A parallel: of nevv-old Pelgiarminian error
Featley, Daniel, 1582-1645.
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April. 1. 1621. In the name of God, and to the praise of the glory of his grace. Ephes. 1. 6.

A briefe answer, by way of Parallele, to the foregoing Catalogue, and to the Demand there∣with sent; What affinity is there betweene PELAGIANS, or DEMIPELAGIANS on the one side, and the ARMINIANS one the other.

THe Index of the Pelagian assertions, consisting of 24. Pro∣positions, had neede of an Index expurgatorius, a purging Index, The last of them is no Doctrine held by Pelagius, but an absurditie, or inconuenience, inferred vpon his Tenets by some; yet by him constantly denied in direct termes. Which this ga∣therer might haue learned of Gerard Vossius, Histor. Pelag. lib. 2. por. 2. Thes. 4. from whom he tooke vpon trust this Catalogue. Moreouer to what ende is here raked together the draffe of so many herefies, whereof the greater part was renounced by the Father, that begat them? As appeareth in many places of St. Austens Treatises against his heresies. Lastly, how imperti∣nent are those proposions concerning oathes, rich mens goods, and the mortalitie of Adam in the state of Innocency, &c? Who euer, so much as by dreame, did thinke to fasten this vp∣on the Aminians? So that of the 24. Pelagian Positions here rehersed, sixe onely may looke this way; namely, the third, seuenth, tenth, fifteenth, nineteenth, three and twentieth. The rest needed not to haue beene pressed for this seruice.

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1. Of Originall Sinne.


PPropos. 3. There is no O∣riginall sinne.

Out of St. Aug. de Nuptijs. Man is not borne with originall sinne. Origi∣nall sin is no sinne: be∣cause not voluntary.

Propos. 7. Adam did not bring vpon his Posteritie the guilt of eternall death for his sinne.

Out of the Epistle of Gelasius. It seemes not iust, that Gods creature, without any action of his owne, should bee borne guilty of sinne, or intangled in sinne.

Item ibid. That children dy∣ing without baptisme cannot be damned for Originall sinne onely.


ARnoldus Coruinus a∣gainst Tilenus, pag. 388. Arminius teacheth, that Origi∣nall sinne hath not the na∣ture of sinne, or fault, pro∣perly so called.

Arminius himselfe, to the 9. question, pag. 174. It is wrongfully said, that Origi∣nall sinne maketh a man guilty of Death.

Arnold. Ibidem pag. 391. Arminius indeed holdeth, that no man is damned for onely Originall sinne.

Note also, that both these endeauour to strengthen this their opinion with ar∣guments concluding not onely that none are actually damned for Originall sinne, but also that none iustly can be. For if so, then

1 God should deale more rigorously with such men, then he doth with the Deuills.

2 That which is a punishment of sinne, cannot deserue e∣ternall punishment. For then would there be endlesse processe, if one punishment should still deserue another.

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2 Of the meaning of the word Grace.


PRopos. 10. By the word Grace is meant, nature endued with reason and will.

Out of Aug. Epist. 105. Pe∣lagius by that Grace which he acknowledged to be giuen without any foregoing merits, did meane the nature of man, wherein wee are created. Forasmuch, as before we had any being, we could merit that wee should haue a being.


ARnoldus Ibid. pag. 158. The Gentiles by nature do the things of the Law. And how little soeuer that bee, which a man in the estate of Corruption can doe, God wil∣leth that he should do it, and when man doth this, hee v∣seth grace well.

Item pag. 157. Vpon demand whether a man in the estate of corruption can rightly vse the light of reason: he pre∣sently resolueth, that it is re∣quired, that a man in the estate of Corruption doe rightly vse that grace, which he hath, and performe what∣soeuer he can, by that Grace giuen him.

