OF The duetie of a faithfull and Wise Magistrate, in preser∣uing and deliuering of the common wealth from infection, in the time of the Plague or Pestilence: Two Bookes. Written in Latine by Iohn Ewich, ordi∣nary Phisition of the woorthie common wealth of Breame, and newlie turned into English by Iohn Stockwood Schoole-maister of Tunbridge. A VVorke verie necessarie for our time and countrie, where the Plague rageth so sore in many places presently, or which heereafter shalbe visited, which God forbid, if it be his wil.
Psal. 41. Eccle. 7.
VVel is it with that man, who wisely hande∣leth the sicke: for at what time hee shall suffer any aduersity or trouble, the Lorde in like manner will helpe him againe.
Imprinted at London at the three Cranes in the Vintree by Thomas Dawson: 1583.
To the right Honourable S. Iohn Blanke, Knight, L. Maior of the most renowmed Citie of London: and to the Right Worshipful M. William Fleetwood Sergeant of the Law, and Recorder of the saide Citie: and also to the right Worshipfull, the Sheriffes and Aldermen, with the whole state of the same citie: Iohn Stockwood Schoolemaister of Tū∣bridge, wisheth a most plentifull increase of the spi∣rit of wisedome, and al necessarie graces, for the go∣uernment of so great a people, as may be most to the glory of God, the profit of his Churche, and welfare of the common wealth.
AS mankinde naturallie euer since the fall of our first parentes Adam and Heuah (right honoura∣ble and Woorshipfull) hath not ceased in it selfe, & forsaken of God his spirit, to growe from bad to worse, & from euill to start nought, or (as the Psal∣mist speaketh verie properly) to walke in the counsell of the wicked, to stand in the way of sinners, & (which is a thing most lamentable and feareful) to sit in the seat of the scornful, that is, to clime those stai∣ers, Page [unnumbered] and scale that ladder, whose steppes beeing sinne, and staues iniquitie, can∣not choose but faile them cōming once to the toppe, and to cast them downe to that horrible downefall of perpetuall ruine and euerlasting condemnation: so GOD a most iust iudge, and yet with all a moste gentle and louing Father to such as are his, hath vsed and tried from time to time all manner of meanes and wayes, to bring the same out of thral∣dome to llbertye, out of prison to en∣largement, out of miserie to ioy, out of paine to pleasure, out of ignorāce to tru∣eth, out of darknes to light, out of wret∣chednesse to happynesse, and out of hell to Heauen. Hee hath prooued and assayed all kinde of remedies, wearying as it were himselfe for our amendement, and hath nothinge at all in a manner preuayled: hee hath myldely intreated vs in the dealing of a Father, hee hath se∣uerelye handeled vs in the person of a iudge. The heauens haue burnte aboue vs in straunge manner with fires, newe Starres, Comets and vnwonted lightes: the earth beneath vs hath trembled and quaked at the iudgementes of GOD, Page [unnumbered] as notable any longer to beare the bur∣den of our sinnes, yet man hath nothing at all beene moued. Hee hath plentifully sent foorth his woorde; and great haue beene the number of his Preachers: but his people haue stopped their eares like the deafe Adder, and will not heare the voyce of the Charmer, charme he neuer so wiselie. Hee hath pyped vnto vs,* and wee haue not daunced: hee hath mour∣ned vnto vs, and we haue not lamented. Hee hath blessed vs in the Citie,* and blessed vs in the field: he hath blessed the fruite of our bodie, and the fruite of our grounde, the fruite of our cattel, the in∣crease of our kine, and the flockes of our sheepe. He hath blessed our basket, and our dough: he hath blessed vs comming in, and blessed vs going out. Hee hath caused our enemies that haue risen a∣gainst vs, to fall before vs, they haue come out against vs one waye, and haue fledde before vs seuen wayes, in so much that all the nations of the earth see this, and woonder at the same: yet can∣not all this make our Realme of Eng∣land thankfull. What then remaineth, but that, if wee goe on still wallowing Page [unnumbered] in our sinnes, adding contempt vnto vn∣thākfulnes, as drunkēnes vnto thirst, the Lord will turne al these his former bles∣sings, vnto new & vnwonted curses: cur∣sing vs in the town, and cursing vs in the field, cursing our basket, & cursing our store, cursing the fruite of our body, and the fruite of our land, the increase of our kine, and the flockes of our sheepe, cur∣sing our comming in, & cursing our go∣ing out, sending vpō vs trouble & shame, in al that we put our hande vnto, making the heauen ouer our head, brasse; and the earth that is vnder our feete, yrō; smiting vs with a consumption, with the feuer, & with a burning ague, and with feruent heate, making the pestilence to cleaue vnto vs vntil hee hath consumed vs from the land, which we possesse and dwell in. For we are not so wittie and cunning in committing daily and hourely new sins, but the Lord is as expert & skilfull in or∣deining new plagues to correct and cha∣stise the same withall. We see how amon∣gest other his scourges, sent no doubt for the amendement of his chosen, and for the warning of the reprobate, that these are but fleabitings vnto the tormēts that Page [unnumbered] are reserued for thē in the life to come, how the plague & pestilēce now furiously rageth almost in euery corner of this lād, a sicknes that euery man so greatly trem∣bleth at, & no man feareth to deserue the same: a disease so vsuall, especially in your most honourable citie of London, that albeit it were somwhat feared at the first, yet vse hath now at length made it vnto many so familiar, that there is litle more regard had of it then of any other cōmon & light malady. A great number, & amōg the same, some also of no smal account (at leastwise in their owne iudgement) con∣trary to reason, philosophy, phisick, diui∣nity, yea experience it selfe, absurdlie and fondly both by word & exāple, maintey∣ning ye same not to bee infectious, or that it may be takē one of an other, which ma¦keth thē so vndiscreetely, & vnaduisedly, nay so vnchristianly & rashly, where there is no need, without any feare of thēselues, or regard of others, to resort & keepe cō∣pany with suche as are infected, vnder a pretence of christian charity, but indeed of a blind zeale without knowledge: yea and many times to win the commendati∣on & glory of not fearing, or rather con∣temning Page [unnumbered] death, this way procuring vn∣timely death (I speake not of the vnchā∣ble determination of God, but as maye bee gessed by the ordinarie course of na∣ture) both vnto them selues and also manie others, to the displeasure of God, and the losse of the common wealth: not that I thinke it vnlawful for one Christi∣an in this kynde of sicknesse to visite an other (whereunto Godlinesse, religi∣on, and Christian duetic doth binde) but that I would haue al needelesse resort re∣strayned, being, although not the only, yet in my iudgemēt, the chiefest cause of the spreading and scattering abroade of the same. But hereof (I meane whether the Plague be infectious or no, and whe∣ther, and how farre it maye of a Christi∣an bee shunned and auoyded) there is a verye notable and profitable Treatise, written by that famous and Godlye Di∣uine Theodore Beza, in Latine, and not manie yeeres sithens by mee turned into English for the benefit of my coun∣trie men, whither for shortnesse sake I sende the Reader that is not alreadye sa∣tisfied. As for you (right Honourable & Worshipfull, whom in the Lord with all Page [unnumbered] humilitie I reuerence, and on whose shoulders lyeth the heauie charge of go∣uerning this noble citie) I am fully resol∣ued, that you are otherwise perswaded, thinking the Plague not onelie to be in∣fectious, but that it is also your partes and dueties so farre as in you lyeth, and by the wisedome and pollicie of manne, not contrary vnto the word of God, may be attayned vnto, to labour to stop, pre∣uent and hinder the contagion of the same. To the furtherance & forwarding of whiche your Godlye purpose, I haue taken paynes to Englishe this very ex∣cellent and singuler Treatise, the Father of it being a Dutch man, the childe a Ro∣man, not by countrie, but by education: the which being committed vnto my tu∣ition, I haue taught in foureteene daies space to speake this mother tongue of ours in suche rude and homelie manner as you see; hoping that the plainnesse and simplenes of his speech may be par∣doned and borne with in regarde of his shorte time that hee had to learne, not that he would winne praise for his quick capacitie, but seing the occasion of God his so general visitation, he thought, that Page [unnumbered] if hee might bee hearde speake before your H. & W. he might happily say some thing that might turne to the common benefite, hauing meant ere this time to haue presēted himself vnto you vnder his maisters simple dedication, sauing that I know not howe it falleth out of a prepo∣sterous & ouerthwart course, that good things can hardly passe the presse, whē as vnprofitable and hurtefull Pamphlets haue very quick and to too speedye pas∣sage. Whatsoeuer good and holesome counsell he shall giue, he trusteth shall at your hands not onely be friendly accep∣ted, but diligently folowed, & put in pra∣ctise, as occasion and opportunity shalbe offered, crauing pardon for his wants, & imperfections, nothing doubting but they shalbe supplied, either by your own graue wisedomes, or els by the learned aduise of Godlie and skilfull Phisitions. It is enough for him to haue broken the yse, and to haue shewed the waye for o∣thers, ministring matter of further deli∣beration, what manner course ought to be taken for the taming and maistering of this so fierce and cruell a Dragon, (for so I reade this sickenes of the plague Page [unnumbered] by some verye singuler Phisitions to bee termed) before he be suffered to approch too farre within your borders. Wee see what preparation is vsed of euery man to withstand his owne priuate enemy: what care euery good husbād hath for the for∣tifiyng of his house against the lawles at∣tēpts & brekings in of theeues: what pub¦like diligence is shewed, & strōg muniti∣on had alwayes in a readines to keep out the power of the forraine souldier: howe much more then standeth it you vpon, & all other godly and faithfull magistrates, to imploy al your endeuours, to commu∣nicate and impart all your counselles, to bend all your deuises, to stop in time the daungerous assaults of this bloody Lion, yt rāgeth so fiercely in most places of this realme at this time? If delay in all perils be dangerous, it cānot choose but in this disease, whiche like a swift deuouring fire consumeth all thinges before it as it go∣eth, but be very perillous and hurtfull. Meete with therfore the beginning, least remedie come too late: when the disease by tract of time is growē to such strēgth, that it can very hardlie, and not without much trouble be cured. A little bracke Page [unnumbered] in a Wall made to keepe out water, ta∣ken at the first, may quickely be stopped, which being suffered but for a smal time to haue his course, maketh such a breach as often turneth to the drowning of an whole Countrie. The fire that is espy∣ed when it first taketh hold in the thatch or tymber of some house in a Towne, may easily at the beginning with a little helpe bee quenched, whiche catching strength by spreading, causeth somtimes the pitifull desolation and vtter burning to grounde of all the houses and buil∣dinges in the same. After like manner it fareth with this vnrulye streame of the Plague, and vnmercifull flame of the Pestilence, if you geue it leaue by sprea∣ding and scattering abroade, once to ga∣ther force and power, it many times ma∣keth riddāce of whole townes, & cleane sweepeth away huge and mighty Cities, whereas beeyng wiselye looked vnto at the firste, after suche order as in this shorte Treatise is prescribed, it often pas∣seth awaye without anye greate hurte or harme dooynge. You haue heeretofore felt of the inconueniēce that hath grow∣en by delaies in this kind of calamity. Let Page [unnumbered] therefore your former harmes make you beware against time to come, in recōpē∣sing the former slacknes, with new & spee¦dy diligence. And aboue al thinges haue especiall regard to make sharpe lawes for the punishmēt of such as needlesly resort to those that are infected, and for such as hauing been taken with the sicknes pre∣sume to come abroade, and to thrust thē selues into the cōpany of others, before they bee throughly cured. For these two waies this disease may wōderfully bee in∣creased, whereof in this small discourse you shal reade very strange and wonder∣ful examples. I knowe there be that rea∣son, that the dayes of man are numbred: that the time is set & the houre limited, in which we shall all die, and hereof in∣ferre, that albeit we neuer so much, nor so often haunt the companie of the infe∣cted, yet it skilleth not, wee shall not die before our time, &c. But this Diuelles argument (so I call it,* because the Diuell vseth the verye like reason in the tenta∣tion of our Sauiour Christe) shall finde no countenance before your H. and W. as I trust. For it is a verie badde kind of reason from the etetnall and secrete de∣cree Page [unnumbered] of God knowen onelie vnto him∣selfe, to goe about to take away all ordi∣narie meane to be vsed by man. True it is, that no man shall die before the time which God hath appoynted, which time because it is vnto vs most vncertaine, we are to vse the lawful meanes whiche God hath ordained for vs to sustaine our life withal. Otherwise, if all ordinary meanes be to be refused, let vs eate no meate, for wee shall not dye before God hath ap∣poynted: let vs wilfully destroye our sel∣ues: for wee shall not dye before GOD hath appoynted: yea let the robbers and murtherers by the high way side that lay violent handes to take away the life of man, escape vnpunished, because they haue not killed any man before his time by God appointed. Which reasons look howe vayne, foolishe, wicked, and vngod∣lye they are: euen so vayne, foolishe, wic∣ked, and vngodlie is this; I shall not dye before the houre appoynted by God, therfore I will without all regard eyther of my selfe or others, when there is no cause or need, goe vnto such as are infe∣cted, to the hazarding not onely of myne owne life, but also the life of manye o∣thers. Page [unnumbered] Christ when as the Diuell (the Fa∣ther of such kind of arguments) alleaged the charge of God giuē to his Angels o∣uer him to keepe him from hurt, to per∣swade him to cast him selfe downe head∣long frō the pinacle of the temple, wher∣as he might vse the ordinarie meanes of going down by the stayers, told him that so to do, was indeede to tempt God. The Heathen mariners, in whose ship Ionas was, at the straunge rising of the tempest,* threw all their goodes into the sea, for the sauegard of the shippe, and sauing of their owne liues, which they needed not to haue done, if they had bin of the same opiniō with these odde felowes, but thus to haue determined the matter: we shall not die before our time, we wil therfore vse no meanes at all to saue our selues, but let God work. I am ashamed to stād so long herein, but that I know that this fond reason carrieth away greate multi∣tudes, not only into the inconueniences aforesaid, but also to the vtter contempt and despising of the most commendable art of phisicke, as a thing vnprofitable and needelesse, the whiche GOD not∣withstanding hath giuen for the singu∣lar Page [unnumbered] helpe, profite and comforte of man∣kinde, which question is by occasion hā∣deled at large in this selfesame Treatise, the which I haue presumed to offer vnto the gentle acceptation of your H. & W. as the meetest Patrones for suche a woorke, who, as you haue the charge of gouernement of this moste woorthye Citie, so I perswade my selfe, that you will verye carefully seeke in all respectes the welfare of the same, and so farre foorth allowe of the good aduice of this Authour, as you by your wisedomes shal iudge to bee moste meete and expedi∣ent. The principall and chiefe course is, to begin at true and heartie repentance, (which is the first thing that the maker hereof Perswadeth in such a case) bewai∣ling euery man his former wicked life, with prayer and fasting, renting your heartes, and not your garmentes, and commending moste humblye your affli∣cted estate vnto the mercifull conside∣ration of our heauenlie Father: and then to vse all other lawefull remedyes that may be thought necessary for the a∣uoyding of infection in so daungerous a disease.
Page [unnumbered]To which end I commend & commit this litle booke to your through insight and neere consideration, to be followed where it is profitable, to bee supplyed, where it wanteth, to be corrected, where it is faultie, and to bee refused, in what point soeuer it shall vnto your wisdomes seeme not profitable, or conuenient for your state and gouernment. The Lord blesse your H. and W. with the true feare of his name, and a carefull desire as well of the health of the soules, as the wel∣fare of the bodies of the people, com∣mitted to your rule & direction. From Tunbridge the 19. of May. 1583.
Your H. and W. most humble in Christe, Iohn Stockwood, Schole∣master of Tunbridge.
❧ A short admonition vn∣to the gentle and courteous Christian Reader.
THis small treatise (right gen∣tle and courteous Reader) comming vnto my handes at suche time as God beganne afresh to visite the Citie, and many other places of the land with the fearefull and dan∣gerous sicknes of the Plague: after the diligent perusing & viewing of the same, thinking it as well in respect of the matter, as in regarde of the present time and occasion, a profitable discourse for suche my godly countrie men as vnderstood not the Latin tongue: according as my leasure best serued from my schole charge, I haue occupied my selfe in turning the same into our Englishe and mother language, whi∣che being communicated with diuers of my godly, worshipfull, and learned friendes, both Diuines, Gentlemen, and Phisitions, they haue thought it a work very well worthie the publishing and setting abroade, to the benefite and profite of all such pla∣ces, as it shoulde seeme good vnto God to punishe with this kinde of visitation. I haue therfore con∣sented to let it passe the presse, and come vnder thy godly viewe, and diligent examination, giuing thee before to vnderstande, that in some places & names of fishes whiche thou shalte meete withall in this discourse, I haue reteined still the Latin name with∣out any Englishing of the same at al. This thyng I haue chosen to doe purposedly, that thou mightest Page [unnumbered] resort vnto some learned Phisition, heerein to vse his skilfull aduice, rather then by my gessing at all aduentures at the Englishing of the same (which I coulde neither learne out of any Authour, nor come to vnderstand by conference with others, albeit ve∣ry godly and learned Phisitions) to bring thee into an errour, hauing more regarde vnto thy right in∣struction heerein, then vnto mine owne estimation, iudging it better in this behalfe to bee counted ig∣norant, then by bold aduenturing, like blind bayard, to bee worthily deemed foole hardie.
Thy louing brother in Christe, Iohn Stockwood.
The Preface of the Authour vnto the Reader, of the causes of the pestilence.
*IT is a receiued opinion a∣mong Phisitions, that the first part of all healing & cu∣ring, must bee called backe vnto the knowledge of the causes, and iudgementes. Whereas therfore the learned do often dispute of the cause of this so horrible a sicknesse, the which we cal the Pestilence, and the publike cu∣ring wherof we are to set down: it seemed vn¦to me to be worthie the trauaile, in few words to declare this matter, yt so much the more ea∣sily and diligently euery man might doe his du∣tie, in taming or assawging this dragon, as Ga∣len rightly tearmeth him. For not without good cause it seemeth vnto some a thing wor∣thie to be marueiled at, that so many oftētimes doe die in one house, into which this infection once getteth:* and that such as betimes flie thēce many times remaine vnhurt. Which thing they which suppose to come to passe by vnauoidable destinie, or affliction immediately sent frō god, speake in my iudgement, indistinctly and vnor∣derly. Page [unnumbered] For such a plague is wont to happen not by common tokens, yea and very seldome, and that myraculously. And I nothing doubt that God doth winke at many things, and doth not at all times defend vs, which thing notwithstan∣ding hee is able for to doe: or to speake more properly, that he doth oftentimes vse the Diuel, yea, men also, and which more is, our selues, to trye our selues withall: so farre of is it that I woulde by any meanes denie it. Moreouer this likewise is a rare thing, & such as many old men haue not seen in all their life, that a plague should growe of the infection of the common ayre. For in this case it must needes bee that many & manifest signes goe before. Wherefore wee see the Astrologers many times to be fouly deceiued for want of due consideration of cau∣ses. For how can they alwayes without errour obserue and marke so hidden natures of so ma∣ny things, and so diuers coniunctions and dis∣iunctions of all the starrs? Therefore forasmuch as it is not lawfull, neyther altogether to shut out God, nor rashly to make him the Authour of our errour and ouersight, according vnto the iudgement of the most learned and graue men, both Philosophers and Phisitions, and also Diuines: this may well bee affirmed, that euerie pestilence in deede, like as other disea∣ses Page [unnumbered] euen in the iudgement of Hypocrates) and all aduersities are of God, but yet notwithstan∣ding haue not all one nature: for there is one kinde of plague which may be said to come on∣ly from God:* and another naturall: the thirde, receiued by infection. The plague from God, when as it riseth either immediatly from God, or by the ordinance of God (as Alexand. Be∣ned termeth it) and by no ouersight of nature, by no placing of the stars, or through the threa∣tening of no Ecclipse, nor through the defaulte and rash headdines of men, that is, when as it is sent by the meere pleasure and wrath of God, being angrie with men for their sinnes. And this is a most heauie case, and growing sodenly, rageth verie hotly against those (for we do not affirme the chastizing of the Lorde to bee like a bickering in the dark) who are not marked: the which we cannot auoid either by flying or me∣dicines, or ought to seeke to auoid, but the way is only by supplication, prayer, and purgings. It is also oftentimes to be perceiued by plaine and feareful tokens from God, or by the voyce of God himselfe, or his Prophete.
*The naturall pestilence is that, which com∣meth of causes by meanes, and such as consist in nature. This by some is thought to bee of three sortes, either by meanes of the ayre, or of the Page [unnumbered] water, or of the earth▪ of others twofold (which commeth in a maner all vnto one point) namely common and priuate: of the which the one is not properly called a common disease,* albeit ma∣nie times it bee the cause of a common dis∣ease, that is of a common plague. Nowe con∣cerning that plague which happeneth by reason of the ayre, or of the water, or of the earth, they say that it hath not God either the next, or the proper cause, although it haue him as her Lord, to whom it is forced to obey, & at whose becke it is ruled. Yet this plague many times doth so furiously rage, that it wasteth away most fa∣mous cities, most mightie prouinces and coun∣tries (from whence it seemeth to haue the name Epidemia, that is such a sicknes as haun∣teth a whole countrie or people) destroy∣eth whole kingdomes, vtterlye taketh awaye the former plight and countenance of a place, blinde for the most part (I speake after the ma∣ner of men) vncertaine, vnconstant, rouing all aboutes, vntreateable, raging without any law, taking away whomsoeuer it meeteth: without any regarde eyther of nobilitie or common sort, infecting all things sometimes far & wyde frō the East vnto the West, yea rāging vnto beasts, vnto trees, vnto the fruits of trees, & of ye earth Page [unnumbered] (from whence commeth that starring whiche the Greekes call Astrobolismos,* or starre bla∣sting) and finally vnto fishes▪ the elements being infected by ye noysom meeting (as it is thoght) of Saturne and Mars in the house of the vir∣gin, or of the Twinnes, through the Ecclipse of the Moone, or of the Sunne, & such other like added circumstances. This miserable sicknesse, commeth many times vpon mē so sodenly, that many within the space of 10. or 20▪ houres without any ague, amongest their doinges at home or abroad, or their publike busines, with∣out any certaine signe either of vrine or pulse, in the Church, in the high way, in publike offices, yea sometimes in feastes (O lamentable conditi∣on of mans nature!) are taken away in a short time vpon the sodaine,* being mery, iocond, and fearing nothing. Wherefore in this kinde of pestilence they thinke this singuler remedie (flie quickly, far off, come slowly again) to be a most safe preseruatiue.
*As for that plague, which hath his originall and beginning from infection, the same is got∣ten either by companying or lying together, or by some disposition from the partie that is infe∣cted with it, and commeth through the meere negligence of men: albeit at sometimes it rage as hotly as the 2. former, whē it lighteth vpō fit Page [unnumbered] bodies, that is, such as abound with il humours, or are prone vnto rottēnes,* as fire amōgst stuble and dayly taketh strength through the careles∣nes of such, as are vnwarie, and despise good counsail, and liueth by mouing it selfe, and wax∣eth strong by spreading abrod: so that of a pri∣uate hurt there groweth a publike, of a particu∣lar an vniuersal in the end, like as of a smal spark, a great fire, and according to that saying of the Poet,
This kinde of common sicknesse was not knowen either vnto the Greekes or Arabians, as Cardanus witnesseth, with whome I easilie agree. For when as they liued more tempe∣rately,* and in time sought the helpe of the Phi∣sition, and receiued the same, and kepte compa∣nie warilye with such as were sicke, they did the more easily let the spreading abroad of this sick∣nesse.
