, it wyll be to harde to stere in the moneth of Iune. And the thyrde cause is, the wiedes shall take su∣che roote, er sterynge tyme comme, that they wylle not be cleane tourned vndernethe, the whiche shal be great hurte to the corne, whan it shall be sowen, and specially in the weding tyme of the same. and for any other thynge, make a depe holowe forowe in the rydge of the lande, and loke wel, thou rest balke it nat, for if thou do, there wyll be many thystels: and than thou shalte not make a cleane rydge at the fyrste sterynge, and therfore it muste nedes be depe plowed, or elles thou shalt nat tourne the wiedes cle ane.

Page  [unnumbered]

¶ To cary out donge or mucke and to sprede it.

ANd in the later ende of Apryll, and the begynnynge of Maye, is tyme to cary out his dounge or mucke, and to lay it vppon his barley grounde. And where he hath barley this yere, sowe it with whete or rye the next tyme it is falowed, and so shal he mucke all his landes ouer at euerye se∣conde falowe. But that husbande, that can fynde the meanes to cary oute his donge, and to laye it vpon his lande, after it be ones stur∣red: it is moche better, than to laye it vppon his falowe, for dyuers causes. One is, if it be layde vpon his fallowe, all that fallethe in the holowe rygge, shall do lyttell good for whan it is rygged agayne, it lyeth soo depe in the erthe, thut it wyll not be plowed vp a∣gayne, excepte that whan he hath sprede it, he wyll with a shouell, or a spade, caste out all that is fallen in the rygge. And if it be layde vpon the sturrynge, at euery plowynge it shall medle the donge and the erthe togy∣der, the whiche shall cause the corne moche better to growe and encreace. And in somme places, they lode not theyr donge, tyll har∣uest be done, & that is vsed in the farther syde Page  15 of Darbyshyre, called Scaresdale, Halom∣shyre, and so northewarde towarde Yorke and Ryppon: and that I calle better thanne vppon the falowe, and specyally for barley: but vppon the fyrste sturrynge, is beste for wheate and rye. and that his dunge be layde vpon smal hepes nygh together, and to sprede it euenly, and to leue no dounge there as the mucke hepe stode, for the moystnes of the dounge shall cause the grounde to be ranke ynoughe. And if it be medled with erthe, as sholynges and suche other, it wyll laste the longer, and better for barley than for whete or rye, bycause of wedes. Horse donge is the worste donge that is. The donge of all ma∣ner catell, that chewe theyr cudde, is verye good. And the dounge of douues is best, but it muste be layde vppon the grounde verye thynne.

¶ To set out the shepe folde.

ALso it is tyme to set out the shepefolde in May, and to sette it vppou the rye grounde, if he haue any, and to flyte it euery mornynge or nyght: and in the mor∣nynge, whan he cometh to his folde, let not his shepe out anone, but reyse theym vp, and Page  [unnumbered] let them stande stylle a good season, that they maye donge and pysse. And go amonge them, to se whether any of them haue any mathes, or be scabbed: and se them thre or foure ty∣mes on the oone syde, and as ofte on the o∣ther syde. And whan the kelles begonne be∣syde the grounde, than lette theym out of the folde, and dryue theym to the soundeste place of the felde. But he that hath a falowe felde, seueral to hym selfe, let hym occupie no folde. For foldynge of shepe maketh them scabbed, and bredeth mathes, and whanne a storme of yll wether commeth in the night, they can nat flee nor go awaye, and that appeyreth them sore of their flesshe. But lette that man, that hath such a seueral falowe felde, driue twen∣tie, thyrty, or forty stakes, accordynge to the nombre of his shepe, vpon his falowe, where he wolde sette his folde, and specially in the farthest parte of the fyelde, frome thense as they comme in, for the goynge vppon dothe moche good. And lette the sheparde brynge his shepe to the stakes, and the sheepe wylle rubbe them on the stakes. And lette the she∣parde goo aboute them, tyll they be sette, and thus serue theym two or three nyghtes, and they wyll folowe those stakes, as he flytteth them, and syt by them. And if any yll wether Page  14 come they wyll ryse vp, and go to the hedge. And this maner of foldynge shall brede noo mathes nor scabbe, nor appeyre theym of theyr flesshe, and shall be a greate sauegarde to the shepe for rottynge: and in the mor∣nynge put them out of theyr pasture, and thou shalte not nede to bye any hurdels nor shepe flekes, but howe ye shall salue them or dresse them, ye shall vnderstande in the chapyter of shepe after.

¶ To cary wodde and other necessaryes.

ANd in May, whan thou hast falowed thy grounde, and set oute thy shepe∣folde, and caryed oute thy dounge or mucke, if thou haue any wodde, cole, or tym∣bre to cary, or suche other busynes, that must nedes be doone, with thy charte or wayne, than is it tyme to do it. For than the waye is lyke to be fayre and drye, and the days longe. and that tyme the husbande hath leeste to doo in husbandry. Perauenture I set one thynge to be done at one tyme of the yere, and if the husbande shulde do it, it shulde be a greatter losse to hym in an other thynge. Wherfore it is moste conuenient to do that thynge fyrst, that Page  [unnumbered] is moste profytable to hym, and as soone as he can do the other labour.

¶ To knowe dyuers maner of wedes.

IN the later ende of Maye, and the begyn∣ninge of Iune, is tyme to wede thy corne. There be diuers maner of wedes, as thi∣styls, kedlokes, dockes, cocledrake, darnolde, gouldes, haudoddes, dogfenell, mathes, ter, and dyuers other small wedes. But these be they that greue mooste: The thistyll is an yll wede, roughe and sharpe to handell, and fre∣teth away the cornes nygh it, and causeth the sherers or reapers not to shere cleane Ked∣lokes hath a leafe lyke rapes, and beareth a yelowe floure, and is an yll wede, & groweth in al maner corne, and hath small coddes, and groweth lyke mustard sede. Dockes haue a brode lefe, and diuers high spyres, and very small sede in the toppe. Cockole hath a longe small lefe, and wyl beare fyue or vi. floures of purple colour, as brode as a grote, and the sede is rounde and blacke, and maye well be suffred in breade corne, but not in sede, for therin is moch floure Drake is lyke vnto rye, till it begynne to sede, and it hath many sedes Page  17 lyke fenell sedes, and hangeth downewarde, and it maye wel be suffred in breade, for there is moche floure in the sede: and it is an opini∣on that it commeth of rye. &c. Dernolde gro∣weth vp streyght lyke an hye grasse, and hath longe sedes on eyther syde the stert, and there is moche floure in that sede, and growethe moche amonge barley: and it is sayde, that it cometh of small barley. Golds hath a shorte iagged lefe, and groweth halfe a yarde hygh, and hath a yelowe floure, as brode as a grote and is an yll wede, and groweth commonlye in barleye and pees. Hawdod hath a blewe floure, and a fewe lyttell leues, and hath. v. or syxe braunches, floured in the toppe: and groweth comonly in rye vpon leane grounde, and dothe lyttel hurte. Doggefenell and ma∣thes is bothe one, and in the commynge vp is lyke fenell, and beareth many white floures, with a yelowe sede: and it is the worste wede that is, excepte terre, and it commeth mooste commonly, whan great wete commeth shortly after the corne is sowen. Terre is the worste wede, and it neuer dothe appere, tyll the mo∣neth of Iune, and specyallye whanne there is great wete in that mone, or a lyttell before, and groweth mooste in rye, and it groweth lyke fytches, but it is moche smaller, and it Page  [unnumbered] wyll growe as hyghe as the corne, and with the weyght therof, it pulleth the corne flatte to the erth, and freteth the eares away. Wher∣fore I haue seene housbandes mowe downe the corne and it together: And also with sharp hokes to repe it, as they doo pees, and made it drye, and than it wyll be good fodder.

There be other wedes not spoken of, as dee, nettylles, dodder, and suche other, that doo moche harme.

¶ Howe to wede corne.

NOwe it wolde be knowen, howe these cornes shulde be weded. The chyefe instrument to wede with, is a paire of tonges made of wode and in the farther ende it is nycked, to holde the wed faster, and af∣ter a shoure of raine, it is beste wedynge, for than they maye be pulled vp by the rotes, and than it cometh neuer agayne. And if it be drye wether, than muste ye haue a wedynge hoke with a socket set vpon a lyttel staffe of a yarde longe, and this hoke wolde be well steeled, and grounde sharpe bothe behynde and be∣fore. And in his other hande he hath a forked stycke a yarde longe, and with his forked stycke he putteth the wede from hym, and he Page  18 putteth the hoke beyond the rote of the wede, and pulleth it to hym, and cutteth the wede fast by the erthe, and with his hoke he taketh vp the wede, and casteth it in the reane, and if the reane be full of corne, it is better it stande styll, whan it is cut, and wyddre: but let hym beware, that he trede not to moche vppon the corne, and specyallye after it is shotte, and whan he cutteth the wede, that he cut not the corne: and therfore the hoke wolde not passe an inche wyde. And whanne the wede is soo shorte, that he can not with his forked stycke put it from hym, and with the hoke pull it to hym, thanne muste he set his hoke vppon the wede, fast by the erthe, and put it from hym, and so shall he cutte it cleane. And with these two instrumentes, he shall neuer stoupe to his warke. Dogfenell, goldes, mathes, and kedlokes are yll to wede after this maner, they growe vppon so many braunches, harde by the erthe: and therfore they vse most to pul them vppe with theyr handes, but loke well, that they pull not vppe the corne with all, but as for terre, there wyll noo wedynge serue.

¶ The fyrst sturrynge.

Page  [unnumbered] ALso in Iune is tyme to rygge vppe the falowe, the whiche is called the fyrst sturrynge, and to plowe it as depe as thou canste, for to tourne the rotes of the wedes vpwarde, that the sonne, and the drye wether, maye kyll them. And an housbande can not conuenyentelye plowe his lande, and lode out his dounge bothe vppon a daye, with one draughte of beastes: but he maye well lode oute his dounge before none, and lode heye or corne at after none: or he maye plowe before none, and lode hey or corne at after none, with the same draughte, and noo hurte to the cattell: bycause in lodynge of hey or corne, the cattel is alwaye eatynge or bey∣tynge, and soo they can not doo in lodynge of dounge and plowynge.

¶ To mowe grasse.

ALlso in the later ende of Iune is tyme to begyn to mowe, if thy medowe be well growen: but howe so euer they be growen, in Iuly, they muste nedes mowe, for diuers causes. One is, it is not conueniēt, to haue hey and corne bothe in occupation at one tyme. Another is, the yonger, and the grener that the grasse is, the softer and the Page  19 sweter it wyll be, whan it is hey, but it wyll haue the more wyddrynge, and the elder the grasse is, the harder and dryer it is, and the worse for al maner of cattell: for the sedes be fallen, the whiche is in maner of prouander, and it is the harder to eate and chowe. And an other cause is, if drye wether come, it wyll drye and burne vpon the grounde, and waste away. Take hede that thy mower mow clene and holde downe the hynder hand of his sith, that he do not endent the grasse, and to mowe his swathe cleane thorowe to that that was laste mowen before, that he leaue not a mane bytwene, and specyallye in the common me∣dowe: for in the seuerall medowe it maketh the lesse charge, and that the moldywarpe hil∣les be spredde, and the styckes cleane pycked out of the medowe in Apryll, or in the begin∣nynge of Maye.

¶ Howe forkes and rakes shulde be made.

A Good husbande hath his forkes and rakes made redye in the wynter be∣fore, and they wolde be gotte by∣twene Mighelmasse and Martylmasse, and beyked, and sette euen, to lye vpryght in thy Page  [unnumbered] hande: and than they wyll be harde styffe and drye. And whan the housbande sytteth by the fyre, and hath nothynge to do, than maye he make theym redye, and tothe the rakes with drye wethy wode, and bore the holes with his wymble, bothe aboue and vnder, and driue the tethe vpwarde faste and harde, and than wedge them aboue with drye woode of oke, for that is hard, and wil driue and neuer come out. And if he get them in sappe tyme, all the beykyng and drienge that can be had, shal not make them harde and styffe, but they woll al∣waye be plyenge: for they be moste comonly made of hasell and withee, and these be the trees that blome, and specially hasell: for it begynneth to blome as sone as the lefe is fal∣len. And if the rake be made of grene woode, the heed wyll not abyde vppon the stele, and the tethe wyll fall out, whan he hath mooste nede to them, and let his warke, and lose mo∣che heye. And se that thy rake and forke lye vpryghte in thy hand, for and the one ende of thy rake, or the syde of thy forke, hang downe warde, than they be not handsome nor easy to worke with.

¶ To tedde and make hey.

Page  20 VVhan thy medowes be mowed, they wolde be well tedded and layde euen vppon the grounde: and if the grasse be very thycke, it wolde be shaken with han∣des, or with a shorte pykforke. for good ted∣dynge is the chiefe poynte to make good hey. and than shall it be wyddred all in lyke, or∣elles not: and whan it is wel wyddred on the ouer syde, and dry, than turne it cleane before noone, as soone as the dewe is gone: And yf thou dare truste the wether, lette it lye so all nyghte: and on the nexte daye, tourne it a∣gayne before none, and towarde nyght make it in wyndrowes, and than in smal hey cockes and so to stande one nyghte at the leaste, and sweate: and on the nexte fayre day, caste it a∣brode agayne, and tourne it ones or twyse, and than make it in greatter hey cockes, and to stande so one nyghte or more, that it maye vngiue and sweate for and it sweate not in the hey cockes, it wyll sweate in the mowe, and than it wyll be dustye, and not holsome for hors, beastes, nor shepe. And whan it stan∣deth in the cockes, it is better to lode, and the more hey maye be loded at a lode, and the faster it wyll lye. Quyche hey commeth of a grasse called crofote, and groweth flatte, af∣ter the erthe, and bearethe a yelowe floure, Page  [unnumbered] halfe a yarde hygh and more, and hath ma∣ny knottes towarde the roote, and it is the bste hey for horses and beastes, and the swe∣teste, if it be well got, but it wyll haue moch more wyddrynge than other hey, for els he wyll be pysse hym selfe and waxe hote, and after dustye. And for to knowe whanne it is wyddred ynoughe, make a lyttell rope of the same, that ye thinke shulde be moste greneste, and twyne it as harde to gether bytwen your handes as ye canne and soo beynge harde twon, let one take a knyfe, and cut it faste by your hande, and the knottes wyll be moyste, yf it be not drye ynough-Shorte hey, and leye hey is good for shepe, and all maner of catell. if it be well got. A man maye speke of ma∣kynge of hey, and gettynge of corne, but god disposeth and ordreth all thynge.

¶ Howe rye shulde be shorne.

IN THE later ende of Iuly, or in the begynnynge of Auguste, is tyme to shere Rye, the whiche wolde be shorne cleane, and faste bounden. And in somme places they mowe it, the whiche is not soo good to the housbandes prefytte, but it is the sooner done. For whan it is mowen, it wyll not be Page  21 so fast bounden: and he can not gather it soo cleane, but there wyll be moche losse, and taketh more rowme in the barne than shorne corne dothe. And also it wyll not kepe nor saue it selfe frome rayne or yll wether, whan it standeth in the couer, as the shorne corne wyll do.

¶ Howe to shere wheate.

VVheate wolde be shorne cleane, and harde bounden in lyke maner, but for a generall rule, take good hede, that the sherers of all maner of whyte corne, cast not vppe theyr handes hastely, for thanne all the lose corne, and the strawes, that he holdeth not faste in his hande, flieth ouer his heed, and are loste: and also it wyll pull of the eares, and specyallye of the cornes that be verye rype. In somme places they wyll shere theyr cornes hyghe, to the entente to mowe theyr stubble, eyther to thacke or to bren: if they so do, they haue greate cause to take good hede of the sherers. for if the eares of the corne croke downe to the erthe, and the sherer take not good hede, and put vp the eare, er he cut the strawe: as many eares as be vnder his hoke or sicle, fall to the erthe, Page  [unnumbered] and be loste, and whan they mowe the stub∣ble, it is great hyndraunce to the profytte of the grounde. And in Sommersetshire, about Zelcestre and Martok, they doo shere theyr wheate very lowe, and all the wheate strawe, that they pourpose to make thacke of, they do not thresshe it, but cutte of the eares, and bynde it in sheues, and call it rede: and ther∣with they thacke theyr houses. And if it be a newe house, they thacke it vnder theyr fote: the whiche is the beste and the surest thacking that can be of strawe, for crowes and douues shall neuer hurte it.

☞ To mowe or shere barley and otes.

BArley and otes be moste commonly mo∣wen, and a man or woman folowythe the mower with a hande rake halfe a yarde longe, with. vii. or. viii. tethe, in the lyfte hande, and a syckle in the ryghte hande, and with the rake he gethereth as moche as wyll make a shefe. And thanne he taketh the barley or otes by the toppes, and pulleth out as moche as wil make a band, and casteth the band from him on the land, and with his rake and his syckle, taketh vp the barley or otes, & Page  22 layeth them vppon the bande, and so the bar∣ley lyeth vnbounden. iii. or. iiii dayes, if it be fayre wether, and than to bynde it. And whan the barley is ledde away, the landes muste be raked, or els there wyll be moche corne loste, and if the barley or otes lye, they muste nedes be shorne.

¶ To repe or mowe pees and beanes.

PEes and benes be moste commonly laste reped or mowen of diuers maners, some with sickles, some with hokes, nd some with staffe hokes. And in somme places they lay them on repes, and whan they be dry, they laye them to gether on heapes, lyke hey coc∣kes, and neuer bynde them. But the best way is, whan the repes be dry, to bynde them, and to set theym on the rydge of the landes three sheues to gether, and loke that your sherers, repers, or mowers geld not your beanes, that is to saye, to cutte the beanes so hye, that the nethermoste codde growe styll on the stalke: and whan they be bounden, they are the more redyer to lode and vnlode, to make a reke, and to take fro the mowe to thresshe. And soo be not the repes.

Page  [unnumbered]

¶ Howe all maner of cornes shulde be tythed.

NOwe that all these cornes before specy fyed, be shorne, mowed, reped, boun∣den vp, and layde vppon the rydge of the lande, lette the housbande take hede of goddes commaundemente, and let hym goo to the ende of his lande, and begynne and tell. ix. sheues, and let hym caste out the x. shefe in the name of god, and so to pervse frō lande to lande, tyll he haue trewely tythed all his corne. And beware, and take hede of the sayinge of our lorde by his prophete Malachias, the whiche saythe, Quia mi∣chi non dedisti decimas et primitias, id circo in fame et penuria maledicti estis. That is to saye, Bycause ye haue not gyuen to me your tythes, and your fyrste fruytes, therfore ye be cursed, and punysshed with honger and penury. And accordynge to that saynte Austyn saythe, Da decimas, alioqui incides in decimā partem angelorum qui de celo corruerunt in infernum. That is to say, Gyue thy tythes truely, or els thou shalt fall amonge the tenthe parte of aungelles, that felle from heuen in to hell, the whiche is an harde worde to euery man, that oughte Page  23 to gyue tythes, and doth not gyue them true∣ly. But saynte Austyne saythe a comfortable worde again, to them that gyue theyr tythes truely, that is to saye: Decimae sunt tributa egentium animarum: Tythes are tributes or rewardes to nedye soules And ferther he saythe: Si decimam dederis, non solum a∣bundantiam fructum recipies, sed etiam sanitatem corporis et animae consequeris, That is to saye, If thou haue gyuen thy ty∣thes truely, thou shalte not all onely receyue the profite, and the abundaunce of goodes, but also helthe of bodye and soule shall fo∣lowe. Wolde to god, that euerye man knewe the harde worde of our lorde by his pro∣phete Malachias, and also the comfortable wordes of the holy saynte Austyn. For than wolde I truste verely, that tythes shulde be truely gyuen.

¶ Howe all maner of corne shulde be couered.

NOwe these cornes be shorne and boun∣den, and the tithes cast out, it is tyme to couer theym, shoke theym, or halfe throue them, but couerynge is the beste waye of all maner of whyte corne. And that is, to Page  [unnumbered] set foure sheues one one syde, and. iiii. sheues on the other syde, and two sheues aboue, of the greatteste, bounden harde nyghe to the nether ende, the whiche must be set vpwarde, and the top downewarde spredde abrode to couer all the other sheues. And they wyll stād beste in wynde, and saue theym selfe beste in rayne, and they wolde be set on the rydge of the lande, and the sayde sheues to leane toge∣ther in the toppes, and wyde at the grounde, that the winde may go through, to drye them. Pees and beanes wolde be set on the rydge of the lande, thre sheues together the toppes vp∣warde, and wrythen together, and wyde be∣nethe, that they maye the better wyddre.

¶ To lode corne, and mowe it.