It need not seeme strange that the Arminians make Nature to be Grace, who maintaine that there is a generall grace imprinted in all men without excep∣tion. Which what can it bee else but Nature, and her endowments? Now if any shall obiect, that this in effect is nothing but an idle strife about wordes, let him consider, that this is the hidden spring of the most pestilent poyson of Pelagins. For out of this Page  [unnumbered] may they wash away and put off any thing, that is brought by the maintainers of Grace. If alle∣getion be made against him, that We are saued by grace. Their answere is ready. True. To witt by nature, which is the first and generall grace. By grace I am that I am. True. By grace, that is by nature, whereof God is the free Donor. Faith is the gift of God. True. Because out free-will, by which we ascent, is the gift of God the Creator. And if St. Austen himselfe shall presse against them, that Grace onely discernes a beleeuer from an vnbeleeuer. Why may they not answere. True sir. That is, onely Free-will, which is most freely giuen vs by God.

3 Of the cause of the increase of Grace.


PRopos. 19. By the works of nature a man promeri∣teth, or gaineth the aide of grace.

Out of the Coūcell at Diospolis. Grace is giuen according to mens merits.

Out of Saint Austen in his Treatise of Perseuerance. Three points there are which the Catholique Church doth principally maintaine against the Pe∣lagians. Page  8 Whereof the first is, that Grace is not gi∣uen according to our me∣rits.

The same Aug. Grace (ac∣cording to Pelagius) is gi∣uen though not according to the desert of good workes, yet according to the desert of a good will. His reason is: Otherwise God should be an accepter of persons, if hee should haue mercy on whom hee will, without any fore∣going merits.

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ARminius Exam. pag. 218. Tell me Sir, in this speach of Christ, To him that hath shall be giuen, Is not that promise conteined, by which God engageth himselfe to enlighten with supernatu∣rall grace him, who well v∣seth the light of nature, or at least vseth it lesse ill?

Page  8Arnoldus against Tilen, pag. 165. The cause why the Gospell is reuealed to babes, is because they shew them∣selues ready to learne. The rule is generall, which teach∣eth without limitation that, To him that hath, that is, well vseth, God will giue grace.

4 Of the ayde of Grace in conuersion.


PRoposit. 15. If there bee any inward helpe recei∣ued from the holy Ghost, that consisteth onely in the enlightening of the vnderstanding. But as for the Will, that needes no inward Grace.

Page  [unnumbered]Out of Saint Aug. ad Bonf. 4. cap. 5. We receiue from the Lord the helpe of knowledge, whereby we know those things which ought to be done, but not the inspiration of Chari∣ty, that wee may with an holy loue performe those things we know, which is properly Grace.

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THe Hage Conference set out by Bertius, pag. 279. Infusion of holynesse hath no place in the will. In asmuch as the Will in its owne nature is free to will good or euill.—In the spiri∣tuall death, the gifts, pro∣perly called spirituall, are Page  [unnumbered] seperated from the will of man, because they were ne∣uer in it; but onely a free∣dome of doing well, or ill.

Ibidem, pag. 272. God will giue a new heart. We thinke that by heart is meant the soule of man; and that it is called new; both in regard of the infusion of newe light and knowledge, and also in respect of new workes of con∣uersion, which it selfe bring∣eth forth.

5 Of the cause of Predestination.


PRopos. 23. The well vsing of Free well, and naturall powers is the cause of Praedestination.

The Arminians doe not de∣ny, but that the decree of Gods Election dependeth vpon the foreseene free assent of mans will, euen then when all the helps of sauing grace being afforded, it may yet dissent by its owne naturall and inbred liberty: as hereafter appeareth. Why therefore may they not climbe to the very top of Pelagianisme, and so auow, that the good vse of our natural freewill doth poise downe the euen balance of Gods Praedestination, and determine the otherwise wauering decree of God? Howsoeuer they decline the name of Cause in election, and hold forth in stead thereof the attribute of a foregoing condi∣tion, yet in effect they must needs hit against this rocke, at which Pelagius suffered Shipwracke.

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As for Demipelagianisme, there are but three heads of that Hydra put foorth in this Catalogue; the other lye hidden, and pulled in, like the hornes of a Snaile being touched. Which here (by the helpe and hand of the most found Fathers) are to be drawn forth, and to be clapt on the shoulders of those, who in these times act the same parts.