Which things standing so, it may easily bee vnderstood, after what sort the scripture repor∣teth the plague to bee sent vpon men by God, and by what meanes he deliuereth such as obey his commandements from the same. For I wil∣lingly graunt, that no haire falleth from our head without his will, that there is no euill Page [unnumbered] in the Citie, which the Lord hath not done▪ But againe my iudgement is, that these things come not alwaies immediately from God, in such sort as he may be said to be the next cause of them: naye they are to be saide more rightlie & more properlie to grow from their owne,* and from such nature of next causes, rather then in re∣specte of the prouidence of God. Because that euerye thing is to haue his name from his in∣warde or next groundes, that is from his owne nature, and not from outward causes. For what if a dronken man should fall into the fire, or into the water: or through hauing his stomack ouerquatted with meate and drinke, seeking to procure vomit, shoulde breake a veine of the breaste, and so come into a phthisicke, will you rather laye this vnto GOD, then vnto the intemperancy of this drunken sotte? If a man liuing in idlenesse, and dailie surfetting, glutting him selfe vnseasonably and vnorderlie with too much and moiste meate, wallowing in riotousnesse, giuen wholy to whordome, daun∣cinges, bathes, sleepe, vsing one while the colde, an other while the hot aire, gathering great store of rawnes and fleam especially in the win∣ter, and in a cold countrie, in a rainie wether, by nature moyst, grosse, in age verie old or young: if such a one (Isaie) fal into a quotidian ague, Page [unnumbered] will you not rather impute it vnto the nature and negligence of the man, then vnto the pro∣uidence of God? But if besides the simple rot∣tennesse, these humours gathered together, and through the continuaunce of time by little and little waxing worse,* and partaking with some poison, shal haue hurtfulnesse from else where: and that happilye there be added hereunto the infections of the aire by infected fennes, lakes, deunes, caues, the carkases or dounge of men and beastes, or of some other more stronge sa∣uours, and that the proceede of the inordinate excesses of times and seasons, and do pearse into the bodie of man alreadie apt to receiue them, or with meate, or with the aire, or with any o∣ther meanes else: If, I say, these things thus fall out, and bring forth the pestilent and euil agues of their nature, who will not rather lay the fault vpon the nature both of the aire and rottennes, and also vpon the rashnes and heedelesnesse of men, then vpon the peculiar and meere punish∣ment of God? So that the Gods in Homer doe iustly in this sort complaine:
Alas how mortal men on Gods do euery foote complain: affirming that their miseries from vs proceede, when as their own desertes & wickednes beyonde their fate doe cause their punishments!
Page [unnumbered]For some are wrapped in the like error in a maner, in the which some of the interpreters of Hippocrates are intangled.* For when as he wil∣led the Phisitions to marke whether there were any thing from God in the disease, they (saieth he) drew this hereunto, as if men were stroken with sickenes, through the anger of the Gods. Which Galen in his Commentaries according to the meaning of the same Hippocrates, doth vtterly deny. For albeit both of them iudged not distinctly and plainely enough of this mat∣ter, as being voide of the true knowledge of God: yet what things soeuer haue causes vn∣knowen to some bodie, or farre contrary vnto the opinion of the common people, are not by and by notwithstanding to be said, to be simply diuine or from God, although peraduenture a man may tearme them wonderful.
What is the cause then, wil some man aske, why so commonly and constantly men do iudg this sicknes of the plague aboue al others, to be a punishment sent from God? It is because, that for the most part they finde it to be a grieuous and cruell euill? For the olde Writers as well Greekes as Latines vse to call that holye or di∣uine, which is vnusuall, vehement and wonder∣ful. Be it so, yet this is euidēt by the testimonies of learned and godly men, that, as hath bin saide Page [unnumbered] in the beginning, it is not alwaies a punishment immediately sent from God, as they either of ignoraunce, or too much scrupulositie and spi∣cednes of conscience haue perswaded thēselues. S. Hierom saieth,* that many infirmities of the bodie (which indeede is to be graunted vnto him) doe come because of sinnes: ergo by the selfe same saying hee seemeth to shew, that ma∣nie doe happen for other causes, that is by na∣ture, or through the vnaduisednesse and negli∣gence of men, whiche thing Luther confesseth willinglye of the plague of Witeberge in the yeere 27. And Basilius the great, both in deed and name, affyrmeth that all sicknesses are not of nature, or of carelesse diet, or other origi∣nalles, which Phisicke maye helpe, but often∣times to be God his whippes for sinnes, sente of God for our conuersion, accordinge to that saying: Whom the Lord loueth, he chastizeth: yea he chastizeth euery sonne, whom he recei∣ueth.
Doubtlesse, where he saith not all, and often∣times, he by the selfe same confesseth, that some scourges are of nature also, and many times not to come immediately from God. I could prooue the same by many and most manifest testimonies of most excellent and chiefe men, but I thinke there is no man, vnlesse hee bee all to gether Page [unnumbered] void of eies and mind, or wedded to his own o∣pinion, haue his wits on wol gathering (as they say) which wil denie the same. Wherefore sith that which we say, is agreeable vnto truth, a∣way with their vnskilful standing in their owne opinion, who being perswaded, that all plague commeth immediately from God, would haue no endeuour, no trauel vsed by men to the dri∣uinge awaye of the same, but that only with the Heretikes called Euchites or Prayarres,* wee ought to flie vnto praier & supplications: prat∣ling that al the labours and charges of men are in vaine and vnprofitable: the which opinion there be some that haue of al other diseases. For we haue to think far otherwise, who when as we do godly confesse that all things are sub∣iect vnto God, and gouerned by his appoynt∣ment: yet do hold that many thinges come to passe through our own defaulte and course of nature, the which after God, both may & ought to be remedied, auoided, yea and also chaunged by the helpe and trauaile of man.Page [unnumbered]
To the right Honourable the L. Con∣suls, and to the right Worshipful the Senators of the Common wealth of Bream, Sta∣deen, and Boxtehud, his Lords and Patrons most highly to be reuerenced, salutation and tranquilitie.
IT is a thing to be lamen∣ted, (right Honorable & Worshipful) that the na∣ture of man,* through the fal of our first Parent, is runne into suche miserie, yea, and so farre blinded, that is, must continu∣ally beare not onely manye discommodities, tentations of Sathan, persecutions of menne, wars, troubles, famines, al kind of diseases, and finally death it selfe, but also that it neyther vnderstandeth the causes of these euilles, nor yet seeketh or receiueth fitte remedies for the same.
For there are many of so peeuishe nature, that if they know any, that can both shew thē their greef, & also giue them medicin against the same, & be moreouer willing so to do, they think that they are rather to laugh at them, & to beare grudg and hatred against them, then friendly to heare them, or to giue them any re∣warde for their labour. Which despite, if anye Page [unnumbered] in the world, truly Diuines & Phisitions are wont especially to feele: as who then at length begin to be hated of some, when as they haue done them most good, & do proue indeed by ex∣perience true, that which Xenophō affirmeth, namely shamlesnes to be the companion of vn∣thankfulnes. Which thing although it bee so, & that I my self sōtimes haue had profe here∣of, yet haue I not iudged, that I ought therfore to slack diligently to do the dutie of a Christiā Phisition, both in studying out of such thinges, as are profitable, & in putting thē in practise which I haue founde out, by al meanes that ly∣eth in me, with hand and foote. Wherfore, whē as certaine yeeres past, folowing the counsaile of Mesua, wherin he biddeth in althings to set God before, I haue published, and put forth 2. treatises of matters in diuinitie, which are the true Phisick of the soule: in the one whereof, which is written against the absurd and fond heresies of our time, I haue gone about to roote out false opinions, being as it were corrupt hu∣mours: in the other, which is entituled, of the knowledge of the wil, & grace of God, & of the fruits & signes of this true knowledg, my mea∣ning was with sound doctrine of Christian re∣ligion, as it were with good & holsom nourish∣ment, to feede and strengthen the vnskilfull: I Page [unnumbered] many times thought, and hereafter wil think, if God spare me life, according to my power, to perfourme the same, in mine own proper pro∣fession, that is, in the Phisicke of the bodye.
But whereas I haue spoken of Diuinitie,* I would not haue it so taken, as if I meant rash∣ly to thrust my sickle into an other man his har¦uest, & to play the busie body. For letting passe great & weightie controuersies, I onely dealt with those things, which are approued of al, or inueighed against such things, which are im∣proued of the better sorte, and that with such reasons, which I haue learned & marked, both in the schooles and also in the Church Wher∣fore I think it no vnlawful thing, if the schol∣ler render some parte of his Lesson: sith it is manifest by the testimony of al men, that from the first beginning of the world, euen vnto our time, it is not onely right and lawful, that men indued with the vse of reasō, might iudge of re¦ligion, but also that it is profitable and neces∣sarie, that they be able perfectly to iudge, that is to saye: to discerne and knowe the false from the true, the hurtfull from the holsome, the counterfeited by men, from that which is de∣liuered by God. For like as al men consiste of two partes, that is, of a soule, and of a bodye, so also there ought to be in al men a twofolde Page [unnumbered] action: one, wherewith it becommeth vs to magnifie God, and to prayse him: the other, whereby we are bounde to imploye our studie and trauaile vpon the Common wealth. And as there is notwithstanding great kinred a∣mongst them selues, betweene these two parts, albeit they be distinct and seueral by nature: so these actions cannot without great wicked∣nes bee parted asunder, the one from the o∣ther.
Wherefore they doe very wickedly, whiche doe so follow their wordly busines, either pub∣like or priuate, that they haue either none at all, or else verye small regarde of diuine mat∣ters: and not like men, which for the studie of diuinitie doe for slow their matters at home & abroad. Vnto whith iudgemente your wis∣dome also giueth moste honourable witnesse, whilest in your Cities you studie not onely this, that your citizens may liue together commo∣diously and quietly, but also beeing instructed in the doctrine of saluation most rightly, maye walke godly and holyly. For where but one of these thinges onely is cared for, it cannot bee, that the Common wealth & the Church can any long time be happily gouerned. Which thing, besides the examples of certaine other countryes, the most afflicted kingdō of France, Page [unnumbered] and the miserable Prouinces of the low Coun∣tries in Flaunders (alas for pitie) doe at this day declare. For what other cause is there of their miserie, such almost as hath not beene heard of, than the contempt of pure religion, the not caring for the trueth of God, and the wicked persecution of those which were follo∣wers of true godlines? For whilest the magi∣strate doth rather seeke to maintaine his own authoritie then the pure seruice of God, con∣streineth his subiects to obey his wil, rather then the wil of God: And finallye giueth eare to the counsailes of moste wicked Doeg and Machiauel, rather then vnto the counsailes of Gamaliel and Abdias: there must needs folow such effects, as there haue gone causes before. And because yt I know you with al your heart to detest this hurtful opinion & meere tiran∣nical kind of gouernment: & rather endeuour hereunto, that it may go very well with your subiects of your dominiō, aswel in minde, as bo∣die, I cannot chuse but highly commend this godly meaning, & most holy care of yours: and not only cōmēd it, but also according to my duty with my labour & trauail such as it is, to help forward the same. For as much therfore as at this time yt same sore sickenes of the plague,* wt Galē doth rightly tearm a cruel Dragon, doth be¦ginne Page [unnumbered] to breed euery where through out al our countrie of Germanie in a manner, & is very hot in some places not farre from vs, and as it goeth, like vnto a Canker, eateth vppe all the thinges that are next vnto it: manye learned Phisitions haue written diligently of the curing of those, which are taken with this disease, & also of the preseruation of euerye perticular person, & haue left their counsails in whole bookes, a practise greatly doubtlesse to be commended: but beecause I haue perceiued this their endeuour not to be sufficiēt, but that ye infectiō is daily neuertheles increased, & gro¦weth with his stirring, & gathereth strēgth by going, especialy because there is no publike course & order taken for the auoyding of this euil, I haue cōsidered, that there is need of sōe greater help, namly, which must be vsed by the authority of the magistrat, in whose trauel the chief hope of staying this miserie consisteth & lieth. Concerning wt, whē as in times past I had gathered somthing, which I had noted in most famous Cities & countries, partly by vse and experience, & partly had iudged to be agreea∣ble vnto reason, I thought it might be a work worth the trauaile, if I should beat it again v∣pon the anuil, & set it forth: that if happily sōe certaine could be perswaded, yt for the turning away Page [unnumbered] of this euil some thing might bee done by the trauaile of man, they might haue some course to folow: and that if they should thinke some thing to be wanting in my counsaile and trea∣tise, they might in deed and trauaile thēselues supplie the same. For this cause is not suche, which may content it self only with fine speech & fit laying foorth of the matter, but such as being once with wisdome aduised vpon, must betimes be accomplished, and (as they say) bee brought into action.
And whereas right honorable my meaning hath beene to dedicate this my paines ioyntly to your L L. there were two causes especially mouing me thereunto: of ye which the first did seeme to binde me as it were by a certaine du∣tie: as in whose dominion I haue now spent al∣most these 18. yeeres, & haue had a publike stipende of the common wealth of Breme in especiall, and minding in a maner there to end my life, that of whom I haue receiued most be∣nefits, to ye same I might rēder again as much duty as in me lyeth. The second was cōsidered of me in the misterie of your number cōsisting of three, whilest that in this Bishopricke you seemed vnto me as it were in one body to repre¦sent three principal members, the braine, the hearte, and the liuer, and in great consent of Page [unnumbered] mindes, in agreeable gouernment of your sub∣iects, and finally in peaceable folowing of true religion, to resemble a most beautifull harmo∣nie of a trinitie: wherein I iudged my selfe to owe this dutie not to one of 3. (especially sith this care appertaineth indifferently vnto all magistrates) but vnto three rather in one. Wherefore it shall bee your part (right honou∣rable and most reuerend Lords & Patrones) to take in good woorth this testimonie of my readie good will and seruice, and to take as commended vnto you, this care of the cōmon saftie, which I haue heere in some measure portraited and drawen out. Which things if at any time they shall be ouerruled by the ordi∣nance of God, which cannot bee called backe, it shall be sufficient to haue approued your in∣deuour and good will vnto men. Christe Iesus the true turner away of all euill, and the Phi∣sition as wel of the body as of the soule, begottē of vnbegotten, God in man, true life in death, (that I may end with the woordes of Egysip∣pus) preserue you with your subiectes vn∣hurt of this deadly infection, and alwaies in good health. Dated at Breame in the yeere 1581.
Your H H. most bounden, Iohn Ewich, D. of Phisicke.
¶ Of the duetie of a faithful and wise Magistrate, in preseruing and deliuering the common wealth from in∣fection, in the time of the plague or Pestilence. The first Booke.
That the care and charge of the com∣mon wealth belongeth vnto the Ma∣gistrate. Cap. 1.
ESAIAS the diuine Pro∣phet, & Homer the chiefe of Poets,* the one enligh∣tened with the heauenlie lawe, and the other with the law of nature, haue a∣dorned and set out Princes and Magistrates with an excellent title, whilest the one in his tongue calleth them Omenim, that is to say, Nurses, to wit of the Churche: and the other tearmeth them Poimênos Laôn, that is, Pastors, or Shepheardes of the peo∣ple: to witte for this cause, that they ought with wholsome lawes, and good discipline, Page [unnumbered] to gouerne, and defend their subiects, and al∣so after a sort prouide for them such thinges as are necessarie for their food & liuing. For albeit they doe not as Parentes to their chil∣dren, put in euery one his hand, what to eate and drinke: albeit they nourishe not vs being idle, yet when as by wise pollicie they bring this to passe, that nothing be wanting, what euery mā laboureth either by traffick, or tra∣uel, or goodes to get, and that what by honest meanes is gotten, the same he may in safetie possesse, and with gladnesse enioy, they haue not without a cause giuen vnto them this ho∣nourable title and commendation. And as it is not sufficient for a diligent nurse & faithful Pastor to haue prouided for his nurse childe,* & flock, such things as are requisite & needful vnto the necessary vses of life, but also they be careful to turne away ye things which might endammage their health, & to prouide whole∣some remedy for them being in danger: So also the wise and faithful Magistrate ought not onely to haue care and diligence for those things whiche concerne the trade of lawfull traffick, and diligent practise of handy crafts, the preseruing of peace, and keeping of qui∣et among the Citizens, but also he ought to prohibite or let those thinges which may ey∣ther Page 2 take away the same, or greatly weaken, or infect the whole societie and fellowshippe with daylie contagion or infection, & assayle and destroye with miserable ruine, the life of euery particular member:* iudging the loo∣king vnto the common safetie to be the chie∣fest part of his rule and office. For if they be Goddes (and as the Psalmist himselfe both king and ruler tearmeth them) the sonnes of the most highest,* certes it is their partes to knowe, that they in this poynt are with all diligence to imitate and followe GOD, of whom we daylie craue both thinges neede∣full, and also pray to bee kept from thinges not needefull or hurtfull: that they furnishe the Citie, not onelie with profitable, necessa∣rie, and wholesome thinges, but preserue & deliuer it from thinges also vnprofitable and hurtfull. Which thinges when as the hea∣then sawe, albeit ignoraunt of the true God, that this was a thinge highlye needefull, and in a manner heauenlie, they called their Kinges and Rulers of the people, Goddes, not proportionablie, as the Iewes and Christians, but in verie deede, & began to honour mortall men with honour diuine or belonging vnto God. For when as there neuer yet was anye nation so Page [unnumbered] barbarous, whiche had not some feeling of ye godhead:* nay when as the Apostle in playne words affirmeth, yt for this same cause ye very Gentiles are without excuse, because ye they had written in their mindes, which might bee knowen concerning God: who would think them so foulie to be deceaued, in that they iudged those to be, to be honored for Goddes (which Plinie said to be a diuine thing) whō they saw to imploy al their indeuour to help others?* For albeit they did not rightly giue vnto many, that thing whiche was due vnto one: yet by the power of nature they profi∣ted thus farre, that they almost atteyned vn∣to the knowledge of the nature and office of God, although they did not rightlie worship him. Moreouer ye Apostle in an other place compareth the Churche vnto the bodie of a man: for as the members of a man haue eue∣ry one their power and office, yet are all go∣uerned by the onely vertue of the braine, de∣sire and imbrace things profitable; & shunne thinges hurtfull: so also the magistrates, who in this externall or outward societie or fellowship, are the head of the common peo∣ple, ought to set before the other Citizens profitable thinges, and keepe away thinges hurtfull, that they may bee saide truelie to Page 3 fulfill the office of Pastors and Nurses.
But if any man wil say, that it is the pro∣per office of God,* to preserue and gouerne mankinde, the which in his singuler counsel he hath made: I answere,* that this indeed is true, but yet as God by the ministery or ser∣uice of man doeth teache vs, deliuer vs from sinne, make vs partaker of his grace and saue vs, albeeit in very deede these same are not the workes of men: euen so he doth gouerne and preserue the life of man by the seruice of those men, whō he chooseth vnto this office, and suffereth to be partakers of this prayse. Hereuppon Romulus,* whiche buylded the Citie of Rome, and is thought to bee that Quirinus, was by a certayne right recko∣ned in the number of the Goddes,* because that hee shewed himselfe a louing and boun∣teous gouernour vnto the people. Hercu∣les borne of Iupiter and Alcmena, gotte not onelie this name, (for thus the Oracle answered, Immortal fame by helping mē, thou certainly shalt win) which was aduā∣ced with immortal honour, but also was re∣gistred in the bedroll of the goddes, because that with vnweariable toyle, and most singu∣ler labour, he killed such mōsters, as endam∣maged men, and brought them greate daun∣ger. Page [unnumbered]Apollo and his sonne Aesculapius be∣cause of their phisicke,* wherewith they did much good vnto men, obteyned the name of gods. I blush at the telling of it, our Elders through a like errour builded temples vnto many, & gaue honour vnto them, such as belō∣geth vnto God, of whō it is scarse certayne, whether they euer were in ye world, or at least wise any light opiniō, yt they haue performed vnto others such like duetie. Wherfore, albe∣it we iudge them to haue committed no smal fault: yet in that they acknowledged them to be worthie singuler renowne which did good vnto many, I thinke their infirmity or weak∣nes rather to be to be excused, then to be fol∣lowed. For this doubtlesse out of their too much lightnes in belief is manifest, that it es∣pecially cōcerneth those which haue the rule of others,* to procure & mainteine the safety of their subiects by al the meanes they can, all things yt might empayre the same beeing be∣times & wisely taken out of the way. Wher∣fore who wil make any doubt in this state of thinges whereof we here intreate, namely, of the infection of the plague, that the godlie & wise magistrate ought to deale not slowlie, but lustely,* (for here is no roome for slouth, & that which Hippocrates affirmeth, delay Page 4 in all diseases to be daungerous, the same in this death bringing sicknesse especiallie falleth out) not sparingly, but plenteously, & not onelie to prouide for thinges healthfull, but also that concerning thinges hurtfull, he ought to be careful in time, & wiselie to turne away the same? For wheras the plague is a most hurtfull & also most infectious disease, yea (as Galen speaketh) as it were a certayn dragō,* whiche breatheth out poyson against mā, & vtterly denieth all truse-taking, & very seldome commeth vnto conditions of peace, he greatlie offendeth against the rule of cha∣ritie, whosoeuer according to his abilitie do∣eth not seek and bring some ayde, as it were a preseruatiue, to maister this Dragon, and the Magistrate moste of all, who in this common calamitie or miserye both can and ought in comparison of others to doe most. Neyther in this case ought the authoritye of certayne woorthie and most learned men to moue vs, who seeme too vndiscreetely for to denie, that this care appertayneth vnto the Magistrate, whose office (say they) it is not to ridde men from diseases, but onelye to mainteine the safetie and peace of our life and goodes. For it may euen out of their owne woordes bee prooued sufficientlie, Page [unnumbered] that albeit the magistrate ought not to cure the diseases of euery seueral man, or preserue them from suche as doe not openlie raunge, nor haue common causes, (for this is the pro∣per duetie of the Phisitions) yet whē as they holde it to bee belonging to their charge, by their seruice and authoritie to performe, that their subiectes may liue commodiously: who seeth not, that this commodiousnes doth al∣so appertayne vnto the health of the bodye? Whiche thing he that beleueth not, the same hath neuer seene, howe miserablye all the dueties of men are cumbred, the order of the Churches, the exercises of Godlinesse, the instruction of youth, the traffike of Citi∣zens, whereupon must needes ensue a moste grieuous destruction of particuler persons, when the plague troubleth a Citie or coun∣trie. Wherefore, I appeale vnto thy selfe, whosoeuer thou be that art of this opinion, that thou thinkest not it to bee the duetie of the Magistrate, to preserue the common wealth from diseases (and especially commō diseases) doe not such sicknesses seeme vnto thee to be, to be numbred amongest other in∣commodities? And can men liue together commodiously, when as these diseases doe rage? Doubtles this canst thou not affirme, Page 5 if euer thou hast had experience before what the Plague is, or what it may worke, where it once hath preuayled? Why then, say I, do∣est thou think it a thing not apperteining vn∣to the duetie of the magistrate, to deliuer mē from such diseases,* that is with publike care to defend? I pray thee hast thou not seen that which is vsuall in all well ordered common wealthes, how diligently in cities the Magi∣strate prouideth and storeth vp suche thinges as serue for the vse of warre? How careful∣ly he prepareth weapons? How busily he re∣teineth garrisons set in a readines? Especi∣ally when hee is in feare of some hurt to en∣sue? and to what ende? but that men shoulde liue commodiously. Wherefore are horses kept; shippes built; walles repayred, trēches digged, towres set vp, and bankes cast: but that the citizens should liue more commodi∣ously in safetie against the inuasions or as∣saults of the enimies? Dogges are mayntei∣ned for the like cause, nettes are pitched, hun∣ters are hyred, and troupes of countrie peo∣ple drawe together, if at any time wolues or suche like beastes doe trouble a countrie. I remember in the kingdome of France, that certayne Leopards, which the king vseth to keepe, did breake out of ward, and in euerie Page [unnumbered] place slue the countrie men. The whole coū∣trie was mustered, & neither cost nor labour spared, vntil they had rid the land from that feare. How much more iustly then in this ca∣lamitie & miserie also ought there some pro∣uidēt course to be takē, wherby this so migh∣tie an enimie, & cruel beast may be kept away from our throates, which in a very short time is wont to raunge verie farre, & as it were a Canker, eate vp euery thing yt is next it? To the end that the cleane in the old Testament should not keepe companie with the vnclean Lepers,* by the authoritie of the Magistrate, there was made a separation, neither were they receiued among the other people, be∣fore that they were by the Priestes appoyn∣ted to this office, iudged cleansed after they were viewed naked. In like manner at this daye after a certaine resemblaunce of them (for the disease is not all one in them both, nor all one cause of separation) those with vs whiche are infected with the Leprie, cal∣led Elephantiasis, are by a publike censure, & view,* remoued from the companie of other men. The same custome, and with the same wisedome in iudging & ordering the sicke of the plague, keepeth the most famous, and al∣most in the whole world the most mighty cō∣mon Page 6 wealth of the Venetians, according vn∣to the patterne of whiche wisedome I haue rudely drawne this treatise of mine suche as it is. The same doth Antwerpe a Citie almost in populous trade of merchandize,* and renowme of name, like vnto this. In the most noble Citie of Padway,* I my selfe haue seene, when as then I there studied Phisicke, the Magistrate, calling together the Phisitions, and hearing the cause opened by them, whiche then grewe only of infecti∣on, to haue let passe no trauaile, no charges, to preserue and deliuer his Citizens from the same, the whiche hee happily accompli∣shed in shorte time, albeit the disease were scattered through the whole Citie. I can auouch the same of Philip the Landgraue of Hassia,* when as the Plague began to grow in the partes neere vnto him, who so carefully, and so fatherly dealt by the aduice of his Phisitions, whiche was published through al his dominiōs, yt he may worthily bee a patterne, for other godly and wise Princes & magistrates to followe, of the which in the next Chapter shall be spoken more at large
Lastly, ye like did ye magistrat of our worthy, & of me much to be honored, cōmon wealth, Page [unnumbered] when as in the yeere 1565. hee had intelli∣gence that this wylde beast through the vn∣wary dealing of some, had inuaded or assaul∣ted a fewe houses of his citie: They called me into the Senate or Counsaile house, and asked my direction and aduice, how they might preserue without hurte the people by GOD committed vnto them, of a godlie care, and vnlesse I greatly bee deceaued, a care indeede moste beseeming a Christian Magistrate. Which thinges being so, if prin∣ces & Magistrates be desirous to maintaine their name (which I said in the beginning, to haue beene giuen them not onely by the Prophetes, but also by wise men among the Heathen) and wil be indeed, as they are cal∣led in name, Nurses and Pastors, they must thinke that it standeth them vpon, faithfully and wisely to handle the matter, that in such a time of the plague, they let passe no care, which may by anie meanes make for the tur∣ning away of so deadlie and infectious a dis∣ease, and for the preseruing and deliuering of their subiectes from the same.