VVhanne all these cornes be drye and wyddred ynoughe, than lode theym in to the barne, and laye euerye corne by it selfe. And if it be a wete haruest, make many mowes: and if thou haue not housynge ynoughe, thanne it is better to laye thy pees and benes without vppon a reke, than other corne, and it is better vppon a scaffolde, than vppon the grounde: for than it muste be well hedged for swyne and catel, and the grounde Page  24 wyll rotte the bottom, and the scaffolde sa∣ueth both hedgynge and rottynge: but they must be well couered bothe. And the husband may set shepe or catel vnder the same scaffold and wyll serue hym in stede of an house, if it be well and surely made. &c.

¶ The fyrst sturrynge.

IN August, and in the begynning of Sep∣tember, is tyme to make his seconde stur∣rynge, and most commonly it is cast downe and plowed a meane forowe, not to depe nor to ebbe, so he turne it clene. And if it be caste, it wolde be water forowed bytwene the lan∣des, there as the reane shulde be, and it wyll be the dryer, whan the lande shall be sowen. And if the landes lie high in the ridge, & highe at the reane, & lowe in the myddes of the side, that the water may not ronne easely in to the reane, as I se dayly in many places: than let the husband set his plough. iii. or. iiii fote frō the rydge, and cast all the rydge on bothe sy∣des, and whan the rydge is cast, set his plough there as he began, and rydge vp the remenant of the lande, and so is the land bothe cast and rydged, and all at one plowynge. And this shall cause the lande to lye rounde, whan it Page  [unnumbered] is sowen at the nexte tyme, and than shall it not drowne the corne.

☞ To sowe wheat and rye.

ABoute Myghelmasse it is tyme to sowe bothe wheate and rye Wheate is mooste commonlye sowen vnder the forowe, that is to saye, caste it vppon the fa∣lowe, and than plowe it vnder. And in some places they sowe theyr wheate vppon theyr pees stubble, the whiche is neuer soo good, as that that is sowen vppon the falowe: and that is vsed, where they make falowe in a fyelde euery fourthe yere. And in Essex they vse to haue a chylde, to go in the forowe before the horses or oxen, with a bagge or a hopper full of corne, and he taketh his hande full of corne, and by lyttel and lytel ca∣steth it in the sayde forowe. Me semeth, that chylde oughte to haue moche dyscretion.

Howe be it there is moche good corne, and rye is mooste commonlye sowen aboue and harrowed, and two London busshelles of wheate and rye wyll sowe an acre. Some grounde is good for wheate, some for rye, and some is good for bothe: and vppon that ground sowe blend corne, that is both wheate Page  25 and rye, the whiche is the surest corne of gro∣wyng, and good for the husbandes houshold. And the wheate, that shall be medled with rye, muste be suche, as wyll soone be rype, and that is flaxen wheate, polerd wheate, or whyte wheate. And ye shall vnderstande, that there be dyuers maners of wheates. Flaxen wheate hath a yelowe eare, and bare without anis, and is the bryghtest wheate in the bus∣shell, and wyll make the whytest breed, and it wyll weare the grounde sore, and is small strawe, and wyll growe very thycke, and is but small corne. Polerde wheate hath noo a∣nis, thycke sette in the eare, and wyll soone fall out, and is greatter corne, and wyll make whyte breed. whyte wheate is lyke polerde wheate in the busshell, but it hath anis, and the eare is foure square, and wyll make white breed: and in Essex, they call flaxen wheate whyte wheate. Red wheate hath a flat eare, an inche brode, full of anis, and is the great∣teste corne, and the brodeste blades, and the greattest strawe, and wyl make whyte breed, and is the rudeste of colour in the busshell.

Englysshe wheate hath a dunne eare, fewe anis or none, and is the worste wheate, saue peeke wheate. Peeke wheate hath a red eare, ful of anis, thyn set, and oft tymes it is flyn∣tered, Page  [unnumbered] that is to saye, small corne wrynkeled and dryed, and wyll not make whyte breade, but it wyl growe vpon colde grounde.

¶ To thresshe and wynowe corne.

THis wheate and rye, that thou shalte sowe, ought to be very cleane of wede, and therfore, er thou thresshe thy corne open thy sheues, and pyke oute all maner of wedes, and than thresshe it, and wynowe it cleane, and so shalt thou haue good clene corne an other yere. And in some countreys, aboute London specyallye, and in Essex and kente, they do fan theyr corne, the whiche is a verye good gise, and a great sauegarde for shedinge of the corne. And whan thou shalte sell it, if it be well wynowed or fande, it wyll be solde the derer, and the lyghte corne wyll serue the husbande in his house.

¶ To seuer pees, beanes, and fytches.

VVhan thou haste thresshed thy pees, and beanes, after they be wynowed, and er thou shalte sowe or selle them, let theym be well reed with syues, and seue∣red in thre partes, the great from the small, Page  26 and thou shalte gette in euerye quarter a Lon¦don busshell, or there about. For the smalle corne lyeth in the holowe and voyde places of the greate beanes, and yet shall the greate beanes be solde as dere, as if they were all together, or derer, as a man maye proue by a famylier ensample. Let a man bye. C. hea∣rynges, two hearynges for a penye, and an other. C. hearynges, thre for a peny, and let hym sell these. CC. hearinges agayne v. he∣rynges for. ii d. nowe hath he loste. iiii. d. For C. hearinges ii. for. i d. cost v. s. and. C. hea∣rynge. iii. for a peny coste. iii. s. and. iiii. d the whiche is. viii. s. and. iiii. d. and whan he sel∣leth. v. herynges for. ii. d xx. heringes cometh but to. viii. d. and there is but. xii. score herin∣ges, & that is but. xii. grotes, and. xii. grotes, and that cometh but to. viii. s. & so he hath lost iiii. d. and it is bicause there be not so many bar¦geins, for in the bienge of these. CC. heringes there be. v. score bargeins, & in the sellinge of the same there be but. xlviii. bargeyns, and so is there lost. x. hearinges, the whiche wolde haue ben. ii. bargeyns moo, and than it had ben euen and mete. And therfore he that by∣eth grosse sale, and retayleth, muste nedes be a wynner. and so shalt thou be a loser, if thou sell thy pees, beanes, and fytches together: Page  [unnumbered] for than thou sellest grosse sale. And if thou seuer them in thre partes, than thou doest re∣tayle, wherby thou shalte wynne.

¶ Of shepe, and what tyme of the yere the rammes shulde be put to the ewes.

AN housbande can not well thryue by his corne, without he haue other cat∣tell, nor by his cattell, without corne. for els he shall be a byer, a borower, or a beg∣ger. And bycause that shepe in myne opyny∣on is the mooste profytablest cattell, that any man can haue, therfore I pourpose to speake fyrst of shepe. Than fyrst it is to be knowen, what tyme thou shalt put thy rammes to thy ewes, and therin I make a distinction, for e∣uery man maye not put to theyr rammes all at one tyme: for if they doo, there wyll be greate hurte and losse. for that man, that hath the best shepe pasture for wynter, and soone spryngynge in the begynnynge of the yere, he maye suffre his rammes to goo with his ewes all tymes of the yere, to blyssomme or ryde whan they wyll: but for the comon pa∣sture. it is tyme to put to his rammes at the Exaltation of the holye crosse: for than the Page  27 bucke goth to the rut, and so wolde the rāme. But for the common husbande, that hath noo pasture but the common fieldes, it is tyme y∣noughe at the feste of saynt Mychaell the ar∣changel. And for the poore housbande of the Peeke, or suche other, that dwell in hylly and hyghe groundes, that haue no pastures, nor common fieldes, but all onely the comon hethe, Symon and Iude daye is good tyme for theym, and this is the reason why. An ewe goth with lambe. xx. wekes, and shall yeane her lambe in the. xxi. weke, & if she haue not conueniente newe grasse to eate, she maye not gyue her lambe mylke: and for wante of mylke, there be manye lambes perysshed and loste: and also for pouertye, the dammes wyll lacke mylke, and forsake theyr lambes, and soo often tymes they dye bothe in suche harde countreys.

¶ To make an ewe to loue her lambe.

IF thy ewe haue mylke, and wyll not loue her lambe, put her in a narowe place made of bordes, or of smothe trouse, a yarde wyde, and put the lambe to her, and socle it, and yf the ewe smyte the lambe with her Page  [unnumbered] heed, bynde her heed with a heye rope, or a corde, to the syde of the penne: and if she wyl not stande syde longe all the ewe, than gyue her a lyttell hey, and tye a dogge by her, that she maye se hym: and this wyll make her to loue her lambe shortely. And if thou haue a lambe deed, wherof the damme hath moche mylke, fley that lambe, and tye that skynne vpon an other lambes backe, that hath a sory damme, with lyttell mylke, and put the good ewe and that lambe together in the penne, and in one houre she wyll loue that lambe, & than mayst thou take thy sory weyke ewe awaye, and put her in an other place: and by this meanes thou mayste fortune to saue her lyfe, and the lambes bothe.

¶ What tyme lambes shulde be wayned.

IN some places they neuer seuer their lam∣bes from theyr dammes, and that is for two causes: One is, in the beste pasture where the rammes goo alwaye with theyr ewes, there it nedeth not, for the dammes wil waxe drye, and wayne theyr lambes theym selfe. An other cause is, he that hath noo se∣uerall and sounde pasture, to put his lam∣bes Page  28 vnto, whan they shoulde be wayned, he muste eyther sell them, or let theym sucke as longe as the dammes wyll suffre theym, and it is a common sayinge, that the lambe shall not rotte, as longe as it souketh, excepte the damme want meate. But he that hath seueral and sounde pasture, it is tyme to wayne theyr lambes, whanne they be xvi. wekes olde, or xviii. at the farthest, and the better shall the ewe take the ramme agayne. And the poore man of the peeke countreye, and suche other places, where as they vse to mylke theyr ewes, they vse to wayne theyr lambes at xii. wekes olde, and to mylke theyr ewes fiue or syxe wekes. &c. But those lambes be neuer soo good as the other that sucke longe, and haue meate ynoughe.

¶ To drawe shepe, and seuer them in dyuers places.

THan thou grasier, that hast many shepe in thy pastures, it is conuenient for the, to haue a shepefolde made with a good hedge or a pale, the whiche wyll receyue all thy shepe easyly that goo in one pasture, sette betwene two of thy pastures, in a drye place, and adioynynge to the ende of the same, Page  [unnumbered] make an other lyttell folde, that wyll receyue lxxxx. shepe or moo, and bothe those foldes must haue eyther of theym a gate in to eyther pasture, and at the ende of that folde make an other lyttel folde, that wyll receyue. xl. shepe or mo, and betwene euery folde a gate. And whan the shepe are in the greate folde, let. xl. of them or there about, come into the myddle folde, and steke the gate. And than let the shepeherde turne them, and loke them on euery syde, and if he se or fynde any shepe, that ne∣deth any helpynge or mendinge for any cause, lette the shepeherde take that shepe with his hoke, and put hym in the lyttell folde. And whan he hath taken all that nedeth any men∣dyng, than put the other in to whether pasture he wyll, and let in as many out of the greate folde, and take those, that nede any handling, and put them into the lyttell folde. And thus peruse them all tyll he haue doone, and than let the shepeherde go belte, grese, and handel all those that he hath drawen, and than shall not the great flocke be taryed nor kepte from theyr meate: and as he hath mended them, to put them into theyr pasture.

¶ To belte shepe.

Page  29 IF any shepe raye or be fyled with dounge about the tayle, take a payre of sheres, and clyppe it awaye, and cast dry muldes ther∣vpon: and if it be in the heate of the sommer, it wolde be rubbed euer with a lyttell terre, to kepe awaye the flyes. It is necessarye, that a shepeherde haue a borde, set fast to the syde of his lyttell folde, to laye his shepe vpon, whan he handeleth theym, and an hole bored in the borde with an augur, and therin a grayned staffe of two fote longe, to be set fast, to hang his terre boxe vpon, and than it shall not fall. And a shepeherde shoulde not go without his dogge, his shepe hoke, a payre of sheres, and his terre boxe, eyther with hym, or redye at his shepe folde, and he muste teche his dogge to barke, whan he wolde haue hym, to ronne whan he wold haue hym, and to leue ronning, whan he wolde haue hym, or els he is not a cunninge shepeherd. The dogge must lerne it, whan he is a whelpe, or els it wyl not be: for it is harde to make an olde dogge to stoupe.

¶ To grease shepe.

IF any sheepe be scabbed, the shepeherde maye perceyue it by the bytynge, rubbyng, or scratchynge with his horne, and mooste Page  [unnumbered] commonly the woll wyll ryse, and be thyn or bare in that place: than take hym, and shede the woll with thy fyngers, there as the scab is, and with thy fynger laye a lyttell terre thervpon, and stroke it a lengthe in the bottom of the woll, that it be not seen aboue. And soo shede the woll by and by, and laye a lyttell terre thervppon, tyll thou passe the sore, and than it wyll go no farther.

¶ To medle terre.

LEt thy terre be medled with oyle, gose grease, or capons grease, these three be the beste, for these wyll make the terre to ronne abrode: butter and swynes grease, whan they be molten, are good, soo they be not salte, for terre of hym selfe is to kene, and is a fretter, and no healer, without it be med∣led with some of these.

¶ To make brome salue.

¶ A medicyne to salue poore mennes shepe, that thynke terre to costely: but I doubte not, but and ryche men knowe it, they wolde vse the same.

Page  30 TAke a shete ful of brome croppes, lea∣ues, blossomes, and all, and chop them very smal, and than sethe them in a pan of. xx. gallons with rennynge water, tyll it begyn to waxe thycke lyke a gelly, than take two pounde of shepe suet molten, and a pot∣tell of olde pysse, and as moche bryne made with salte, and put all in to the sayde panne, and styrre it aboute, and than streyne it tho∣rowe an olde clothe, and putte it in to what vessell ye wyll, and yf your shepe be newe clypped, make it luke warme, and than washe your shepe there with, with a sponge or a pece of an olde mantell, or of faldynge, or suche a softe cloth or woll, for spendynge to moche of your salue. And at all tymes of the yere after, ye may relent it, and nede require: and make wyde sheydes in the woll of the shepe, and anoynt them with it, & it shal heale the scabbe, and kyll the shepe lyce, and it shall not hurte the woll in the sale therof. And those that be wasshen, wyll not take scabbe after (if they haue sufficient meate) for that is the beste grease that is to a shepe, to grease hym in the mouthe with good meate: the whiche is also a greate sauegarde to the shepe for rottynge, excepte there come myl∣dewes, for he wyll chose the beste, if he haue Page  [unnumbered] plentye. And he that hath but a fewe shepe moderate this medicyne accordynge.

¶ If a shepe haue mathes.

IF a shepe haue mathes, ye shall perceyue it by her bytynge, or fyskynge, or shakyng of her tayle, and mooste commonlye it is moyst and wete: and if it be nyghe vnto the tayle, it is ofte tymes grene, and fyled with his dounge: and than the shepeherde muste take a payre of sheres, and clyppe awaye the woll bare to the skynne, and take a handfull of drye moldes, and cast the moldes thervpon to drye vp the wete, and than wype the mul∣des away, and laye terre there as the mathes were, and a lyttell farther. And thus loke theym euery daye, and mende theym, if they haue nede.

¶ Blyndenes of shepe, and other dyseases, and remedies therfore.

THere be some shepe that wyll be blynd a season, and yet mende agayn. And if thou put a lytel terre in his eye, he will mende the rather. There be dyuers waters, & other medicyns, that wolde mende hym, but Page  30 this is mooste common medicyne that shepe∣herdes vse.

¶ The worme in the shepes fote, and helpe therfore

THere be some shepe, that hath a worme in his foote, that maketh hym halte. Take that shepe, and loke betwene his clese, and there is a lyttell hole, as moche as a greatte pynnes heed, and therin groweth fyue or syxe blacke heares, lyke an inche long and more, take a sharpe poynted knyfe, and slytte the skynne a quarter of an inche long a∣boue the hole and as moche benethe, and put thy one hande in the holowe of the fote, vnder the hynder clese, and set thy thombe aboue al∣mooste at the slytte, and thruste thy fyngers vnderneth forward, and with thy other hand, take the blacke heares by the ende, or with thy knyues poynte, and pull the heares a lyt∣tell and a lyttell, and thruste after thy other hande, with thy fynger and thy thombe, and there wyll come oute a worme lyke a pece of fleshe, nygh as moche as a lyttel fynger. And whan it is out, put a lyttel tarre into the hole, and it wyll be shortely hole.

Page  [unnumbered]

¶ The blode, and remedy if one come betyme.

THere is a sicknes amōg shepe, and is called the bloude, that shepe, that hath that, wil dye sodeinly, and er he dye, he wil stande still, and hange downe the heed, & other while quake. If the shepeherde can espye hym, let him take and rubbe hym about the heed, & specyally a∣dout his eares, and vnder his eyen, & with a knyfe cut of his eares in the middes, & also let hym blode in a veyne vnder his eien: and if he blede wel, he is lyke to lyue, & if he blede not, than kil him, and saue his fleshe. for if he dye by hym selfe, the flesshe is loste, and the skyn wyll be ferre ruddyer, lyke blode, more than an other skynne shall be. And it taketh mooste commonly the fattest and best lykynge.

¶ The pockes, and remedy therfore.

THe pockes appere vppon the skyn, and are lyke reed pymples, as brode as a farthynge, and therof wyll dye many. And the remedy therfore is, to handle all thy shepe, and to loke on euery parte of theyr bo∣dyes: and as many as ye fynde taken ther∣with, Page  32 put them in freshe newe grasse, and kepe them fro theyr felowes, and to loke thy flocke ofte, and drawe theym as they nede. And if it be in sommer tyme, that there be no froste, than washe them. Howe be it some shepeher∣des haue other medycines.

¶ The wode euyll, and remedy therfore.

THere is a sickenes among shepe, and is called the wode euyll, and that cometh in the sprynge of the yere, and takethe them moste commonly in the legges, or in the necke, and maketh them to halt, and to holde theyr necke awry. And the mooste parte that haue that sicknes, wyl dye shortely in a day or two. The best remedy is, to wasshe theym a lyttell, and to chaunge theyr grounde, and to bryng them to lowe ground and freshe grasse. And that sycknes is moste commonly on hyl∣ly grounde, ley grounde, and ferny grounde. And some men vse to let them bloudde vnder the eye in a vaine for the same cause.

¶ To washe shepe.

IN Iune is tyme to shere shepe, and er they be shorne, they muste be verye well wasshen, the whiche shall be to the owner Page  [unnumbered] great profyte in the sale of his woll, and also to the clothe maker. but yet beware, that thou put not to many shepe in a penne at one tyme, neyther at the washing, nor at the sheryng, for feare of murtheryng or ouer pressyng of their felowes, and that none go awaye, tyll he be cleane washen. and se that they, that hold the shepe, by the heed in the water, holde his heed hye ynoughe for drownynge.

¶ To shere shepe.

TAke hede of the sherers, for touchynge the shepe with the sheres. and special∣ly for pryckyng with the poynte of the sheres, and that the shepeherde be alway redy with his tarboxe to salue them. And se that they be well marked, both eare marke, pitche marke, and radel marke, and let the wol be well folden or wounden with a woll wynder, that can good skyll therof, the whiche shal do moche good in the sale of the same.

¶ To drawe and seuer the badde shepe from the good.

VVhan thou haste all shorne thy shepe, it is than best tyme to drawe them, and soo seuer theym in dyuers sortes, the Page  33 shepe, that thou wylte fede by them selfe, the ewes by theym selfe, the share hogges and theyues by them selfe, the lambes by theym selfe, wedders and the rammes by them self, if thou haue soo many pastures for them: for the byggest wyll beate the weikeste with his heed. And of euery sorte of shepe, it may for∣tune there be some, that like not and be weike, those wolde be put in freshe grasse by theym selfe: and whan they be a lyttel mended, than sel them, and ofte chaunge of grasse shal mend all maner of cattell.

☞ What thynges rotteth shepe.

IT is necessary that a shepeherde shoulde knowe, what thynge rotteth shepe, that he myghte kepe theym the better. There is a grasse called sperewort, and hath a longe na∣rowe leafe, lyke a spere heed, and it wyll growe a fote hyghe, and beareth a yelowe floure, as brode as a peny, and it growethe alwaye in lowe places, where the water is vsed to stande in wynter. An other grasse is called peny grasse, and groweth lowe by the erthe in a marsshe grounde, and hath a leafe as brode as a peny of two pens, and neuer beareth floure. All maner of grasse, that the Page  [unnumbered] lande floudde renneth ouer, is verye ylle for shepe, bycause of the sande and fylthe that stycketh vppon it. All marreys grounde, and marsche grounde is yll for shepe. the grasse that groweth vppon falowes is not good for shepe: for there is moche of it wede, and ofte tymes it commeth vppe by the rote, and that bryngeth erthe with it, and they eate both. &c. Myldewe grasse is not good for shepe, and that ye shall knowe two wayes. One is by the leaues on the trees in the mornynge, and specyally of okes, take the leaues, and putte thy tonge to them, and thou shalt fele like ho∣ny vppon them. And also there wyll be many kelles vppon the grasse, and that causeth the myldewe. Wherfore they may not well be let out of the folde, tyll the sonne haue domyna∣tion to drye them awaye. Also hunger rotte is the worst rotte that can be, for there is nei∣ther good flesshe nor good skynne, and that cometh for lacke of meate, and so for hunger they eate suche as they can fynde: and so will not pasture shepe, for they selden rot but with myldewes, and than wyll they haue moch ta∣lowe and fleshe, and a good skyn. Also white snailes be yll for shepe in pastures, and in fa∣lowes There is an other rotte, whiche is cal∣led pelte rotte, and that commeth of greatte Page  34 wete, specyally in woode countreyes, where they can not drye.