1 Of Election vpon foreseene Faith.


OVt of Saint Prospers Epi∣stle to Saint Austen. That God foreknew before the foundation of the world, Who would beleeue, and perseuere in that faith, which in processe should be helped by grace. And that hee Praedestinated those to his Kingdome, whom, being freely cal∣led, hee foresawe would become worthy of his E∣lection, and depart this life making a good end.

Page  [unnumbered]Out of the Epistle of Saint Hi∣lary to Saint Austen extant in the seuenth Tome of Au∣steus Workes. They (the Demipelagians or Massi∣lians) will haue Prede∣stination to reach no far∣ther then this, that God Praedestinated, or fore∣knew, or decreed to elect those that would beleeue.

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HAge Conference, pag. 62. Bert. God before the Foundations of the World were layed appointed to saue by Christ, those out of man∣kind, who by the grace of the spirit would beleeue, and perseuere in that faith and obedience by the same grace.

Item. Ibid. The purpose to saue those, that perseuere in faith, is the whole entire decree of Election.

Item pag. 90. That precise and and absolute decree, whereby God is said in Electing to Page  [unnumbered] consider these, or those men, no otherwise then as singular persons, and to haue had no respect vnto the good quali∣ties, which he foresawe—such a Decree cannot stand with the nature of God, or with the Scriptures.

Arminius against Perkins, pag. 221. I deny that Ele∣ction is the rule of giuing or not giuing Faith.

Hage Confer. pag. 38. Wee professe openly, that Faith in Gods foresight and conside∣ration is before Election to saluation, and doth not fol∣low Election, as a fruit thereof.

2 Of the vncertaine number of the Elect.


PRospers Epistle to Saint Au∣sten. They would not yeeld that the number of the Praedestinated cannot bee encreased or dimini∣shed.

Page  [unnumbered]Hilar. Arelatens. to Saint Austen. Likewise they will not admit the number to be certaine of those, that are to be elected, and those that are to be reiected.

Faustus. That there are not of men some deputed to life, others to destruction, but that men may passe from saluation to perdition, and from perdition to salua∣tion.

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GRevinchov. in his The∣ses exhibited, pag. 137. and others. Vncomplete E¦lection may bee interrupted, and sometime is. And those, that are vncōpletely elected. Page  [unnumbered] are truely Elect. Yet may they become Reprobates, and perish. And the number of the Elect may bee encreased and diminished.

Item. No man as long as he re∣maineth in this life, is pe∣remptorily elected: But hee onely is peremptorily elected, who dyeth, or rather is al∣ready dead, in faith and o∣bedience.

(So by this reckoning no man liuing is an Elect)

3. Of the vniuersalitie of Grace and calling.


OVt of Prospers Epistle to Saint Augustine, extant in Saint Austens seuenth Tome. They say, that all men vniuersally are called to saluation either by the Law of Nature, or the written Laws, or by the preaching of the Gospell.


ARnold against Tilen. pag. 397. God by his Spirit, effectuall in the Law, worketh after some manner, and in some degree in all men; to the ende, that by little and little they may bee brought to the faith of Christ, whom God for his part is ready to reueale to all men.

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4 Of workes of Praeparation.


THe first Proposition. The beginning of Faith and desire of Conuersion is from our selues, the en∣crease is from Grace.

Out of Prosper. Euen after the fall there remained in Adam certaine seedes of Virtues, which by the Creators gift, are sowen in the minde of euery man.

Item. That wee must beware least wee so farre referre vnto God all the good workes of the Saints, that wee ascribe nothing vnto mans nature, but onely that which is euill and peruerse.

Item: Therefore a man re∣ceiueth, findeth, entreth, because vsing well the good of nature, by the helpe of this initiall grace, he hath obtained to come sauing grace.

Page  [unnumbered]The second Proposition. Man, if not alwaies, yet some∣time preuenteth God by the preparation of his owne will. By which en∣deauour of nature, God is moued to bring, through the ayde of his Spirit, to the grace of Regeneration the Will so prepared.

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ARnoldus pag. 403. Man in the state of Corruption, hath some reliques of spiri∣tuall life, to wit, some kinde of desire of the good, which he knoweth.

Arminius against Perkins, pag. 137. It is false, that an vnregenerate man is wholly flesh, that is, that there is nothing in him but flesh.