That the Magistrate before all thinges proclayme a publike repentance. Cap. 2.
BVt some man maye peraduē∣ture say, you so deale,* as if ye whole matter lay in ye fore∣sight & strength of man, and make no mention of the help of God, on whō hangeth all hope of victorie, especially in so doubtfull a battel: whē as notwithstanding by the iudg∣ment of Mesua himselfe, it is manifest, that in al things which we doe, we ought to set God before, that we may make proofe of all thinges with more safety and boldnes. I an∣sweare,* when as I speake of the duetie of a faithfull Magistrate, and beeing my selfe a Christian, deale with Christians, that my meaning is, to haue these two thinges, that is to say, the grace of God, and trauayle of man, so lincked together, that the one be not voyde of the helpe of the other. For Hippo∣crates hath sayd both very well,* and verie godlye: It is indeede seemelie, and verie good to pray vnto the Goddes, but yet Page [unnumbered] man himselfe ought to doe some thing,*and withall to call vppon the Goddes? Why so? Because man without God can do nothing, & God without man wil not doe all things. God indeed is boūteous, & man verie poore & needy, whē as he hath nothing which he hath not receiued at his hād, but god loueth to be asked, & yt mē by this meane should ac∣knowledge their need: wherby we should be driuen to obey him in whom all our happines doth lie. If (saie Moses & Aaron) thou shalt diligently heare the voice of the Lorde thy God, and doe that whiche is right in his eyes, and shall obey his commandementes, and keepe all his statutes, I will sende no griefe vppon thee, whiche I haue sent vpon the Ae∣gyptians, because I am the Lord that healeth thee: but if yee shall not heare me,*saith God, and shal not doe all these commaundementes, and if ye shal refuse my statuts, and fulfil not al my precepts, but shal rather make void my couenant, I also will do this vnto you: I will visite you with feare, swelling, and a burninge feuer, whiche shall consume your eyes, and make your lyfe to pyne awaye. Likewise in many other places there is espe¦cial Page 8 mention made of the plague, which god eyther threatneth vnto the disobedient, or from the which he promiseth to delyuer the godly: so that there is no doubt, that albeit we vnderstand that euery plague is not the peculyar and proper punishment of GOD,* nor yet alwayes immediatelye sent of God, (whiche is a thinge chieflye to bee obser∣ued and marked) but sometymes com∣meth eyther by the course of nature (as hath beene sayde beefore) or through the faulte and neglygence of men: yet what∣soeuer originall and beginning it hath, al∣wayes and beefore all thinges, wee must flye vnto the helpe of GOD, vnto whose myghtie hand wee moste assuredly beleeue all, both sicknesse and health, lyfe and death to be subiect.
Wherefore, when as it is manifest, that this cause also, whiche wee nowe haue in hande, doth especially concerne the Ma∣gistrate, according to his power to preserue his people from the daunger at hande, and from the infection of sicknesse, or to dely∣uer them from the same when it is come: Fyrste of all lette them haue this care, that they them selues turninge earnestly & vnfeignedly vnto God, proclaime vnto Page [unnumbered] their subiectes vniuersally, and proclaymed, execute a publike repentance, which is wont to be shewed by prayers made both priuatly, and also in the solemn assemblie, & by almes and absteyning, not onelye from meate and drinke, but from all riot, daunsing, and ban∣quetting: after the example of the people of Niniuie,* vnto whom when as the Lorde by his Prophet threatned punishement for their sinnes, the king inioyned a fast of 3. dayes, not onelie vnto the men, but also to the bruit beastes, besides other workes of repentance, that by this meanes they might reconcyle God being angrie, vnto them. When as Dauid had transgressed the commandement of the Lorde, there was sent vpon the people so fierce a pestilence, that in the space of three dayes there died 70. thousād persons.* With the which plague Dauid being moued, con∣fessed vnto the Lorde his sinne, and by pray∣er obteyned at his hand, that foorthwith all that affliction ceassed. The like is read of king Ezechias, when death was threatned vnto him,* yet through earnest turning vnto God, and bitter weeping, his life was pro∣longed by the space of fifteene yeeres. It is also read that in the dayes of Elias,* when as the heauens had bin shut vp three yeeres and Page 9 more, and that it raigned not a drop, where∣upon folowed a miserable dearth of victuals that at the prayer of Elias, this scarci∣tie was recompensed with sodaine plentie. Hitherto may worthilie be referred the com∣mendable fact of the most honorable prince, D. Philip the Landgraue,* whose publik wri∣ting concerning this matter, turned by mee into latin, I haue thought good to set down, as the perfect patterne of a faithful and wise Magistrate, for all men to follow: and thus it is in Englishe: Wee woulde haue it knowen to all and singuler our subiects, howe wee are giuen to vnderstande, that the infectious sicknes of the plague doth sore rage rounde about in places, neare vnto our dominions, insomuch that it is to be feared, that it will come also into our Territorie and Countrie, and assault our subiectes. For as much therefore as without all doubt, such a Plague is a pu∣nishment for sinne, wee doe all men to vnderstand, that first of all the turne ear∣nestly vnto God, & desire of him pardon for their faulte: Secondly, that they vse them selues moderately in eating and drinking, & put their trust in God, who is the onely and true Phisition for our Page [unnumbered] griefe. Wee haue also of our louing minde to doe good vnto our subiectes, called together our Phisitions, and com∣maunded them to take aduice, and by common consent to consulte and pre∣scribe remedies, as well for the poore as the rich, wherwith next after the calling vpō of God, euery one may preserue & defende himselfe against this deadly and infectious disease, or if he be taken with it, howe hee should order himselfe, and bee healed, as by order is plainely in this our writing set downe: according vnto the direction whereof, let euery one af∣ter his power gouerne himselfe: but that aboue all thinges, that hee knowe howe hee ought to trust in God, who is our onely aide in troubles, and sted∣fastly to cleaue vnto him, &c. These are the woordes of the most vertuous and gentle Prince: the rest which appertaineth vnto the order and kindes of the medi∣cines, I will not heere expresse. Last of all, of a like testimonie of Godlinesse, and loue towardes his Citizens, our Magistrate also in the yeere 65. when as our Citie was visited with the Plague, gaue commande∣ment vnto all the Ministers of his Church, Page 10 that they shoulde often call the people to re∣pentance, to the dueties of charitie one to∣wardes another: to bee short, that they shold diligently and dayly exhore them to the loo∣king vnto the health of them and theirs, ac∣cording to the rule prescribed & published by me at his commandement. For they did acknowledge that which the Apostle saide, to be most certaine & true: God is faithful, & will not the death of a sinner but that he should turne and liue. The whiche thing hee plainely proued, when as he gaue his only begotten sonne vnto death, and that vnto the death of the crosse for our sakes. Also S. Iohn teacheth vs, that wee should not sinne: and that if we sinne, we haue an aduocat with the father, who maketh intercession for the whole worlde. In these most praise woorthie examples shine foorth, and are shewed not only a true care of the magistrat towards his subiects, but also especiall godlines towards God, and fruits of the truth of the Gospel. Through the fol∣lowing & steps of the whiche, euery one for his part also ought to be stirred vp & strēgth∣ned to pray vnto god, & vndoutedly beleeue, yt it appertaineth also vnto him, which Christ said vnto ye sick of ye palsie: Son be of goodPage [unnumbered] cheare, thy sinnes are forgiuen thee: Also to the Leper, I will that thou be healed, be thou cleane.
Of ordeining preseruers of health. Cap. 3.
BEeing nowe fortified with these preparatiues, and as it were spirituall weapons: namely with a good consci∣ence towardes God, & sure trust of ye forgiuenes of our sinnes (whiche are the first and chiefe causes of all miseries) shewed vs, and grace pro∣mised, the faithfull and wise Magistrate ought to followe the vsuall and commenda∣ble custome of common wealthes in the tyme of warre. And what is that? When there commethe newes, that some mightie Tyraunt, whome wee suspecte for to beare vs yll will, is in armes, hath gathered a po∣wer, and lyeth lingering about our borders, and that it is not well knowen vpon whom first hee will make assaulte, they vse to ap∣point theyr Generalles and Captaines, Page 11 which are bounde vnto them, and with these when as the whole Senate, or Counsaile are without power and victuals, they take aduice howe they may peraduenture goe a∣gainst their enemie, that betimes they may driue him from their Coastes. The like wee doe when as counsaile is to bee ta∣ken at the same time for publike muniti∣on, for walles, for banckes, for gunnes, and all kinde of armour, that search & no∣tice may bee taken by calling together the Ediles, Carpenters, and artificers, what they haue alreadie, what is wanting, what time and charge is needefull for the furni∣shing of suche thinges as lacke, that laying their strength together, and diducting or taking out the charges from the whole summe, wee may knowe howe long we are able to wage battaile. So surely, & with no lesse carefulnesse,* in the rifenesse of suche infectious diseases breeding, ought the Magistrate for to doe, that calling together the phisitions, prouision with all diligence bee had, howe, after the calling vppon OOD, and the commending of vs and our affaires faithfully vnto him, so farre as by the trauaile and power of man, Page [unnumbered] may bee, wee may meete with the disease as it is in comming, and looke not for this: Too late the medicine is prepared, when tract of time the griefe hath rypde: nor, when the Steede is stolne, that then we shut the stable dore: Whiche is not only a point of great foolishnesse and madnesse, but also against the dutie of a faithfull and wise Magistrate, whiche wee haue taken in hande to set foorth. Vnto which mat∣ter, albeit there bee required more wisdome and experience of thinges then I acknow∣ledge to bee in my selfe: yet because this ar∣gument hath beene throughly handeled of none before this time (so farre as I knowe) and published in writing, if I bring to passe nothing els, yet I shall procure thus muche at least wise, that I shall stirre vp either such as are better learned, to supplie with more skill, that which in mee is wanting, or that they vnto whome this charge shall bee com∣mitted for to execute, may performe that in deed, which shall be lacking in my wordes. For mee it shall bee sufficient to haue made proofe, if not of any singuler labour, yet at the least of a notable good will to benefite men. For this cause is not such as conten∣teth it selfe with fine speeche, but which be∣ing Page 12 wisely & well aduised vpon, ought spee∣dily to bee put in practise: and that whiche Plato hath saide of all vertue, that it is be∣gunne of vnderstanding, whereby is inqui∣red what is to bee done, & ended in fortitude, whereby it is finished in act, the same doubt∣lesse in this matter is especially needefull.
Where then at length or from whence shall wee take our beginning? namely,* from the very same persons by whose appointmēt in a maner all thinges which hereafter are to bee ordeined, must bee doone and ordered: and these also as in name, so likewise in deede shall bee preseruers of health: not manie in number (for nature hath ordeined a fewe to beare rule, and many to obey) but only three, chosen out of the whole com∣panie, partly of the Senate, or as it were the Benche, and partly of the other Citizens, as they shall bee thought most meete for that purpose, sounde in maners, fearing God, endued with experience of thinges, and rea∣sonable knowledge in learning (if it may bee) beloued of the Citizens, carefull for the publike health, faithfull, graue, yeelding nothing to their priuate gaine, glory, loue, hatred, enuy, or any affectiō. If any thing fal out, wt they are not able to deale wtal, ye same Page [unnumbered] they shall bring to the whole Senate or Benche, and from thence as from a common head spring, shall aske what is needefull to bee done. And they are to consider, and most certainely to perswade themselues, that the way to remoue for ye most part so great an euil, doth next after the helpe of God, consist and lye in their tra∣uaile and diligence. For as it belongeth vnto the Phisitions to prouide that the bo∣dies of particuler persons fall not into the Plague through the constitution of the aire: so shall it be the dutie of these preseruers, to let, or take away the publike and outwarde infection.
Nowe if it, whiche I say, shall seeme newe vnto any man, let him vnderstand that I heere goe about a newe in deede, but yet very necessarie poynt of pollicie. For it followeth not, that if a thing bee newe, it is therefore also hurtfull: for all things which now are old, were sometime new: and such newe thinges as notwithstanding with ad∣uice and reason are now taken in hande, and ordeined, may with good succes receiue age, & become olde. And whereas in all partes of ye cōmon welth, there are certaine with wis∣dome made rulers, which take charge of the Page 13 same as ye Ediles for buildings, ye Tribunes for warre, the Maisters of schooles for pla∣ces of learning, the viewers of Drugges for medicines. Moreouer, when as in all things order is better then disorder alwais, and that God him selfe is the Authour and defendor of order, I hope that wise men wil easily graunt, that common wealthes maye admit and receiue this newnesse. For albeit at the first it will seeme somewhat hard vnto such as are not acquainted with it, yet by vse it will waxe gentle, and become more ac∣ceptable or better lyked. For as Balthasar Castilionensis hath saide very well,* an I∣talyan writer: Vse can doe more then rea∣son, in bringing in of new thinges, and putting away of old. Now what I would haue looked vnto by this newe Magistrate, and what order by them is to be appoynted, as well in persons, as in all other thinges: Moreouer, howe the hole and also the sicke, (so far as pertaineth vnto the publik charg, for here regarde is not had of euerye parti∣cular person) ought best to be prouided for, I will diligently, plainly, and distinctly, as being thereunto by the whole Senate or bench required (for so dooth the regarde of mine office alway require) hereafter ende∣uour Page [unnumbered] openly to shew, and set downe euerye thing seuerally in his Chapiter.
Of Phisitions, Chirurgians, and Apothe∣caries. Cap. 5.
THese therefore appoynted Preseruers (as I tearmed them) by the common con∣sent of the Senate or bench, and by ye assent of the Citi∣zens (if neede be) the firste thing of all, that they shal think they ought to see vnto, shalbe, that they prouide the com∣mon wealth of Phisitions, Chirurgians, and suche as they commonlye call Apothe∣caries, such as for yeares, fame, experience, honestie of manners, virtue, and the feare of God, they shall iudge to bee best lyked and fitte. Which conditioned men, if happilye the common wealth haue not, or cā not haue, (for it is an harde thing to finde such, and so perfect, especially in so daungerous times) yeat at least, that they be carefull, to haue them in the next degree, and that they may Page 14 be commended, & excel for faithfulnesse, tem∣perancie, painfulnesse, and reasonable expe∣rience. And these being hyred for a conue∣nient stipend, & bounde by oth vnto the com∣mon wealth, that they take no occasion to start away, for feare of the sicknesse greatly increasing (such is man his weakenesse) they must seuerally euerye one of them bee put in minde of their office: namelye, that man∣fullye shakinge off the feare of death, they lustilye imploye them selues to approue their faithfulnesse and seruice both vnto God and man: considering that God is the beholder and iudge of the things which they doe, howsoeuer they may be hid from the cō∣mon people vnskilfull in the arte. If they doe anye thing through errour or deceite, that it shal not be vnpunished: but if they shal behaue them selues in their office diligently and faythfully, that then they shall receyue a farre greater rewarde after this lyfe, then can of men in this world be payd vnto them. Well shall it go (saith the Psalmist) with that man,*which faithfully dealeth with the sicke: for at what time hee him selfe shall suffer any trouble, the Lorde in like manner will helpe him.
The Phisition priuatelye must bee put*Page [unnumbered] in mind by the preseruers,* that he often con∣sider, how great an hope of al men he taketh vpon him, whereby all the Citizens will haue him in admiration, and reuerence him as it were some God, sent downe from hea∣uen. Also how great good wil he shal winne among the men of all degrees, who with good successe shall vse his helpe, and be hea∣led: and how notable a name he shall get a∣mongst others, which shall not be forgotten, no not after death. For albeit the vnthank∣fulnesse of some be verye great, especiallye towardes Phisitions▪ yet many will bee so bounteous, that with their lyberalitie, they will bounteously recompence, that which o∣thers of couetousnes foreslow to doe. That it is the part of honest men to haue more re∣garde of their duetie then of gaine, and ra∣ther to seeke and haue an eie vnto the health of the Citizens, (wherunto a Christian phi∣sition ought to referre and apply all his la∣bours) then either vnto promotion or riches. And therefore that he shew him selfe gentle and curteous vnto al persons, that he afoord the poore not onely his seruice, but also his monnye according to his abilitie: and that of the rich he receiue the rewarde, whiche they giue him with such modestie and chear∣fulnesse, Page 15 that he may seeme to loue the gifte for the mens sake, and not the men for the gift sake: that ambition and the wicked de∣sire of hauing, beecommeth bragginge and vaineglorious Thessalians and Paracelsi∣ans, not suche as are desirous of their owne health, or the health of their Citizens: But rather let them studie night and day, that whatsoeuer is profitable, whereby with his arte, he may from so daungerous an enemie preserue and cure those that are committed to his truste and charge, let him vse the same betimes, and wisely in the feare of God, that hee may so neere as may be, come vnto that point, speedily, safely, pleasantly (wherein doth consist the whole office of a wise & god∣ly Phisition.)
Let the Chirurgions be admonished,* that they shew themselues readye and warie in all thinges. Also, that they imparte theyr counsailes with the Phisitions, and doe all thinges by their appoyntment. For, albeit that now adayes through the faulte as well of times as men, it be a seuerall profession, which in times past was one: and that this parte which is called Chirurgerie, be tran∣slated vnto them: yet they knowe, that there are many hard poyntes in it, which vnlesse Page [unnumbered] they learne of skilfull Phisitions, and deale by their counsaile, they shal not be well able to keepe their standing, and shal many times to their owne shame bring slander to so wor∣thy an arte, and through their negligence and vnskilfulnesse be euill spoken of & diffa∣med amongst others. Let them therefore be perswaded, that it is neyther shamefull nor vnseemely, which Solon said of him selfe,*I waxe olde, alwayes learning som∣what. And that which Hippocrates saith: In the daunger of a present matter, ig∣noraunce casting as it were a cloude of darkenesse, others also must be sent for, that by common consent, the cause of the sicke body may be enquired on, and knowen, and that they may bee fellowe workers in helping him. For (as the same saieth) in continuaunce of the griefe, the sicknesse increasinge, for wante of coun∣sayle, manye thinges at the presente are forgotten. But let our Chirurgians haue ready stuffe fit for the making of oynt∣ments, plaisters, and medicines, moistening (for with these instrumentes in this sicknes for the most parte their art is finished.) And let them not lacke launces to open the vaine, nor kniues to cut, nor yrons to seare, Page 16 if the sore or impostume (as manye times it happeneth) shal breake out.
Fynally,* let the Apothecary be instruc∣ted, to haue in a readinesse all kind of need∣ful remedies, as wel simple as compound, expulsiue, preseruatiue, &c. and let him faith∣fullye minister them by the appoyntmente of the Physitions according to the neede of euery one, and sell them for a reasonable price. Let him consider that in a maner ye whole direction and successe of the counsaile and action of the Physition and Chirur∣gian doeth depende on him. For what shall profit them to deale artificiallye and paynefully, if hee vnfaythfullye and care∣leslye minister those thinges, whereby the arte and whole charge with prayse is to bee executed? Let him not thinke, that he hath nowe gotten an occasion to robbe and spoile, when as hee seeth the Citizens in extreame necessitie, compelled to come by flockes vnto his shoppe: but rather that hee is as it were a cooke (by which name, my meaning is not to impeach his commendation, when as neither Galen him selfe any thing at all reprocheth ye vnworthynesse of Physitions, in comparing his arte vnto repayring of old rotten houses) whiche ought to asswage Page [unnumbered] and satisfie the lusts and hunger of many: or as the stewarde in the hall of a great prince, which giueth meate and drinke at the com∣maundement of his maister vnto the whole familye, according vnto the diuersitie of of∣fice, age, and dignitie: Wherefore the mon∣nie which he receiueth, let him account not a¦gaine, but a consideration of his charge and labour. For they that hunte after gaine, are not woont to followe iust dealing, but coue∣tousnes, nor the health of their Citizens care they for, but regarde their own vnfillable greedinesse.* Such as are those petty Phi∣sitions, that roge about the countrey, and to the killing of many a man: these Experi∣menser Iewes, Paracelcists, Alchimistes, iolly braue fellowes, that is bragginge and vaine boastinges, Thessalian witches and Sorcerers, men (a certaine fewe excepted) lewd and wicked, which doe not onely con∣found and corrupt the end of a most notable and diuine arte (for so is the aunciente and olde Phisicke called by S. Paule) but also doe miserablye defile and marre the rules thereof, and that whiche is more shamefull then these, with manifest iuggleries diffame it: whom godly and learned Phisitions doe worthyly lament and dislike, that through Page 17 the too much fauour of Princes and Magi∣strates they are suffered. For when as Phi∣sicke is an arte fet from the moste inner se∣cretes and closets of nature, and seeketh her causes and principles in naturall philoso∣phy, which is known to few Princes: More∣ouer, when as these Rudesibies and ignorant doltes, or at least wise cosining runnagates amisse instructed,* commended oftentimes by the letters testimoniall of many, are woonte no lesse shamelesly, then boldly to vaunte themselues and their wares: The Magi∣strates that are by nature somwhat too mild, are soone deceaued, especially driuē by some notable necessitie: so that they giue both hearing and entertainment to suche lewde losels, which thing notwithstāding, if they would deale wisely, they ought not to doe, nor should so rashly commend such vnhonest persons with their honest testimonies. For it is a wonder to see, howe with these sealed titles and writings, the common people, yea and they them selues are besotted, puffed vp in pride, and shamefullye deceaue manye o∣thers. Would to God therfore, which thing al good Phisitions wishe for, there might be some open examination and punishment, to punish this their deadlye boasting, or at least Page [unnumbered] wise to bring it downe, that they should not dare so easily to giue out them selues falslye for phisitions, & forthwith to practise so high an arte: I wold it might be by law forbiddē, yt any man should giue to any to drinke, me∣dicines, especially such as serue for purging, vnlesse he be allowed by publike authoritie: Good God, of how manye deceites, of howe many errors, of how many daungers, that I say not priuie murthers, should mankinde be delyuered? I would to God, I say, we might once see that day, in which this foule and fil∣thy stable might be cleansed: To the great benefit of the common wealth they are pu∣nished, which set to sale naughti wares: they are punished which sel bad fish, or flesh: more∣ouer, not so much as a coblar in any kind of handy craft is admitted publikly to practize his arte, vnlesse hauing serued a certain time as apprētize, he can approue himself vnto his M. and are they to be let go scot free, who at their pleasure, in sōe secret stable or dodging alehouse, wher ye host is a baud, & the M. an harlot, the man a lecher, deal wt those things wherein consisteth the publike and priuate health, or els being decayed, is restored, & do al things deceitfully, betray & set to spoyle ye health of men rashly and ignorantly, and (to speake in a word) with haynous trecherie in Page 18 s;teed of life do minister death? What plague can happen vnto a cōmon wealth more pla∣guy then this one plague? But I cease with more words to inueigh against this rake hel Rabble: because there is good hope, that our preseruers, which we make, in so heauy an e∣state of things, wher otherwise many things vse to be don rashly▪ wil not deal loosely, nor by any meanes handle ye matter so, but yt they wil course away lustily these harmfull Ras∣cals, & greedy cormorants, & that those their phisitiōs, whō with due aduise the haue once receiued, whō they haue had cōmended by ho¦nest testimonies, whom they haue gottē by ye grace of god, as men indued wt virtue, faith∣fulnes, tēperācie, & godlines, with knowledg in learning, ye same they wil curteously enter¦tein, vse & maintain wt al kind of fauour. Last of al, it shal not be lawful for these to go to any other diseased persons, then those, which are sick of the plague: which also is to be de∣termined (yt al occasiō of infectiō may euery wher be auoyded) concerning other officers publikly hyred for this purpose. For whē as it may so fal out, yt they may carry with them in their garments the infected ayre,* who yet by reasō of the strong state of their nature, or medicins preseruatiue, which they haue takē or for yt they haue now a good seasō bin vsed Page [unnumbered] vnto suche an ayer, it doe not infecte them selues, yet being brought vnto such as haue not bin accustomed vnto the same, or as are already weake with sicknesse, and in daun∣ger of euery iniury, may easily hurte them, what folly (I pray you) wer it, to draw from him poyson, of whom you looke for remedy? & what poisō? Namly such as receiued only by breath, or, ye which is more wonderful by the only transpiration or breathing through of the arteries and veines, doeth sometimes bring present daunger vnto an whole fami∣ly, and sometimes vnto a whole Citie and Countrey. For it can scarse be tolde, howe greatly the corruption of the ayre about vs, and howe faste the poysoned qualitie dooth cleaue vnto garmentes, and chiefly wollen, and how the breath in fetching the wind doth infect, and as it were with a secrete flame set on fire the veines and arteries, being the instrumentes of life. And let these thinges thus farre haue beene spoken of the Phisiti∣ons of the body. Let vs hereafter go for∣ward vnto the ministers of the Church, who haue the charge of soules.