¶ To knowe a rotten shepe dyuers ma∣nr wayes, wherof some of them wyll not fayle.

TAke bothe your handes, and twyrle vpon his eye, and if he be ruddy. and haue reed stryndes, in the white of the eye, than he is sounde, and if the eye be white, lyke talowe, and the stryndes darke celou∣red, thanne he is rotten. And also take the shepe, and open the wolle on the syde, and yf the skynne be of ruddy colour and drye, than is he sounde, and if it be pale coloured and watrye, thanne is he rotten. Also whanne ye haue opened the woll on the syde, take a lyttell of the woll bytwene thy fynger and thy thombe, and pull it a lyttel and if it sticke faste, he is sounde, and if it comme lyghtely of, he is rotten. Also whan thou haste kylde a shepe, his belly wyll be full of water, if he be sore rotten, and also the fatte of the fleshe, wyll be yelowe, if he be rotten. And also if thou cut the lyuer, therin wyll be lyttell qui∣kens lyke flokes, and also the lyuer wyll be full of knottes and whyte blysters, yf he be Page  [unnumbered]〈1 page duplicate〉Page  35〈1 page duplicate〉Page  [unnumbered] rotten. and also sethe the lyuer, if he be rot∣ten it wyll breke in peces, and if he be sounde, it wyll holde together.

¶ To bye leane cattell.

THese housbandes, if they shall well thryue, they muste haue bothe kye, ox∣en, horses, mares, and yonge cattell, and to rere and brede euery yere some calues, and fools, or els shall he be a byer. And yf thou shalte by oxen for the ploughe, se that they be yonge, and not gowty, nor broken of heare. neyther of tayle, nor of pysell. And yf thou bye kye to the payle, se that they be yonge and good to mylke, and fede her calues wel. And if thou bye kye or oxen to feede, the yonger they be, the rather they wyll fede, but loke well, that the heare stare not, and that he lycke hym selfe, and be hoole mouthed, and want no tethe. And though he haue the goute and be broken, bothe of tayle and pysell, yet wyll he fede. But the gouty oxe wyll not be dryuen ferre and se that he haue a brode ryb, and a thycke hyde▪ and to be lose skinned, that it stycke not harde nor streyte to his rybbes, for than he wyll not fede.

Page  35

¶ To bye fatte cattell.

IF thou shalte bye fatte oxen or kye, handel them, and se that they be soft on the fore∣croppe, behynde the shulder, and vpon the hindermost rybbe, and vpon the hucbone, and the nache by the tayle. And se the oxe haue a greate codde, and the cowe great nauyll, for than it shulde seme, that they shuld be wel ta∣lowed. And take hede, where thon byeste any leane cattel or fat, and of whom, and where it was bred. For if thou by out of a better groūd than thou haste thy selfe, that cattell wyll not lyke with the. And also loke, that there be no maner of sycknes amonge the cattell in that towneshyp or pasture that thou byest thy catel oute of. For if there be any murren or longe sought, it is great ieoperdy: for a beast maye take sycknes ten or. xii. dayes or more, ere it appere on hym.

¶ Dyuers sycnesses of cattell, and remedies therfore, and fyrst of murren.

ANd yf it fortune to fall murren a∣monge thy beastes, as god forbede, there be men ynough can helpe them. And it commeth of a ranknes of bloudde, and Page  [unnumbered] appereth moste commonly fyrste in the heed: for his heed wyll swell, and his eyen waxe greate and ronne of water and frothe at the mouthe, and than he is paste remedy, and wyl dye shortely, and wyll neuer eate after he be sycke. Than flee hym, and make a depe pytte faste by, there as he dyeth, and caste hym in, and couer hym with erthe, that noo dogges maye come to the caryen. For as many bea∣stes as feleth the smelle of that caryen, are lykely to be enfecte, and take the skynne, and haue it to the tanners to sell, and bryng it not home, for peryll that may fal. And it is com∣monly vsed, and cometh of a greate charytie, to take the bare heed of the same beaste, and put it vpon a longe pole, and set it in a hedge, faste bounden to a stake, by the hyghe waye syde, that euerye man, that rydethe or goeth that waye, maye se and knowe by that signe, that there is sycknes of cattell in the towne∣shyp. And the husbandes holde an opynyon, that it shall the rather cease. And whanne the beaste is flaine, there as the murren dothe ap∣pere bytwene the flesshe and the skynne, it wyll ryse vppe lyke a ielly and frothe an inche depe or more. And this is the remedy for the murren. Take a smalle curteyne corde, and bynde it harde aboute the beastes necke, and Page  36 that wyll cause the bloudde to come in to the necke, and on eyther syde of the necke there is a vayne that a man may fele with his fynger: and than take a bloud yren, and set it streight vppon the vayne, and smyte hym bloudde on bothe sydes, and let hym blede the mounte∣naunce of a pynte or nyghe it, and than take a∣waye the corde, and it wyll staunche bleding. And thus serue all thy cattell, that be in that close or pasture, and there shall no mo be sicke by goddes loue.

¶ Longe sought, and remedy therfore.

THere is an nother maner of syckenesse among bestes, and it is called longe sought, and that sickenes wyl endure lóg, and ye shal per ceyue it by his hoystynge, he wyl stand mo∣che, & eate but a littel, and waxe very holowe & thin. And he wil hoyst. xx. times in an houre, and but fewe of them do mende. The best re∣medy is to kepe thy cattell in sondrye places, and as many as were in companye with that beast, that fyrst fell sycke, to let them a lyttel Page  [unnumbered] bloude. And there be many men, that can se∣uer theym, and that is to cutte the dewlappe before, and there is a grasse, that is called feitergrasse, take that grasse, and broyse it a lyttell in a morter, and thanne put therof as moche as an hennes egge in to the sayd dew∣lappe, and se it fall not oute. Thus I haue seen vsed, and men haue thought it hath done good.

¶ Dewbolue, and the harde remedy therfore.

AN other dysease amonge beastes is called dewbolue, and that commeth, whan a hungry beaste is put in a good pasture full of ranke grasse, he wyll eate soo moche, that his sydes wyll stande as hygh as his backe bone, and other whyle, the one syde more thanne the other, and but fewe of them wyll dye, but he maye not be dryuen hastely, nor laboured, beinge so swollen, and the substaunce of it is but wynde: and ther∣fore he wolde be softly dryuen, and not sytte downe. Howe be it I haue seen a manne take a knyfe, and thruste hym thorowe the skynne and the flesshe two inches depe, or more, vi. inches or more from the ridge bone, that the Page  37 wynde maye come out. For the wynde lyeth bytwene the fleshe and the greate paunche.

¶ Rysen vpon, and the remedy therfore.

AN other dysease is called rysen vppon and no man can tell howe, nor wherof it cometh: but ye shall perceyue that by swellynge in the heed, and specyallye by the eyen, for they wyll ronne on water, and close his syghte, and wyll dye shortly within an houre or two, if he be not holpen. This is the cause of his dysease. There is a blyster rysen vnder the tounge, the whiche blyster must be slytte with a knyfe a crosse. Whan ye haue pulled out the tongue, rubbe the blyster well with salte, and take an hennes egge, and breake it in the beastes mouthe shell and all, and cast salte to it, and holde vp the bestes heed, that all maye be swalowed downe in∣to the body. But the breakynge of the blyster is the great helpe, and dryue the beaste a lyt∣tell aboute, and this shall saue hym, by the helpe of Iesu.

☞ The turne, and remedy therfore.

Page  [unnumbered] THere be beastes that wyll turne about, whan they eate theyr meate, and wyll not fede, and is great ieoperdy for fal∣lynge in pyties, dyches, or waters: and it is bycause that there is a bladder in the foreheed bytwene the brayne panne and the braynes, the whiche must be taken out, or els he shal ne¦uer mende, but dye at lengthe, and this is the remedy and the greatest cure that can be on a beaste. Take that beast, and cast him downe, and bynde his foure fete together, and with thy thombe, thruste the beast in the foreheed, and where thou fyndest the softest place, there take a knyfe, and cut the skyn▪ three or foure inches on bothe sides bytwene the hornes, and as moche benethe towarde the nose, and fley it, and turne it vp, and pyn it faste with a pyn, and with a knyfe cut the brayne pan. ii. inches brode, and thre inches longe, but se the knyfe go no deper than the thycknes of the bone for perysshynge of the brayne, and take away the bone, and than shalt thou se a bladder full of water two inches longe and more, take that out, and hurte not the brayne, and thanne let downe the skynne, and sowe it faste there as it was before, and bynde a clothe two or thre folde vpon his foreheed, to kepe it from colde and wete. x. or. xii. dayes. And thus haue I Page  38 seen many mended. But if the beaste be fatte, and any reasonable meate vpon hym, it is best to kyll hym, for than there is but lyttell losse. And if the bladder be vnder the horne, it is past cure. A shepe wyll haue the turne as well as a beast, but I haue seen none mended.

☞ The warrybrede, and the reme∣dy therfore.

THere be beastes that wyll haue war∣rybredes in dyuers partes of theyr bo∣dy and legges, and this is the remedy. Cast hym downe, and bynde his foure fete to¦gether, and take a culture, or a payre of ton∣ges, or suche an other yren, & take it glowing hote: and if it be a longe warrybrede, sere it of harde by the body, and if it be in the begin∣ninge, and be but flatte, than lay the hot yren vpon it, and sere it to the bare skyn, and it will be hole for euer, be it horse or beast.

¶ The foule, and the remedy therfore.

THere be bestes, that wyl haue the foule and that is betwene the cleese, some∣tyme before, and some tyme behynde, Page  [unnumbered] and it wyll swell, and cause hym to halt, and this is the remedy Cast hym downe and bind his foure fete together, & take a rope of heare, or a hey rope, harde wrythen together, and put it betwene his cleese, and drawe the rope to and fro a good season, tyll he blede well, and than laye to it softe made terre, and binde a cloute aboute it, that noo myre nor grauell come betwene the clese: and put hym in a pa∣sture, or let hym stande styll in the house, and he wyll be shortly hole.

¶ The goute without remedy.

THere be beastes, that wyll haue the goute, and moste commonly in the hyn∣der fete, and it wyll cause them to halt, and go starkely. And I knewe neuer manne, that coulde helpe it, or fynde remedye ther∣fore, but all onely to put hym in good grasse, and fede hym.

¶ To rere calues.

IT is conueniente for a housbande to rere calues, and specyally those that come by∣twene Candelmasse and Maye, for that season he may spare mylke beste, and by that Page  39 tyme the calfe shall be wayned, there wyll be grasse ynoughe to put hym vnto. And at win∣ter he wyll be bygge ynoughe to saue hym¦selfe amonge other beastes, with a lyttell fa∣uoure. And the damme of the calfe shall bull agayne, and brynge an other by the same time of the yere: and if thou shalt tary, tyll after May, the calfe wolde be weyke in wynter, and the damme wolde not bull agayne: but ofte tyme go barryn And if thou shalte rere a calfe, that commeth after Myghelmasse, it wyll be costly to kepe the calfe all the wyn∣ter season at hey, and the damme at harde meate in the house, as they vse in the playne champyon countrey. And a cowe shall gyue more mylke with a lyttell grasse and strawe, lyenge without in a close, thanne she shall doo with hey and strawe, lyenge in an house. for the harde meate dryeth vp the mylke. But he that hath no pasture, muste do as he may, but yet is it better to the hous bande, to sell those calues, than to rere them, bycause of the cost, and also for the profytte of the mylke to his house, and the rather the cowe wyll take the bull. If the husbande go with an oxe plough, it is conuenient, that he rere two oxe calues, and two cowe calues at the least, to vpholde his stocke, and if he maye do moo, it wyll be Page  [unnumbered] more profyte. And it is better, to wayne thy calues at grasse before. And that man, that maye haue a pasture for his kye, and an other for his calues, and water in them both, maye rere and brede good beastes with lyghte coste. And if thou waine thy calues with hey, it wyl make them haue great belyes, and the rather they wyll rotte, whan they come to grasse, and in wynter they wolde be put in a house by them selfe, and gyuen hey on the nyghtes, and put in a good pasture on the day, and they shal be moche better to handell, whan they shal be kye or oxen.

☞ To gelde calues.

IT is tyme to gelde his oxen calues in the olde of the mone, whan they be. x. or. xx. dayes olde, for than it is leaste ieoperdye, and the oxe shall be the more hyer, and the lenger of body, and the lēger horned: and that maye be well prouyd, to take two oxe calues, bothe of one kynde, of one makynge, and both of one age, gelde one of them, and let the o∣ther goo forthe and be a bull, and put theym bothe in one pasture, tyll they be foure or fyue yere olde: and than shall ye se the oxe calfe, ferre greatter euery waye, than the bull. there Page  40 is noo cause, but the geldynge. and yf thou gelde them not, tyll they be a yere olde, there is more ieopardye, he shall be lesse of bodye, and shorte horned.

¶ Horses and mares to drawe.

A Husbande maye not be withoute hor∣ses and mares, or bothe, and specially if he go with a horse ploughe he muste haue both his horses to drawe, and his mares to brynge coltes, to vpholde his stocke, and yet at manye tymes they maye drawe well, if they be well handled. But they maye not beare sackes, nor be rydden vppon noo iour∣neys, whan they be with foole, and specyal∣ly whanne they haue gone with foole. xx. or. xxiiii. wekes, for than is the greatteste ieo∣pardy. For yf she be rydden vppon, and sette vp hotte or tourned out and take cold; she wil caste her foole, the whiche woll be a greatte losse to the housbande. For she wyll labour, and beare whan she hath fooled, and drawe whan she is with foole, as well as the horse. It is conuenient for the husbande to knowe, whanne his mare wolde be horsed. It is the Page  [unnumbered] common sayenge, that she wyll take the hors within. ix. or. x. dayes, nexte after that she hath fooled: but that saying I holde not with, for and she so do, she wyll not holde therto, for the hors dothe dryue her to it. But. xx. days after, is tymely ynoughe to brynge her to a hors for she wyl not holde to it, excepte she be kene of horsyng, and that shal ye knowe by her shap, for that wyll twyrle open, and close agayne many tymes in an houre: and than brynge her to a hors, and let her be with hym a day or a nyght, and that is suffycyent. For it is better, to kepe the horse frome the mares, than to go with them, for dyuers cau∣ses, and specyally he shall be more lusty, and the moo horse coltes shall he gete. But he that hath very many mares, maye not alway attende them, but let them go to gether, and take as god sendes it. Some men holde an opinion, that if the horse be put to the mare in the begynnynge of the moone, after it be prime, he shall gete a horse foole. And some men saye the contrary: that if he be putte to the mare in the olde of the mone, he shoulde gete horse fooles. And I saye, it maketh noo matter, whether: for this cause I haue pro∣ued. I haue my selfe. lx. mares and more, a∣ble to beare the horse, and from Maye daye Page  41 vnto saynte Barthylmewes daye. I haue. v. or. vi. horses goynge with theym bothe daye and nyghte, and at the foolynge tyme I haue vpon one daye a horse fole, and on the nexte day, or seconde, a mare fole, and on the thirde or fourth day next after, a horse fole agayne, and soo euery weke of bothe sortes, and by theyr opynyon or reason, I shulde haue. xiiii. dayes together horse fooles, and other. xiiii. dayes together mare foles. And me semethe, that those men, that holde that opinyon, speke sophystycallye, that if soo be, they layde any wagers thervppon, that they shoulde bothe wynne in theyr owne conceyte by this reason. Whether it were gette in the newe of the mone or in the olde of the mone, it is a horse foole, bycause a horse gate it, though it be a felly fole and it is a mare fole, bycause a mare fooled it, thoughe it be a horse colte. And so (Diuersis respectibus) theyr opynions maye be trewe. But of one thynge I am certayne, that some one horse wyll gette more horse fooles, than other horse wyll doo and lyke wyse, a mare wyll beare moo mare fooles than some other mare wyll do, thoughe they be horsed bothe with one horse. Me semeth there is no reason why, but the lustynes of the nature of bothe partes, whether of them, shall haue the do∣mination. Page  [unnumbered] But and ye haue mares of dyuers colours, than do as I do, seuer them in diuers parcels, and put to your white mares, a grey horse, or a whyte horse, that hath noo whyte rathe in the foreheed, and to your grey mares a white horse, so that he be not al white skyn∣ned aboute the mouthe. And to your mares of colour, that haue no white vpon them, a colou∣red horse, that hath moch white on hym, and to your coloured mares of mayne whyte, a horse of colour of mayn whyte. And thus shal ye haue well coloured coltes. It maketh noo mater, of what colour the horse be, soo he be neyther whyte nor grey. For if ye put a whyte horse to a coloured mare, she shall haue moste comonly a sandy colte, lyke an yren grey, ney¦ther lyke syre nor damme. Howe be it I haue seen and knowen many mares, that wyl haue theyr colte lyke the horse that gate it, the whi¦che is agaynste kynde of mares, for a manne maye rather gette one good horse, than many good mares.

☞ The losse of a lambe, a calfe, or a foole.

IT is lesse hurte to a man, to haue his cowe caste her calfe, thanne an ewe to caste her lambe. For the calfe wyll soucke as moche Page  42 mylke, er it be able to kyll, as it is worthe, and of the ewe commeth noo profytte of the mylke, but the lambe. Howe be it they vse in some places to mylke theyr ewes, whan they haue wayned theyr lambes: but that is great hurte to the ewes, and wyll cause them, that they wyll not take the ramme at the tyme of the yere for pouertye, but goo barreyne. And if a mare caste her foole, that is thryse soo great a losse, for if that foole be commen of good brede, as it is necessary euery man to prouyde, for as moche costes and charges hath a badde mare as a good, in shorte space the foole, with good kepynge, maye be solde for as moche money as wolde bye many cal∣ues and lambes.

¶ What cattell shulde go to gether in one pasture.

BEastes alone, nor horses aloone, nor shepe alone, excepte it be shepe vppon a verye hyghe grounde, wyll not eate a pasture euen, but leaue many tuftes and hygh grasse in dyuers places, excepte it be ouer layde with cattell. Wherfore knowe that hor∣ses and beastes wyll agree well in oone pa∣sture, for there is some maner of grasse, that Page  [unnumbered] or horse wyll eate, and the beast wyl not eate, as the fytches, flasshes, and lowe places, and all the holowe bunnes and pypes that growe therin. But horses and shepe wyll not so well agree, excepte it be shepe to fede, for a shepe wyll go on a bare pasture, and wyll eate the sweteste grasse: and soo wyll a horse, but he wolde haue it lenger. Howe be it he wyll eate as nyghe the erthe as a shepe, but he can not so sone fyll his belly. To an hundred beastes ye maye put. xx. horses, if it be lowe ground, and if there be grasse ynoughe, put in an hun∣dred shepe, and so after the rate, be the pasture more or lesse. And after this maner they may fede and eate the close euen, and leue but fewe tuftes. And if it be an hyghe grounde, put in moo shepe, and lesse bestes and horses Melch kye, and draught oxen, wyll eate a close mo∣che barer than as many fatte kye and oxen. And a melche cowe may haue to moch meate: for if she waxe fatte, she wyll the rather take the bull, and gyue lesse mylke. lor the fatnes stoppeth the poores and the vaines, that shuld brynge the mylke to the pappes And therfore meane grasse is beste to kepe her in a meane estate. And if a cowe be fatte, whan she shall calue, than is there great ieoperdy in her, and the calfe shall be the lesse: but ye can not gyue Page  43 your draught oxe to moche meate, excepte it be the aftermath, of a late mowen medow e. for that wyll cause hym to haue the gyrre, and than he maye not well laboure. And there be to moche grasse in a close, the cattel shall fede the worse, for a good bytte to the erthe is suf∣fycyente. for if it be longe, the beaste wyll byte of the toppe and noo more, for that is swetest, and the other lyeth styll vppon the grounde, and rotteth, and no beaste wyll eate it but horse in wynter, but these beastes, hor∣ses and shepe, maye not be fodered to gether in wynter, for thanne they wolde be seuered: for els the beastes with theyr hornes, wyll put bothe the horses and the shepe, and gore them in theyr bellyes. And it is necessarye to make standynge cratches, to caste theyr fod∣der in, and the staues set nyghe ynough togy∣ther, for pullynge theyr fodder to hastely out, for shedynge. And if it be layde vppon the erthe, the fourthe parte therof wyll be loste: and if ye laye it vpon the erthe, laye it euerye tyme in a newe place, for the olde wyll marre the newe.