Arnoldus pag. 158. Ar∣minius thinketh, that God in this manner will giue more and greater gifts to him that well vseth grace. (That is, the light of na∣ture, as before appeareth in the third Article of Pe∣lagius.)

In the Epistle ad Walachros, pag. 45. Those, who are Page  [unnumbered] amended by the naturall knowledge of the Law, and by the better vse of common grace, are by God deemed somewhat worthy to receiue a further grace, and that by the gifts and good pleasure of God.

5 Of the VVils freedome in conuersion.


OVt of Hilar. to Aug. They affirme the Will to be so free, that it can of it owne accord admit or refuse cure or medicine.

Out of Prosper. As for the Wills fredome, (they say) that life is layd hold on by those, who beleeue of their owne accord, and entertaine the ayde of grace, by the merit, or act, of their credulitie.

Faustus. It is of the mercy of God, that men are cal∣led: Page  [unnumbered] but the following that call, is referred to their owne Will.

Petrus Diaconus contra Fau∣stum. They babble vaine∣ly, who say. To Will to beleeue is mine, or from me; but to helpe is of Gods grace. Whereas contrariwise, the Apostle testifieth, that the very be∣leeuing it selfe is giuen of God.

Cassianus. The whole is not so to be ascribed to grace, but that free Will is to haue some share of com∣mendation of the for∣wardnesse thereof.

Item. Two things there are which worke mans salua∣tion, Gods grace, and and mans obedience.

Faustus lib. 1. Expounding Christs words, No man commeth to me, vnlesse my Father draw him; sayth, that to drawe is nothing else, but to preach, to stir vp with comforts of the Scripture, to deterre by reproofes, to propound things desirable, to repre∣sent Page  [unnumbered] things dreadfull, to threaten iudgement, to promise reward.

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ARnoldus. pag. 337. Grace doth not so furnish a man with new strength, but that it alwayes remayneth in a mans pewer to make vse of that strength, or not.

Hage Confer. pag. 282. A man may hinder his own Re∣generation, euen then, when God will regenerate him; or doth will to regenerate him.

Arnold. against Bogerman, pag. 263. All the operations, which God vseth to the con∣uersion of man, being alrea∣dy Page  [unnumbered] performed, yet this con∣uersion still remaineth in mans power: so that hee can conuert, or not conuert him∣selfe, beleeue, or not beleeue.

Arminius against Perkins, pag. 223. The whole or en∣tire cause, why this man be∣leeueth, and that man belee∣ueth not, is the will of God, and mans freewill.

Arnold. against Tilen. pag. 136. It is not absurde, that a man by his owne will should discerne himselfe from an vnbeleeuer.

Hage Conference, pag. 315. The discerning a man selfe from another man, may bee attributed vnto man.

Grevinchove against Am. pag. 297. Nothing hinders, but that onely morall grace may make naturall men spi∣rituall.

Arminius against Perk. pag. 23. Faith is so from the meere will of God, that Gods will doth not vse an omnipo∣tent & vnresistable motion to beget faith, in men, but a gentle swasion, and accom∣modated for the mouing of Page  [unnumbered] mans will according to the nature of its freedome.

Item, pag. 220. The Author of grace intendeth by grace to moue mans wil, to assent by a gentle and sweete swasion; which motion doth not onely not take away the free con∣sent of freewill, but also esta∣blisheth it.

Hage Confer. pag. 291. Is not that the most noble ma∣ner of working vpon man, which is performed by in∣ducements and monition? Would not the working bee strong enough, if it were such as Satan vseth?

6 Of Perseuerance.


PRopos. 3. For Perseue∣rance in Faith and Grace, three needeth no new and speciall grace. What we either haue by nature, or haue formerly goten by the spirit of grace, suffi∣ceth Page  [unnumbered] for such Perseue∣rance.

The Proposition should ra∣ther haue beene thus for∣med.

Out of Saint Austin in his Treatise of Perseuerance. That Perseuerance to the ende is in our power, and is not the gift of God.

Out of Hilar. to Aust. Neither will they yeeld, that such perseuerance is giuen to any man, from which hee is not suffered to reuolt, but such, as from which hee may by his Freewill fall away.