Of the Ministers of the Church. Cap. 5.
THose now beeing chosen and allowed, which haue the charge of the bodye, hereafter prouision must be made for spiritual mi∣nisters, who may instruct the sicke in fayth towardes God, and com∣fort them vp with hope of saluation, & take care of their soules, whome the preseruers shall so choose in euerye Parishe, that they take not to so weightie a matter, whosoeuer commeth first to hand, but such as they shal haue knowen to bee singularlye giuen vnto godlines, holines, sobrietie, and chastity. For they that hitherto haue had no care of true godlynes, cannot profitably exhort any man thereunto. And the vntemperate will bee∣stowe most of the time vpon their cups, and wil be vnprofitable vnto them selues, much more vnto others: especially seeing this opi∣nion is setled in the heartes of many, yt they thinke drunkennes and plenty of wine to be a notable remedy against this sicknes. As for the incontinent, there will be great peril, when as in these times many occasions of Page [unnumbered] sinning are offred, and that without punish∣ment, least they commit some such haynous wickednes, for the which God being rather prouoked, increase ye punishmēt, thē knoing it, keepe the same away. And further, they must not be couetous: For in this state of things, no otherwise thē in war, or burnings of houses,* many things lie opē vnto ye spoile: for which kind of fact I sawe fiue hanged at Padway, in the yeere 1556, after whose ex∣ecution the sicknes in short time ceased, as if the wrath of God through the punishment of so lewd a part had bin asswaged. They must besids be vpright men, couragious, indued wt meane learning, but not with mean charitie: let thē be wary, not rash, & let them consider that they haue euery day death before theyr eyes. Wherfore let them put their hope and trust in God alone, & look for at his hands, rather an heauenly then an earthly reward of their labours.
But if peraduenture there can no suche be founde among the ordinarye Ministers, out of the rest of ye people there must be chosē such, which come vnto the next degrees of ye foresaid virtues. For in this miserable time ye things of most perfection come not alwais to be had. Therfore, as they say, As we can, when as we would, we may not.
Page 20When such at length are chosen, whom the Preseruers shal haue iudged meete and suf∣ficient for euery parish, it maye not by anye meanes be suffered, that they go to any other then such as being taken with the plague, re∣quire their helpe. For I haue said before, and say stil, that not only the outward and cōmon infectious ayre, but also contagious breaths and infectious breathinges, or blowinges, which are gathered, & afterwards imparted to ye hole: & others that are sicke by the kee∣pers, by such as sit by thē, by the ministers of the church going hither & thither, & stāding by the infected, yea many times also by them that are dead, ought specially to be auoided. Which thing, when as by dayly experience we are taught, & haue proued also vnto vs to be true, by al meanes we haue to take heede, least that we leaue the cause of this so great a disease in others, whom with al diligence we haue, for feare of infection put a parte. Hereunto you may add, which we haue oftē∣times no lesse experience of, yt many sick per¦sons also (I speak not of such as are infected wt the plague) albeit they be not infected with the company of such ministers, yet they will neuerthelesse refuse their presence for feare of the infection. Wherupon also this incon∣uenience wil arise, yt they had rather receiue Page [unnumbered] neuer so simple comfort at the hands, either of some of their owne housholde, who for the most parte are vnmeete for this purpose, or els dye alone, then to vndergo a dubble mis∣chiefe, or receiue the vsuall Sacramentes of ye Church. Which thing, whether otherwise it be godly, or not godly doone, albeit it be not greatly material here to discusse, yet vpō ye occasiō offered, I wil set down certein rea∣sons on both sides, wherby the students in di∣uinity may be stirred vp to examin ye reason of this known practise of our elders, & how farre it may be allowed, & is needefull for the sick persons, they them selues may iudg: least any man might think yt I wold foreiudg or prescribe the skilful & learned Diuines.
They therfore which hold, that ye priuate receiuinge of the Lordes Supper maye or ought to be left vndon of the sick, giue coun∣saile,* that whatsoeuer such rites ought to be done, be done in time, and in the publike as∣sembly, [ 1] that in that same extreame necessity there be no neede of this carefulnes,* whiche they say proceedeth partly from ye ignorance of the common people, partly of distrust, and not to be without suspition of a kinde of su∣perstition. [ 2] Secondly, when as amōgst other things, the Supper is as it were a certaine ioyful and solemne confession and calling to Page 21 remembrance of the death and benefites of Christe, that it cannot conueniently & come∣ly bee done of suche as are halfe dead, and stroken with the feare of death. Thirdly [ 3] albeit they doubte not that it was ordeined for the strengthening of faith: yet that there are remaining other remedies for suche as are in this case: namely, the preaching of the worde, of the which there is the like po∣wer and like effect, which is of the Sacra∣ments. Fourthly, when as the Churche [ 4] many times is vncertaine of ye repentance & tryall of the sicke, especially such as are ta∣ken with this deadly disease, when as shee knoweth not, whether they bee moued here∣unto rather through feare of death, or truste in the worke done (as they tearme it) or co∣stome rather then of a right mind which rea¦son also in som place is obserued as touching malefactours or euill doers) they thinke it with more safetie to be left vndone, then to bee giuen. For albeit euery man is not bounden to examine others, but themselues, according vnto the counsaile of the Apostle: yet that the church ought to do nothing rash∣ly, but to haue diligent regard, what, who, with what fellowes, wherefore, howe, when the Sacraments are to bee ministred, least Page [unnumbered] shee cast roses and pearles vnto swine, and giue that which is holie vnto dogges. Fift∣ly, [ 5] that alwaies the receiuers thēselues are not this way benefited, but that many times damnation is ministred vnto them in steede of saluation, and iudgement in steed of life, not onely the Apostle himself being witnes, but also Hyppocrates himselfe, who hath said of vnwholesome or vncleane bodies, that the more they are nourished, the more they are hurt. Which Plato and Galen in like maner affirme of vncleane soules, vnto which if you offer holsome and nourishable speeches: that is, admonish them of vertues or vices, they waxe not onely not the better, but also the worse. Wherefore wise Phisiti∣ons, when as they doubt of a disease, or of strēgth of the sick body, & therfore what will be ye issue, they are wont to folow ye more safe & easie medicines, & not suche as may bring into danger. Lastly, they say yt not so much as the forme, which giueth vnto euery thing his beeing, is obserued and kept in that pri∣uate ministration vnto the sicke. For Christe vnto his Apostles, that is, vnto the Church present, and gathered in one, and not to one particuler person, deuided the Supper, and said not take, but take yee: nor eate, but Page 22eate yee: Finally, not drinke, but drinke yee: wherefore S. Paule in rehearsing the ordinance of Christe, badde not euerie man to eate his owne Supper, but one to tarry for another, that it might truly bee called a Communion, and that by the breaking and partaking of one loafe, might bee shewed a liuely growing together in charitie to bee made, and also an incorporation into Christ, and our neighbours and the receiuers pre∣sent. And these thinges are so liked of the one side, that they woulde neuer haue this sacrament ministred to any, but in the pub∣like assembly. For whereas it seemeth vn∣to some, that as the worde may bee preached euery where, and set foorth to men alone ei∣ther sicke or whole: so also this Sacramēt of our Communion, may priuately bee rightlie ministred vnto one, they think that the comparison is not alike. For that euery kinde of ministerie hath his maner & forme as it were, without the which they cannot be the thing that they are called, albeit all thinges tende vnto the same end. What that properly it is no part of the ministerie, vnto sicke men, or vnto others priuately without the publike assemblie to haue the woorde read, preached, and with the same, others to be admonished, instructed, and comforted. Page [unnumbered] For that this may bee done of any, and so is wont to bee, yea euen of women, vnto whome notwithstanding the publike mini∣sterie is not permitted, wherefore they think that here is a dislikelihood, and that theyr cause as yet standeth: namely, that the recei∣uing of the Sacrament of the Lords Sup∣per ought not to be priuate, but publike, and common vnto many.
*On the contrary side, others contende that this vse and custome of priuate recei∣uing of the Supper of the Lorde ought to be reteined, if not at all times, yet at least wise, when the whole congregation recei∣ueth it in the Church. For albeit Christ (say they) peraduenture did it not, as who helde the Supper only once with his Apo∣stles, heereof yet it followeth not, either that it is not lawful, or that the Apostles and the Church which followed them, did it not. For such as were absent might be letted vp∣on lawfull causes, as by sicknesse, or age▪ or other occasions, so that they could not resort vnto the publike assemblie. Hereupon the olde fathers of the true primatiue Churche, vsed to imparte it as well to suche kinde of persons being in health, as to those yt were sick, to the one as the cognizance, and badge Page 23 of peace and agreement of faith, and to the other as a pasport to them that were going away. For when as the Church is as it were one vnited and whole bodie, and that Sup∣per appointed for the whol Church, there is no cause (they say) why shee may lawfully denie it vnto some certaine members being absent, vpon some ceraine lets. And wheras it is saide that the Churche is vncertaine of the faith and minde of suche persons, albeit this peraduenture may haue place in those whom it is manifest to haue led a loose and lewde life before, & in such as are vnknowne vnto the Church: yet this principle oughte to be reteined, which hytherto hath byn vsed: The Church doth not iudge of things yt are hidden, and whosoeuer doe confesse with vs with one consent Christ, and in plaine words acknowledge that they repent of their sins, being by Baptisme ingrafted into the com∣mon bodie of the outwarde congregation, that of these wee ought to hope well, and to make them partakers of the outward bene∣fites of the Church. For (say they) ther is not so great danger, as seemeth vnto others for to bee, and that here there is no more poyson giuen in steede of medicine vnto them that craue it, thē there is to those that are in body Page [unnumbered] bodie present, and gathered together in the congregatiō. And that we must not so much regarde vnto whom it is giuen (so that they be not open enemies of religion, or by force of the disease driuen out of their wittes) then what is giuen. For that the chief end of this Sacrament is, that Christe should assure vs, yea, & make vs partakers of his promise, & benefites purchased wt his own blood (which on yt high altar of our redemption he shed to set men at libertie) yt he should arme vs with faith & hope, knit Christiās together with the bond of mutuall loue, & enflame thē as it were with a certain fire of loue. Moreouer, whē as ye sacraments are a part of the word, & as it were certain visible words, the which also according vnto ye mind of others, bring no other thing, thē the word it selfe preached & heard, albeit they doe it by another meane, they say there is no cause why sufficient, wherefore wee should more withhold them then this from any man, who thus farre, as concerneth outward conuersation, haue byn our brethren: for who can iudge the hart, but God alone? If they haue heretofore liued somwhat more at large, may it not be that ei∣ther a short admonition of the minister, or a litle breathing of the holy Ghost, may rayse Page 24 vp in them some small sparke, the which by all meanes to cherish, so as it be not against godlines, shall not be vnprofitable? Howe I pray you cā it chose but be against ye wisdom of a Christiā, to depriue them frō thanks ge∣uing & remēbrance of the Lords death, who in their heart feele thēselues to be moued to celebrate & keepe the same with the church, that is, with their body, albeit in situation of place absent therfrō, wold declare thēselues to be a member therof, & to be short, are desi∣rous to testifie before others, yt they are dis∣pleased wt their former life? Last of al, these leane so far to this opinion, yt they thinke the supper of ye Lord to be no where more right∣ly ministred, thē among the sick. For here is in deede reteined the true forme thereof, in the which it was first instituted: namely, at the point of death, or vpō some other vrgent & great perill, some sharp admonitiō goyng before. And to be brief, a liuelie faith, hope of saluation, earnest prayers, & an ardent mind folowing: yt is, altogether earnestly. Which cōsideration hath so far liked some, that they haue thoght yt there could be not better refor∣mation of the masse, yt is of ye abused supper of the Lord, thē to haue it made by this rule.
These things I minded to say here by the way, the which albeit they do but smally ap∣pertaine Page [unnumbered] hereunto, and haue beene spoken as it were besides the cause, and that I my selfe leaue the matter in suspence to bee de∣termined by my masters the Diuines and Gouernours of the Churche: yet heereof woulde I haue our diseased people to be ad∣monished, that touching this matter they quiet themselues, and bee not troubled in minde, if happily either through the crueltie of sicknesse, or for other causes, they cannot at that time bee partakers of this Sacra∣ment, as cōcerning the outward ceremonie. For if the Heathen Poet haue iudged it suf∣cient, so farre as able thou shalt bee, the immortall Gods to serue: why should not rather wee Christians, who by the sonne of God are deliuered from all bondage, per∣swade our selues the same, and beleeue that God, who searcheth the heartes and reynes, and requireth not so much the fact, as the mind, will as well be present with vs by his spirite, as if in the very deede we had fulfil∣led all the Ceremonie? For this is that spirituall eating or Communion, which our Elders also beleeued to bee done in minde, and faith, and to make vs no lesse partakers of the body of Christe bringing saluation▪ then they are which vse the outwarde cere∣mony: Page 25 if so be we can say with a constant and stedfast faith: Lord, I am not worthie that thou shouldest enter vnder the roofe of my house, but onelie say the worde, and my soule shalbee hole. The Lord himself in Iohn saith, I stood before the doore & knocked, if a man heare my voyce, & o∣pen the doore, I wil come in vnto him, & will suppe with him, and he with me, &c. And S. Augustine biddeth vs beleeue,* and saith, that in beleeuing we haue eaten. Also in another place he saith, He that is in the vni∣tie of Christ his body, that is, in the ioy∣ning of the members of Christiās, the Sa∣crament of the which bodie, the faithfull receiuers are woont to take at the altar,*he indeede is to be said to eate the bodie of Christ, and to drinke his blood. Let Christians therefore perswade themselues of this, if they cannot by lawful meanes be par∣takers of the earthly part of the Sacramēts, that the heauenly may aboundantly suffice, the which at any time by faith to receiue is no hard matter. The same also I dare pronoūce of the comforting and strengthening, which by the ministers of the Church is wont to be made vnto the sicke, that it is sufficient, whē as it cannot be had otherwise, if they be vsed Page [unnumbered] by priuate persons. Whiche thing that it is not diligently done, the cause is in the shame∣full slouthfulnesse of the common sorte of Christians, who alwayes learne, and neuer come vnto the knowledge of the trueth. For many so carelesly heare the publike sermons,* that they bringe not so muche profite from thence, as that in the extreame necessitie of sicknesse or death, they can bee able in anie point according to the wil of God to instruct, or with godlie consolations to strengthen ei∣ther themselues, or their houshold, who true∣lie ought to know this, that as it is not law∣full for schollers in the schoole to bee idle hearers: so also that it becommeth them not to come vnto the Churche as it were to beholde some playe of runners aboute the Countrie, but as it were vnto that place, whereas both Christe himselfe the sonne of GOD sitteth as ruler, and the an∣gelles marke the hearers, within a little while after as it were to take an account of euerye one, of the fruites of their diligence, and seuerelye to punishe the negligent. I praye you, if wee sawe these thinges with our eyes, woulde wee not promise to deale earnestlie and diligentlie, and in no case neg∣ligently and carelesly?* In the liues of the Page 26 fathers wee reade, that a certayne religi∣ous manne, when as hee diligently marked the Monkes according to their manner sin∣ging, that hee sawe the euill spirits to creepe into some of their throates, and to prouoke them to coughing, and to slyde into the no∣ses of others, and make them to neese, to enter into others eares and pull them, to shutte vppe the eyes of others, and to cause them to sleepe. Whiche thinges although they be fabulous or but a tale, yet they plain∣lie signifie, that our rechlesse negligence, and slouthfulnesse commeth from the Di∣uell the Father of lazinesse and slouth, and that it is wicked carelesnesse. But heereof more then peraduenture I ought. Where∣fore, nowe I returne vnto the matter in hand.
Of order to bee appoynted among the Citizens, and of leauing of publike meetinges and assemblies. Cap. 6.
THere must also an order bee set downe amonge the Citi∣zens, to auoyde publike assē∣blies, games, feastes, drin∣kings, marriages, daūcings, fayers, schooles, churches, & publike bathes, For besides that in many of these there is greate offence committed not onelie against the bodie, but also against the soule, there is also no small daunger of get∣ting and scattering the infection. Wherfore, wise men giue counsel, that at such times we should very seldome come into great compa∣nies of men. For there is no man so vnskilful but he knoweth, that where as al thinges are done without consideration as it were in a mingle mangle, yt there the infection is spred farthest, and infecteth manie. As whē the ta∣uernes & typling houses, whither they go to drink, are opē vnto al daylie, ye market also, ye shambles, publike places also in which linnē is washed, and diuers sortes of people are Page 27 wont to be mixed together, are haunted. In this case therfore lawes must be made by the preseruers, whereby such meetinges may be forbidden, or els seuered into diuers places and times.
And first concerning Churchmeetinges,* this counsel is to be giuen, that they come not by heapes, or by thronges, neither in, nor goe out, and that they flocke not by great nūbers into one Church, where they shalbe driuen to fit streightly and neere together, especiall in one Citie: whereas there are more places fit for this purpose, in the whiche the diuine ser∣uice, that is, the expounding of the woorde of God, and administration of the Sacraments may be done. For albeit these thinges may peraduenture seem vnto some to be but smal, and of little importance, yet nothing is to be omitted, which by any meanes may make for the turning away of the infection. And that which Cicero saide, that when as wee ought to doe for the benefite of men, and do seruice to the felowship of mankind, nothing is to be kept close, whatsoeuer commodity or store we haue, the same especially ought to haue place at this time.
If marriages be to be made (albeit whom* can these contractes like in such an estate of Page [unnumbered] thinges, in whiche if at anie time else, the counsayle of the Apostle ought to preuayle, that for the present necessitie it were better to remayne single) let them bee kepte with a verie small number of persons, and without all pompe. As for drunkennesse and gorman∣dize,* dauncinges, and other not necessarie or rather daungerous and hurtefull ceremonies and fashions, whiche for the moste parte are woont to bee vsed: let them be sent packing farre awaye, least (as it is in the Prouerbe) this sweete meate haue sower sawce, and least they bewayle the nexte daye the ouer∣sight committed the daye before. But chief∣lye drunkennesse is suche a vice, which doeth not onelye greatlye offende God, where it is lefte vnpunished, but also draweth with it o∣ther most horrible sinnes, as blasphemie, per∣iuries, bawdries, wronges, murthers, incests, adulteries, fornications (al which for the most part are wont to issue out of ye vgly serpent, & do prouoke the wrath of God against ye whole nation,*) I wil not say, yt those which daily vse this customable glutting & quaffing, are more subiect to this sicknes, & harder to bee cured. Histories report of Socrates, for yt he liued tē∣peratly, yt he alwaies was of sound health, al∣thogh he liued in many great plagues, which raigned at Athēs. For (as Aristotle & GalenPage 28 say) there is such a constitution in sounde bo∣dies, yt they seldom be infected with ye plague, or if they be, yet they die not. On ye other side, it is manifest by ye exāples of many newly ta∣kē with the plague,* yt whē as they haue plen∣tifully filled thēselues with wine, they haue comen into great dāger, & miserable present death. For in this case, if at any time els, the counsell of Galē is most profitable, where he saith, that the body must be pure & sound winded. Wherfore, it is not only ye duty of ye magistrate, to make a law & set a sharp punish¦ment against such gluttōs, but they thēselues also, if they wil seeme Christiās, & not rather altogether Pagās, must take heed, yt they run not into ye sharp saying of S. Paule,* in which is pronounced, yt drūkards shalbe shut out frō ye kingdō of God, & let thē remēber alwaies ye cōmandement of Christ, where he saith: Take heed that your bodies be not ouerloden with surfetting & drūkennes. Which com∣mādemēt they which so carelesly dare set thē∣selues against, & stir vp others vnto ye like ri∣ot, I cānot iudge how they shold not be plain Antichristes. For what is more Antichristian, thē directly to cast off ye cōmādemēt of christ: & to cōmand ye which Christ forbiddeth? But I will not heere more largely rake vp this Page [unnumbered] puddle, when as such offences ought not so much to be kept vnder with arguments as by lawes.
*As for these daunsings & friskings, which are wont to be vsed so vnseasonably, to wit, straight after meate & the table taken away (for thus haue many perswaded themselues, if no man wil dance that is sober, except it be a mad mā, that they deale very wisely, if they doe it when they be drunke, that is stuffed and crammed till they are like to burst againe, with wine and meate) these are to none more hurtful thē vnto ye dauncers thēselues, name∣ly, gathering together aboundance of rawe humors, which oftentimes doe quickly engē∣der great rottennesse, and obstructions, or stoppings of the veines, whereof are woont to growe hurtfull and pestilent feuers. And hereof saieth Leonarth Fuchsius a most ex∣cellent Phisition of our countrey of Germa¦ny, that he by experiēce hath tried, that many whilest they were in dauncing, were infected with this plague and died.
Further I saide also that publike bathes were for many causes to be auoyded,* whiche in such a time is as it were a present & deadly poyson: for that many and diuers sorts of mē one with an other vse to be gathered together Page 29 in that same vaporous or reeky ayer: of the whiche some not long before were infected with this disease, and now by sweating wold emptie out the remnants of the same: others being annoynted with sundry medicines and preseruatiues, of the which euery one brin∣geth his seueral filth, and infectious breaths, wherewith they fill that same ayer shut in, the which ayer receiued by those which are there present, & haue their bodies now rarified or made thinne through the heate, is very easily drawen in by the mouth and nostrels, and al∣so by the pores or smal holes of the skin being opened, and many times beeing carried vnto the heart or brayne, or liuer by the arteryes and vaynes, may very speedily corrupt with infection.