¶ The properties of horses.

Page  [unnumbered] THou grasyer, that mayst fortune to be of myne opynyon or condytion, to loue horses and yonge coltes or foles, to go amonge thy cattel, take hede, that thou be not begyled, as I haue ben an hundred tymes and more. And first thou shalt knowe, that a good horse hath. liiii. propertyes, that is to say. ii. of a man. ii of a bauson or a badger. iiii. of a lyon. ix. of an oxe. ix. of a hare. ix. of a foxe. ix. of an asse, and. x. of a woman.

¶ The two properties, that a horse hath of a man.

¶ The fyrste is, to haue a proude harte, and the seconde is, to be bolde and hardy.

The. ii. propertyes of a bauson.

¶ The fyrste is, to haue a whyte rase or a ball in the foreheed, the seconde, to haue a whyte fote.

The. iiii. properties of a lyon.

¶ The fyrste is, to haue a brode breste, the seconde, to be styffe docked, the thyrde, to be wylde in countenaunce, the fourthe, to haue foure good legges.

The. ix. propertyes of an oxe.

Page  44 ¶ The fyrste is, to be brode rybbed, the. ii. to be lowe brawned, the thyrde, to be shorte pasturned, the. iiii. to haue greatte senewes, the fyfte, to be wyde betwene the challes, the syxte is, to haue great nosethrylles, the. vii. to be bygge on the chyn, the. viii. to be fatte and well fedde, the. ix. to be vpryghte standynge.

¶ The. ix. propertyes of an hare.

¶ The fyrste is styffe eared, the seconde, to haue greate eyen, the thyrde, rounde eyen, the fourthe, to haue a leane heed, the. v. to haue leane knees, the syxte, to be wyght on foote, the. vii. to turne vpon a lyttell grounde, the viii. to haue shorte buttockes, the. ix. to haue two good fyllettes

¶ The. ix. propertyes of a foxe.

¶ The fyrste is, to be prycke eared, the se∣conde, to be lyttell eared, the thyrde, to be rounde syded, the fourthe, to be syde tayled, the fyfte, to be shorte legged, the syxte, to be blacke legged, the. vii to be shorte trottynge, the. viii. to be well coloured, the. ix. to haue a lyttell heed.

¶ The. ix. propertyes of an asse.

Page  [unnumbered] ¶ The fyrste is to be small mouthed, the se∣conde, to be longe rayned, the. iii. to be thyn cressed, the fourthe, to be streyght backed, the fyfth, to haue small stones, the syxte, to be lathe legged, the. vii. to be rounde foted, the eyght, to be holowe foted, the. ix. to haue a toughe houe.

¶ The. x. properties of a woman.

¶ The fyrst is, to be mery of chere, the se∣conde, to be well paced, the thyrde, to haue a brode foreheed, the fourth, to haue brode but∣tockes, the fyfthe, to be harde of warde, the syxte, to be easye to lepe vppon, the. vii to be good at a longe iourneye. the. viii. to be well sturrynge vnder a man, the. ix. to be alwaye besye with the mouthe, the tenth, euer to be chowynge on the brydell.

¶ It myght fortune I coude shewe as many defantes of horses, as here be good proper∣tyes, but than I shulde breake my promyse, that I made at Grombalde brydge, the first tyme I wente to Ryppon for to bye coltes. But it is to suppose, that if a horse want any of these good propertyes, that he shulde haue a defaute in the same place. And this is suffy∣cient for this tyme.

Page  45

¶ The diseases and sorance of horses.

NOwe it is to be knowen, the soraunce and dyseases of horses, & in what par∣tes of theyr bodyes they be, that a man maye the rather perceyue them. And howe be it, that it may be against my profyt, yet I wil shewe you suche as cometh to my mynde.

The lampas.

¶ In the mouthe is the lampas, & is a thicke skyn full of bloude, hangynge ouer his tethe aboue, that he may not eate.

The barbes.

¶ The barbes be lyttell pappes in a horse mouth, and lette hym to byte: these two be sone holpen.

Mournynge of the tonge.

¶ Mournynge of the tonge is an yll dysease, and harde to be cured.


¶ Pursy is a disease in an horses bodye, and maketh hym to blowe shorte, and appereth at his nosethrilles, and commeth of colde, and may be well mended.

Broken wynded.

¶ Broken wynded is an yll dysease, and co∣meth of rennynge or rydynge ouer moche, Page  [unnumbered] and specially shortely after he is watred, and appereth at his nosethryll, at his flanke, and also at his tuell, and wyll not be mended, and wyll moche blowe and coughe, if he be sore chafed, and it wyl leaste appere, whan he is at grasse.


¶ Glaunders is a disease, that may be men∣ded, and commeth of a heate, and a sodeyne colde, and appereth at his nosethrylles, and betwene his chall bones.

Mournynge on the chyne.

¶ Mournynge on the chyne is a dysease in curable, and it appereth at his nosethryll lyke oke water. A glaunder, whan it breaketh, is lyke matter. Broken wynded, and pursyfnes, is but shorte blowynge.


¶ Stranguelyon is a lyght dysease to cure, and a horse wyl be very sore sycke therof, and cometh of a chafynge hote, that he swete, and after it wyll ryse and swell in dyuers places of his body, as moche as a mannes fyste, and wyll breake by it selfe, if it be kepte warme, or els is there ieoperdy.

The hawe.

¶ The hawe is a sorance in a horse eye, and is lyke a gristell, and maye well be cutte oute, Page  46 or els it wyll haue out his eye, and that horse that hath one, hath commonly two.


¶ A horse wyll waxe blynde with laboure, and that maye be cured betyme.


¶ The viues is a sorance vnder a horse ere, bytwene the ouer ende of the chall bones and the necke, and are rounde knottes bytwene the skyn and the fleshe lyke tennes balles, and if they be not kilde, they wyl waxe quicke, and eate the rotes of the horse eares, and kil hym.

The cordes.

¶ The cordes is a thynge that wyll make a horse to stumble, and ofte to fall, and appe∣reth before the forther legges of the body of the horse, and may well be cured in ii. places, and there be but fewe horses, but they haue parte therof.

The farcyon.

¶ The farcyon is an yll soraunce, and maye well be cured in the begynnynge, and wyll appere in dyuers places of his bodye, and there wyll ryse pymples as moche as halfe a walnutshell, and they wyll folowe a veyne, and wyll breake by it selfe. And as manye horses as do playe with him, that is sore, and gnappe of the matter that renneth out of the Page  [unnumbered] sore, shall haue the same sorance within a mo∣neth after, and therfore kepe the sycke frome the hole. And if that sorance be not cured be∣tyme, he wyll dye of it.

A malander.

¶ A malander is an yl sorance, and may wel be cured for a tyme, but with yl keping it wyl comme agayne, and appereth on the forther legges, in the bendynge of the knee behynde, and is like a scabbe or a skal: and some horses wyll haue two vpon a legge, within an inche together, and they wyl make a horse to stum∣ble, and other whyle to fall.

A selander.

¶ A selander is in the bendynge of the legge behynde, lyke as the malander is in the ben∣dynge of the legge before, and is lyke a ma∣lander, and may be well cured.

A serewe.

¶ A serewe is an yll soraunce, and is lyke a splent, but it is a lyttell longer and more, and lyeth vppe to the knee on the inner syde. And some horses haue a throughe serewe on bothe sydes of the legge, and that horse must nedes stumble and fall, and harde it is to be cured.

A splent.

¶ A splent is the leaste soraunce that is, that alwaye contynueth excepte lampas. And Page  47 many men take vpon them to mende it, and do payre it.

A ryngbone.

¶ A ryngbone is an yll soraunce, and appe∣reth before on the foote, aboue the houe, as well before as behynde, and wyll be swollen three inches brode, and a quarter of an inche or more of heyghte, and the heare wyll stare and waxe thyn, and wyll make hym to halte, and is yll to cure, if it growe longe.


¶ Wyndgalles is a lyghte sorance, and com∣meth of great labour, and appereth on eyther syde of the ioynte aboue the fetelockes, as wel before as behynde, and is a lyttell swollen with wynde.


¶ Morfounde is an yll sorance, and cometh of rydynge faste tyll he swete, and than sette vp sodeynely in a colde place, without lytte, and take cold on his fete, and specially before, and appereth vnder the houe in the hert of the fote, for it wyll growe downe, and waxe whyte, and cromely lyke a pomis. And also wyl appere by processe by the wryncles on the houe, and the houe before wyll be thycker, and more bryckle, than and he had not benne morfounde, nor he shall neuer trede so boldly Page  [unnumbered] vpon the harde stones, as he dydde before, nor wyll not be able to beare a man a quarter of a yere or more, and with good paryng and shoynge, as he oughte to be, he wyll do good seruyce.

The coltes euyll.

¶ Coltes euyl is an yll disease, and commeth of ranknes of nature and bloudde, and appe∣reth in his scote, for there wyl he swel great, and wyll not be harde, and soone cured in the begynnynge.

The bottes.

¶ The bottes is an yll dysease, and they lye in a horse mawe, and they be an inche long white coloured, and a reed heed, and as mo∣che as a fyngers ende, & they be quycke, and stycke faste in the mawe syde, it apperethe by stampynge of the horse, or tomblynge, and in the beginninge there is remedy ynoughe, and if they be not cured betyme, they wyll eate thorowe his mawe, and kyll hym.

The wormes.

¶ The wormes is a lyght dysease, and they lye in the greatte paunche, in the belye of the horse, and they are shynynge, of colour lyke a snake, syxe inches in lengthe, greate in the myddes, and sharpe at bothe endes, and as moche as a spyndel, and wyll sone be kylde.

Page  48


¶ Affreyd is an yll disease, and commethe of great labour and rydynge faste with a conty∣nuall sweate, and thanne sodeynly to take a great colde, his legges wyll be styffe, and his skyn wyll stycke fast to his sydes, and may be well cured.


¶ Nauylgall is a soraunce, hurte with a sad¦dle, or with a buckle of a croper, or suche other, in the myddes of the backe, and maye be lyghtely cured.

A spauen.

¶ A spauen is an yll sorance, whervppon he wyll halte, and specyally in the begynnynge, and appereth on the hynder legges within, and agaynste the ioynte, and it wyll be a lyt∣tell swolen and harde. And some horses haue throughe spauen, and appereth bothe within and without, and those be yll to be cured.

A courbe.

¶ A courbe is an yll sorance, and maketh a horse to halte sore, and appereth vppon the hynder legges streyght behynde, vnder the camborell place, and a lyttell benethe the spa∣uen, and wyll be swollen, and yll to cure, if it growe longe vpon hym.

Page  [unnumbered]

The stringe halte.

¶ The stryng halte is an yl disease, and ma∣keth him to twyche vp his legge sodeynly, and maketh hym to halte, and cometh ofte with a colde, and doth not appere outwarde.


¶ Enterfyre. is a sorance, and cometh of yll shoynge, and appereth ofte both behynde and before, betwene the fete agaynst the feteloc∣kes, there is no remedy but good showynge.


¶ Myllettes is an yll sorance, and appereth in the fetelockes behynde, & causeth the heare to sheede thre or foure inches of length, and a quarter of an inche in brede, lyke as it were bare and yll to cure, but it maye be perceiued, and specially in wynter tyme.

The peynes.

¶ The peynes is an yll soraunce, and appe∣reth in the fetelockes, and wyl swel in wynter tyme, and oyse of water, and the heare wyll stare and be thyn, and yl to cure, but it wyl be seen in wynter.


¶ Cratches is a soraunce that wyll cause a horse to halte, and commeth of yll kepynge, and appereth in the pasturnes, lyke as the skyn were cut ouerthwarte, that a man maye Page  49 laye a white strawe, and it is sone cured.


¶ Atteynt is a sorance, that commeth of an ouer rechynge, yf it be before, and if it be be∣hynde, it is of the tredynge of an other horse, the whiche maye be soone cured.


¶ Grauelynge is a hurte, that wyll make a horse to halte, and commethe of grauell and lyttel stones, that goth in betwene the shough and the herte of the fote, and is sone mended.

A cloyed.

¶ A cloyed is an hurte, that commeth of yll shoynge, whan a smyth dryueth a nayle in to the quycke, the which wyll make hym to halt, and is sone cured.

The scabbe.

¶ There is a disease amonge horses, that is called the scabbe, and it is a skorfe in dyuers places of his body. And it commeth of a po∣uertie and yll kepynge, and is most commonly amonge olde horses, and wyll dye thervpon, and maye be well cured.


¶ There be horses that wyll be lowsy, and it cometh of pouertie, colde and yll kepynge, and it is moste commonly amonge yonge hor∣ses, and menne take lyttell hede vnto it, and Page  [unnumbered] yet they wyll dye thervppon, and it maye be soone cured.


¶ There is a defaute in a horse, that is ney∣ther sorance, hurte, nor disease, and that is if a horse wante wartes behynde, benethe the spauen place, for than he is noo chapmannes ware, if he be wylde, but if he be tame, and haue ben rydden vpon, than Caueat emptor, beware the byer, for the byer hath bothe his eyen to se, and his handes to handell. It is a sayenge, that suche a horse shoulde dye so∣deynely, whan he hath lyued as many yeres as the mone was dayes olde, at suche tyme as he was foled.

The sayinge of the frenche man.

¶ These be soraunce, hurtes, and dyseases, that be nowe comme to my mynde, and the frenche man saythe, Mort de langue, et de eschine, sount maladyes saunce medicine. The mournynge of the tongue, and of the chyne, are diseases without remedy or medi∣cyne. And ferther he saythe, Gardes bien, que il soyt cler de vieu, Que tout trauayle ne soit perdue: Be wel ware, that he be clere of syghte, lest all thy trauayle or iourneye be lost or nyght. And bycause I am a horse ma∣ster my selfe, I haue shewed you the soraunce Page  50 and dyseases of horses, to the entent that men shulde beware, & take good hede what horses they bye of me or of any other. Howe be it I saye to my customers, and those that bye any horses of me, and euer they wil trust any hors master or corser, whyle they lyue, truste me.

¶ The diuersitie bytwene a horse mayster, a corser, and a horse leche.

A Horse mayster is he, that bieth wylde horses, or coltes, and bredeth theym, and selleth theym agayne wylde, or breaketh parte of them, and maketh theym tame, and than selleth them. A corser is he, that byeth all rydden horses, and selleth them agayne. The horse leche is he, that takethe vppon hym to cure and mende all maner of diseases and soraunce that horses haue. And whan these three be mette, if ye hadde a poty∣carye to make the fourthe, ye myghte haue suche foure, that it were harde to truste the best of them. It were also conuenyent to shew medicynes and remedyes for al these diseases and sorances, but it wolde be to longe a pro∣cesse at this tyme, for it wolde be as moche as halfe this boke. And I haue not the per∣fyte connynge, nor the experyence, to shewe medycynes and remedyes for theym all.

Page  [unnumbered] And also the horse leches wolde not be con∣tent therwith for it myghte fortune to hurte or hynder theyr occupation.

¶ Of swyne.

NOwe thou husbande, that haste bothe horses and mares, beastes, and shepe: It were necessary also, that thou haue bothe swyne and bees. for it is an olde say∣inge: he that hath bothe shepe, swyne, and bees slepe he, wake he, he maye thryue. And that sayenge is, bycause that they be those thinges, that moste profyt iseth of in shortest space, with least coste. Than se howe manye swyne thou art able to kepe, let them be bores and sowes all, and no hogges. And if thou be able to rere vi pigges a yere, than let two of them be bores, and foure of them sowes, and so to contynue after the rate For a bore will haue as lyttell kepynge as a hogge, and is moche better than a hogge, and more meate on hym and is redy at all tymes to eate in the wynter season, and to be layde in souse. And a sowe, er she be able to kyl, shall bryng forth as many pyggs or moo, as she is worth, and her bodye is neuer the worse, and wyll be as good baken as a hogge, and as lyttell ke∣pynge, Page  51 but at suche tyme as she hath pygges. And if thy sowe haue moo pygges than thou wilt rere, sel them, or eate them, & rere those pigges, that come about lenten time specyally the begynnynge of somer, for they can not be rered in winter, for cold, without great coste.

☞ Of bees.

OF bees is lyttell charge, but good at∣tendaunce at the tyme that they shall cast the swarme, it is conuenient, that the hyue be set in a garden, or an orchyarde, where as they maye be kepte from the northe wynde, and the mouthe of the hyue towarde the sonne And in Iune and Iuly, they do most commonlye caste, and they wolde haue some lowe trees nyghe vnto them before the hyue that the swarme maye lyght vpon, and whan the swarme is knytte, take a hyue, and splente it within with thre or foure splentes, that the bees maye knytte theyr comōes therto, and annoynte the splentes, and the sydes of the hyue, with a lyttell honye. And if thou haue no honye, take swete creame, and than set a stole or a forme nyghe vnto the swarme, and laye a clene washen shete vppon the stole, and thanne holde the smalle ende of the hyue Page  [unnumbered] downewarde, and shake the bees in to the hyue, and shortely sette it vppon the stole, and turne vppe the corners of the shete ouer the hyue, and to leue one place open, that the bees may come in and out: but thou mayst not fight nor stryue with theym for noo cause, and to laye nettyls vppon the bowes, where as they were knytte, to dryue them from that place, and soo watche them all that daye, that they go not away, and at nyght, whan al be goone vp into the hyue, take it away and set it where it shall stande, and take awaye thy shete, and haue claye tempered to laye aboute it vppon the borde or stone, where it shall stande, that noo wynde comme in, but the borde is better and warmer. And to leaue an hole open on the south syde, of three inches brode, and an inche of heyghte, for the bees to come in and out. And than to make a couerynge of wheate strawe or rye strawe, to couer and house the hyue about, and set the hyue two fote or more from the erthe vpon stakes, soo that a mouse can not come to it, and also neyther beastes nor swyne. And if a swarme be caste late in the yere, they wolde be fedde with honnye in wynter, and layde vppon a thynne narowe borde, or a thynne sclatte or leade, put it into the hyue, and an other thynne borde wolde be Page  52 set before euery hyues mouthe, that no winde come in, and to haue foure or fyue lyttell nyc∣kes made on the nether syde, that a bee maye comme out, or go in, and so fastened, that the wynde blowe it not downe, and to take it vp whan he wyll. And that hyue, that is fedde, to stoppe the mouthe cleane, that other bees come not in, for if they doo, they wyll fyghte, and kyll eche other. And beware, that noo waspes come in to the hyue, for they wyllkyl the bees, and eate the honny. And also there is a bee called a drone, and she is greatter than an other bee, and they wyll eate the hon∣ny, and gather nothynge: and therfore they wolde be kylde, and it is a sayenge, that she hath loste her stynge, and than she wyl not la∣bour as the other do.

¶ Howe to kepe beastes and other cattell.

IF a housbande shall kepe cattell well to his profytte, he muste haue seuerall closes and pastures to put his cattel in. the which wolde be wel quickesetted, diched, & hedged, that he maye seuer the byggeste cattell frome the weykeste at his pleasure, and specyallye Page  [unnumbered] in wynter tyme, whan they shall be fodered. And thoughe a man be but a farmer, and shall haue his farme xx yeres, it is lesse coste for hym, and more profyte to quyckeset, dyche, and hedge, than to haue his cattel goo before the herdeman For let the housbande spende in thre yeees as moche money as the kepynge of his beastes, swyne, and shepe, doth cost him in iii yeres, than alwaye after, he shal haue all maner of cattell with the tenthe parte of the coste, and the beastes shal lyke moche bet∣ter. And by this reason. The herdeman wyll haue for euery beast. ii. d. a quarter, or there aboute: And the swyneherde wyll haue for euery swyne. i. d. at the leaste. Than he must haue a shepeherde of his owne, or elles he shal neuer thryue. Than reken meate, drinke, and wages for his shepeherde, the herdmans hyre, and the swyneherdes hyre, these char∣ges wyll double his rent or nyghe it, excepte his farme be aboue. xl. s. by yere. Nowe see what his charges be, in. iii. yeres, lette hym ware as moche money in quickesettynge, dy∣thynge, and hedgynge, and in thre yeres he shall be discharged for euermore, and moche of this labour he and his seruauntes maye do with theyr owne handes, and saue moche money. And than hath he euery fyelde in se∣ueraltye. Page  53 And by the assente of the lordes and the tenauntes, euery neyghbour may ex∣chaunge landes with other. And than shall his farme be twyse so good in profytte to the tenaunte as it was before, and as moche lande kepte in tyllage, and than shall not the ryche man ouer eate the poore man with his cattell, and the fourth parte of heye and strawe shall serue his cattel better in a pasture, than. iiii. tymes soo moche wyll do in a house, and lesse attendaunce, and better the cattel shall lyke, and the chiefe sauegarde for corne bothe daye and nyghte that can be.

¶ To get settes and set them.