Page  [unnumbered] This Proposition cannot be be fairely prescribed for the true state of the question, much lesse for the whole question of Perse∣uerance. For the Demipelagians did not deny the ayde of new Grace for perseuering, as is eui∣dent by Prospers words foreci∣cited, Page  [unnumbered] God foresaw, who would beleeue, and perseuere in that Faith, which in processe should be helped by Grace.


HAge Confer. pag. 62. of the latter part. Per∣seuerance is ill called a gift. It is an act of the Will, which may admit, or de∣spise the motion of the spirit.

The Remonstrants Theses exhibited. All things be∣ing forelayd, which are ne∣cessary and sufficient for per∣seuerance, it remaines still in the power of man to per∣seuere, or not perseuere.

7 The common clamorous Obiection.


PRrosper of the calling of the Gentiles. They obiect, that it is in vaine to labour to obtaine the worth and Page  [unnumbered]〈1 page duplicate〉Page  [unnumbered]〈1 page duplicate〉Page  [unnumbered] excellency of good works, in vaine to bee instant in Prayers, whereby God is intreated to grant our re∣quests, if so bee that the election vnto Christian grace depend vpon the vnchangeable purpose of of God.

Prosper in his Epistle to Austin. They vpbraid, that all care of rising out of sinne is ta∣ken away from those that are lapsed: that to holy men is ministred an occa∣sion of lukewarmenesse; inasmuch as the Elect can∣not fall away by any ne∣gligence, howsoeuer they behaue themselues. That all industry is layed aside, that vertues are taken a∣way, if Gods determina∣tion preuent mans will.

Anstin of Perseuerance Chap. 12. The Pelagians obiect, That we tye Gods grace to Destiny. See also ad Bonifac. lib. 1. cap. 5.

Prosper. Ibidem. They say, that vnder the name of Praedestination, fatall ne∣cecessity is brought in.

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HAge Conference, pag. 12 &c. the latter part. This Doctrine in it selfe, and of it selfe, is an hinderance Page  [unnumbered] to godlinesse, and also to good manners, both to the teach∣ers and hearers. It leadeth to carnall security, it takes away true sorrowe for sinnes committed, as also the watch∣full care of rising vp from sinne, and the feare of being hardned in sinne in processe of time.

It takes away Prayers, Obse∣crations, Obtestations, Ad∣monitions, Threatnings, Promises, Commands, Coun∣sells, Commendations, and Rewards.

This Doctrine bringeth into the Church Manichisme, Stoicisme, Libertinisme, Epicurisme.

To the Arminians booke (of their Acta Synodalia) this Embleme is prefixed, An ar∣med Lyon (the Armes of Holland) with a Capp (the badge of Liberty) ouer which is written this trium∣phant Motto,

DESTINY DESTROYED, OR The ouerthrow of Fate.

Page  [unnumbered] When Demipelagianisme was obiected against Ar¦minius,* he ingeniously answered, that it might be a good Qaere, why Demipelagianisme should not be accompted true Christianisme.

But Prosper demonstrating vpon substantial goūds, that the Pelagians, and Demipelagians sticke together in the same myre, doth cage them both in the same Parallell,*in these words. The budds are of the same kinde, which come from the same seede, and that which is couched low in the roote, appeares in the fruit. We are not therefore to skirmish against these men with new leuied forces, nor to enter into a spe∣ciall list, as against vnknown enemies. These meane Engins were then shattered in pieces, then they fell to the ground in their Companions, and ringleaders of their pride, when Innocentius, of blessed me∣mory, smote the heads of this abominable error with the dint of the Apostolicke Sword, when the Synod of the Bishops of Palestina compelled Pelagius to pro¦nounce sentence against himselfe, and his followers.

If we tye this mishapen monster with the bands of a Syllogisme, Proteus being fast manacled will vtter his concealed Oracle thus,

Demipelagianisme is true Christianisme (Arminius sticks not at it)
But Demipelagianisme is Pelagianisme (Prosper avowes it)
Therefore Pelagianisme is true Christianisme (though Catholike doctrine cry it downe.)

With which close we summe vp this our Parallell.