Now concerning houses of learning and schooles, in which children come together,* what shal I say els, then that it seemeth very conuenient, and in manner necessarie, if wee will auoyd the spreading of the infection, that those which cannot bee brought vnto a place more commodious, be for a time shut vp, and that the youth be rather taught at home, albe∣it with neuer so small profit, and giue them∣selues to priuate readinges, then with so great daunger by heapes to come together. Page [unnumbered] For the age of children and laddes, as being giuen to feeding, intemperate, tender, thin, vnwary, is wont to be more subiect vnto this sicknes, then it that is elder & of more yeeres. Wherefore, Rhases the chiefe of the Arabiā Phisitions, and after him Franciscus Val∣leriola Phisition of Arles, geue counsell that Infantes and children bee with speede remoued frō infectious places into an other countrey, where they neede feare no danger of infection.
*The like may bee iudged of common and yeerelie faires, also of funerals or burials, wherof in their place shalbe intreated more at large.
Vnto this Chapter, let the Preseruers adde this, and earnestly aduise vppon it with all the Magistrates, namely, whether it were better for certayne poore people, whiche get their liuing by begging from doore to doore, and by reason of their needie life feeding on euerie thing, are more in daunger of this disease then others, goe vnto, and runne a∣bout all streetes, & chiefly such houses where dead corses are, and seeke vnto all men (for cruel necessity driueth them out of their own poore Cottages) let them I say consider, whether it were better to sende them some Page 30 whither else, or to mainteine them by the common charge at their own houses so long, vntil ye sicknes slack, that by this meanes oc∣casion may bee taken from them of running vp & downe, of receiuing, and scattering the infection. For it can scarse bee saide, howe great and present daunger doth hereby grow vnto the whole citie. For which cause I haue seene in the most famous citie of Padway, af∣ter this same manner meate daylie by the common charge allowed, not onely vnto the poorer sort, but also vnto them of reasonable wealth, which eyther had been with the sicke, or were them selues infected, that so muche the more easilie they might bee kepte within their owne walles at home.* And it were a thing highlie to bee wished, that not onely in these times, in which especially necessitie do∣eth require the same, but continuallie and alwayes care were had of all common wealthes, that the poore might bee other∣wise mainteyned, then by this shamefull, and vnto Christians reprochefull, running vppe and downe, by whiche they inure themselues vnto nothing but idle life, and all kynde of naughtinesse. Whiche thing that it is not done, I see no other let but our owne grosse negligence. For in our parte of Christen∣dome, Page [unnumbered] there is scarse any village so meane, but that it were able in some reasonable sorte to mainteyne their poore, if so be the Magi∣strates did mind the matter, and that wisedom and order were vsed. The whiche after what manner it might and ought to be, albeeit I haue this good while beene in deuising, yet after I sawe,* that the most godlie, and in all kynd of learning the most skilful diuine An∣dreas Hyperius diligently and sufficientlie to haue set downe the same, there is no neede of my declaration.
This also in this place I haue thought good to call into counsaile, because that of∣tentimes there are manye fearefull, manye weake by nature, and vnfitte to doe ser∣uice in the common necessity, whom it were better to liue some where els, that it might be both more commodious for them, and the common wealth also lesse charged, whether it may be ordeyned, to set these at libertie, to get them selues for a time vnto some other place. For although that some either for reli∣gion sake, or for shame dare not to leaue their Citie oppressed with common miserie, and will not seeme willing to flie the hande of God: yet if by the aduice of the Magistrate it shall be thought good, and that it be done Page 31 for the ende whiche I haue saide, I doubte not but that with a good conscience it is lawfull. For this waye it shall come to passe, that the lesse multitude of people there is, so muche the lesse infection there shall bee: and the lesse infection there is, so much lesse dying and more speedye deliueraunce is to bee hoped for. For like as when the rotte is gotten into an heape of Apples, the more lye gathered together, the more it in∣creaseth, and the longer the rotting endu∣reth: so also heere it commeth to passe, that if once the Plague bee crepte into a Citie that is populous, we see the sicknesse day∣lye to bee increased and cherished a greate while, which thing is not wont in such sorte to happen in a place lesse peopled, if the o∣ther thinges whiche wee haue sayde alreadie and meane to say hereafter, be obserued.
Of order which is to be kept in the buy∣ing and selling of thinges necessa∣rie. Cap. 7.
ANd thus much of order to bee kepte a∣mong the Citizens: hereafter we must Page [unnumbered] see concerning the selling and buying of things necessary: that as before care was had of medicines for the body, and of sacrifices & Sacramentes for the soule: so also prouision be made for the Citizens of nourishments, vi∣tayles, meate and drinke. For if Diogenia∣nus haue saide truely, that by the thinges wherwith we liue, by the same also we get sicknes, it is a thing doubtles greatly mate∣rial, that not onelie thinges hurtful bee not brought into the citie, but also ye things good & profitable should be brought, but with such a Prouiso, that the things yt are to be brought in,* bee set abroade, and solde with least dan∣ger. Heere therefore lawes are to bee made, what kindes of meates may bee lawful to be sold, & what not: also for what price: & lastlie, in what places, and a certayne penaltye by the Preseruers to bee set vppon the offen∣ders.
First therefore must streightly bee forbid∣den, that none of the countrie or indwellers set to sale, or sell sweete cheries, prunes (ex∣cept vngary & damask) new grapes, & figges peaches, peares, mellow & sweet apples, me∣lons, pippins, and least of all cucumers, the which (as Galen witnesseth) haue great store of iuice apt to putrifiyng: Marcil, FicinusPage 32 permitteth Gourdes, and Rhazes, who dwelled in Egypte, where there is muche drought, in a season verie hotte graunteth hearbes, and Sommer fruites, suche as are colde and moyst: which is scarse lawfull for vs in this countrey to folow. Secondly,* dili∣gent heed must be taken, that no man sel opē∣lie corrupt or il dressed fish & fleshe, amongest which also must be numbred, although it can hardly be forbiddē, to yoūg lāb & veale, which in certaine great cities is wont very ill to be done: also fish yt are not scaly, soft, takē in rot∣tē pooles, as eeles, lāprous, lāpreies,* & the fi∣shes called albuli & bustomi. For it cā scarse be told, what apt matter al, these doe minister vnto rottēnes. In ye steed therfore of al these, are not only to be admitted, but also to be de∣sired, & by ye preseruers procured such as are holsom, & ingēder good blood, & may be some let vnto ye sicknes growing: as are amōg the sūmer fruits, damask & vngary prunes dried:* raysons, & corinthes, sower peaches, & peares which are wont to be laid vp against winter, quinces, bitter almōds, capers, walnuts, sow∣er cheries, & especial Pomgrannats, orāges, limons, and citrons. Among the hearbs are, Lettise, Succorie, Milkethistle, Purslayne,* Orach, Spinage, Sperache, Carduus Page [unnumbered] benedictus, Baume, Sorrel, Burrage, Bur∣net, Rue, Betomy, Rosemarie, Sage, Isop, Cheruil, Parsley, Fenell, and such like. The which when as all men haue not, neither can haue, it shall not be vnprofitable, to buy them daylie of the Gardiners, that bringe them to market.* Fishes whiche at that time may bee eaten (albeeit euery countrey maye measure this according vnto the nature of ye place, for all landes bring not foorth all thinges) shalbe chiefly such as be amongest stonie places or grauelly, as Gougeons, Loches, Pearches, Pickerels, Breames, Trowts, Soles, Stic∣klebagges, Bleakes, Barbels, Carpes. To teach that these should bee sodde in Vineger, or small wine, albeit it be no smal remedy to preserue health, yet doeth it not pertaine to our present purpose. For heere is set out the duetie of the Magistrate, and not the diet of particular persons.* Holesome fleshe are, Chickens, Capons, Hennes, Partridges, Pheisantes, Wood doues, Turtles, Pige∣ons, the Attagen, Thrushes, Starles, Spar∣rowes, Chaffinches, and all small byrdes that liue in wooddes, bushes and vines: also kids, fat Calues, and of reasonable age, Roes, Hares, Harts, Cunnies, Oxen, Weathers. Neyther are spices altogether to bee ouer∣passed, Page 33 the vse whereof the richer sort (for the poore make hunger and labour a sauce) may vse as preseruatiues in saucing their meats.* And they are these, Cynnamom, Saffron, Nutmegs, Mace, Cloues, whole Pepper, for ye strēgth therof being of a thin light sub∣stance, is easily dissolued by feathing, & doth heat ouermuch. And thus much concerning meates.
There must no lesse care be vsed concer∣ning drink, that none at al be suffered,* which may in any respect bee a nourishment vnto rottenesse: and again such must be prouided as is holsome, by the counsaile of the Phisi¦tions, according vnto ye custom of the place. I woulde not speak any thing vnto the pre∣iudice or fore iudging of others: yet can I not allow of all kind of drinkes a like. Ma∣nardus a very learned & famous Phisition of our time disliketh all Beere in this sick∣nesse: but because hee was an Italian, and accustomed only vnto wine (for Italie scarse knoweth our Beere) his iudgement in this point is not greatly to be accounted of. For I dare certainly affirme, that our double and single Bream Beere, & also the Beere of o∣ther cities adioyning, is not vnholsom, espe∣cially, if it be cleere, well sodden, reasonably Page [unnumbered] hopped, and not to high coulored, for so it may drie the bodies, and strengthen the po∣wers, cleare the spirites, and after a sort like vnto wine, make glad (as the Psalmist spea∣keth) the heart of man. Hee that is desirous to know the vertues of euery kind of beere, let him reade the treatises of some written of this matter, and examine them according to the rule nowe set down, which is applied vnto the state of time, in respect whereof we haue directed this our whole aduice. I haue spoken first of Beere, because this hath the first and chiefe vse with vs: yet in the meane season I denie not,* but that wine deserueth especiall commendation, and is farre better then Beere▪ or any other kinde of drinkes, if it bee pure, & not to strong. The chief praise is giuē to white wine, pure, ripe, well smel∣ling, old, austere, rather thē sweet: neither is claret wine disliked of a thin substāce, of rea∣sonable age, & not striking the head. Let the same iudgement be concerning made wines of Wormewood, Cardus Benedictus, Be∣tonie, Sage, Rosemary: but of whom, whē, and in what quantitie these are to bee vsed, perteineth not vnto this place. Thus farre therefore of drinkes and meates: other thinges concerning food, as not necessarie, I purposely passe ouer, least I might seeme Page 34 scrupulously to deale wt euery small matter.
For the price of these things,* which was the second thing set downe, this only I am to counsaile, that there bee vsed by ye preser∣uers reasonablenesse, not only as Aristotle requireth in the exchange & price of things, and equall vnto the wares, but also such as hath regard vnto the pouertie and abilitie of the chapmen, according vnto the estate of the persōs, & the same in such sort yt whilest ye one is had care of, the other be not burdened And because ye iudgemēt in this case is hard, this equitie is to be left vnto the discretion of the sellers, with this caueat & Christian remem∣brance, yt they haue not so much their minds greedily set vpon gain (which in this state of things is in no case seemely) as vppon that saying of ye Apostle: Loue seeketh not the things, which are her own. Againe, They that will be rich, fall into tentations: a∣gaine, let no man beguile his brother in bargaining. For what shall it auaile thee so greedilie to scrape together yt thing, from which thou oughtest to feare, least thou bee takē euery momēt? Thou foole (saith Christ vnto ye rich mā in ye gospel, which here I may say vnto thee, O whosoeuer thou art wt in this cōmō mistery hūtest after thy priuat lucre) Page [unnumbered]this night shall thy soule be taken from thee, and then whose shal they be, which thou hast gathered together? Wherefore thus rather we ought to determine with our selues, that we in this world possesse nothing as our owne, but only are stewardes of ano∣ther man his goods. If we haue gotten any thing to our master with our labor honestly, the labour will end, but the reward remain: but if contrariwise, wee shall haue burdened our neighbour with vnhonest and vnlawful taking, the iniquitie will remain, & the gain haue an end. Besides this, my request is also in this case, that princes & such as haue cus∣tomes & tolles, would yeld somwhat of their right, vnto these cities & people, which bee∣ing visited with this sicknes, are both ouer∣laden with their own charges, & also cannot vse their wonted trafficke.
Lastly, also as touching the place, where∣in all things pertaining vnto meat & drinke,* are to be sold, some thing must be added. For it seemeth not conuenient, that all thinges should be brought into one market. For so it must needes be, that a mightie multitude of people shoulde come together, & that the sa∣uours of diuers things, many times also fil∣thy & strongly smelling must be mixed toge∣ther, Page 35 whiche thing doubtlesse will giue no small occasion of rottennesse, which, if wee will auoid, the infection must with all dili∣gence be shunned, as hath been often said al∣readie. There must therfore be ordeined ma∣ny places, in sundrie partes of the citie, wher those thinges must be set, which pertain vn∣to foode, and are needfull for euery one. Let there also be a seuerall market for flesh and fiish, for hearbes and fruites, that all discom∣modities, which may arise by the mingling together of a multitude of people, and brin∣ging of things saleable, may with al diligēce be auoyded.
Of purging the ayre, cleansing the streetes, putting away of kine, hogges geese, &c. Chap. 8.
SVch things as concerne meates and drinkes, haue been set downe in ye chap∣ter next before, wherein, whē as we thought good to prescribe among other things, seuerall places for the sale of ye same, Page [unnumbered] that the spreading of the infection might be hindred, and yet neuerthelesse the rottennes, whereof oftentimes the same taketh not on∣ly his beginning, but also increase, can hard∣ly bee kept from those places, it foloweth by good reason, yt wee briefly treate of purging the ayre, of cleāsing the streetes, of keeping away kine, hogges, and geese, the which doe greatly defile the same. For I see that al the learned, yea and the common sort also doe holde this: namely, that the causes are to be taken away, if wee will take away ye effects, which grow of the causes: also, that the pure ayre doth make much to the strengthning of the spirites, and vnto health, so that it hath giuen occasion of a prouerbe: Such ayre, such mind: also it is knowen, that nothing doth so much dissolue the powers as stench. And because the streetes can not bee kept cleane,* nor consequently stench, rottennesse, and vnpurenesse of the ayre to be letted, so long as suche liuing creatures are suffered, which ingender store of such filth, these must bee put into some place without the Citie, which seemeth fit for this turne: namely, which is neere the riuer, if it may bee, that their filthie excrements may be purged into Page 36 it, or els that from thence the stinking reekes as little infect the Citie as may be. For the doung and excrements of those beastes, whi∣che I haue spoken of, doe more then will be beleeued, infect and weaken the spirites and principall members, as the braine the heart, &c.
There is alike fault vnto this, and too abhominable (the which I maruaile to bee suffered in worshipfull Cities, and I shame to speake it) that the streetes, and allies, yea and the Church yards also, are euerie where in some places so defiled with ye doung of shamelesse Roges and Beggars, that whi∣che way so euer you turne your selfe (with reuerence bee it spoken) you will thinke you see not a publike and commendable way in the Citie, but a vile and beastlye Iakes. The like in maner you may say of lye water, wherewith linen clothes and vessel are washed, the which maids are wont commonly to caste before the dores of the neighbours, when as they cannot abide it at their owne houses.
Wherefore the Preseruers muste doe theyr indeuour, that when as they haue free∣ed the Citie from these beasts they also com∣maunde Page [unnumbered] these filthes to be carried all away, and by lawe decree, that none heereafter do either maintaine or admit any such filthines. The which yt it may the better be obserued, there must be made in place fit for that pur∣pose, sties and stables in such maner as hath been said: also publike houses of office, and sinckes vnder grounde, into the which may bee carried all such kind of foule stuffe, whi∣che places when they begin once to bee ful, let them be couered with lyme, to drinke it vp withall: for the other practise, which is vsed in carrying it out, is not without dan∣ger at that time.
*Afterwardes also the Ditches, if there be any within, or without the Citie (for the walles of Cities manie times are wont to bee compassed about with ditches, which of∣ten serue the common people in steede of pri∣uies, whilest they carry out into the same, as into some foule hole, all their filth) Also pondes and standing waters, if from out of them there bee suspicion of any euill ree∣kes (as when Flaxe and Hempe, or Tan∣ners skines are steeped in them, or when as houses of offices by vautes vnder the grounde doe emptie their sincks into them) Page 37 they are eyther to bee filled vp with earth, or by trenches to bee let out, and carryed awaye: or finallye, if it maye bee, they are some certaine tymes to bee scowred, by lettinge in some swifte brooke into them. For such many times (as Paulus Aegineta doth witnesse) are causes procuring conta∣gious and infectious ayre.* The same do all Phisitions, and manye great Diuines thinke of Churchyardes, of the which some∣what more shal be sayd in the second book. Of Africa wee reade, that it was some∣tymes infected with a great plague, by reason of a corrupt breath fuminge vp from sea lopsters cast vp on the shore, and there dying.* The same witnesseth Alexander Benedictus, to haue happened sometymes after great earthquakes. For (saith he) a filthy vapour lyinge a longe time restinge and moulding vnder the earth, as it were in euerlasting darkenesse, maye infecte the moyst and pure ayre, and bringe newe and euill feuers: Suche as histories recorde were sometymes at Venice, by meanes whereof all women almost that were great with Child, were delyuered of their Chil∣dren dead beefore their time, and anone after dyed of the plague, the same yeere. Page [unnumbered] For whereas some layde the cause hereof vppon a Dragon, which laye lurking in those Caues, it was but a tale. It is need∣lesse to bring hyther more examples, albeit it might bee doone in great plenty. For experience and reason, two chiefe causes of making thinges to bee beeleeued, doe agree to this opinion. Wherefore the Preseruers must take great heede, leaste, when as they haue vsed other kinds of indu∣strie and payne taking, and leaue beehynde these present breeders of corruption, they lose both their coste, and also their la∣bour.
But heere peraduenture some manne will obiecte vnto mee that common saye∣inge:*that one poyson is dryuen out with an other, lykes as one nayle with an other: Also the vsage of some Na∣tions, who at such tymes are woont not to keepe or cleanse the places infected from euill and filthy sauours, but to fill and stuffe them. Whereof Alexander Benedictus reciteth a storie of his tyme, woorthye to bee remembred,* concerninge the countreye Sarmatia, the whiche also hee thinketh Page 38 maye be confirmed by naturall reason.
A certayne noble Merchaunte, (sayeth hee) of Creta*, when as hee traded Mer∣chandize in the Countrey of Tauros, and that a moste cruell Pestilence was growne by reason of the corruption of the ayre, by meanes whereof there was no ende of dying, reported, that hee sawe a Physiti∣on in that notoryous death of menne, a dweller of that place (for the Sarmati∣ans doe inhabite there) who commaun∣ded Dogges to bee kylled, and euerye where to bee cast in the wayes and streets, whiche Dogges beeing swollen vppe and rotten, filled the ayre with a filthy sauour, and that by this remedie the Cittie was straight restored to health. Also that the Sarmatians are woonte often to vse this medicine.
For the Dogges putrifying chaunged the nature of the ayre, whiche was one∣lye hurtefull vnto the menne. For so dooth vnlykenesse and discorde of thinges woorke, and one poyson is maystered of an other.* Which thinge also one Zoar amonge the latter Arabian Phisitions doth affyrme.
Page [unnumbered]This storie telleth Alexander, the which least anye laysie bones might alleadge in defence of his sloathfulnesse, whilest hee is desirous to auoyde such meanes and labour of cleansing, as wise men doe counsayle: or leaste anye manne shoulde rashlye followe that, which he vnderstandeth not howe it is done, the cause of so vnhearde of, and vn∣woonted remedye is to bee sought out. I graunt therefore it to bee true, that one poyson sometymes is driuen out with an o∣ther: but when that shall bee done, there must needes bee a manifest or secrete contra∣rietie of qualities beetweene those thinges which dryue out one another. For other∣wise the one will not onely flye from the o∣ther, but will rather come vnto it, and will bee ioyned and knitte in felloweship more stronglye and neerelye: For concord (saieth Hyppocrates) cleaueth vnto and dwelleth with concord. But things disa∣greeing vse rebell, fight, and disagree a∣mong them selues. It is also commōly said, that like thinges are not onelye preserued with lyke, but also increased and strength∣ned: as fire vseth to be increased with oyle, (a) Naphta, brimstone, aumber woode: heat with heate: the Ague with rottennesse of Page 39 humours: the Dropsie with drinkinge of water, Choler with the eating of Capons, and the poyson of the plague (as Marcill Ficinus saith) with wooll. And this con∣trarietie of qualities which I spake of, whē as it proceedeth from an inborne qualitie, which in diuers kindes of thinges is diuers and oftentimes hath manyfolde causes, e∣uen according vnto the nature of the place, constitution of the ayre, temperature and di∣sposition of the subiect or thing it is in, and finallye accordinge vnto the proportion of the poyson and agent cause, it dooth woon∣derfully varie, and maye rather bee vnder∣stoode by the falling out of the thing, then by any stedfast reason. What shal we saye then vnto the question put forth? Is this cure done by any manifest qualitie? For the nature of Dogges is drye, and the rot∣tennesse, wherewith for the moste parte the plague is ioyned, is sayde to bee a corrup∣tion in a moyst bodye. Or shall we saye, that the stench of Dogges putrifying is by a certaine secrete qualitie repugnaunt vnto the nature of the plague? Truly, I dare not say so, in asmuch as this cannot be prooued (so farre as I knowe) by the authoritie of anye, but onely by the custome of that coun∣trey, Page [unnumbered] and the experience of that soyle agree∣able: namelye, that there a certaine sin∣gular plague, a singular nature of Dogs, a singular temperature of menne, a singu∣lar ayre, and suche other thinges as are in this case required, doe all agree in a certayne singular qualitie, whiche in other partes of the woorlde, in other natures of beastes and menne are not in al poynts so lyke. Which cannot bee doubtefull vnto them,* whiche are indued but with rea∣sonable experience of things. For the poyson and infection of the Plague is not after one sorte, in all times and places.
Men also and other kindes of lyuinge creatures doe greatlye differ within them selues.
There is suche a Plague, as in whiche chiefly Fyshes dye, sometymes fourefooted beastes, sometymes Byrdes, sometymes Mankinde, and amongest mankinde som∣times Women more then Men, and the younger more then the elder.
Hieronimus Cardanus a man moste skil∣full in manye thinges,* maketh mention of a certaine plague at Basil, with the whiche onelye the Heluetians, and not the Spani∣ardes, or Italians, or Frenchmen, whiche Page 40 were in the same Citie, were visited, whiche truelye were to bee woondred at woorthyly, vnlesse wee knewe the varietie of thinges to be endlesse, and the greater parte (as Aristotle, the chiefe of Phylosophers con∣fesseth) to remayn alwayes vnknowne vnto vs. Therefore to conclude this doubte,* I thinke that wee ought rather to followe the authoritie of moste famous men, as well olde as newe, whiche haue handled this cause, when the receyued custome of barbarous people of one straunge place, by what experience soeuer, in whiche place also peraduenture the laste doe not agree with the firste in one continuall course.
Wherefore, sithence wee knowe,* that a great parte of suche deadlye mischiefe dooth depende on the corrupte, rotten, and in∣fected ayre, and that fire aboue all thinges dooth resiste corruption, let vs rather vse fire, followinge Hippocrates, then these outragious stenches, which maye greatly hurte euen those that are sounde: Let our streetes shyne with fier, let our ayre burne with fire, the goodnesse of whose substance howe great and subtyle it is, reade Albu∣casis the Arabian Chirurgian in the firste parte of his Chirurgerie, Chapter 1. Page [unnumbered] For the fire is moste pure,* and purifieth all thinges, whereupon Eusebius in his church historie doeth witnesse, that the Chaldees in olde tyme did woorshippe it, as a mightye GOD. Water dooth cleanse but the outwarde parte, and cannot washe the in∣ner,* because it cannot pearse vnto them: but fier, when as by his force he goeth through all thinges, leaueth nothing vntouched, and when as it is by nature most pure, as hath beene sayde, it dooth also moste speedilye cleanse all thinges. Wherefore, when as at the laste iudgemente Christe shal most fullye purge all the whole worlde, the scrip∣ture saieth, that hee will come furnished, not with water, as in the tyme of Noah, but with fier, and finishe so mightie a woorke. For by fire wee see all clowdinesse to bee scattered stronglye, all superfluous moy∣stures to be consumed,* ye ayre to be purged, mā his heart to be kindled with gladnesse: to witte, the troublesome and grosse vapours beeing scattered, and strength added vn∣to the wearyed members: so that it is not sayde commonlye in vaine, that as fier is a singular ornamente of the house, so also it is commoditie of men to bee wy∣shed Page 41 for: in somuch that the Poet doeth not in vaine aske this question: What more profit brings then fire? And I, if I should bee demaunded, what is the chiefest thing in preseruinge a Towne from the infection of the Plague, as hee to him that demaun∣ded, what was the chiefe poynte in an O∣ratour: the firste, seconde, and thyrde tyme aunswered, action: so I by good right myght aunswere, that the firste, se∣conde, and thyrde helpe, is fire: beecause that all the best beeing taught by reason and experience haue so set downe. For fire is vnto ayre as a triacle, which dryeth vp his rottennesse.