ANd if thou haue pastures, thou muste nedes haue quyckesettynge, dychynge and plasshynge. Whan it is grene, and commeth to age, than gette thy quyckesettes in the woode countreye, and let theym be of whyte thorne and crabtree, for they be beste, holye and hasell be good. And if thou dwelle in the playne countrey, than mayste thou gete bothe asshe, oke, and elme, for those wyll encrease moche woode in shorte space. And set thy oke settes and the asshe. x. or. xii. fote a sonder, and cut them as thou dost thy other Page  [unnumbered] settes, and couer theym ouer with thornes a lyttell, that shepe and cattell eate them not. And also wede them clene in mydsomer mone or soone after: for the wedes, if they ouer growe, wyl kyl the settes. But get no blacke thorne for nothynge, for that wyl grow out∣warde into the pasture, and doth moch hurte in the grasse, and tearyng the woll of the shepe. It is good tyme to se quickesettes, fro that tyme the leaues be fallen, vnto oure la∣dy daye in lente, and thy sandye grounde or grauell set fyrste, than clay grounde, and than meane grounde, and the medowe or marreys grounde laste, for the sande, and grauell wyll drye anone, and than the quyckeset wyll take no rote, except it haue greate weate, for the muldes wyll lye lose, if it be dyched in Fe∣bruary or marche, and lyke wise clay ground And make thy settes longe ynough, that they maye be set depe ynough in the erth, for than they wyll growe the better. And to stande halfe a foote and more aboue the erthe, that they maye sprynge oute in many braunches. And than to take a lyne, and sette it there as thou wylte haue thy hedge, and to make a trenche after thy lyne, and to pare awaye the grasse there the quyckesettes shal be set, and caste it by, where the erthe of the dyche shall Page  54 lye, and dygge vp the muldes a spade graffe depe, and to put in thy settes, and dygge vp more molde, and laye vppon that set, and so peruse, tyll thou haue set all thy settes, and let them lene towarde the dyche. And a soote from that make thy dyche. for if thou make it to nyghe thy settes the water maye fortune to weare the grounde on that syde, and cause thy settes to fall downe

¶ To make a dyche.

¶ If thou make thy dyche foure foote brode, than wolde it be two foote and a halfe depe. And if it be. v. fote brode, than. iii. fote depe, and so accordynge, and if it be fyue fote brod, than it wolde be double sette, and the rather it wolde fence it selfe, and the lower hedge wyll serue.

¶ To make a hedge.

THou muste gette the stakes of the harte of oke, for those be best, crabtre, blacke thorne, and ellore be good. Reed we∣thy is beste in marsshe grounde, asshe, maple, hasel, and whyte thorne wyl serue for a time. And set thy stakes within. ii. foote and a halfe Page  [unnumbered] together, excepte thou haue very good edde∣rynge, and longe, to bynde with. And if it be double eddered, it is moch the better, and gret strength to the hedge, and moche lenger it wil last. And lay thy small trouse or thornes, that thou hedgeste withall, ouer thy quickesettes, that shepe do not eate the sprynge nor buddes of thy settes. Let thy stakes be well dryuen, that the poynt take the hard erthe. And whan thou haste made thy hedge, and eddered it well, than take thy mall agayne, and dryue downe thy edderinges, and also thy stakes by and by. For with the wyndynge of the edde∣rynges thou doost leuse thy stakes, and ther∣fore they muste nedes be dryuen newe, and hardened agayne, and the better the stake wil be dryuen, whan he is wel bounden.

¶ To plasshe or pleche a hedge.

IF the hedge be of. x. or. xii yeres growing sythe it was first set, thanne take a sharpe hachet, or a handbyll, and cutte the settes in a playne place, nyghe vnto the erthe, the more halue a sonder, and bende it downe to∣warde the erthe, and wrappe and wynde theym together, but alwaye se that the toppe Page  55 lye hyer than the rote a good quantytie, for elles the sappe wyll not renne in to the toppe kyndely, but in processe, the toppe wyll dye, and than set a lyttel hedge on the backe syde, and it shall nede noo more mendynge manye yeres after. And if the hedge be of. xx. xxiiii. or. xxx. yere of age, sythe it was fyrst sette, than wynde in first al the nethermoste bowes, and wynde them together, and than cutte the settes in a playne place, a lyttel from the erth, the more halfe a sonder, and to lette it slaue downewarde, and not vpwarde, for dyuerse causes: than wynde the bowes and braun∣ches therof in to the hedge, and at euery two fote. or. iii. fote to leaue one set growyng not plasshed, and the toppe to be cut of foure fote hygh. or there aboute, to stande as a stake, if there be any suche, or els to set an other, and to wynd the other that be plched about them. And if the bowes, wyll not lye playne in the hedge, than cut it the more halfe a sonder, and bynd it to the hedge, and than shal he not nede for to mende the hedge, but in fewe places, xx. yeres after or more. And if the hedge be olde, and be great stubbes or trees, and thyn in the bottome, that beastes may go vnder, or betwene the trees: thanne take a sharpe axe, and cutte the trees or stubbes, that growe a Page  [unnumbered] fote from the erthe, or there about, in a plaine place, within an inche or two inches of the side and let them slaue downward, as I sayd be∣fore, and let the toppe of the tree lye ouer the rote of an other tree, and to pleche downe the bowes of the same tree, to stoppe the holowe places. And if all the holowe and voyde pla∣ces wyl not be fylled and stopped, than scoure the old dyche, and cast it vp newe, and to fyll with erthe al the voyde places. And if soo be these trees wyll not reche in euerye place, to make a sufficyent defence, than double quicke set it, & diche it new in euery place, that is nede ful, & set a hedge thervpon, and to ouerlay the settes, for eatynge of shepe or other cattel.

¶ To mende a hye waye.

ME semeth, it is necessarye to shewe mine opinion, howe an hye way shulde be amended. And fyrste and pryncy∣pally, see that there be noo water standynge in the hye waye, but that it be alwaye cur∣rante and rennynge, nor haue none abydynge more in one place thanne in an other. And in somer, whan the water is dryed vp, than to get grauell, and to fyll vp euery lowe place, and to make theym euen, somewhat dyscen∣dynge Page  56 or currante, one waye or other, and if there be noo grauell, nor stones to gette, yet fyll it vp with erthe in the begynnynge of so∣mer, that it maye be well hardened with ca∣ryage and treadynge vppon, and it shall be well amended, if the water maye passe away from it, the whiche wolde be well consyde∣red, and specially aboute London, where as they make moche more coste than nedeth, for there they dyche theyr hye wayes on bothe sydes, and fyll vp the holowe and lowe pla∣ces with erthe, and than they caste and laye grauell a lofte. And whan a greatte rayne or water commeth, and synketh thorowe the gra¦uell, and commeth to the erthe, than the erthe swelleth and bolneth, and waxeth softe, and with treadynge, and specyally with caryage, the grauell synketh, and gothe downewarde as his nature and kynde requyreth, and than it is in maner of a quycke sande, that harde it is for any thynge to goo ouer. But yf they wolde make no dyche in sommertyme, whan the warer is dryed vp, that a man may se all the holowe and lowe places, than to cary gra¦uel, and fyl it vp as hygh as the other knolles be, than wold it not bolne ne swell, nor be no quycke sande, and euery mā may go beside the hie way with theyr cariage at theyr pleasure. Page  [unnumbered] And this me semeth is lesse coste, and lenger wyll last with a lyttell mendynge whan nede requyreth. Therfore me thynketh, yf this were well loked vpon, it shuld be bothe good and necessarye for that purpose: for soo haue I seen done in other places, where as I haue ben. &c.

¶ To remoue and set trees.

IF thou wylte remoue and sette trees, get as manye rotes with them as thou canste, and breake them not, nor bryse theym, by thy wyll. And if there be any rote broken and sore brused, cut it of harde by, there as it is brused, with a sharpe hatchet, elles that roote wyll dye. And if it be asshe, elme, or oke, cut of all the bowes cleane, and saue the toppe hole. For if thou make hym ryche of bowes, thou makeste hym poore of thryfte, for two causes. The bowes causeth theym to shake with wynde, and to leuse the rotes. Also he can not be soo cleane gete, but some of the rotes muste nedes be cut, and than there wyll not come soo moche sappe and moystenes to the bowes, as there dyd before. And if the tree be very longe, cut of the top, two or thre yardes. And if it be an apple tree, or peare Page  51 tree, or suche other as beareth fruyte, than cut away all the water bowes, and the small bowes, that the pryncipall bowes, may haue the more sap. And if ye make a marke, which syde of the tree standeth towarde the sonne, that he may be set so agayne, it is soo moche the better.

¶ Trees to be set without rotes and growe.

THere be trees wil be set without rotes, and growe well, and sprynge rotes of them selfe. And those be dyuerse apple trees, that haue knottes in the bowes, as casses, or wydes, and suche other, that wyll growe on slauynges, and lykewyse popeler and wethy: and they must be cut cleane besyde the tree, that they growe on, and the toppe cut. cleane of. viii. or. x. fote of lengthe, and all the bowes betwene, and to be set a fote depe or more in the erthe, in good grounde. And ye shall vnderstande, that there be foure ma∣ner of wethyes, that is to say, white wethye, blacke wethy, reed wethy, and osyerde we∣thy. Whyte wethye wyll growe vppon drye grounde, yf it be sette in the begynnynge of wynter, and wyll not growe in marsshe Page  [unnumbered] grounde. blacke wethy wyll growe better on marshe grounde, and redde wethy in lyke maner: and osyerde wethy wyll growe beste in water and moyste grounde. And they be trees that wyll soone be nourysshed, and they wyll beare moche woodde, and they wolde be cropped euery vii or. viii yere, orels they wyll dye, but they maye not be cropped in sappe tyme, nor no tree els. And in many pla∣ces, bothe the lordes, freeholders, and te∣nauntes at wyll, sette suche wethyes, and popelers, in marsshe grounde, to nourysshe wodde. &c.

¶ To fell wodde for housholde, or to sell.

IF thou haue any woddes to felle, for thy householde to brenne or to sell, than fell the vnder wodde fyrste in wynter, that thy cattell or beastes maye eate and brouse the toppes, and to fell noo more on a daye but as moche as the beastes wyll eate the same daye, or on the morowe after. And as soone as it is well eaten or broused, thanne kydde it, and set them on the endes, and that wyll saue the bandes from rottynge, and they shall be the lyghter to carye, and the better wyll Page  52 they brenne, and lie in lsse rowme. And whan thou shalt bryng them home to make a stacke of them, set the nethermoste course vpon the endes, and the seconde course flat vppon the syde, and the endes vpwarde, and the thyrde couse flatte on the syde ouerthwart the other. And so to peruse them, tyll thou haue layd all vp. And whan thou shalte brenne them, take the ouermoste fyrste.

¶ To shrede, lop or croppe trees.

IF thou haue any trees to shrede, loppe, or croppe for the fyre wodde, croppe them in wynter, that thy beastes maye eate the brouse, and the mosse of the bowes, and also the yues, And whanne they be broused and eaten, dresse the wodde, and bowe it clene, and cutte it at euery byghte, and rere the greatte wodde to the tree, and kydde the smal bowes, and set them on ende. And if thou shalte not haue sufficyent wodde, excepte thou heed thy trees, and cut of the toppes, than heed theym thre or foure fote aboue any tymber: and if it be noo tymbre tree, but a shaken tree, or a hedge rote full of knottes, thanne heed hym thyrty foote hyghe, or twenty at the leaste, Page  [unnumbered] for soo ferre he wyll beare plentye of woode and bowes, and moche more, thanne if he were not heeded. For a tree hath a proper∣tye, to growe to a certayne heyght, and whan he commeth to that heyghte, he standeth styll, and groweth noo hyer, but in brede: and in conclusion, the toppe wyll dye and decrease, and the body thryue. And if a tree be heeded, and vsed to be lopped and cropped at euerye xii or. xvi. yeres ende, or there about, it wyll beare moche more woode, by processe of time, than if it were not cropped, and moche more profyte to the owner.

¶ Howe a man shulde shrede, loppe, or croppe trees.

IT is the comon gyse, to begynne at the top of the tree, whan he shall be shred or crop∣ped, bycause eche bough shulde lye vppon other, whan they shall fal so that the weight of the bowes shall cause theym to be the ra∣ther cut downe. But that is not beste, for that causeth the bowes to slaue downe the nether parte, and pulleth awaye the barke from the bodye of the tree, the whiche wyll cause the tree to be holowe in that place in tyme com∣mynge, and many tymes it shall hynder hym. Page  53 And therfore lette hym begynne at the ne∣thermoste boughe fyrste, and with a lyghte axe for an hande, to cut the boughe on bothe sydes, a foote or two foote from the bodye of the tree. And specially cut it more on the ne∣ther syde, than on the ouer syde, soo that the boughe fall not streyght downe, but turne on the syde, and than shall it not slaue nor breke no barke. And euery boughe wil haue a newe heed, and beare moche more woode. and by thy wyll, without thou must nedes do it, crop not thy tree, nor specyallye heed hym, whan the wynde standeth in the northe, or in the eest. And beware, that thou croppe hym not, nor heed hym (specially) in sappe tyme, for than wyll he dye within fewe yeres after, if it be an oke.

¶ To sell woode or tymber.

IF thou haue any woode to selle, I aduyse the, retayle it thy selfe, if thou mayste at∣tende vppon it: and if not, thanne to cause thy baylye, or somme other wyse or dyscrete man, to do it for the. And if it be small wode, to kydde it, and sel it by the hundredes, or by the thousandes. And if there be asshes in it, to sell the smalle asshes to cowpers for gar∣hes, Page  [unnumbered] and the gret asshes to whele wryghtes, and the meane asshes to plowe wrightes, and the crabbe trees to myllers, to make cogges, and ronges. And if there be any okes, bothe gret and smal, fel them, and pyl them, and sel the barke by it selfe, and than sorte the trees, the polles by them selfe, the myddel shorte by them selfe, and the greattest by them selfe, & than sel them by scores, or halfe scores, or. C. as thou maist, and to fel it hard by the erth, for i fote next vnto the erth, is worthe. ii. fote in the top, and to cut thy tymber longe ynoughe, that thou leue no timber in the toppe. And to sell the toppes as they lye a greatte, or elles dresse them & sel the great wodde by it selfe, & the kyd wodde by it selfe, and to fal the vnder wode fyrst at any tyme betwene Martilmas and holyrode day And al the asshes, bytwene Martylmasse and Candelmas, and all okes, as soone as they wyl pyl, vntyl May be done, and not after. Perauenture the greattest man hath not the beste prouisyon. And that is by∣cause the seruauntes wyll not enfourme hym these wayes, and also may fortune they wold bye suche woodes theym selfe, or be partener of the same, and to auyse his lorde to sel them. It is not cōuenient, that the salesman, that sel¦leth the wod, shuld be partener with the bier.

Page  54

¶ To kepe sprynge wodde.

IN the wynter before that thou wilt fel thy wodde, make a good and a sure hedge▪ that no maner of cattel can get in. And as short∣ly as it is fallen, let it be caryed away, or the sprynge come vp, for els the cattell, that doth cary the wodde, wyll eate the sprynge: and whan the top is eaten, or broken, it is a great lette, hurte, and hynderaunce of the goodnes of the sprynge, for than where it is eaten, it burges oute of many braunches, and not soo fayre as the fyrst wolde haue ben. A parke is best kept, whan there is neyther man, dogge, nor foure foted beast therin, except dere. And so is a spryng beste kepte, where there is ney∣ther manne nor foure foted beastes within the hedge. But if there be moche grasse, and thou were lothe to lose it, than put in calues, new∣ly wained and taken from theyr dammes, and also waynynge coltes, or horses not paste a yere of age: and let thy calues be taken away at Maye, the coltes may go lenger, for eating of any wodde, but there is ieoperdy bothe for calues, foles, and coltes, for tyckes, or for be∣inge lowsy, the whiche wyl kyl them, if they be not taken hede vnto. And vii yeres is the lest, that it wil saue it selfe, but. x yeres is best. Page  [unnumbered] And than the vnder bowes wolde be cutte a∣waye, and made kyddes therof, and the other wyll growe moche the better and faster. And if the vnder bowes be not cutte awaye, they wyll dye, and than they be loste, and greatte hurte to the sprynge, for they take awaye the sappe, that shoulde cause the sprynge to growe better.

¶ Necessary thynges belongynge to graffynge.

IT is necessarye, profytable, and also a pleasure, to a housbande, to haue peares, wardens, and apples of dyuerse sortes. And also cheryes, filberdes, bulleys, damp∣sons, plummes, walnuttes, and suche other. And therfore it is conuenyent, to lerne howe than shalte graffe. Than it is to be knowen, what thynges thou must haue to graffe with∣all. Thou muste haue a graffynge sawe, the whiche wolde be very thynne, and thycke to∣thed, and bycause it is thynne, it wyll cut the narower kyrfe, and the cleaner for brusynge of the barke. And therfore it is sette in a com∣passe pece of yren, syxe inches of, to make it styffe and bygge. thou muste haue also a graf∣fynge knyfe, an inche brode, with a thycke Page  55 backe, to cleue the stocke with all. And also a mallet, to dryue the knyfe and thy wedge in to the tree: and a sharpe knife, to pare the stockes heed, and an other sharpe knyfe, to cutte the graffe cleane. And also thou muste haue two wedges of harde wood, or elles of yren, a longe small one, for a small stocke, and a broder, for a bygger stocke, to open the stocke, whan it is clouen and pared: and also good tough claye and mosse, and also bastes or pyllynge of wethy or elme, to bynde them with. &c.

¶ What fruite shuld be fyrste graffed.

PEares and wardens wolde be graffed before any maner of apples, bycause the sappe commeth sooner and rather in to the peare tree and warden tree, thanne in to the apple treee. And after saynt Valentynes daye, it is tyme to graffe bothe peares and wardens, tyll Marche be comen, and thanne to graffe appels to our lady daye. And than graffe that that is gette of an olde apple tree fyrste, for that wyll budde before the graffe get of a yonge apple tree late graffed. And a peare or a warden wolde be graffed in a yrre stocke, and if thou canst get none, than Page  [unnumbered] graffe it in a crabbe tree stocke, and it wyll do well. and some men graffe theym in a whyte thorne, and than it wyll be the more harder and stonye. And for all maner of appels, the crabtree stocke is beste.

¶ Howe to graffe.

THou muste get thy graffes of the fay∣rest lanses, that thou canste fynde on the tree, and see that it haue a good knotte or ioynte, and an euen. Than take thy sawe, and sawe in to thy cabbetree, in a fayre playne place, pare it euen with thy knyfe, and thanne cleaue the stocke with thy greatte knyfe and thy mallet, and set in a wedge, and open the stocke, accordynge to the thyckenesse of thy graffe, thanne take thy smalle sharpe knyfe, and cutte the graffe on bothe sydes in the ioynte, but passe not the myddes therof for nothynge, and let the inner syde, that shall be set in to the stocke, be a lyttel thynner than the vtter syde, and the nether poynte of the graffe the thynner: than preferre thy graffe in to the stocke, and if it go not close, than cut the graffe or the stocke, tyll they close cleane, that thou canste not put the edge of thy knyfe Page  56 on neyther syde betwene the stocke and the graffe, and sette them so, that the toppes of the graffe bende a lyttell outewarde, and see that the wodde of the graffe be set mete with the wodde of the stocke, and the sappe of the stocke maye renne streyght and euen with the sappe of the graffe. for the barke of the graffe is neuer soo thicke as the barke of the stocke. And therfore thou mayste not sette the barkes mete on the vtter syde, but on the inner syde: than pull awaye thy wedge: and it wyl stand moche faster. Than take toughe cleye, lyke marley, and ley it vppon the stocke heed, and with thy fynger laye it close vnto the graffe, and a lyttell vnder the heed, to kepe it moyst, and that no wynde come into the stocke at the cleauynge. Than take mosse, and laye ther∣vpon, for chynynge of the claye: than take a baste of whyte wethy or elme, or halfe a bry∣er, and bynd the mosse, the clay, and the graffe together, but be well ware, that thou, breake not thy graffe, neyther in the clayenge, nor in the byndynge, and thou muste set some thinge by the graffe, that crowes, nor byrdes do not lyght vpon thy graffe. for if they do, they wil breake hym. &c.

Page  [unnumbered]

¶ To graffe bytwene the barke and the tree.

THere is an other maner of graf∣finge than this and soner done, & soner to growe: but it is more ieoperdy for winde whan it be∣gynneth to growe. Thou muste sawe thy stocke, and pare the heed therof, as thou diddest before, but cleue it not: than take thy graffe, and cut it in the ioynt to the myd∣des, and make the tenaunte therof halfe an inche longe, or a lyttell more, all on the one syde, and pare the barke awaye a lyttel at the poynt on the other syde. than thou muste haue made redy a ponch of harde wood, with a stop and a tenaunte on the one syde, lyke to the tenaunte of the graffe. Than put the tenaunt of the ponche betwene the barke & the woode of the stocke, and pull it out agayne, and put in the graffe, and se that it ioyne close, or els mende it. And this can not fayle, for now the sappe cometh on euery syde, but it wyl spring soo faste, that if it stande on playne grounde, the wynde is lykelye to blowe it besyde the heed, for it hath no fastnes in the wodde. And this is beste remedy for blowynge of, to cutte or clyppe awaye somme of the nethermooste Page  57 leaues as they growe. And this is the beste waye to graffe, and specyally a greate tree: than claye it, and bynde it as thou dyddest the other. &c.

¶ To nourishe all maner of stone fruite, and nuttes.

AS for cheryes, dampsons, bulleys, plummes, and suche other, maye be sette of stones, and also of the scyen∣ces, growynge aboute the tree of the same, for they wyll sooneste beare. Fylberdes and walnuttes maye be set of the nuttes in a gar∣deyne, and after remoued and sette where he wyll But whan they be remoued, they wolde be set vpon as good a grounde, or a better, or els they wyll not lyke.

¶ A shorte information for a yonge gentyl∣man, that entendeth to thryue.

I Auyse hym to gette a copy of this presente boke, and to rede it frome the begynnynge to the endynge, wherby he maye perceyue the chapyters and contentes of the same, and by reason of ofte redyng, he maye waxe perfyte, what shulde be doone at all seasons. Page  [unnumbered] For I lerned two verses at grammar scole, and they be these: Gutta cauat lapidem non vi, sed saepe cadendo: Sic homo fit sapiens non vi, sed saepe legendo: A droppe of wa∣ter perseth a stoone, not al onely by his owne strengthe, but by his often fallynge. Ryghte so a man shall be made wyse, not all onely by hym selfe, but by his ofte redynge. And soo maye this yonge gentyllman, accordynge to the season of the yere, rede to his seruauntes what chapyter he wyll. And also for any o∣ther maner of profyte conteyned in the same, the whiche is necessary for a yonge husbande, that hath not the experyence of housbandrye, nor other thynges conteyned in this presente boke, to take a good remembraunce and cre∣dence thervnto, for there is an olde sayinge, but of what auctorytie I can not tell: Quod melior est practica rusticorū, q sciētia philo sophorum, It is better the practiue or know lege of an husband man well proued, than the science or connynge of a philosopher not pro∣ued, for there is nothynge touchyng husban∣dry, and other profytes conteyned in this pre¦sente booke, but I haue hadde the experyence therof, and proued the same. And ouer and be¦side al this boke, I wil aduise him to ryse be∣time in the morning, according to the verse be∣fore Page  58 spoke of Sanat, sanctificat, et ditat sur∣gere mane: And to go about his closes, pastu¦res, fieldes, and specially by the hedges, & to haue in his purse a payre of tables, and whan he seeth any thing, that wolde be amended, to wryte it in his tables: as if he fynde any hor∣ses, mares, beastes, shepe, swyne, or geese in his pastures, that be not his owne: And per∣auenture thoughe they be his owne, he wolde not haue them to goo there, or to fynde a gap, or a sherde in his hedge, or any water stan∣dynge in his pastures vppon his grasse, wher∣by he maye take double hurte, bothe losse of his grasse, and rotting of his shepe and calues. And also of standynge water in his corne fiel∣des at the landes endes, or sydes, and howe he wold haue his landes plowed, donged, stur¦red, or sowen And his corne weded or shorne or his cattell shifted out of one pasture into an other, and to loke what dychyng, quicsettyng, or plashing is necessary to be had, and to ouer se his shepeherd, how he handleth and ordreth his shepe, and his seruantes howe they plowe and do theyr warkes, or if any gate he broken down, or want any staues, and go not lyghtly to open and tyne, and that it do not traile, and that the windes blowe it not open, with ma∣ny mo necessary thynges that are to be loked Page  [unnumbered] vpon. For a man alwaye wanderynge or go∣inge aboute somewhat, fyndeth or seeth that is amysse, and wolde be amended. And as soone as he seeth any suche defautes, than let hym take oute his tables, and wryte the de∣fautes. And whan he commeth home to diner, supper, or at nyght, than let hym call his bay¦ly, or his heed seruaunte, and soo shewe hym the defautes, that they may be shortly amen∣ded. And whan it is amended, than let him put it out of his tables. For this vsed I to doo. x. or. xii. yeres and more. and thus let hym vse dayely, and in shorte space, he shall sette moche thynges in good order, but dayely it wyll haue mendynge. And yf he canne not wryte, lette hym nycke the defautes vppon a stycke, and to shewe his bayely, as I sayde before. Also take hede bothe erly and late, at all tymes, what maner of people resorte and comme to thy house, and the cause of theyr commynge, and specially if they brynge with them pytchers, cannes, tancardes, bottelles, bagges, wallettes, or busshell pokes. For if thy seruauntes be not true, they maye doo the great hurte, and them selfe lyttel auaun∣tage. Wherfore they wolde be well loked vopon. And he that hath. ii. true seruauntes, a man seruaunte, and an other a woman ser∣uaunte, Page  59 he hath a great treasure, for a trewe seruaunte wyl do iustly hym selfe, and if he se his felowes do amysse, he wyl byd them do no more so, for if they do, he wyll shewe his ma∣ster therof: and if he do not this, he is not a trewe seruaunt.

¶ A lesson made in Englishe verses to teache a gentylmans seruant, to saye at euery tyme, whan he taketh his horse for his remem∣braunce, that he shall not forget his gere in his inne behynde hym.

PVrse, dagger, cloke, nyght cap, kerchef, shoyng horne, boget, and shoes. Spere, male, hode, halter, sadelclothe, spores, hatte, with thy horse combe. Bowe, arrowes, sworde, bukler, horne, leisshe, gloues, stringe, and thy bracer. Penne, paper, inke, parche∣mente, reedwaxe, pommes, bokes, thou re∣member. Penknyfe, combe, thymble, nedle, threde, poynte, leste that thy gurthe breake. Bodkyn, knyfe, lyngel, gyue thy horse meate, se he be showed well. Make mery, synge and thou can, take hede to thy gere, that thou lose none.

¶ A prologue for the wyues occupation.

Page  [unnumbered] NOwe thou husbande, that haste doone thy dylygence and labour, that longeth to an husbande, to get thy lyuynge, thy wyues, thy chyldrens, and thy seruauntes: yet are there other thynges, that muste nedes be done, or elles thou shalte not thryue. For there is an olde common sayenge, that seldom doth the housbande thryue, withoute the leue of his wyfe. By this sayenge it shoulde seme, that there be other occupations and labours, that be moste conuenient for the wyues to do. And howe be it that I haue not the expery∣ence of al theyr occupations and warkes, as I haue of husbandry, Yet a lyttell wyl I speke, what they ought to do, though I tel them nat howe they shulde doo, and exercyse theyr la∣bours and occupations.

¶ A lesson for the wyfe.

BVt yet er I begynne to shewe the wyfe, what warkes she shall do, I wyll firste teche her a lesson of Salomon, as I did to her husbande a lesson of the philosopher, and that is, that she shulde not be ydle at noo tyme: for Salomon saythe, Ociosus non gaudebit cum electis in caelo: sed lugebit in aeternum cum reprobis in inferno: That is to say, The ydle folke shall not ioye with the Page  60 chosen folkes in heuen, but they shall sorowe with the reproued and forsaken folkes in hell. And saynt Iherom saythe: Semper boni o∣peris aliquid facito, vt te diabolus inueniar occupatum: Quia sicut in aqua stante ge∣nerantur vermes: sic in homine ocioso ge¦nerantur malae cogitationes: That is to say Alwaye be doinge of some good werkes, that the dyuell may fynde the euer occupied: for as in standynge water are engendred wormes, ryghte soo in an ydle body are engendred ydle thoughtes. Here mayste thou se, that of ydel∣nes commeth damnation, and of good warkes and labour cometh saluation. Nowe arte thou at thy lyberty, to chose whether waye thou wylt, wherin is a great diuersitie. And he is an vnhappy man or woman, that god hath gi∣uen bothe wyt and reason, and putteth hym in chose, and woll chose the worst parte. Nowe thou wyfe, I trust to shewe to the dyuers oc∣cupations, warkes, and laboures, that thou shalt not nede to be ydle no tyme of the yere.

¶ What thynges the wyfe is boun∣den of ryght to do.

FIrst and pryncypally the wyfe is bounde of ryghte to loue her housbande, aboue father and mother, and aboue all other Page  [unnumbered] men. For our lorde saythe in his gospell: Relinquet patrem et matrem, et abhaerebit vxori suae: A man shulde leue father and mo∣ther, and drawe to his wyfe: and the same wyse a wyfe, shulde do to her husbande. And are made by the vertue of the sacrament of ho¦ly scripture, one fleshe, one bloude, one body, and two soules. wherfore theyr hartes, theyr myndes, theyr warkes, and occupations, shulde be all one, neuer to seuer nor chaunge, durynge theyr natural lyues, by any mannes acte or dede, as it is sayde in the same gospel. Quod deus coniunxit, homo non separet: That thynge, that god hath ioyned to gether, noo man maye seuer nor departe. Wherfore it is conuenyente, that they loue eche other, as effectually as they wolde doo theyr owne selfe. &c.

¶ What warkes a wyfe shulde do in generall.

FIrst in a mornyng whan thou arte wa∣ked, and purposeste to ryse, lyfte vp thy hande, and blesse the, and make a sygne of the holy crosse, In nomine patris, et filii, et spiritus sancti. Amen. In the name of the father, the sonne, and the holy gooste. And Page  61 if thou saye a Pater noster, an Aue, and a Crede, and remember thy maker, thou shalte spede moche the better. And whan thou arte vp and redy, than first swepe thy house, dresse vp thy dyssheborde, and sette all thynges in good order within thy house: milke thy kye, secle thy calues, sye vp thy mylke, take vppe thy chyldren, and araye theym, and prouyde for thy husbandes brekefaste, dynner, souper, and for thy chyldren, and seruauntes, and take thy parte with theym. And to ordeyne corne and malte to the myll, to bake and brue withall whanne nede is. And meete it to the myll, and fro the myll, and se that thou haue thy measure agayne besyde the tolle, or elles the myller dealeth not truely with the, or els thy corne is not drye as it shoulde be. Thou must make butter, and chese whan thou maist, serue thy swyne bothe mornynge and eue∣nynge, and gyue thy poleyn meate in the mor∣nynge, and whan tyme of the yere commeth, thou must take hede, howe thy hennes, duc∣kes, and geese do ley, and to gather vp theyr egges, and whan they waxe brodye, to sette them there as noo beastes, swyne, nor other vermyn hurte them. And thou muste knowe, that all hole footed fowles wyll sytte a mo∣neth, and all clouen footed fowles wyll sytte Page  [unnumbered] but three wekes, excepte a peyhenne, and greatte fowles, as cranes, bustards, and suche other. And whan they haue broughte forthe theyr byrdes, to see, that they be well kepte from the gleyd, crowes, fullymartes, and other vermynne. And in the begynnynge of Marche, or a lyttell afore, is tyme for a wyfe to make her garden, and to gette as ma∣ny good sedes and herbes, as she canne, and specially suche as be good for the potte, and to eate: and as ofte as nede shall requyre, it muste be weded, for els the wedes wyl ouer∣growe the herbes. And also in Marche is tyme to sowe flaxe and hempe, for I haue harde olde houswyues saye, that better is Marche hurdes, than Apryll flaxe, the rea∣son appereth: but howe it shulde be sowen, weded, pulled, repeyled, watred, wasshen, dryed, beaten, braked, tawed, hecheled, spon, wounden, wrapped, and wouen, it nedeth not for me to shewe, for they be wise ynough, and therof may they make shetes, bordclothes towels, shertes, smockes, and suche other ne∣cessaryes, and therfore let thy dystaffe be al∣waye redye for a pastyme, that thou be not ydle. And vndouted a woman can not gette her lyuynge honestely with spynnynge on the distaffe, but it stoppeth a gap, and muste nedes Page  62 be had. The bolles of flaxe, whan they be ri∣peled of, must be rideled from the wedes, and made drye with the son, to get out the sedes. Howe be it, one maner of linsede, called loken sede, wyll not open by the son: and therfore, whan they be drye, they muste be sore brused and broken, the wiues knowe howe, and than winowed and kepte drye, tyll yere tyme come agayn. Thy female hēpe must be pulled from the churle hempe, for that beareth no sede, and thou must do by it, as thou dydest by the flax. The churle hempe beareth sede, and beware that byrdes eate it not, as it groweth: the hēp therof is not soo good, as the female hempe, but yet it wyll do good seruyce. May fortune somtime, that thou shalt haue so many thinges to do, that thou shalt not well knowe, where is best to begyn. Than take hede, which thing shulde be the greattest losse, if it were not done and in what space it wold be done: than thinke what is the greatest losse, & there begyn. But in case that thynge, that is of greateste losse, wyll be longe in doynge, and thou myghteste do thre or foure other thynges in the meane whyle, thanne loke well, if all these thynges were sette together, whiche of them were the greattest losse, and if all these thynges be of greater losse, and may be all done in as shorte Page  [unnumbered] space, as the other, than doo thy many thyn∣ges fyrste.

¶ It is conuenyente for a housbande, to haue shepe of his owne for many causes, and than maye his wife haue part of the woll, to make her husbande and her selfe some clothes. And at the leaste waye, she maye haue the lockes of the shepe, eyther to make clothes or blan∣kettes, and couerlettes, or bothe. and if she haue no woll of her owne, she maye take wol to spynne of clothe makers, and by that mea∣nes she maye haue a conuenyent lyuynge, and many tymes to do other warkes. It is a wy∣ues occupation, to wynowe all maner of cor∣nes, to make malte, to wasshe and wrynge, to make heye, shere corne, and in time of nede to helpe her husbande to fyll the mucke wayue or dounge carte, dryue the ploughe, to loode hey, corne, and suche other. And to go or ride to the market, to sel butter, chese, mylke, eg∣ges, chekyns, capons, hennes, pygges, gese and all maner of cornes. And also to bye all maner of necessarye thynges belongynge to houssholde, and to make a trewe rekenynge and a compte to her housbande, what she hath receyued, and what what she hath payed. And yf the housbande go to the market, to bye or sell, as they ofte do, he than to shewe his wife Page  63 in lyke maner. For if one of them shoulde vse to deceyue the other, he deceyueth hym selfe, and he is not lyke to thryue. and therfore they muste be trewe eyther to other. I coulde peraduenture shewe the housbandes dyuerse poyntes, that the wyues deceyue them in: and in lyke maner, howe husbandes deceyue theyr wyues: but if I shulde do so, I shulde shewe mo subtyll poyntes of deceypt, than eyther of them knewe of before. and therfore me se∣meth beste, to holde my peace, least I shoulde do as the knyght of the toure dyd, the whiche had many fayre doughters, and of fatherly loue that he oughte to them, he made a boke, to a good entente, that they myghte eschewe and flee from vyces, and folowe vertues. In the whiche boke he shewed, that if they were wowed, moued, or styred by any man, after suche a maner as he there shewed, that they shulde withstande it. In the whiche boke he shewed so many wayes, howe a man shoulde atteyne to his purpose, to brynge a woman to vice, the whiche wayes were so naturall, and the wayes to come to theyr purpose, were soo subtylly contryued, and craftely shewed, that harde it wold be for any woman to resyste or deny theyr desyre. And by the sayd boke hath made bothe the men and the women to knowe Page  [unnumbered] more vyces, subtyltye, and crafte, than euer they shulde haue knowen, if the boke had not ben made: in the whiche boke he named hym selfe the knight of the towre. And thus I leue the wyues, to vse theyr occupations at theyr owne discreation.

¶ To kepe measure in spendynge.

NOwe thou husbande and huswyfe, that haue done your diligence, and cure, ac∣cordynge to the fyrste artycle of the philosopher, that is to saye. Adhibe curam. And also haue well remembred the sayeng of wyse Salomon, Quod ociosus non gau∣debit cum electis in caelo: sed lugebit in ae∣ternum cum reprobis in inferno: Thanne ye must remembre, obserue, and kepe in mind, the seconde article of the sayinge of the phi∣losopher, that is to saye. Tene mensuram, That is to saye in englysshe, holde and kepe measure. And accordynge to that fayenge, I lerned two verses at grammer schole, and they be these, Qui plus expendit, quam re∣rum copia tendit: Non admiretur, fi pauper tate grauetur: He that dothe more expende, thanne his goodes wyll extende, meruayle it shall not be, thoughe he be greued with po∣uertee, Page  64 And also accordynge to that sayenge speketh sayncte Paule and saythe, Iuxta fa∣cultates faciendi sunt sumptus, ne longi temporis victum, breuis hora consumat: That is to saye, Ater thy faculty or thy ha∣uoure, make thyne expences, leste thou spende in shorte space, that thynge, that thou shoul∣dest lyue by longe. This texte toucheth euery manne, from the hyest degree to the loweste. wherfore it is necessary to euerye manne and womanne to remembre and take good hede there vnto, for to obserue kepe and folowe the same, but bycause this texte of sayncte Paule is in latyn, and husbandes commonely can but lyttell laten. I fere, leaste they can not vnderstande it. And thoughe it were declared ones or twyse to theym, that they wolde for∣gette it: Wherfore I shall shewe to theym a texte in englysshe, and that they maye well vnderstande, and that is this, Eate within thy tedure

¶ To eate within the tedure.

THou husbande and huswife, that intend to folowe the sayinge of the philoso∣pher, that is to saye, kepe measure, you muste spare at the brynke, and not at Page  [unnumbered] the bottom, that is to vnderstande, in the be∣gynnynge of the yere, sellynge of thy cornes, or spendynge in thy house, vnto the tyme that thou haue sowen agayne thy wynter corne, and thy lente corne, and than se what remay∣neth, to serue thy house, and of the ouerplus thou mayste sell and bye suche other necessa∣ryes, as thou must nedes occupie. And if thou spende it in the begynnynge of the yere, and shall want in the hynder ende, than thou doste not eate within thy tedure, and at the laste thou shalte be punyshed, as I shal proue the by ensample. Take thy horse, and go tedure him vpon thyne owne lees, flytte hym, as ofte as thou wylte, no manne wyll saye wronge thou doste, but make thy horse to longe a tedure, that whan thou haste tyed hym vppon thyne owne lees, his tedure is so longe, that it re∣cheth to the middes of an other mans lees or corne: Nowe haste thou gyuen hym to moche lybertye, and that man, whose corne or grasse thy horse hath eaten, wyll be greued at the, and wyll cause the to be amerced in the court, or elles to make hym amendes, or bothe. And if thy horse breake his tedure, and go at large in euery mans corne and grasse, than commeth the pynder, and taketh hym, and putteth hym in the pynfolde, and there shall he stande in Page  65 prison, without any meate, vnto the tyme thou hast payde his raunsome to the pynder, and also make amendes to thy neyghbours, for distroyenge of theyr corne. Ryght so, as long as thou eatest within thy tedure, that thou nedest not to begge nor borowe of noo man, soo longe shalte thou encrease and growe in rychesse, and euery man wyll be content with the. And if thou make thy tedure to longe, that thyne owne porcyon wyll not serue the, but that thou shalte begge, borowe, or bye of other: that wyll not longe endure, but thou shalte fall in to pouertye. And if thou breake thy tedure, and ren ryot at large, and knowe not other mennes goodes frome thyne owne, than shall the pynder, that is to saye, the she∣ryffe and the bayly areste the, and putte the in the pynfolde, that is to say, in prison, there to abyde tyll the truth be knowen: and it is mer∣ayle, if thou scape with thy lyfe, and therfore eate within thy tedure.

¶ A shorte lesson for the husbande.

ONe thinge I wyl aduise the to remem∣bre, and specially in wynter tyme, wh thou sytteste by the fyre, and hast sup∣ped, to consyder in thy mynde, whether the Page  [unnumbered] warkes, that thou, thy wyfe, & thy seruauntes shall do, be more auauntage to the, than the fyre, and candell lyghte, meate and drynke that they shall spende, and if it be more auan∣tage, than syt styll: and if it be not, than go to thy bedde and slepe, and be vppe betyme, and breake thy faste before day, that thou mayste be all the shorte wynters day about thy busy∣nes. At grammer scole I lerned a verse, that is this, Sanat, sanctificat, et ditat surgere mane. That is to say, Erly rysyng maketh a man hole in body, holer in soule, and rycher in goodes. And this me semeth shuld be sufficiēt instruction for the husbande to kepe measure.

¶ Howe men of hye degree do kepe measure.

TO me it is doubtefull, but yet me se∣meth, they be rather to lyberall in ex∣pences, than to scarce, and specyally in three thynges. The fyrste is prodigalytie in outragious and costely aray, fer aboue mea∣sure: the seconde thynge is costely charge of delycyous meates and drynkes: the thyrde is outragious playe and game, ferre aboue mea∣sure. And nowe to the fyrste poynte.

Page  66

¶ Prodigalite in outragious and costely aray.