Moreouer drying vp is the chiefest thing, wherein Galen sayeth, the intention of hea∣ling of this sicknesse doeth consiste: when as moystenesse, wherein happeneth rotten∣nesse and corruption, is too much. Ari∣stotle also saieth, that all the Elementes doe putrifie, except fire. Wherefore, when as the ayre hath gathered corruption,* (I meane such corruption as commeth of va∣pours, or breathes myxed together, and drawne out of the earth or the water) which ayre, like as the stomack in mā receyueth al Page [unnumbered] kinde of meate and drinke, so dooth it re∣ceiue the fumes and reekes of all thinges, nothing can bee more profitable then fire, which dooth not onelye assume as the ayre, but rather consume all corrupte and rotten vapours. For as that fire, or heate, or ra∣ther heating virtue, suche as is in Zedoaria, Baume, Cinamom, Angelica, and manye o∣ther suche lyke, cleanseth the naturall spi∣rite of man, and keepeth awaye pryuate infection: so our artificiall fire, of the which wee heere intreate, sheweth forth his vse in the outwarde ayre, and keepeth and driueth awaye the common infection, with singular admiration and profit.
Wherefore leauing that naturall fire vnto Phisitions, who are imployed a∣bout ye curing of priuat & singular persons, our Preseruers shall haue care hereof, that in tyme causing to be carryed the woode of Iuniper, Oke, Vines, Beach, Cypres, Pine tree, Pitch tree, or also of Willowes, they command great fiers to be daily made eue∣ry where in the Cities,* but especially where there is daunger presentlye, or else shorte∣lye lyke to be: And they in a manner, af∣ter lyke sorte, although dislike fayth, that Page 42 in tymes paste the old heathen at certayne set times ordayned perfumes, Waxtorches, & great fiers, solemnly to cleanse and purg the Townes and Fyelds neere adioyning, both from corruption of the ayre (as I ve∣rely suppose) and also from Deuilles, who notwithstanding, for that they are vsed vn∣to the fire, it is likly that they are not feared nor hurt with the same.
Let them I pray you for GOD sake followe that moste excellent Hippocrates, which with his wisdom (as witnesseth Thu∣cidides) delyuered Grecia sometymes from the pestilence of Aethiopia, and ther∣fore was rewarded with a golden crowne. Also Thales, the Philosopher of Milesia,* who onely by making great fiers deliuered his country Acron from this plague. Let them follow, I saye, rather the example of these, who for their wisdome haue gotten e∣uerlasting praise throughout the wholeworld, then the barbarous and foolishe custome of those barbarous people.
Of the driuing away, or keping at home of Dogs, Cats, and other tamed hous∣holde beastes, which are wonte to run vp and down. Cap. 9.
HAuinge in the Chapter a∣fore goinge sette downe a waye to cleanse and purge, whiche I sayde to consiste in remoouing vncleane beastes, in carying awaye the dounge and filth of the streetes, in fil∣ling vp, or amending of ditches and pooles: and finallye, in cleansinge of the ayre by fiers, in this place wee must see what maye according to profite and reason bee iudged and sayde of Dogges, Cattes, Goates, and other tame beastes runninge vppe and downe.
Heere therefore straight waye after the beeginninge: I woulde haue a lawe made by the Preseruers, for eyther the driuinge awaye, or killing, or diligent shuttinge vp and keeping at home of such things. Which Page 43 truelye certaine common Wealthes doe wiselye obserue, so that at certaine times of the yeere, especiallye aboute the heate of the Starre called Syrius, when as the Sonne entreth into the signe called ye Ly∣on,* whiche tyme they commonly call the Dogge dayes, they commaund the Dogs to bee kylled, the cause whereof I iudge to bee this: When as the Dogge,* (as Galen witnesseth, albeit Gordonius o∣therwise no yll Authour thinketh him to be melancholyke) is a lyuing creature ve∣ry hotte, and by nature cholericke, and hath the holes of his hearte verye straight and narrowe, at that tyme when as the heate of the ayre is moste burninge and parchinge, the humours of his heart be∣ing inflamed, and bloud aboue measure rysinge vppe, hee easilye runneth madde: wherof afterwardes ensueth great and pre∣sente daunger, both to men and also vnto o∣ther beastes.
Nowe, if the lyke maye bee sayde here, not onely of Dogges, but also of Cattes,* and other such lyke, as well tame, as ta∣med beastes: Namelye, that they may as well as menne take this infectious poyson Page [unnumbered] of the Plague, as it were a certaine mad∣nesse, and vnlesse they bee kepte at home, carye it vnto others, they them selues ma∣nye tymes remayning without hurt: ought not the same course also to take place in this state of common infection? Nay, so muche the rather ought it heere to bee of force, and to bee followed, by how muche more the daunger ought to bee fea∣red, not onely of being touched and byt∣ten of them, as when they be madde, but also of the common ayre by them infected, and of powringe and bringing the infection vnto others, whilest they continually runne vp and downe hither and thyther.
Moreouer, that which is woorse then madnesse is heere to bee added: for Dogs infected with the Plague, as when they are sicke of other diseases or harmes, they for the moste parte come home to theyr owne houses, and fawne vppon, and gette them neere vnto them of the house, as hopinge for helpe at theyr handes, or ta∣kinge as it were sanctuarye among them, so that after the example of Iuda the trai∣tour, they sometyme wrappe their Mai∣ster in this daunger, and beetraye him: Page 44 whereas madde Dogges contrariwise for the moste parte flying as well the knowne, as vnknowne,* gette them selues into wood∣dye places, and doe shewe them selues so o∣pen enemies, that a man maye beeware of them, and shunne them, and doe seldome assaulte and flye vpon anye other then such as meete them, or sette themselues againste them. Againe,* such Dogges as are taken with the infection of the plague, oftentimes through the vehemency of the disease hyde them selues into some secrete corner, and there dye priuilye, and beeinge dead, bee∣fore the matter bee knowne, lye sometimes a longe season rotting, and defile the ayre with infectious vapours or breaths, and so not onelye alyue, but also deade, doe ve∣rie much hurt, whiche in madde Dogges falleth not out in any such sort.
Lastlye, if you compare together both the kindes of diseases,* albeit both of them doe rage with deadlye daunger, yet mad∣nesse is lesse hurtefull, beecause, that for the moste parte it giueth longer tyme of truce, and dooth not so speedilye ouerthrow all the powers of the infected body, and therefore bringeth not so swift destructiō as ye plague. For Page [unnumbered] the plague is so subtyll of fine, pearsinge, vehemente, and finallye so hurtefull and enemilike an infection vnto the vitall spy∣rite, that it canne passe through what passa∣ges of the bodye soeuer, and in a fewe houres take the castle of lyfe, and brynge death. Which thing, sith it is so, if wee thinke madde Dogges to be by all meanes to bee auoyded, it is much more agreeable vnto reason, that Dogges infected with the plague should be auoyed.
*But one thing peraduenture wil seeme incredyble vnto you, that we haue sayde that Dogges, Cattes, &c. doe remain som∣times vnhurte them selues of the plague, and neuerthelesse to bringe it vnto others, and to infecte them. The reason where∣of to yeelde is no harde thing. For this happeneth by the disposition of the subiect or body that taketh it, in whiche disposition ac∣cording vnto Aristotle, Galen, Auicen, and other singular Philosophers, the bring∣ing to passe of the thing doth chiefly consist. For when as the subiecte is apte, then the efficient cause, albeeit neuer so weake, can quickly bring forth the effect: like as a smal spark of fire doth quickly fire straw, or brim∣stone.
Page 45As againe, when as the efficient cause is strong, then also is it able to subdue the mat∣ter, albeit not apt, and to worke vpon it at his pleasure. For albeit Brimstome doeth sooner take fire then wood, and drie wood or cleft into sheuers,* sooner then greene or whole wood: yet a burning fire or fornace setteth on flame & confirmeth as well great as small, as well greene as drie wood. For ye vehement power of ye efficient cause, as I haue saide, doeth most speedily dispose and worke vpon the matter put vnder it. Here∣upō Marsill Ficinus a singuler Phisition,* & a philosopher, reporteth of a certain plague of this time: namely, in the yeere 1479. in a quarter of Italie called Corregium, that Cattes and Dogs did sundrie times bryng the Plague frō one house into another, they themselues beeing neeuer a whit hurt with the infection. The same is affirmed of a cer∣taine other, whiche was infected with the Plague by his horse, of the whiche notwith∣standing the horse felt no hurt. All whiche thinges are saide to this end, that it may bee vnderstoode, that the matter ought not to be handeled carelesly, or negligently, that our Preseruers should not thinke and perswade themselues, but that this hurtfull kind of in∣fection Page [unnumbered] is to bee kept away and extinguished or quenched with all their power, all their indeuour, and finally with all care and fore∣sight.
Of not receiuing of trauailers and stran∣gers into the Citie, nor of bringing in of thinges without a testimoniall of the health of that place from whence they come. Cap. 13.
BVT truely the Preseruers shall in vain altogether with this trauaile and diligence looke vnto their common wealth, if they vse not like wisedome in the receiuing in or shutting out of either men or thinges that come from other places, when as this sicknes is nowe ryfe euerie where, and is at this time in a great part of Germaine. For what shall it auaile to haue remoued the Fylth of our owne places, if wee will re∣ceiue againe the corruption from others? For as this is a commendable trauaile of Page 46 the Phisitions, that when as by purging me∣dicines they haue first cleansed the bodies of the sicke, they afterwards wisely take heed, that they gather not againe like superflui∣ties: also that no remnauntes of the disease remaine, the which might cause it to come againe: euen so also this Magistrate of ours (whome in this case we haue said must bee a generall Phisition) must doe his dili∣gence in the vniuersal and common body of the common wealth, and orderly prouide for al, that not so much as the least peece of infection bee receiued or left behinde, wher∣upon newe wrackes and dangers are to bee feared. For (as the Poet saith) The flame that is not looked vnto,*doeth straight againe recouer. And who is ig∣norant that the Plague (as hath often beene noted alreadie) is a disease very infectious, and not onlie in men and beastes, but also in diuerse thinges, as in cloth, olde yron, wood, vessels, bedstedles, packes, linnen, warres, housholde stuffe, monie, and most of all in wollen Garments (vnlesse you take meruailous great heede) may lye a long time inclosed, & vpon occasion offered wt great destruction far abroad to spread his Page [unnumbered] infection? For as a mad dogge carrieth a∣bout his poyson oftentimes many daies,* yea in the iudgement of some, many monethes sometimes, and also yeeres, before hee feele any hurt, so it is apparant by almost infinit histories,* which partly I my selfe, and part∣ly others haue obserued, being Phisitions of credite, that it happeneth also in this disease. For I remember certaine yeeres ago, when as Colonie was visited with a sore plague,* that a certain maiden of a worshipful house, with her mother and another of her sisters fled out of the citie,* and sought health by go∣ing aside into another ayre: the which may∣den albeit she went out hole, and came into an healthie place, yet within three dayes af∣ter she was infected and dyed: wherof there was no other cause, but that ye plaguie infec∣tion did sticke styll either in the garments of them that fled, or in the open wayes of the skin, or veines not so neere the heart, and did not trouble her, before that it touched the very heart. For it is a light and smal vapour or reeke,* which is not at such deadly feede with the other members as with the hearte. For which cause Marsill Ficinus is not af∣fraide to affirme, that it may lie hid in a man sometimes two monethes without hurting Page 47 them, which if it bee true, as it is very like∣ly, some doe to farre of, and too darkly caste off this cause vpon the influence of Saturne, staying the influence of Mars. And Bern. Cronenburgius, otherwise a most expert Phisition, might haue more plainely and ef∣fectually answered certaine pratlers, and of ignorance blaming suche as flie away from places infected with the Plague, then by finding I know not what fault withhumours, and vnorderlie diet: by whiche meanes in deede, some Ague or small sicknesse, but ve∣ry seldome the Plague vseth to grow. For I doe know concerning this mayden,* that for the godlinesse of her minde, and singuler knowledge and feare of God, hereunto bee∣ing adioyned the ripenesse of her age, & the especiall care of her mother beyng present principally in such an estate of time, that shee offended a little or nothing at all in her dyet, nor was cumbred with no yll humour. But if this notwithstanding seeme harde to bee credited of a mayden, whose sexe is fleeting, I am able to affirme the same of both the daughter, and also the wife of a most skilfull Phisition, both the which after the same sort, in another place, whither they went aside for saftie sake, were taken with the plague Page [unnumbered] and dyed, whom it is likely, neither by the meanes of vnwarie diet, nor by the nature of the vnholsome place to haue taken there the infection, but to haue carryed it thyther with them. But if yet nowe these things cānot make you fully to beleeue, so that you can allowe that which I say, I will bringe more strong reasons. I remember that Padway a noble Citie of Italie on this side the Alpes (which nowe they call Lombar∣die) subiect vnto the dominion of the Vene∣cians,* was almost wholy infected by one scholler (whose house was not farre from mine) which came frō Venice infected with the Plague.* How fierce cruel, and strange a Plague ranged at Hamborow a few yeres agoe▪ & had his beginning by ye infection of one mā,* which came frō Dansk thither, mē of credite, & Citizens of the same citie haue reported. At length to come vnto our owne home, our common wealth also, through the faulte of one infected person, which was brought from Hamborowe vnto vs sick at the same time, within a very few dayes was infected, so that no streete almost was free from that sicknesse: albeit againe so fewe died therein, that none of all the Sea Cities (when as euerie where they were visited wtPage 48 the plague) lost so few men: through the sin∣guler mercie of God no doubt, & the wisdom and trauaile of the Magistrat & Phisitions: which two God himself would haue ioyned together, & doth not at all aduenture bestow vpon vs his help without the seruice of mē. This therefore may suffice of the infection scattered & gotten by men. In the whiche wee haue vnderstood this to bee most profi∣table and necessarie for the common saftie of all, if the common people bee not so rashly (as vsualie is wont to be done) mixed togea∣ther, nor leaue be graunted for euerie man at his pleasure without order or consideration, to goe whither he will.
Concerning the thinges them selues, which being brought out of infected places, haue withall brought the infection, so many examples come to hand, that time and paper will sooner faile mee then examples, if I woulde rehearse but the least part of them. Letting goe therefore the eldest, which by reason of their age purchase the lesse credite at our handes, let vs speake of a fewe at the least, and such as haue happened but a lit∣tle before our tyme, or els in this selfe same time of ours. There is a storie re∣cited, knowen vnto many, & worth ye noting:*Page [unnumbered] When as Verona in the borders of Italie was besieged by the Emperour Maximili∣an, there happened a Plague in the campe of the Germanes, so that 2000. or there∣aboutes dyed of the same. In this slaughter this was founde out for certaine, that 25. souldiers were infected and died one after another, by meanes of one leather garment. For as one departed, straight way came an other, and tooke the garment, as a bootie for him, and put it on. And so farre went on this destruction, vntill that the cause of this death and infection was spied out by the Chirurgeons. Whiche thing being kno∣wen, this leathren pylch which was in deed infectious, was cast into the fire and burnt, and after the punishment thereof, the plague by little and little slaked, and at the lenght quite ceased. Alexander Benedictus (who liued in the yeere 1493.) maketh re¦port of a certain like matter, which hapned at Venice in these wordes: I heard (saith hee) in the dayes of my father, that in the ci∣tie of Venice in the time of the Plague there was a certaine mattres suspected,* and cast into the inner part of the house of a cer∣taine commoner of the Citie, and after seuen yeeres sought out againe, which the good Page 49 wife of the house willed to be dressed vp. For by lying long mustying in a secret corner, it had gotten a greate infection, by meanes whereof, the seruantes were foorthwith ta∣ken with a sodaine plague. A storie not dis∣like vnto this, albeit he had it not first from the partie, was once tolde vnto mee, whi∣che else where I haue set downe in Dutch, the effect whereof is thus: In the yeere 1564. when as Coloine was sore visited with this sicknesse of the Plague,* a certayne Carrier, who dwelled foure myles from thence, did by chaunce bring certayne wares thither, and agayne brought home with him (alas a most hurtfull reward for his labour) this infection, and in shorte time died of the same. Sixe weekes after (for so long did the poyson keepe in without any harme do∣yng) died all the children in the same house, and all the seruauntes, the good wife of the house onelie remayning aliue. This beeyng done, the sicknesse stayed without any hurte almost two whole moneths. But when as al men hoped that all was well, beholde, the widow that was left, did by chaunce giue the shirt of her sonne that was dead vnto ye sonne of a poore bodie her neighbour, wherewith the childe being couered in the night, and on Page [unnumbered] the sodaine infected, died forthwith together with the whole houshold, ye mother again ex∣cepted. The which whē after ye same manner as before, it had now staied a lōg time, & at ye lēgth there came certaine strāgers to dwell with the widow ye was left, ye plague whiche was thought to be dead, reuiued agayn, & to∣gether destroyed thē al, & cōtinued so raging vntil Ianuary, vntil yt at the last it also being cōquered wt the winter cold, died, not wtout ye great reioysing of the neighbors. There is another no lesse sorowful example to bee ad∣ded, which I haue obserued in our Citie of Breme. for a certain smith dying of ye plage, his heire of ye same occupatiō, being too gree¦dy of ye goods yt were left,* alas together with the housholdstuf, brought both the sicknes & death also into his house. For whē as among other thinges, there was a vessell to bath in, made after ye māner of ye coūtrey, he with 5. of his familie washed in the same,* & the first night they were al infected with the plague, & died. Histories doubtles worthy the noting vnto the which albeit a man shal hardly finde the like, yet this which I may self haue seene, I can̄not keepe close, namely, the famous city of Venice, to haue bin almost wholly infected only with vessel & certaine garmentes which were priuily brought thither frō Iustinopo∣lis: Page 50 albeit through the singuler wisdom of the magistrate, & the vnweariable care of all de∣grees, trusting vnto the help of God, it ney∣ther continued long, nor tooke away many. The like almost happened not many yeers si∣thens in the countie of Hoyen neere vnto vs,* that a womans garment beyng brought in a certayne Village from the Citye of Hamburg, where then the sicknesse was, within a verye shorte time there dyed fiftie: and vnlesse by and by through the grace of God it had bin stayed by the labour and wise∣dome of the rulers, it had doubtles crept fur∣ther, especially through ye rashnes of ye poore countrie people, & for want of counsell what to doe. Vnto these I could adde (vnles some man might thinke thē meeter to be suppres∣sed because of the outragiousnesse of the mat∣ter,* then to be put in story & published) suche thinges as I my selfe haue seene in the citie of Padway, namely, that the infection was wōderfully incresed through certain things infected with the pestilēt ayer, being partly cast priuily into other houses yt were sound, & partly giuē vnto yōg childrē for gifts. Thē the which fact it is yet more wicked, whiche was told me as I was writing this booke, of a certaine famous city in Germany, namely Page [unnumbered] that there were certaine layers foorth of the dead, and suche as carrie them to Churche, who beyng eyther hyred of some for money, or through their owne greedie couetousnes, that they might make their profit by the dis∣profite of others,* infected the publike Con∣duites and Cesternes with the infectious matter which they had taken of the sores of such as were sick of the plague. O haynous fact, cruel, wicked, and in the memorie of man vnheard of. The wicked Sorceresses, whom they commonly call witches, deserue no questiō a great punishment, albeit in ma∣ny places too rashly, and sometimes vnlaw∣fully (let me heere say this by the way,* for learned men at this day haue throughly can∣uazed this matter) they vse to be handeled, Moloch casting water or fire vpon them on euery side, who is woont to bee delighted with such sacrifices: but shal these poysoners which infect with the plague, seeme vnto you worthy of lesse punishment?
Wherfore, when as we haue now vnder∣stood, of how greate weight a thing it is vn∣to the preseruing of the common wealth, & how necessary a medicine to keepe away in∣fection, that we doe not rashly receiue either men, or thinges of what sorte soeuer, that Page 51 come from infected places, and this so much the more (if we beleeue Cardanus) by how muche those places are more East (for the Plague saieth he, like as other thinges, is wont as it were with the daylie mouing of the heauens to goe from the East into the West) when as I say, these things are thus, our Preseruers must vse such heede taking,* that appoynting and ordeining Warders at gates, they receiue no straunger, nor suffer any thinges to be brought in, vnlesse they haue some written testimonial, or sealed, be∣ing woorthie credite of not beeing counter∣feit. The same also must be obserued in Ci∣tizens, if peraduenture (as they are woont to doe, which haue more regard vnto wealth then health▪ For through Sea, and Lande the mechaunt runneth vnto the Indes,*for wealth and gayne) they come home from an other countrey, and from pla∣ces suspected. For albeit that this neither will be sufficient to take heede, whilest rashe headded persons, and full of prattle wil some times goe about either to deceaue the Por∣ters, or openly to withstand this order as an vnusuall bondage: yet many honest men wil be made the more circumspect, and will con∣sider that our lawes are not perpetuall, but Page [unnumbered] tēporall, which also are made for their health sake, and shal last so much the lesse while, by howe much the more sooner and timely they meete with the sicknesse comming, and the more diligently turne it away. For in a common aduersity euerye man ought to put to his helping hand, and to haue more care of it, then if it were a priuate cause.
*But if any man shall thinke that it is a∣gainst charitie, for that I holde that men and such as are our brethren, are to be shut out, of the whiche many flie vnto vs as vnto a sanc∣tuarie, as it were from a deadly enimie: vnto him I must make this answere, that I wold haue no man forsakē,* or in anie case to be de∣stitute of our helpe, but yet there ought to be a set and stedfast waye and order in vsing of helpe. True charitie beginneth at it selfe, but endeth not in it self alone: But rather it stret∣cheth out it selfe as farre as it can, to euerie neighbour, and according vnto her power, imparteth her helpe with euery man, and as Ambrose saith of liberalitie, is commended of her faith, cause, place & time. For what a kind of charitie should this be, to receiue one sick sheep into the fold, and to bring the scab vnto the whole flocke? If charitie be a vertue (as no doubt it is a singuler and a diuine ver∣tue) Page 52 it cannot be voyde of wisedome, whiche doth as it were giue the shape vnto true ver∣tue, whilest (as it is manifest out of Am∣brose) she hath her eye set vppon necessary circumstances, with the which euery vertue is perfected and finished. For albeit charitie haue no end, as it is also vsually saide, true loue can skill no end to haue, yet wil shee not be carried away with rashnes, and as I said euen now, wil not be voyd of wisedome. But after what way and order, I think this duetie of charity to be to bee handled, shall in that which followeth be spokē more at large. Here therefore let be the ende of this firste booke.
❧ Of the duetie of a faith∣full and wise magistrate, in preseruing and deliuering the common wealth from infection, in the time of the plague or pestilence. The second Booke.
Of those into whose house the Plague is gotten. Cap. 1.
THat parte being finished, whiche rather concerneth those whiche are whole, then those which are sick, and therefore may be cal∣led a certayn publike pre∣seruatiue, it remaineth that following the practise and order of ex∣cellent Phisitions, we treate in the same sort of that part of phisicke which is called Phar∣maceutica, that is, of the way to heale and deliuer from sicknesse: if peraduenture ey∣ther immediatly from God, or vpon some o∣ther Page 53 cause this fierce disease and cruell dra∣gon (as Galen calleth it) haue assaulted the house of any man. And yet let not anie man looke here to haue particuler medicines for euerie priuate man set downe, but yt which in this case the faithful and wise Magistrate by publike duety is bound to doe: that a gene∣ral way being found out and ordeined, wher∣by regarde may bee had both of the sicke, and also of those which are conuersant with thē, the whole infection may be the sooner quen∣ched, and bring lesse hurt to the citie.
Wherefore in the time of such sicknesse raygning and infecting,* in the first kynd we haue saide alreadie at the beginning, that we must flie vnto God alone, & craue pardon of him for al our sinnes: in the latter kinds after the calling vpon of God, the preseruers must first of all and foorthwith haue care of this,* that the house infected be noted and marked out by certaine signes & tokēs, as by setting of torches before ye doore, which after ye ma∣ner of the Gentiles vse to be caried before the dead, or by clubbes betokening punishment, or rolles of strawe, or hanging vp a blacke, white, or redde sheete, signifiyng sicknesse or death: and with all that the whole housholde be charged, that they venture not to goe Page [unnumbered] abroade vnto others, nor to receiue any vnto them, for the space of vi. or vii. weekes at the least, if also in the meane season they haue v∣sed sufficient cleansing of the house & other things, which shall hereafter expresly be spo∣ken of. If any of his owne accorde shall come in vnto them, let him be bounde by the same charge, but for a shorter time. In the meane season if they haue any thing to doe abroade, they must cause it to be done by others. For there ought greater care to be had of a whole societie and felowship, then of a priuate fami∣lie or houshold,
*But if any man shal thinke it an vnreaso∣nable and cruell lawe, to haue sounde men shut in so streightly, & for so long time, espe∣cially in houses infected with such deadly poi∣son, & woulde also suppose this Prouerbiall chiefe medicine to be better for them. With all speede, farre off, long ere you returne againe: and finally, that it is not conuenient for the sicke thēselues, especially if the house be not commodious, that they should remayn so shut vp, & not sometimes to vse a more free ayre (for al keep not their beddes:) truly they which say this, seeme to say neither nothing, nor al things.* For I my selfe thinke it to bee nothing safe, often to vse the companie of the Page 54 infected, & dayly to draw the corrupted ayre. Therefore in the Chapter following we wil consider, by what meanes we may find reme∣die for these streighnesses & discommodities, the which whilest they can bee hurtfull vnto none, they may bee greately profitable vnto many. For to graunt them free libertie to keepe companie among others, should be too rashe and barbarous, and in a manner that which Luther also saith in this case,* wee should seeme to follow them whiche woulde put lice into skinnes, or flies into a chamber, or keepe fire in their bosome, sauing that these thinges are lighter then that they may bee compared with this euill. And when as we manifestly finde, that this onely disorder is the cause, that the infection manye times is so speedily and so farre and wide scattered abroade, we must not by any meanes vse the matter so, that through our owne defaulte and negligence wee our selues increase our owne wounds. Not that I denye, the plague sometimes to come by the corruption of the common ayre (which notwithstāding is very rare or seldom, & a thing yt many old mē haue had no experience of) and foorthwith to take very manie, & scatteringly without infectiō: neither also that I am ignoraunt that God Page [unnumbered] being angry with our sinnes doth somtimes vse this whip against vs, & to driue vs vnto amendement of life, and to put vs in mynde, of our obedience and seruice towardes him (for this is apparaunt both by prophane & also holy histories) I doe not (I say,) deny this, neither doe I affirme that in this case the remedies of man doe any great good, but we ought to hope wel that these thinges will fall out but seldome, and when they doe fall out, they bewray themselues by very euident and especiall tokens. As it is playne concer∣ning Aethiopia, by the testimonye of Thucydides: also when as God punished the armie of Maximinus, persecuting the Christians, with so great a multitude of thē that died,* that the carkases were euery where left vnburied. Which also the historie of the kings reporteth of the host of Dauid. Who wold denie these thinges?* but I say once a∣gaine, yt these things are seldome seen, & not agreeable vnto the plague of our countries, whose beginning, cause, and proceeding, bee that we may many times euidently enough lay downe, therefore so muche the more dili∣gence and care ought we to vse, that the euil which through our own fault and blame we haue gotten vnto vs, or through our slouth∣fulnesse Page 55 receiued, the same also with like en∣deuour and trauel we should amende & driue away.
Wherefore, when a house is so marked, & as it were condemned for an infectious Lepri, ye houshold either of their owne accord and priuate charges, if they be able to pay, or by the perswasion and charges of the preser∣uers, if they bee poore, must by and by sende for the helpe of the Phisitions appoynted for that purpose,* and making their prayers vnto God, not grudgingly, but cheerefully, and with good hope admit them and receiue thē in al thinges that shalbe needfull. For it is to be thought, that the benefite which God here in wil shew, the same oftentimes hee giueth by the Phisitions as his ministers, no other∣wise then the good man of the house is wont by his stewards to giue and point out meate and drinke vnto his houshold.* For Phisitiōs and phisicke are the good creatures of God and his ministers, the which by the comman∣dement of the Apostle we ought to vse with thankes giuing. The which cause (albeeit besides the cause) let it bee lawfull for mee with the good leaue of the reader, because of the vniust iudgement of some vnlearned persons somwhat more at large in this place Page [unnumbered] to handle.
For first of all Iesus Syrach, a man a∣mongest the Hebrewes singulerly endued with godlinesse, wisedome, and the know∣ledge of thinges, and finally with the Spi∣rite of GOD,* hath left thus written: Ho∣nour the Phisition, for the Lorde cre∣ated him for necessitie. Phisicke is from the highest, and of the king he shall receiue rewards.*The Lord hath created medicines out of the earth, & a wise man doth not despise them. Giue place to the phisition, for the Lord hath created him, thus saith Sirach: what I pray you meaneth in this place this doubled and often repeated word creation? what meaneth his beginning & cōmendation, but that we should vnderstād yt the Phisition & phisicke is the gift of God, the which it is not onely lawfull, but also whō we ought to vse, whē need is, & necessi∣ty requireth? and yt those doubtles are vnskil¦ful, & very ignorāt of ye coūsel of God & block beades, who doe iudge phisicke to be needles and vnprofitable, when as without al doubt it was giuē of God vnto mankind, for the pre∣seruing & repayring of health sake.* Hereupō also the very heathen haue acknowledged the excellēcy therof, whē as they write yt not mā Page 56 but God was inuēter of ye same.* For Apol∣lo whō they make ye Author therof, they wor∣shipped for a God: and Aesculapius his sōne, who somwhat more finely garnished ye same, because of his singuler skil in the art at that time they vouchsafed ye like honor: & Homer,* albeit he maketh no mention of ye beginning of phisick or of phisitiōs, yet doth he not doubt to renowne it with a most excellent cōmen∣dation, when he saith: that man which hath in Phisicke skill, the same all others farre doth passe. Which thing ye old romaine em∣perors acknowledging, did pay yeerly vnto phisitiōs a very large stipēd,* of 205. Sestertia (as Pliny reporteth) whē as they payed vnto ye professors of other arts but only an hūdreth: albeit in ye times following they were againe by a law made, banished ye city. Which was enacted by reason of the boldnes of certayne vnskilful persons, who did abuse phisick. For couetous mē set on fire and blinded with the hope of gaine, are oftē carried headlōg to the aduēturing of any thing, & somtimes refrein not frō yt which is horrible to tel. Who ney∣ther mindful of the oth of Hippocrates, nor of the honour or safetie of themselues or o∣thers, range vp & downe like robbers where they bee freelye without punishment. Page [unnumbered] But we who being enlighted with the light of the Gospell, ought to esteeme of euerye thing not by the abuse but by the lawful vse, doe in such sort vse it, that we acknowledge it to be giuen not by the counsel of man, but by the benefite of God, for the prolonging of life, so farre as concerneth outwarde helpes and aydes. The iudgement of Luther in a little Dutch booke of the plague, set foorth at Wittenberge in the yeere 1527. is most graue and godlie, and a doctrine fitte for this our businesse in hand: God (saith hee) hath created phisicke,*and giuen the minde, that euery man shoulde haue care of his owne bodie, be in health and liue. Who soeuer will not vse these, whē as without the hurt of his neighbour, hee may, the same betrayeth his owne life, and there lacketh little but that before God hee is made a murtherer. For by the same rea∣son hee may despice meate and drinke, rayment and housing, and trusting too much vnto his faith, say, if God will, hee can preserue me without al these things. Then the which follie this is yet greater, that he which after this sorte casteth the care of his bodie, and not seeke that re∣medie against the plague, which he may, Page 57 may hurt and infect others also through this his negligence, who peraduen∣ture, if hee had suffered himselfe to haue beene looked vnto, had remained vn∣hurt and aliue. Whereof it commeth to passe that hee getteth vnto himselfe the blame of an other man his death, & committeth murder vnto God. Suche men doe in deede no otherwise, then as if a man in a common fyring▪ woulde not come and helpe the Citie, but let the fire alone, that the whole Citie might bee burned: namely, vppon this trust. Doubtlesse if God will, hee can without water quenche the fire. But friende, thou oughtest in no case so to deale, nay it is shamefull and vnlawfull, whiche thou perswadest thy selfe: but rather vse remedies and medicines, and doe whatsoeuer any way may helpe, per∣fume thine house, Orchard, and streete, flie the infected places, and men infec∣ted, whereas thy seruice is not required, and so behaue thy selfe as one willing to quenche, and not maintaine the pub∣like flame, &c. For the woordes whiche followe, albeit they bee spoken ve∣ry finely, yet at this time I purposedly passe Page [unnumbered] them ouer.
Away therefore with this more then bar∣barous opinion, and Cyclopical or Giant-like stubbornesse, whereby many call and defame Phisicke, as superfluous, or an Arte only to picke mens purses, as they doe all o∣ther liberall sciences, yea and philosophie it selfe as a certaine sophistrie, whiche thing Plato also himselfe doth, for fault not of the thinges,* but of those persons that pro∣fesse it.
*But if any man shall say: if the vse of your Phisicke bee so necessarie, and diuine, as you affirme, wherefore then doth Syrach himselfe,* whome you haue cited in the place by you alleadged, bydde the sicke goe vnto God, and to desire health by prayer? Why doth Saint Ignatius a most godly bishop and martyr call,* onely Christe the bodily & spirituall Phisition, and in death also (I say not in sicknesse) the true life? But I will also my selfe giue the aduersaries a weapon which with mee is of no small force▪ when as I departed out of Italie, Sebastianus Laudus a singuler man, the Reader of Phi∣sicke at Padway, and my master (whom for honour sake I name) for a perpetuall re∣membrance of his faithfulnesse towards me, Page 58 wrote with his owne hand in my booke: Re∣member that only God doth cure disea∣ses. If then only God, what neede is there of others? Doth God want seruants for to help him? If Christ be the only Phisition, whiche taketh away our griefes, as the Prophet is witnes, and as he himselfe hath testified by so many exeamples in the new Testament, whom shal we need besides? For surely that is done in vaine by more, which may be done by the fewer. And of this iudgement ther are also many found among the Christians, not vnlike vnto the old heretikes called Euchi∣tae. But I answere, that albeit God needeth not the helpe of any, but rather is the only Phisition, aswel of the bodie as soule,* and yt we do confesse al health to depend on him, & to be to be craued at his hand: yet nothing letteth, but that the Lord and master may cō∣mit many things vnto his seruants, & do by their hands, what he wil: like as euery work man vseth tooles, vnto whom notwithstan∣ding the praise of the worke done, properly is neither due, nor ascribed. And I saide be∣fore ye God will be asked of vs, and without meanes manie tymes will giue nothing vn∣to vs, yt which meanes he hath made for this end, that we should vse them vnto our profit, Page [unnumbered] like as Christe himselfe, and holy men of God, when as they could obteine them (for otherwise the grace and power of God is not tyed vnto them) vsed them, and were wont to vse them. Wherefore when as these say that God only cureth diseases, it is to be referred vnto the chiefe cause, which is God, not vnto the instrumental cause, as are men. And Syrach, when as in the begin∣ning hee had commended the instrumentes themselues, and meanes, as it were diuine and healthfull meanes, least happily any man trusting vnto these, shoulde cleaue vn∣to them as the principall and chiefe causes, and shoulde forget God, in the end of the Chapter, as it were in the vse of these things, hee doeth admonishe vs, that wee haue GOD before our eyes in our whole worke, that wee plye him with prai∣er, and request prosperous successe at his hande. As if hee shoulde say, Phisicke in deede is a diuine and excellent thing, but without the power and grace of God (which power is obteined by onely prayer) it brin∣geth foorth no happie successe. Whiche was no doubt the meaning also of Hero∣philus,* albeit a prophane, and Heathen Phisition, when as hee saith, That Phisick Page 59 is both nothing, and againe, that it is the hande of God: nothing (I say) as I vn∣derstande it, of it selfe: and the hande of God, ioyned with the grace and power of God, and vsed in season and rightly. Then the which in mine opinion nothing can bee spoken more truely and Christianly. And the selfe same may wee say, if it bee lawfull to compare great thinges with small,* of those meanes whiche are set foorth vnto vs vnto the health of the soule by Christe, as these are for the halth of the body. Although some which thinke they can cunninglye blinde the eyes of wise men, or steale fire from Iupiter out of heauē, are wont great∣ly and wickedly to extenuate or lessen the dignitie of these also,* when as with much a doe they can alleadge nothing but the a∣buse and faultes of the receiuers, and doe only bewray the stinck of the Astrodutio∣rian and Messalian heretikes.
But least any man might thinke that I serue mine owne turne, whilest hee hea∣reth mee so diligently pleading for Phisick, I will not pursue any further the commen∣dation of a thing sufficiently praysed of it selfe, but will ioyne yet one article more vnto this present Chapter,* very necessarie Page [unnumbered] in my iudgement in this cause. For a man may aske a question, because that so earnest∣ly & diligently I perswade all companying wt the infected with ye Plague to be to be a∣uoided, how I thinke those poore women to be to be dealt wtal, who in these infected hou∣ses, either in health or sicknes fal in trauaile, (which thing to haue happened vnto many, & the which for the most part haue dyed, I my selfe can be a liue witnesse) Ought they to bee forsaken of the neighbours? What like vncurtesie in the memorie of man, hath there beene harde of? Here is need of a dub∣ble answere.* First if any women mooued not with rashnesse, but Christian charitie and loue (the which assuredly wee owe one to an [ 1] other) will come, let this be done in such or∣der,* that afterwards they come not without discretion by and by vnto their houshold, vn∣lesse hauing changed their apparrel, and for a certaine time they abstaine from the com∣panie of others. Secondly, that which more [ 2] appertaineth to our publike purpose, I will haue our preseruers in this case also to keep a certaine order, that they get midwiues and other good honest women, especially the wiues of the ministers of the Church, of the Chirurgeons, Apothecaries, Phisitions, & Page 60 those whom wee appoint to carrie foorth & burie the dead, if there shall bee any fit, and will doe the same, for the executing of this charge. There they shall in no case lacke the helpe of womā kind, albeit they haue not alwayes at hand those which they are wont to haue in time of health, after the exam∣ple of those, which by reason of the Leprie are seperated from the company of men. Let them therefore require no more of others, then they would haue others require of thē in this case. For so doth charitie bid, not to seeke the things which are her owne, if it cā∣not be done without the hurt and danger of our neighbour.
Of building of certaine publike houses, called Plague houses. Chap. 2.
I Promised in ye chapter afore going, yt I would set downe a way, whereby such as had rather goe out of the infected houses, or the sick yt are desi∣rous to chāge ye ayre, may be profitably prouided for. The which, yt it may fitly & wisely be done, our Preseruers must Page [unnumbered] goe about a worke something greater and more chargeable. For I will yt two houses large enough, & in euery point fit for that purpose, which shalbe called, Plague hou∣ses, be built of matter cōueniēt, in a place & ayre, good, both for thē that shall vse ye same, and also for the Citie: in such sort notwith∣standing yt not so much gorgeousnesse as cō∣modiousnes be sought, & that the charges be reasonable, & the vse necessarie: of the which seuerally we must briefly intreate.
And first of all concerning the matter, the same must not be clay,* lome, turfs, or straw, but wood, stone, lime, because that putrifiyng doth more easily happen, and the infection hang more longer in them, then in these.
Secondly, touching the place and situati¦on,* whereunto the ayre is also annexed or knit, this is to be obserued, that it be either in some out corner of the citie, or (yt which I had rather) without the Citie: not low, but o∣pen vnto the Sun, & high, & by a riuer side, if it may be. For the farnesse frō others will further the let of infection: the highth will yeelde a more holsome ayre, and make the Sunne, which refresheth all things, to haue more passage vnto it: the riuer shall receiue al ye filth & excremēts, which in such houses Page 61 is woont in great aboundance to be heaped together. Hitherto also pertaine large or∣chardes within the precinctes and compasse of the same: also greene walking places, gardens, in which are wholsome trees, plea∣saunt grasse, sweete hearbs, flowers giuing forth pleasaunt sauours farre and wide, and finally there must be springing waters.
Nowe the manner and forme of buyl∣ding is after such sorte to be thought vppon and deuised, as the commodity and necessity,* and not gorgeousnesse doth require, as I haue sayde before. That largenesse there∣fore must be kept, which is agreeable vnto the Cittie not in Geometrical, but Arithme∣ticall proportion. Let the highth be twise as great as the breadth. Let the Chambers also within be of a reasonable largenes, fur∣nished with Chimneies, such as the wynde may blowe through, not darke nor close, the windowes, as also the whole building, ope∣ning rather to the North, and Eeast, then vnto the South or North: there must also be Bathes there, of the which in this our cause there is great vse. And this whole man∣ner of buildinge appertaineth vnto manye thinges, and plainely sheweth, howe great their errour is, which doe so buyld the com∣mon Page [unnumbered] Hospitalles, that the winde cannot pearse into them, then the which, especially in this disease,* nothing canne bee thought and deuised more hurtefull. Neyther is it any meruayle, if oftentymes the poore soule that is brought hither, dye so muche the sooner. For albeit hee be not sicke of this disease, but of anye other lyghter sicke∣nesse, or also of a simple feuer: yet bee∣ing receyued in that impure ayre, layde vppon foule and stincking beddes, he shall seeme to bee choaked, and to dye violent∣ly. I wil not now speake, howe indiscret∣lye they whiche are sicke in these houses, are oftentimes prouided for of meate and drinke, and other necessaryes. Of which neglygence they one daye shall giue an accounte vnto GOD, who beeing ru∣lars in these offyces, deale so vnfaythful∣lye, when as they are no small cause of the death of the myserable sicke persons. Diligence therefore must bee vsed, that all such houses, if it maye bee, bee buyl∣ded by some Brooke, and in a place (as hath beene sayde) open vnto the winde and ayre, that they may bee thorowe blowen, and thinges defiled maye bee often wa∣shed and cleansed. For the impure ayre Page 62 maye verye much hurte euen them that are whole, the which dayly experience sheweth. Also I sayde, that they are to bee buylded in an high place, with manye windowes, especially towardes the North, from whēce the ayre is more healthy. That ye windows also ought often to bee opened, I neede not tell, for the thing it selfe dooth teache it. All which thinges, if they bee not di∣ligentlye obserued, they will bringe more hurte then profit, and they were better to bee burned (I speake of manye common Hospitalles) in such a tyme of the Plague, then with hurte to bee suffered, as it is the counsayle not onely of Physitions, but al∣so of Phylosophers, and wise menne in Common wealthes. Marcus Varo be∣ing sometymes at Corcyra,* and seeinge folke lye sicke commonlye in euery house, bringing in the North winde at newe win∣dowes, and shutting vppe the South win∣dowes, and altering the gate of the house, is reported to haue preserued his companions and al his family in health.
So Tholosa a citie of Aquitania,* famous in respect of the Byshopprick, vniuersitie, & high court, when as cōmonly it was wont to be visited with a continuall plague, because Page [unnumbered] that the houses in the toppes or vpper parts towardes the high streates beeing buylded with certaine appentices (vnder which men goe safe from the rayne) did hinder the blo∣wing through of the winde,* it was by the kinges proclamation commaunded vnto al the inhabitauntes, not onely to take awaye those appentices, but that they shoulde fore∣cut and drawe in from the verye bottome e∣uen vnto the toppe, such houses, as seemed too much to narrow the publik way. With woondefull paine taking and speedie worke euery man plyeth his busines, a man would haue sayde, that they meant to pull downe and build vp a new the whole Cittie. But what was brought to passe? I will tell you that, which I may saye truelye: for I was an eye witnesse, the windes hauing somwhat a more free entrance, it made a notable dra∣wing vp and blowing abroad of the vapors, and the plague did not so often haunte the Cittie, as it was woont to doe, and did also lesse harme. A rare example of wisdome, the which albeit it were not doone without great charges, yet if the case shoulde so re∣quire, it is woorthy the following, especy∣ally in our plague houses, in whose setting vp it may more easily be taken heede of, that Page 63 they may bee so buylded, that afterwardes they neede not be pulled downe againe. And because I haue once entred to speak of the hurtfulnese of ye close ayre,* I hope I shal doe a thing woorth the trauaile, and such as shall refresh the wearinesse of the Reader, if I shall alleadge a certaine few, and the same very fearefull and straunge histories,* concerning this matter.
In Hieronimus Cardanus in his booke de Variet. rer. it is thus read: The 23. day of Iuly, in the yeere 1556. there hap¦pened a woonderfull thing, whereat I my selfe was present: Iacobus Philippus Cernuscus a moneth agoe, willeth a pri∣uye to be digged vp out of the earth, and to be sieled, roofed and vauted. When it was finished, that ye vaut might be made sure, he commaundeth it to bee shut vp. Twentie dayes after he openeth it, hee biddeth the woodden peeces, where∣with they made hollowe the vautes, to be drawne out: one that was hyred go∣eth downe by a ladder, when he came vnto the middle of the ladder, hee fell downe dead. The maister, when as hee sawe him not to returne, goeth downe him selfe, and when he came thither, he Page [unnumbered] by and by dyed. They that stoode by put in the third, who beeing on the middle of the ladder, sayd: be of good cheere, I will bring vp the other, but when as hee once put his head vnder the vaute, hee straight way fell downe dead. The fourth fell downe dead likewise. The fifth, called Matus (which in our tongue is a foole) beeing a verye stout fellowe went down, but he put not in his head, & with a hook pulled out one of the dead. Thereupon beeing made somewhat bol∣der, hee came againe, and went downe so farre, that hee put vnder his head, and by and by fell downe. When they had pulled him vp, and perceiued that there was yet breath in him, with vsing helpes by little and little they got lyfe of him agayne, and sense, yet hee re∣mained dumbe vntyll the rysing of the Sunne the next daye. I, when as he be∣gunne to speake, asked him certain que∣stions, but he onely remembred, that he went downe: they put in also a dogge, and he was drawn out halfe dead. They vncouered the place by the commaun∣dement of the Magistrate, at the mouth of the denne they see without any hurt, running water. Thus much Card.Page 64 And beecause no certaine cause appeared, there were some whiche supposed, that a Basiliske Serpente laye lurking there, which Basiliske, after the opinion of the common people, is thought to come of the Egge of a Cock, being hatched by a Toad:* the whiche I willinglye with the learned and moste fine Writer L. Lemnius, the Phisition of Ziricaeum doe thinke to bee but an olde Wiues tale:* When as rather the stench, poysoned breathes, filthynesse, strong smell, and stinck, are they, whiche come out of foule and filthye places, take awaye the breath, and sometymes strangle a man. Although that there is no cause why any man should doubt that venemous beasts, which lye lurking in suche holes, doe some∣times woorke the same.
The like vnto this was sometimes tolde me by an eye witnesse, and such a one, as no exception is to be taken against: to witte, the most honorable & reuerent L.L. Georg, of worthy memorie, Duke of Brunswike, and Byshoppe of Bream, &c, of a certaine Fountayn of Petershag,* (which is a Ca∣stle vnder the Byshop of Mind) breathing out a woonderfull infectious sauour, whiche when it was somtimes scoured of Page [unnumbered] the filth, whatsoeuer lyuing thing was put into it, was by and by choaked, and by death (that I may speake with Pliny) made tryall of the force of this water, and that so long vntyll at length casting in, and settinge on fire a vessel filled with shippe pitch, & hearbs and sweete-flowers, it was so cleansed, that afterwardes there might bee going into it without hurte, and euerye manne might occupy of the springing water therof with∣out harme.