I Haue seen bokes of accompte of the yomen of the wardropes of noble men, and also inuētorys made after theyr decease of their apparell, and I doubte not, but at this daye, it is. xx. tymes more in value, than it was to suche a man of degree as he was an. C. yere a go: and many tymes it is gyuen away, er it be halfe worne, to a symple man, the whiche causeth hym to weare the same: and an other symple man, or a lyttell better, seynge him to weare suche rayment, thynketh in his mynde, that he maye were as good rayment as he, and so causeth hym to bye suche other, to his great coste and charge, aboue measure, and an yll ensample to all other. and also to see mens seruantes so abused in theyr aray, theyr cotes be so syde, that they be fayne to tucke them vp whan they ryde, as women do theyr kyrtels whan they go to the market or other places, the whiche is an vnconuenient syght. And fer∣thermore, they haue suche pleytes vpon theyr brestes, and ruffes vppon theyr sleues, a∣boue theyr elbowes, that yf theyr mayster, or theym selfe hadde neuer so greatte nede, they coude not shoote one shote, to hurte theyr en∣nemyes, tyll they hadde caste of theyr cotes, Page  [unnumbered] or cut of theyr sleues. This is fer aboue mea∣sure, or common weale of the realme. This began fyrste with honour, worship, and hone∣sty, and it endeth in pryde, presumption, and pouertye. Wherof speketh saint Austin, Quē∣cunque superbum esse videris, diaboli filiū esse ne dubites: That is to say, who so euer thou seest, that is proude, dout the not, but he is the diuels chylde. Wherfore agaynst pryde he byddeth the remembre, Quid fuisti, quid es, et qualis post mortem eris: That is to say, what thou were, what thou art, and what thou shalte be after thy death. And S. Ber∣narde saythe, Homo nihil aliud est, q sper∣ma fetidum, saccus stercorum, et esca ver∣mium: That is to saye, A man is nothynge, but stynkynge fylthe, a sacke of dounge, and wormes meate. The whiche sayinges wolde be remēbred, and than me semeth this is suffi∣cient at this time for the first point of the thre.

¶ Of delycyouse meates and drynkes.

HOwe costely are the charges of dely∣cious meates & drynkes, that be nowe most commonly vsed, ouer that it hath ben in tymes paste, and howe fer aboue mea∣sure? Page  68 For I haue seen bokes of accompte of householde, and brumentes vpon the same, & I doubte not, but in delycyous meates, drin∣kes, and spyces, there is at this daye foure tymes so moche spent, as was at these dayes to a lyke man in degree, and yet at that tyme there was as moche befe and mutton spent as is nowe, and as many good housholdes kept, and as many yomenne wayters therin as be nowe. This began with loue and charytye, whan a lorde, gentylman, or yoman desyred or prayed an other to come to dyner or soup∣per, and bycause of his commynge he wolde haue a dysshe or two mo than he wolde haue had, if he had ben away. Than of very loue he, remembrynge howe louyngely he was bydden to dynner, and howe well he fared, he thynketh of very kyndnes he muste nedes byd hym to dyner agayne, and soo ordeyneth for hym as manye maner of suche dysshes and meates, as the other man dyd, and two or. iii. mo, & thus by lyttel and litell it is com∣men fer aboue measure. And begon of loue and charyte, and endeth in pryde and glotony, wherof saynte Ierome saythe, Qui post car∣nem ambulant, in ventrem et libidinē pronl sunt, quasi irrationabilia iumenta reputātur. That is to say, They that walke, and be redy Page  [unnumbered] to fulfill the lust of the fleshe and the bely, are taken as vnreasonable beastes, and sayncte Gregory sayth, Domināte vicio gulae, om∣nes virtutes per luxuriam et vanam glori∣am obruuntur: That is to saye, where the vice of glotony hath domination, all vertues by luxury and vayneglory are cast vnder. the whiche sayinges wold in lykewise be remem∣bred, and this me semeth sufficient for the. ii. poynte of the thre.

¶ Of outragious playe and game.

IT is conueniente for euerye man, of what degree that he be of, to haue playe & game accordynge to his degree. For Cato sayth, Interpone tuis interdum gaudia curis: A∣monge thy charges and busynes thou muste haue sometyme ioye and myrthe, but nowe a∣dayes it is doone ferre aboue measure. For nowe a poore man in regarde wyll playe as great game, at all maner games, as gentyl∣men were wont to do, or greater, and gentil∣men as lordes, and lordes as prynces, & ofte tymes the great estates wyll call gentylmen, or yomen to play with them at as great game as they do, and they call it a disport, the whi∣che me semeth a very trewe name to it, for it Page  69 displeaseth some of them er they departe, and specyall god, for myspendynge of his goodes and tyme. But if they played smalle games, that the poore man that playeth myght beare it thoughe he loste, and bate not his counte∣naunce, than myght it be called a good game, a good playe, a good sporte, and a pastyme. But whan one shall lose vpon a day, or vpon a nyght, as moche money as wold fynde hym and all his house meate and drynke a moneth or a quarter of a yere or more, that maye be well called a disporte, or a displeasure, and ofte tymes by the meanes therof, it causeth theym to sell they landes, dysheryte the hey∣res, and may fortune to fall to thefte, robbe∣ry, or suche other, to the great hurte of them selfe, & of theyr chyldren, and to the displea∣sure of god: and they so doinge, lyttel do they pondre or regarde the saying of saynt Paule, Iuxta facultates faciendi sunt sumptus, ne longi temporis victum breuis hora consu∣mat: This play begun with loue and charite, and oft times it endeth with couetous, wrath, and enuy. And this me thynketh shoulde be a sufficient instruction for kepynge of measure.

¶ A prologue of the thyrde sayinge of the philosopher.

Page  [unnumbered] NOwe thou housbande and housewife, that haue done your diligence and cure about your husbandrye and huswyfry, accordynge to the fyrste sayenge of the philo∣sopher, A dhibe curam, And also haue well remembred and fulfylled the seconde sayinge of the sayde philosopher, Tene mensuram: I doubte not but ye be ryche accordyng to the thyrde sayinge of the sayde philosopher. Et eris diues. Nowe I haue shewed you the sayinge of the philosopher, wherby you haue goten moche worldely possession, me semeth it were necessary, to shewe you howe ye maye gette heuenly possessions, accordynge to the sayenge of our lorde in his gospel, Quid pro∣dest homini, si vniuersum mundum lucre∣tur, anime vero suc detrimentum paciatur: What profyteth it to a man, thoughe he wyn all the worlde, to the hyndraunce and losyng of his soule? Howe be it, it shoulde seme vn∣conuenient for a temporall man, to take vpon hym, to shewe or teache any suche spirytuall matters: and yet there is a great diuersytie betwene predication and doctrine.

¶ A diuersitie betwene predication and doctrine

Page  70 AS sayncte Iherome saythe, there is greate difference or diuersitie, betwene preachinge and doctrine. A preachyng or a sermon is, where a conuocation or a ga∣therynge of people on holye dayes, or other dayes in churches or other places, and times sette and ordeyned for the same. And it be∣longeth to theym that be ordeyned there vn∣to, and haue iurisdiction and auctorytie, and to none other. But euery man may lawefully enforme and teache his brother, or any other, at euery tyme and place behouable, if it seme expedient to hym, for that is an almes dede, to the whiche euery man is holden & bounde to do, accordyng to the sayenge of saynt Pe∣ter, Vnusquis{que}, sicut accepit gratiam in al∣terutrum illam administare debet. That is to saye, as euery man hath taken or receyued grace, he oughte to mynyster and shewe it forthe to other. For as Chrisostome saythe, great merite is to hym, and a great reward he shall haue in tyme to come, the which writeth or causeth to be writen, holy doctrine, for that entent, that he may se in it, howe he may lyue holylye, and that other maye haue it, that they maye be edyfyed or sanctyfyed by the same. for he saythe surely, knowe thou, that howe many soules be saued by the, soo many Page  [unnumbered] rewardes thou shalte haue for eyther. For saynt Gregory saythe, Nullum sacrificium ita placet deo, sicut zelus animarū: There is no sacrifyce that pleaseth god so moche, as the loue of soules. And also he saythe, Ille a∣pud deum maior est in amore, qui ad eius amorem plurimos trahit: He is greateste in fauour with god, that draweth moste men to the loue of god. Wherfore me semeth, it is cō∣uenient to enforme and shewe them, how they maye gette heuenly possessions, as well as I haue shewed them to get worldly possessions. Than to my purpose, and to the poynt where I lefte, nowe thou art ryche.

¶ What is rychesse.

IT is to be vnderstande what is rychesse, and as me semeth, rychesse is that thynge, that is of goodnes, and can not be taken a∣waye from the owner, neyther in his tempo∣rall lyfe, nor in the lyfe euerlastynge. Than these worldly possessions, that I haue spoken of, is no richesse, for why, they be but floures of the worlde. And that may be wel consyde∣red by Iob, the whiche was the rychest man of worldely possessions, that was lyuynge in those daies, and sodeynely he was the poorest Page  71 man agayne that coulde be lyuynge, and all the whyle he toke pacyence, and was content, as appereth by his sayenge, Dominus dedit, dominus abstulit: sicut domino placuit, ita factum est, sit nomen domini benedictum: Our lorde hath gyuen it, our lorde hath ta∣ken it awaye, and as it pleaseth our lorde, so be it, blessed be the name of our lorde. The whiche Iob may be an ensample to euery true chrysten man, of his pacyence and good liuing in tribulation, as appereth in his storye, who that lyste to rede therin. And saynte Austyne saythe: Qui terrenis inhiat, et aeterna non cogitat, vtris{que} in futuro carebit: He that gathereth in worldly thynges, and thynketh not vppon euerlastynge thynges, shall wante bothe in tyme to come. For sayncte Ambrose saythe. Non sunt bona hominis, quae secum ferre non potest: They are not the goodes of man, the whiche he can not beare with him And saynte Bernarde saythe: Si vestra sint, tollite vobiscum: Yf they be yours, take them with you. Than it is to be vnderstande, what goodes a man shall take with hym. And these be the good dedes and warkes that thou doste here in this temporall lyfe, wherof spe∣keth Crysostome: Fac bene, et operare iu∣stitiam, vt spem habeas apud deum, et non Page  [unnumbered] desperabis in terra: Doo well, and worke ryghtwysly, that thou mayste haue truste in god, and that thou be not in despayre in this worlde. Accordynge to that saythe the pro∣phete Dauyd, Iunior fui, etenim senui, et non vidi iustum derelictum, nec semen e∣ius querens panem: I haue ben yonge, and I haue: waxen olde, and I haue not seen a ryghtwyse man forsaken, nor his chyldren sekynge theyr breade.

¶ What is the propertie of a riche man.

IN myne opynyon the propertye of a ryche manne is, to be a purchaser. and if he wyll purchase, I councell hym to purchase he∣uen. For sayncte Austyne saythe, Regnum caelorum nulli clauditur, nisi illi, qui se ex∣cluserit: The kyngedome of heuen is to noo man closed, but to hym that wyll putte oute hym selfe. Wherfore this texte maye gyue the a courage to prefixe thy mynde, to make there thy purchase. And Salomon saythe: Quod mali carius emunt infernum, quam boni caelum: Ill men bye hell derer, thanne the good men bie heuen. and that me semeth maye well be proued by a common ensample: Page  72 As if I had a. M. shepe to sell, and dyuers men come to me, and bye euery manne a. C. of the shepe, all of one price, to paye me at dyuers dayes. I am agreed, and graunt them these dayes. some of the menne be good, and kepe theyr promesse, and paye me at theyr dayes, and some of theym doo not paye me. wherfore I sue theym at the lawe, and by course of the common lawe, I doo recouer my duetie of them, and haue theyr bodyes in pri∣sone for execution, tylle they haue made me payment. Nowe these men, that haue broken me promesse, and payed not theyr dewetye, bye theyr shepe derer thanne the good menne bought theyrs. For they haue imprysonment of theyr bodyes, and yet must they pay theyr duetyes neuer the lesse, or elles lye and dye there in pryson: the whiche sheepe be derer to them, then to the good men, that kepte theyr promes. Righte so euery man chepeth heuen, and god hath sette on it a pryce, and graun∣ted it to euery man, and giuen to them dayes of payment: the pryce is all one, and that is to kepe his commaundementes, duryng theyr lyues. the good men kepe his commaunde∣mentes, and fulfyll theyr promesse, and haue heuen at theyr decease. The yll men breake promesse, & kepe not his commaundementes, Page  [unnumbered] wherfore at theyr decease they be put in pry∣son, that is to say in hell, there to abyde his ryghtuousenes. And soo the yll men bye hell derer, than the good menne bye heuen. And therfore it is better, to forgoo a lyttell plea∣sure, or suker a lyttell payne in this worlde, than to suffer a moche greatter and a lenger payne, in an other worlde. Nowe sythe helle is derer than heuen, I aduyse the specyally to bye heuen, wherin is euerlastynge ioye with∣out ende.

¶ What ioyes or pleasures are in heuen.

SAynt Austyn saythe, Ibi erunt quaecun{que} ab hominibus desiderantur, vita et sa∣lus, copia glorie, honor, pax, et omnia bona: That is to saye, There shall be euery thynge that any man desyreth, there is lyfe, helth, plenty of ioye, honour, peace, and all maner of goodnes. What wolde a man haue more? And saynt Paule sayth. Occulus non vidit, nec auris audiuit, nec in cor hominis ascendit, quae preparauit deus diligentibus se: That is to say. The eye hath not seen, nor the eares hath herde, nor the herte of a man hath thought of so goodly thynges, that god Page  73 hath ordeyned for theym that loue hym. O what a noble acte that were for an husbande or houswyfe, to purchase suche a royall place in heuen, to whiche is no comparyson. Than it is to bē knowen, what thynge pleaseth god most, that we myght do it.

¶ What thynges pleaseth god most.

By the texte of sayncte Paule, before sayd, loue pleaseth god aboue al thinge, and that maye be well proued by the sayinge of our lorde hym selfe, where he saythe: Da mihi cor tuum, et sufficit mihi: Gyue me thy harte, and that is sufficiente for me, for he that hath a mannes harte, hath all his other goodes. what is this mans harte: it is nothynge elles, but very trewe loue. For there can be no true loue, but it commeth me∣ryly and immediately from the harte: and if thou loue god entyerlye with thy harte, than wylte thou do his commaundementes. Than it wolde be vnderstande and knowen, whiche be his commandementes, that a man may ob∣serue and kepe them.

¶ What be goddes commaun∣dementes.

Page  [unnumbered] THere be in all. x. commandementes, the which were to long to declare, but they be all concluded and comprehended in two, that is to say. Diliges dominum deum tuum super omnia: Et proximum tuū sicut te ipsum: Loue thy lorde god aboue al thing, and thy neyghboure as thy selfe. These be lyghte commaundementes, and nature byn∣deth a man to fulfyll, obserue, and kepe them, or els he is not a naturall man, remembryng what god hath doone for the. Fyrste he hath made the, to the symylytude and lykenes of his owne ymage, and hathe gyuen to the in this worlde dyuerse possessions but specyally he hath redemed thy soule vpon the crosse, and suffered great payne and passion and bodelye deathe for thy sake. What loue, what kynde∣nes was in hym, to doo this for the? what couldest thou desyre hym to do more for the? And he desyreth nothynge of the agayne, but loue for loue. What can he desyre lesse.

¶ Howe a man shulde loue god and please hym.

SVrelye a man maye loue god and please hym, very many wayes: but fyrste & prin¦cipally, he that wyllloue god, and please Page  74 hym, he muste doo as it is sayde in Symbalo Athanasii: Quicun{que} vult saluus esse, ante omnia opus est, vt teneat catholicā fidem, Who so euer wyll be saued, aboue all thynge he must nedes be stedfast in the faythe of ho∣ly churche. And accordynge to that, saythe sayncte Paule: Sine fide impossibile est pla∣cere deo: Without faythe, it is impossible to please god. And Seneca sayth: Nichil reti∣ne, qui fidem perdidit: There abydeth no goodnes in hym, that hath loste his faythe. And soo thou mayste wel perceyue, that thou canst not loue nor please god, without perfyte fayth. And ferther more thou mayste not pre∣sume to study, nor to argue thy faithe by rea∣son. For saynte Gregory saythe: Fides non habet meritum, vbi humana ratio prebet experimentum: Faythe hath noo meryte, where as mannes reasone proueth the same. This faythe is a pryncypall sygne, that thou loueste god. Also thy good dedes, and thy warkes, is a good sygne, that thou loueste god. For saynt Iherome saythe: Vnusquis∣que, cuius opera facit, eius filius appellatur: Whose warkes euerye man dothe, his son or seruaunt he is called. And sayncte Bernarde saythe, Efficatior est vox operis, q vox ser∣monis: The dedes and the warkes of a man Page  [unnumbered] is more euydente profe, than his wordes. The fulfyllynge of the. vii. workes of mer∣cye is an other specyall sygne, that thou lo∣uest god: and many mo there be, which were to longe to reherse them all.

¶ Howe a man shulde loue his neyghbour.

THou must loue thy neyghboure as thy selfe, wherin thou shalt please god spe∣cially. for if thou loue thy neygh∣bour as thy selfe, it foloweth by reason, that thou shalte do nothynge to hym, but suche as thou woldest shulde be done to the. And that is to presume, that thou woldest not haue any hurte of thy body, nor of thy goodes, done vnto the, and lykewyse thou shuldest none do vnto hym. And also if thou woldest haue any goodnes done vnto the, eyther in thy bodye, or in thy mouable goodes, lyke wyse shuldest thou do vnto thy neyghbour, if it lye in thye power, accordynge to the sayinge of saynte Gregorye, Nec deus sine proximo, nec proximus vere diligitur sine deo: Thou canste not loue god, without thou loue thy neyghbour, nor thou canst not loue thy neigh∣bour, without thou loue god. Wherfore thou Page  75 muste fyrste loue god pryncypallye, and thy neyghbour secondaryly.

¶ Of prayer that pleaseth god ve∣ry moche.

PRayer is honour and lande to god, and a specyall thynge that pleaseth hym mo∣che, and is a greate sygne, that thou lo∣uest god, and that thou arte perfyte and sted∣faste in the faythe of holy churche: and that it is so, it maye be well consydered by our fore fathers, that haue for the loue and honour of god made churches: And a man muste dayly at some conuenyente tymes exercyse and vse prayer hym selfe, as he oughte to doo. For saynt Ambrose sayth, Relicto hoc, ad quod teneris, ingratum est spiritui sancto quic∣quid aliud operatis: If thou leaue that thynge vndone, that thou arte bounde to doo, it is not acceptable to god, what so euer thou dooste elles. Than it is necessarye, that thou do praye, and a poore manne doynge his la∣bour trewely in the daye, and thinketh well, prayeth well: but on the holye daye, he is bounde to come to the church, and here his di∣uyne seruyce.

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¶ What thynge letteth prayer.

THere be two impedimentes, that lette and hynder prayer, that it maye not be herde. And of the fyrste impedimente spekethe Ysaye the prophete: Quia manus vestrae plenae sunt sanguine. i. peccato ideo non exaudiet vos dominus: Bycause your handes be full of bloude, that is to saye, full of synne, therfore our lorde dothe not graci∣ousely here you. And also prouerbiorum ter∣tio. Longe est dominus ab impiis, et orati∣ones iustorum exaudiet. Our lorde is ferre fro wycked men, and the prayers of ryghte∣wyse men he gracyously hereth. And sayncte Bernarde saythe, Quia praeceptis dei auer∣titur, quod in oratione postulat non mere∣tur: He that dothe not goddes commaunde∣mentes, he deserueth not to haue his prayer harde. The seconde impediment saythe Ana∣stasius is, Si non dimittis iniuriam, que tibi facta est, non orationem pro te facis, sed maledictionem super te inducis: If thou forgyue not the wronge done vnto the, thou doste not praye for thy selfe, but thou enducest goddes curse to fall vppon the. And Isodo∣rus saythe, Sicut nullum in vulnere proficit medicamemtum, si adhuc ferrum in eo fit: Page  81 ita nihil proficiat oratio illius, cuius adhuc dolor in mente vel odium manet in pecto∣re. Lyke as the playster or medycyne can not heale a wounde, if there be any yren styckinge in the same, ryghte soo the prayer of a man profyteth hym not, as longe as there is so∣rowe in his mynde, or hate abydynge in his breste. For sayncte Austyne saythe, Si desit charitas, frustra habentur cetera. If chari∣tie wante, all other thynges be voyde. Wher∣fore thou muste se that thou stande in the state of grace, and not infecte with deedly synne, and than praye if thou wyll be harde.

¶ Howe a man shulde praye.

IT is to be vnderstande that there be dy∣uers maner of prayinges, Quedam pub∣lica, et quedam priuata, That is to saye, some openlye, and some priuately. Prayer openly muste nedes be done in the churche by the mynystratours of the same people. For it is done for all the comynaltye, and therfore the people in that oughte to conferme theym selfe to the sayde mynystratours, and there to be presente to praye vnto god after a dewe maner. Oratio priuata. The prayer pryuate∣ly done, oughte to be doone in secrete places, Page  [unnumbered] for two causes. For prayer eleuateth and lyfteth vp a mannes mynde to god. And the mynde of man is sooner and better lyfte vppe whan he is in a pryuye place, and separate frome multytude of people. An other cause is to auoyde vaynglory that myghte lyghtely ensue or ryse thervppon, whan it is doone o∣penly. and therof speketh our sauyour, where he sayth, Cum oratis, non eritis sicut hypo∣critae, qui amant in sinagogis, et in angulis platearum stantes orare. That is to saye, whan ye praye, be not you as the hypocrytes, the whiche loue to stande in theyr synagoges and corners of hyghe wayes to praye. Also some folkes pray with the lyppes or mouthe, and not with the herte, of whome spekethe our lorde by his prophete, Hij labiis me ho∣norant, cor autem eorum longe est a me. They honour me with theyr mouthe, and theyr hertes be ferre frome me. And sayncte Gregory saythe, Quid prodest strepitus la∣biorum vbi mutum est cor? What profyteth the labour of the mouthe, where the herte is dombe? And Isodore saythe, Longe quippe a deo est animus, qui in oratione cogitari∣onibus saeculi fuerit occupatus. His soule is far from god, that in his prayer his mynde is occupied in warkes of the worlde. There be Page  82 other that pray both with the mouth and hart of whom speketh sayncte Iohn̄. x. Veri ado∣ratores, adorabunt patrem in spiritu et ve∣ritate. The true prayers wylle worshyp the father of heauen in spirite and with trouthe. Isodorus saythe, Tunc veraciter oramus, quando aliunde non cogitamus. Than we praye truely, whan we thynke on nothynge elles. Richardus de Hampole. Ille deuote orat, qui non habet cor vacabundum in ter renis occupationibus, sed sublatum ad de∣um in caelestibus. He prayeth deuoutly, that hath not his harte wauerynge in worldelye occupations, but alwaye subleuate and lyfte vppe to god in heuen. There be other that praye with the harte. vn̄ Mat. vi. Tu autem cum oraueris, intra cubiculum tuum. i. in loco secreto et clauso hostio, ora patrem tuum. Whan thou shalte praye, entre into thy chambre or oratory, and steke the doore, and praye to the father of heuen. Isodorus, Ar∣dens oratio est non labiorum sed cordium, potius enim orandum est corde q ore. The hoter prayer is with the harte than with the lyppes, rather pray with thy herte than with thy mouth. Regum primo. Anna loqueba∣tur in corde. Anne spake with the harte.

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¶ A meane to put away ydle thoughtes in prayinge.

ANd to auoyde wauerynge myndes, in worldlye occupations whanne thou shalte praye, I shall shewe vnto you the beste experience that euer I coulde fynde for the same, the whiche haue benne moche troubled therwith, and that is this. He that can rede and vnderstande latyne, let hym take his booke in his hande, and looke stedfastely vppon the same thynge that he readeth and seeth, that is no trouble to hym, and remem∣bre the englysshe of the same, wherin he shall fynde greatte swetenes, and shall cause his mynde to folowe the same, and to leaue o∣ther worldly thoughtes. And he that canne not reade nor vnderstande his Pater noster. Aue, nor Crede, he muste remembre the pas∣syon of Christe, what peyne he suffered for hym, and all mankynde, for redemynge of theyr soules. And also the miracles and won∣ders that god hath doone, and fyrste what wonders were doone the nyghte of his naty∣uitie and byrthe. And howe he turned water in to wyne, and made the blynde to se, the dombe to speake, the deafe to here, the lame to go, the sycke to be hole. And howe he fed Page  83 fyue thousande with two fysshes, and fyue barley loues, wherof was lefte. xii. coffyns or skyppes of fragmentes. And howe he rei∣sed Lazare from deathe to lyfe, with manye moo myracles that be innumerable to be re∣hersed. And also to remembre the specyall poyntes of his passion, howe he was solde & betrayed of Iudas, and taken by the iewes, and broughte before Pylate, than to kynge Herode, and to bysshoppe Cayphas, and than to Pylate agayne, that iudged hym to death, and howe he was bounde to a piller and how they scurged, bobbed, mocked hym, spytte in his face, crowned hym with thornes, and caused hym to beare the crosse to the mounte of Caluary, wheryppon he was nayled both handes and fete, and wounded to the harte with a sharpe spere, and soo suffered deathe. And howe he fette out the soules of our fore∣fathers forthe of hell. Howe he rose frome deathe to lyfe, and howe ofte he appered to his discyples and other moo. And what my∣racles he wroughte afterwarde, and specy∣allye what power he gaue to his dyscyples, that were noo clerkes, to teache and preche his faythe, and worke many myracles, and specyally whan they preached before menne of dyuers nations and languages, and euerye Page  [unnumbered] man vnderstode them in theyr own language▪ the whiche is a sygne that god wolde haue euery manne saued, and to knowe his lawes, the whiche was a myracle able to conuerte all the infydeles, heretykes, and lollers in the worlde.

¶ A meane to auoyde temptation.

IT is ofte tymes seen, that the holyer that a man is, the more he is tempted, and he that soo is, maye thanke god therof. for god of his goodnes and grace hath not gy∣uen to the dyuell auctoritie nor power, to at∣tempte any man ferther and aboue that, that he that is so tempted, maye withstande. For sayncte Gregory sayth, Non est timendum hostis, qui non potest vincere nisi volentē. An ennemye is not to be dradde, the whiche maye not ouercome, but if a manne be wyl∣lynge. And it is to presume, that he that is soo tempted, standeth in the state of grace. For sayncte Ambrose saythe, Illos diabolis vexare negligit, quos iure haereditario se possidere sentit. The dyuell despyseth to vexe or trouble those, the whiche he felethe him selfe to haue in possessyon by ryght inheri¦taunce. And if thou be so tempted, vexed, or Page  84 troubled, I shall shewe vnto the two verses, that if thou do therafter, thou shalte be eased of thy temptacyon, and haue greatte thanke and laude of god and rewarde therfore, these be the verses.

Hostis nō ledit, nisi cum tēptatus obedit.
Est leo si sedit, si stat quasi musca recedit.

¶ That is to say, The gostly enemy hurteth not, but whan he that is tempted obeyeth to his temptation, Than his ghostly enemy plai∣eth the lyon, if that he that is so tempted syt styll and obey to hym. And if he that is temp∣ted, stande styfly agaynste hym, the ghostlye ennemye flyeth awaye lyke a flye. This me semeth maye be wel proued by a famylier en∣saumple. As if a lorde had a castell, and deli∣uered it to a capitayne to kepe, if there come ennemies to the castll, and call to the capy∣tayn, and byd hym delyuer them this castell. The capytayne cometh and openeth them the gates, and delyuereth the keyes. Nowe is this castell soone wonne, and this capytayne is a false traytour to the lorde. But lette the capitaine arme hym selfe, and steke the gates, and stande styfly vpon the walle, and com∣maunde them to auoyde at theyr peryll, and they wyll not tary to make any assaut. Ryght so euery man is capitayne of his owne soule. Page  [unnumbered] and if thy gostely ennemy come and tempte the, and thou that arte capytayne of thyne owne soule, wyll open the gates, and dely∣uer hym the keyes and let hym in, thy sowle is soone taken prysoner, and thou a false traytour to thy soule, and worthye to be pu∣nysshed in pryson for euer. And if thou arme thy selfe and stande styfly agaynste hym, and wyll not consente to hym, he wyll auoyde and fle away, and thou shalt haue a great reward for withstandynge of the sayde temptation.

¶ Almes dedes pleaseth god moche.

ALmes dedes pleseth god very moche, and it is great sygne that thou loueste bothe god and thy neyghboure. And he of whome almes is asked, oughte to con∣syder thre thynges, that is to saye, who as∣keth almes, what he asketh, and whervnto he asketh. Nowe to the fyrste, who asketh almes, Deus petit. God asketh. For saynte Ierome sayth, Quia deus adeo diligit pau∣peres, quod quicquid fit eis propter amo∣rem suum, reputat sibi factum. That is to saye, bycause that god loueth poore men soo moche, what someuer thynge is gyuen vnto Page  85 theym for the loue of hym, he taketh it as it were done to hym selfe, as it is sayde in his gospell, Quod vni ex minimis meis feci∣stis, michi fecistis. That thynge that ye gyue or do to the least of those that be myne, ye do it to me. Thanne to the seconde, what asketh god? Non nostrum, sed suum. He asketh not that thynge, that is ours, but that thynge that is his owne. As saythe the pro∣phete Dauid, Tua sunt domine omnia: Et quae de manu tua accepimus, tibi dedimus. Good lorde, all thynges be thyne, and those thynges that we haue taken of the, of those haue we gyuen the. Thanne to the thyrde. Where vnto dothe god aske? He asketh not to gyue hym, but all onely to borowe, Non tamen ad triplas, silicet, immo ad centu∣plas. Not all onely to haue thryse soo moche, but forsothe to haue an hundred tymes soo moche. As saynt Austyn saythe, Miser homo quid veneraris homini, venerare deo, et centuplum accipies, et vitam aeternam pos∣sidebis? Thou wretched manne, why doste thou worshyp or dreade man: worshyp thou god and dreade hym, and thou shalte receyue an hundred tymes so moche, and haue in pos∣sessyon euerlastynge lyfe, the whiche many folde passeth all other rewardes? Prouerbi∣orum. Page  [unnumbered] xiiii. Veneratur dominus, qui miseres tur pauperibus. He worshyppeth our lorde, that hath mercye and pytye on poore folkes. And the glose therof sayth, Centuplum ac∣cepturus. And thou shalte receyue an. C. tymes so moche. And it is to be vnderstande, that there be thre maner of almes dedes, that is to saye, Egenti largire quicquid po∣teris: dimittere eis a quibus lesus fueris: Errantem cotrigere, et in viam veritatis reducere, That is to saye, to gyue to the ne∣dy what thou well mayste, to forgyue theym that haue trespaced to the, and to correcte them that do amysse, and to brynge them into the waye of ryghte.

¶ The fyrste maner of almes.

EGenti largire quicquid poteris. Gyue to the nedye what thou well maye. for our lorde saythe in his gospell. Date e∣lemosinam, et omnia munda sunt vobis. Et alibi. Date, et dabitur vobis. Gyue al∣mes, and all worldly rychesse is yours. gyue and it shall be gyuen to you. Almes dede is a holy thynge, it encreaseth a mans welthe, it maketh lesse a mannes synnes, it lengtheth a mans lyfe, it maketh a man of good mynde, Page  86 it delayeth yll tymes, and closeth all thyn∣ges, hit delyuereth a manne from deathe, it ioyneth a manne with aungelles, and seuereth hym from the dyuell, and is lyke a wall vna∣ble to be foughten agaynst. And saynt Iames saythe. Sicut aqua extinguit ignem, ita ele∣mosina peccatum. As water slecketh fyer, soo dothe almes dede slake synne. Salomon saythe, Qui dat pauperi, non indigebit. He that giueth vnto a poore man, shal neuer haue nede. And also he sayth, Qui obturat aurem suam ad clamorem pauperis, et ipse cla∣mabit, et non exaudietur. He that stoppeth his eare at the clamoure or crie of a pore man (he shall crye) and he shall not be gracyouse∣ly herde. There maye no manne excuse hym from gyuynge of almes, thoughe he be poore. And let hym doo as the poore wydowe dyd, that offered a farthynge, wherfore she hadde more thanke and rewarde of god, thanne the ryche men that offered golde. And if thou mayste not gyue a farthynge, gyue lesse, or gyue fayre wordes, or good information, en∣saumple and token: and god shall rewarde the bothe for thy dede and for thy good wyll. And that thou dooste, do it with a good wyll. For saynte Paule saythe, Hilarem datorem diligit deus. God loueth a glad gyuer, and Page  [unnumbered] that it be of true begotten goodes. For Sa∣lomon saythe, De tuis iustis laboribus mi∣nistra pauperibus. Of thy trewe labours mynystre and gyue to the poore folkes. For Isodorus saythe, Qui iniuste tollit, iuste nunquam tribuit. He that taketh wrongful∣ly, can not gyue trewelye. For it is wrytten Ecclesiastici. xxxv. Qui de rapinis, aut vsu∣ris, aut de furto immolat: et quasi qui co∣ram patre victimat filium. He that offereth of the goodes that he getteth by extortyon, vsurye, or thefte, he is lyke as a man slewe the sonne in the presence of the father. Thou mayste ryghte well knowe, the father wolde not be well contente. Noo more wolde god be pleased with the gyfte of suche begotten goodes.

¶ The seconde maner of almes.

DImittere eis, a quibus lesus fueris. To forgyue theym that haue trespa∣ced to the, wherin thou shalte please god moche. For it is in the gospell of sayncte Marke. xii. Si non dimiseritis aliis, nec pater vester celestis dimittet vobis peccata vestra. If you forgyue not, your father of Page  87 heuen wyll not forgyue you your synnes. Al∣so if thou doo not forgyue other, thou shalte be founde a lyer, as ofte as thou sayeste thy Pater noster, where thou sayste: Et dimitte nobis debita nostra, sicut et nos dimittimus debitoribus nostris. And forgyue to vs our dettes, as we forgyue to our detters. By these dettes maye be vnderstande the thyn∣ges that we oughte to do to god, and doo not them. And also the trespaces and the synne that we haue offended to god, in that we aske mercye of. And if thou wylte not forgyue, thou mayst not aske mercy of ryght. Eadem mensura, qua mensi fueritis, remetietur vo∣bis. The same measure that ye meate other men by, shall be moten vnto you. Dimittere autem rancorem et maliciam omnino ne∣cessitatis est, dimittere vero actionem et emendam opus est consilij. To forgyue all rancour and malyce, that a manne oweth to the in his harte, thou arte bounden of ne∣cessitie to forgyue all the hole trespace, or to leaue thyne actyon or a reasonable mendes. Therfore it is but a dede of mercye if thou so do, and no synne though thou sue the lawe with charytie. But and a manne haue done to the a trespace, and that thou arte gladde that he hathe soo doone, that thou mayste haue a Page  [unnumbered] quarell, or a matter, or an accyon agaynste hym, and nowe of malyce or yll wyll thou wylte sue hym, rather than for the trespace, nowe thou synnest dedely, bycause thou doest rather of malyce than for the trespace, and than haste thou loste thy charitie, Prouerbio∣rum. xxxii. Qui pronus est ad misericordi∣am, benedicetur. He that is redy to forgiue, shall be blessed.

¶ The thyrde maner of almes.

ERrantem corrigere, et in viam verita∣tis reducere. To correcke a misdoer, and to brynge hym into the waye of tyghte. It is to be vnderstand, that there be thre ma∣ner of corrections.

¶ The fyrste correction is of an ennemye, the seconde is of a frynde, and the thyrde correction is of a Iustyce. The fyrste saythe Chrisostome, Corripe non vt hostis expe∣tens vindictam, sed vt medicus instituens medicinam Correcke not as an enemye do∣inge vengeaunce, but as a phisicyon or surgy∣on, mynistringe or gyuynge a medicyne. To the seconde saythe Salomon. Plus proficit amica correctio, quam correctio turbulen∣ta. A frendelye correction profyteth more Page  88 than a troublous correction. For yf thou speke courteysly to a man that hath offended, and with sweete wordes of compassion, he shall rather be conuerted by theym, than with hye wordes of great punysshement. And Isodo∣rus saythe, Qui per verba blanda castiga∣tus non corrigetur, acrius necesse est, vt ar∣guatur He that wylle not be chastysed by fayre wordes, it is necessary that he be more hardlyer and straytlyer reproued or punys∣shed. To the thyrde saythe sayncte Ierome, Equum iudicium est, vbi non personased opera considerantur. There is an euyn Iu∣gemente, where the personne is not regar∣ded, but the warkes are consydered. And al∣soo hit is wrytten, Reddet vnicui{que} iuxta opera sua. He shall yelde vnto euery manne after his workes. And sayncte Augustyne saythe, Sicut meliores sunt, quos corri∣git amor, ita plures sunt quos corrigit ti∣mor. As those be better, that be chastysed by loue, soo there be many moo tht be cha∣stysed by feare. For and they feared not the punyshement of the lawe, there wolde be but a fewe chastysed by loue. And saynte Gre∣gory sayth, Facientis procul dubio culpam habet, qui quod potest corrigere negligit emendare, et illicita non prohibere con∣sensus Page  [unnumbered] erroris est. He that maye correcke, and dothe not, he taketh the offence to hym selfe of the dede, and he that dothe not for∣bede vnlawefull thynges, consenteth to the same. &c.

¶ What is the greattest offence that a manne may doo and of∣fende god in.

IN myne opynyon, it is to be in despayre of the mercye of god. And therfore what soo euer thou haue doone or offended god, in worde, warke, thought, or dede, be neuer in despayre for it, for Isodorus saythe, Qui veniam de peccato desperat, plus de des∣peratione peccat quam de culpa cadit. He that despayreth to haue forgyuenes of his synnes, he synneth more in despayrynge than he dyd in the synne doynge. For saynte Ihe∣rome sayth, Magis offendebat Iudas deum in hoc quod suspendebat, quam in hoc, quod eum tradidit. Iudas offended god more in that that he hanged hym selfe, than he dydde whanne he betrayed god. For god sayth in his gospell. Nolo mortem pecca∣toris, sed magis vt conuertatur et viuat. I wyll not the deathe of a synner, but rather Page  89 that he maye be conuerted and lyue. And also he saythe, Non veni vocare iustos, sed pec∣catores ad penitentiam. I am not comen to call ryghtwyse men, but to call synners to do penaunce. For thou canste not so soone crye god mercy with thy harte, but he is as redye to chaunge his sentence, and to graunte the mercy and forgynenes of all thy synnes. For saynt Austyne saythe, Sicut scintilia ignis in medio maris, sic omnis impieas viri ad mi¦sericordiam dei. As a sparke of fyer is in comparison able to drye vppe all the water in the se, noo more is all the wyckednes of man vnto the mercyfulnes of god. And therfore it is conuenyent that a manne shulde be peny∣tent, contryte, and aske god mercye and for∣gyuenesse of his synnes and offences that he hath done, wherof speketh Chrysostme, Ne∣mo ad deum aliquando flens accessit quod non postulaueritaccepst. No man hath gone any tyme wepynge to god, but he hath taken or had that thynge that he hath asked. And sayncte Bernarde saythe, Plus cruciant la∣crime peccatoris diabolum quam omne genus tormentorum. The teares of a syn∣ner tourmenteth the deuyll more, than all o∣ther kyndes of turmentes. And sayncte Au∣styne saythe, Acriores dolores demonibusPage  [unnumbered]non inferrimus, {quam} cum peccata nostra peni∣tendo et confitendo plangimus. We canne not doo more sharper sorowes to the dyuell, than whan we wayle or wepe in confessyon, and doynge of penaunce. And that maye be well proued by Mary Magdaleyn, whanne she kneled downe and cryed god mercye, and kyste his fete, and wasshed theym with the teares of her eyen, and wyped them with the heare of her heed, to whom our lorde sayde, as in his gospell. Dimittuntur tibi peccata tua. Thy synnes are forgyuen to the, and al∣so he sayde to her. Fides te saluam fecit, va∣de in pace. Thy faythe hath saued the, goo thou in peace. To the whiche mercy and peace I besech almyghty Iesu brynge all chrysten soules. Amen.

BE it knowen to all men bothe spirytuall and temporall, that I make protestaci∣on before god and man, that I entende not to wryte any thynge that is or maye be contrary to the faythe of Chryste and al holy churche. But I am redye to reuoke my say∣enge, if any thyng haue passed my mouthe for wante of lernynge, and to submytte my selfe to correction, and my boke to reformatyon. And as touchynge the poyntes of husbandry, Page  90 and of other artycles conteyned in this pre∣sent boke, I whll not saye that it is the beste waye and wyll serue beste in all places, but I saye it is the best way that euer I coude proue by experyence, the whiche haue ben an house∣holder this. xl. yeres and more. And haue assaied many and dyuers wayes, and done my dyligence to proue by experyence which shuld be the beste waye.

¶ The auctour.
¶ Go lyttell quere, and recommende me
To all that this treatyse shall se, here, or rede
Prayenge them ther with content to be
And to amende it in places, where as is nede
Of eloquence, they may perceyue I want the sede
And rethoryke, in me doth not abounde
wherfore I haue sowē, such sedes as I foūd.
Page  [unnumbered] ¶ Thus endeth this ryghte profytable boke of husbandry, compyled sometyme by may∣ster Fitz herbarde, of charytie and good zele that he bare to the weale of this mooste noble realme, whiche he dydde not in his youthe, but after he had exercysed husbandry, with greate experyence. xl. yeres. ❧

¶ Imprynted at London in fletestrete in the house of Thomas Ber∣thelet, nere to the condite at the sygne of Lu∣crece. Cum pri∣uilegio. ❧

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