*With these stories agreeth that of the Lake of Puteol, neere vnto Naples, into the which a Dogge being cast, dyeth within a little space: if when you haue taken him out againe, you plunge him in the stream neere∣by, he reuiueth. Also that which I my selfe haue seene at Menapis, in the Lordship of Burchbrull (whiche is vnder William of Braunssberge a moste noble Gentleman,* and excelling as well in all kinde of vertue, as in the prayse of a most auncient and most honourable pedigrew) of a certaine Wine cellar newely buylded, casting vp so sore a smell, that it could serue for no vse. But more of this sorte might be brought, if I did not auoide tediousnesse, and being too long. These therefore may suffice, concerning the Page 65 matter, situation, and forme of the buylding: I wil go forward to recite the wealth, num∣ber, and vse of the same.
Fourthly therefore,* prouision must be made for the rich, wherwith our plague hou∣ses are to be furnished: which being once appoynted according vnto the estate and a∣bilitie of euery Cittie, it is to be hoped, that by little and lyttle, through the lybera∣lytie of good menne, they will wax grea∣ter, and increase euerye day. Although in this case no other riches are sought af∣ter, then such as are needfull for the main∣tenaunce of those that neede, and the pre∣seruation of the buylding. And because the Plague doth not alwayes reigne, ther∣fore there shall not neede to be any yearely charges made, but, as I haue sayde, so much as shall be requisite for the reparati∣ons: If there be anye ouerplus, that shall be layd vp, eyther for the necessitie to come, or to be to bestowed vppon the vse of the poore.
Nowe I sayde at the beeginning,* that two such houses were to be buylded: name∣lye, the one for such as are yet sounde and well, but yet by reason of the companye at home, which they haue hadde with the sicke, Page [unnumbered] are to be suspected and feared: and the other for those which lye sicke, infected with the plague.
And as for other poyntes, they may bee like, but they must be conuenient waye, the one from the other. For it hath beene marked, that this sickly infection hath bene increased, euē by the inclosures of ye walles, and standing and touchinge of the houses together. And they muste in such order bee seuered the one from the other, that in receyuing the North wynde, and Sunne beames, the one bee not an hinderaunce vn∣to the other, nor bee anye let to receiue the free ayre: especially that the South winde out of the house of the sicke with his blaste, bring no disease and plaguy vapour or stēch into the ground of the whole and sounde. Therefore also it shal be more conueniente, at that side to haue no windowes at all, or else to keepe them shut.
And hereof nowe also (that which in the last place was set downe) appeareth the vse of these houses.* For, when as wee iudge this disease to bee by all meanes to be auoyded, as a present and deadly poyson, the which vnlesse it be diligently taken heede of, doth most vndoubtedly infect, therefore Page 56 the first vse of this new buylding shal bee, to receiue those, who are infected as it were with a deadly lepry, that the other citizens may be in so much the lesse daunger. The which of how great weight it is, if any man will beleeue me, who neither haue any cause to lye, and am sory that there are many, who in their bookes doe lie notoriously (let it bee lawfull for me to speake so with Galen, in a good testimonie of my conscience) I canne shewe by many most true histories, yt which partely I haue seene and liued, and partely haue heard of others worthy credite. For when as being yet a boy, I went to schoole in the Citie of Dauentrie, where was then a most florishing schoole, one of the schollers was taken with the Plague,* which dwelled in his brothers house, surnamed Hercules, because of the singular strength of his bo∣dye, my bourdfellowe, who, because hee was remooued beetymes into a priuate house, vnto the which others had no accesse, neuer a one besides was infected with this disease, or died. Afterwardes, when being a young man I studyed Philosophy at Co∣lain in the College of Artes, a certaine gen∣tleman our schoolfellow, one amōgst many,* whē there was at ye time no plague, died of ye plague: Page [unnumbered] to witte, because his disease being knowne, he was by and by caried vnto a peculiar and an appoynted place for this purpose. Three yeares after, when I dwelled at Paris in the Colledge of Monachus, I sawe among two thousand boyes only one cooke visited with this sicknesse, and by and by carried a∣side vnto a little cottage, which was builded in a large Orcharde for this purpose, to die there,* the rest of the company remayning al∣together safe and sound. At the length in the Cities of Venice and Padway▪ yt which it delighteth me often to remember, when as there I haunted the Phisicke Schooles, I sawe somewhat hotte beginninges of the plague, the which notwithstanding by this wisdome, and putting a part into such hou∣ses (for they haue them alwayes in a readi∣nesse) and by seuering the hole and the sick, besides other kinds of pollicie, and paine ta∣king, in a very short time for the moste part were appeased So true is the common pro∣uerb, He that will flye smok, must flie the fier.
The second ende shall stand them more in steede, whom the danger in deede is nigh, but which yet are not infected with the same. For when as the houses of many are verye Page 67 vncommodious, and more apt to nourish the corruption, then to remedy the same: also when as the men that dwell in them, are of∣ten poore, or seruile persons, or weake of na∣ture, which do tremble at the verye name of such a sore disease, whereupon also they are in the more daunger, I would so haue them carried out of their infected houses, that they should forthwith be brought in ye plague house, and there in euery point after the same maner to be handled, after which I said, they were to be handled before, whē as they were shut vp in their own houses, sauing that here they may haue free ayre, and libertie to goe abroad, if they will walke forth, for the recre∣ating of their minde sake. But how many daies are requisite for the cleansing of those, which are so carryed forth, that they maye freelye returne againe into the Cittie and company of men, because that the same time neither ought nor can with safetie inough be prescribed and appoynted vnto al, this iudg∣ment must be left vnto the Phisitions, as it were vnto the Priests for this cruell leprie. To which purpose so speaketh Luther in his book of the Plague,* handling the same mat∣ter, which we now haue in hand: If GOD (saieth he) in the olde Testament willed Page [unnumbered] those to be seuered, and put apart with∣out the Citie, which were defiled with the lepry, to auoide the infection, howe much more iustly may we doe the same in this daungerous sicknesse, that forth with, so soone as one is infected there∣withall, hee either of his owne accorde remoue himselfe, or cause him to be re∣mooued, that the infection may in time bequenched, not of that sick person on∣lye, but of the whole societie and all the Cittie, the whiche, if the infe∣cted haue free leaue to goe out vnto o∣thers, may by this meanes be infected. For such is at this tyme our plague of Witeberge (hee speaketh of the yeere, 1527.) namely, that it maye seeme as begunne onely by infection, so also gon thus farre as it is. For the ayre (thanks be to God) is hitherto pure and heal∣thye, and of meere rashnesse and negli∣gence some, and the same in deede verye few, haue ben infected: albeit sathā with vnwoonted feare doe trouble vs, and make vs cowardharted. For with sundry craftes the enemie doth sport and playe in the hearts of men, and dooth them strike with feare most vaine.
Page 58Therfore this counsayle of so most wise a man is not lightly to bee regarded, but diligently to bee followed as I thinke, so longe as conuenientlye wee maye, to witte, when as the disease is yet in the beegin∣ning, and hath not infected manye,* nor assaulted the common wealth in many pla∣ces: whereunto this our counsayle chie∣flye tendeth, that it maye rather be a fore∣bewaring of this disease, then an expery∣ence of the same. For when the griefe through long delay hath gottē strēgth, there can scarse anye thing bee doone cer∣tainely and wiselye, but wee goe at all aduenture, and manye thinges are to bee suffered: lyke as the Mayster of the ship seeketh out manye thinges at hab nab (as they saye) when as cutting now the seas, hee is doubtefull of the daungers and also of his lyfe. Not that I woulde haue men at anye time goe from the right rule of rea∣son, albeit the successe aunswere not ac∣cording vnto reason,* which should flatlye be against the counsayle of the reuerent olde man Hyppocrates, our Phisition. But it commeth to passe, it cōmeth (I say) to passe, that Page [unnumbered] as in the heate of battaile, and amongst wea∣pon (as is woont to be sayd) lawes are silent or mum, so also in this streightnes & sorow∣full plight of thinges a smal regarde is had, either of the best or rightest order. For as there one while the stander bearer, one while the defender of the same, sometime the soul∣diours of the rereward, or Sergeaunt of the band, and sometimee also the generall of the army, by whose appoyntment all thinges vse to be well gouerned, are on the suddaine taken away: euen so it fareth here, where no lesse slaughter, nay some tymes also a grea∣ter happeneth, not onely the common Citi∣zens, but also sometimes those, in whose hand lieth the authority of ordering this pol∣licy, which we describe and set out, are vn∣looked for pulled away, and together with the ruler of the sterne, is the sterne lost also. The which case to preuent and meete withal in time, this our order and platforme such as it is, was taken in hand and set forth for.
Whether it bee lawfull for Christians in the time of the Plague to flie, and to leaue their Citie with a safe consci∣ence. Cap. 3.
NOw albeit I may seeme alreadie to haue spoken muche in this matter of the seuering of the infec∣ted: yet because of the affinitie or kinred of the cause, and diuersity of opi∣nions, I will ioyne hereunto a very commō question, disputed not only by the Diuines, but also by the learned and Christian Phisi∣tions: namely,* whether in the time of the Plague it bee lawfull for a man for a season to forsake his Citie, and to flie with a good conscience. Of the which matter because there are sundrie opinions, I will briefly & plainely rehearse the reasons on both sides, and in the ende also will set down my iudge∣ment, which shalbe a meane betweene both, & gathered out of the foūdations & grounds of the parties at variance.
Page [unnumbered]*The former therefore say, that wee reade not of any of the Saints & holy men, which feared not death, and therefore that they fea∣red [reason 1] sicknesse also, chiefly so deadly a sicknes, and that if they coulde they would haue fled [reason 2] by all likelihood. Nay that it is vsuall vnto vs by natures lawe, & not learned by the tea∣ching of men, to feare death. For ye Apostle saith,* That no man euer hated his own flesh, but rather to nourish, cherish, & by all means to maintaine and preserue the same. Abra∣ham (say they) for feare of death,* called his wife Sara by the name of sister, and had ra∣ther to make a lie, thē to come in dāger of his life. Iacob fled into Mesopotamia, that he might not fall into the handes of his brother Esau. The same doth Dauid whilest he fly∣eth from king Saul,* and his own sonne Ab∣solom. Elias otherwise a most bold man, and who with his owne hande had slaine the Prophetes of Baal but a little before, yet feared with the threatnings of Iesabel the Queene, conueighed himselfe a side into the wildernes. Moses when as he was sought after by the king of the Aegyptians, fled into Midia. Therefore (say they) it is not onely lawful to flie death, but other also the whips of God beeing angrie, as hunger, tyraunts, Page 60 burnings, ouerflowinges of waters, colde,* heate, captiuitie, wilde beastes: to be shorte, all kindes of diseases, agues, disenteries, vn∣cleannesse, the Leprie, the french pockes. &c. Which things sithence they are so, it shall be muche more lawfull to flie the plague and [reason 3] death. Furthermore, all men are not indued with equal strength either of body or minde, they say therefore that it were not iust to re∣quire the same thinges at the hands of all. Strong faith drinketh poison without hurt, wherewith a sucking or young faith woulde die. Peter beeing bold, and hauing trust, wal∣ked [reason 4] in the Sea without harme, the same a little after doubting, began to bee drowned.* And Christe will not haue the weake to bee despised. Moreouer, it is euident by the doc∣trine of all Phisitions, that such is the na∣ture of infection, that going from one subiect and body into another, that is next and fittest to receiue it by due and conuenient distance, it doth infect and corrupt the same: for two thinges are required, that there may bee an impression, or printing and marking:* name∣ly, aptnesse of the subiect and neerenesse. Therefore when as it is manifest by their owne iudgement, and also daily experience, that the plague is a most infectious disease, Page [unnumbered] as which is wont to bee taken by the draw∣ing in of the corrupted and poysoned ayre, they in deede giue counsaile, that it be shun∣ned, so much as may bee, and amongest all kinde of counsailes▪ they confesse that none is better, then is speedy flying away, long tarrying foorth,* and slowe returning again. For there is no way more commodious to auoide the infected ayre, none more safe, when as the ayre must alwayes bee drawen yea euen against our willes, and it is drawē, such as it is. And they say that the same re∣medie is with so much the more speede to be vsed, by howe muche the euill is more hurt∣full and present. That we ought to flie the further, to the end a more healthie ayre may be found. Finally that wee must returne the more slowly, that wee may bee the more sure of the cleansing of the corrupted ayre. Heereupon they think in time of the plague these three aduerbes, (quickly, farre, slow∣ly) to bring more ayd & safe remedie, then 3. of the beste furnished Apothecaries shops. For the plague (as Galē vnto Piso is autor) with an airie bodie is as it were a certaine dragon, & no commō dragon, but such a one who when as he is not seene with the eyes, doth priuily and by stealth, lying as it were Page 71 in ambushment, euery where breath out his poyson vpon men, and no common poyson, but suche as increasing moste speedily, may in a very short time deuour the whole body of the common wealth.* For the yll qualitie of the ayre (saith Galen) is made a readie change vnto corruption: and when as men through the necessitie of breathing cannot auoid danger, they doe by the mouth drawe vnto them the ayre it selfe▪ as a certain poyson. Wherefore the same Galen cal∣leth and praiseth Hypocrates, as a man ma∣ny wayes wonderfull, for that no otherwise then by the changing of the ayre, hee cured that Plague which out of Aethyopia had as∣saulted the Greekes. For when as he had commaunded a fire to bee made throughout the whole Citie of Athens, hee cast into it not only a bare heape of wood, but flowers & garlands of most sweet sauour, also most fat smelling ointments, that the men might draw in vnto themselues the ayre thus pur∣ged as an ayd and helpe for them. Lastly (say [reason 5] they) doe wee not with great admiration and wonder see, sometimes a great familie to dye one after another, out of the whiche if any by the counsaile of the Phisitions, flie in time, they remaine alwayes for the Page [unnumbered] most part in safetie? How fewe also of those die, which depart out of infected Cities, we our selues daylie see: so that in this case they [reason 6] thinke that saying of Demosthenes to haue place, the man that runneth away, will fight againe, Now if it be vnlawful and sin to shunne such places, or by going aside to leaue thē, then to liue also, the which notwith¦standing is a singuler gift of God, after a sort shalbe sinne. But God will haue vs so long to haue care of our life, which hee hath giuen vs, vntill he take it away, which gaue it vnto vs. For we are in this world as it were his souldiers, and for the most part set in the fore front of the battaile, from whence we must then only retire, when as it shall please him for to call vs. And hee that either of negligence or rashnesse forsaketh his stan∣ding, shalbe counted giltie of treason. And these for the most part are the reasons of thē that holde it lawfull, as to flie death, so al∣so according to our power to flie sicke∣nesse.
On the other side the other with no lesse earnestnesse affirme the contrary. For when as diseases (say they) especially vniuersall diseases,* are the punishment of God for our [reason 1] sinnes, wee ought not to flie the anger of Page 72 our Father, but rather to appeare before him, and patiently to waite for stripes,* like vnto boyes, that haue plaied some vnhappie tricke. For they say that the examples al∣leadged by the aduersarie part, make men∣tion, not of the plague, but of death, yea and of such a death as by the persecution of men is laid vpon vs (betweene which two things there is great difference & oddes.) For that wee may escape the handes of men, but not of God. And that men oftentimes haue vniust causes of persecuting, as tyrannie, desire to reigne, reuenge, couetousnesse, ambition, enuie, anger, hatred, reproche, quarrellyng, letcherie, incest, stealing away or desiring of another man his wife, which thinges are wont to stirre vp men to perse∣cute others: but that God doth punishe no man saue onely lawfully. Heereunto is added, that the punishment of men is not al∣wayes taken in hande for amendement, but often for reuenge of some lewde act: For the magistrate (saith the Apostle) beareth not the sworde in vaine, but is a terrour and feare vnto the wicked, and suche for the moste parte were the punishments of the olde Testament: But God who is made a father vnto vs in Iesus Christe his Page [unnumbered] sonne,* doth not punish vs for reuenge, but for amendement. For whom he loueth, the same hee chastiseth. Hee is also faithfull, & suffereth vs not to bee temp∣ted aboue our strength: But tempteth to make it knowene,* whether we loue him or no. And him that abideth this tentati∣on, the same doth Saint Iames pronounce happie, because when hee shall haue beene tryed (saith hee) hee shall receiue the crown of lyfe, which the Lorde hath promised vnto them that loue him. Hereupon saith S. Peter, Well beloued, maruaile yee not, when as you are tryed by fyre, for this thing is doone for your tryall. And Da∣uid calleth God, the Sauiour of suche as trust in him: for there is a promise of his, in which it is saide: Call vppon mee in the day of thy trouble, and I will deliuer thee.* These thinges cannot bee saide of men which persecute vs: like as neither can that, whereas the booke of wisdome calleth God the louer of the soule: because when as wee call for his helpe, hee cannot forget his office and minde towardes vs: as hee who hath taken vpon him the name of Father, as a most notable token of his good will tow∣ardes his creature, and giuen it peculiarly Page 73 vnto himselfe, and doth yet dayly and boun∣tifully by infinite benefites shewe his good∣nesse powred out vpon vs, and by his prophet Ezechiel crieth out: I will not the death of a sinner, but that he be conuerted and liue. Againe by Esayas, I the Lorde thy God teach thee onely profitable things. Agayne, by the Apostle Paule, that hee will haue all mē to be saued. And can these things I pray you (say they) be spoken likewise of angry tyrants, and those that reuenge them∣selues on vs, such as are the examples allea∣ged by the aduersaries? Wherefore who woulde distrust God so bounteous a father, and driuen as it were by despaire, flie his chastizement taken in hande for our greate profite. They say further, especially such as are fullest of tongue among them, that it is [reason 2] no small token, that God is displeased with their running away, who by going aside in such sort goe about to seeke health for them∣selues, when as oftentimes they neuertheles die in another corrupted ayer euen of this sicknesse, whereof wee speake, or els of some other griefe, and by flying, indeede doe not flie. As concerning the counsel of Phisi∣tions, that they are not vnto Christians of [reason 3] such weight, that therefore they ought not to Page [unnumbered] regarde the authorities alleadged out of the worde of God and holy Scriptures: for that Phisitions seeke the health of the bodies, not the health of the soules: of which duty being mindful, they leaue vnto euery man the care [reason 4] of his owne soule. Last of all, this side prea∣cheth much of the band of charitie,* wherwith we are bound one vnto an other: and especi∣cially of ye charity of those which liue in one citie, or yt which is more, in one church, & be∣ing sworne together in one spirituall league & othe, are ioyned together as it were into one loafe and bodie. For what a monster or straunge thing (saye they) were this, if some one member of our bodie haue caught some harme, or shal peraduenture catch hurt, shall it therefore be forsaken of the rest of the body? or shal it not rather by all meanes bee holpen? Or if some one part of the citie burn with fire, shall it not therefore be succoured, but shall the towne because of the danger be fled from and be forsaken? If a man fal into the hands of theeues, and being wounded of them be left halfe aliue, shal it beseeme vs af∣ter the example of the Leuite and Pharisie to passe by him, & not rather with ye Samari∣tane to come downe from our horse, that is to say, to come down from our owne com∣modity, Page 74 to repayre ye hurt of our neighbor, & curteously according vnto our power to help & vse him? That verilie shoulde bee to Hea∣thenlike, and beastly. S. Iohn saith: Who∣soeuer loueth not his brother, is a man slayer: and how doth he loue him whō being left in great distresse by flying away he forsa∣keth?* Is it not cast in the teeth of Sodome among her other sinnes, that they forsooke and cared not for their neighbours? And to speake at a word, what (I pray you say they) shalbee the principall article of God his last accusation, and condemnation agaynst vs, sa∣uing for that wee did not in time helpe those whiche stoode in neede of our helpe, did not doe them good, did not ayde them with our counsaile, goodes, and trauel?* For (saye they) we must after a certayne sort buy hea∣uen, whilest we liue on earth, if wee wil euer enioye the possession thereof: we must buy (I say) not for so much money as it is worth, but by a singular good will and loue to∣wards GOD and our neighbour, through the onelye liberalitie of the Lorde God, and the stepping in of the Suretishippe of Ie∣sus Christ his Sonne by his owne blood, who vndertooke for vs, and bound himselfe vnto his father.
Page [unnumbered]To conclude, they which mainteine this opi∣nion (I speake of some, not of all, for manie of them haue more wit) will haue vs so farre foorth boldely to contemne and despise all both sicknesse and death, that they wil scarse graunt any vse of phisick vnto men, but con∣tend that all things are to be committed vnto God alone: following the Euchite heretiks, of whom I haue spoken before, who iudged al thinges both troublesome and prosperous to be to be kept away, or obteined by onelye prayer, contemning and despicing all other meanes.
We therefore, as we haue promised, will now set in betweene these two partes our iudgement, the which if any man shal happily dislike, wee willingly giue him leaue to ap∣peale whither soeuer he wil. First therefore my meaning is not by any meanes to vnder∣mine charitie and the loue of our neighbour, the which no doubt ought to be more deare vnto vs then our own blood,* like as the sonne of God himself, whom wee beleeue to bee set foorth vnto vs by the father, not only for an attonment and ransom, but also for an exam∣ple to follow, gaue his life for vs. Further, in the former parte I wishe this, that they would more diligently consider and weigh, Page 75 what it is to bee bounde vnto some certayne companie, either by the common law of Ci∣tizens, or by publike duety. For albeit perad∣uenture that we owe more vnto our wiues, childrē, & kinsfolk, then vnto others: yet that cannot bee vnderstood, when as the question is of the helping of the common necessitie of the whole weale publike, whereof thou art made a member and part to doe seruice vnto the vniuersal body, and the which also is farr aboue all both affinities and kinreds. For, for this calling sake, the which is no doubt of god, euery mā is bound to folow ye other. He that forsaketh not father and mother for my sake, is not worthy of me. Therfore ye former law is corrected by the latter, & con∣streyned to giue place vnto it: and he that be∣fore was bound vnto his parents, so that hee is compelled to obey them, he afterwards by a more general lawe ought to leaue Father and mother, and to follow God, calling him another way, that is, that he either cleaue vn∣to his wife, or that which is of more weight, vnto the whole commō wealth, or congrega∣tion of the Church. Yet let no mā vnderstand this so, as if in the same degree wee did not owe more vnto our houshold thē vnto others, but I speake of diuers kinds & conditions of Page [unnumbered] dueties. In the latter opinion I find want in this point, that they doe not plainely enough iudge a cause of so great weight. For albeit it be a certain Stoical hardnes & clubbishnes, wt such stedfastnes to tarry for & abide so great an euil & presēt danger: yet al mē simply nei∣ther can nor ought to be boūd vnto one law. For by what meanes otherwise, can so many holy fathers be iustly excused, which are read somtimes to haue shūned such dāgers, I can∣not see. My meaning is, neither to haue the one too fainthearted, & as it were distrustfull, nor the other too hardy or rash: but there is a meane to be chosen of thē both, in the whiche we are wōt to go in most safety, & wherin al vertue doth cōsist, & ye cōmon people vseth to say very truly. which things being diligētly cōsidered,* thus I say: if at any time it may be gathered by certain tokēs, yt the plague or a∣ny other kind of general sicknes, hath growē through no grosse negligence & sluggishnes of mē, or through any natural default (which in this poynt is diligētly to bee marked) but rather by the manifest & meere indignation & wrath of God, as sometimes it is apparant by the voyces of ye prophets, & other vndoub∣ted church histories of the time of our elders, then I thinke yt the rod of God our Father Page 86 ought in no case to be fled frō. For who is so rude, as to beleeue yt his chastisemēt is a figh∣ting in the night, which at al aduentures stri∣keth them that come first to hand? nay rather let the faithful perswade thēselues assuredly of this, that albeit in the reigning of suche a Plague Noe, Dauid,* and Iob were pre∣sent, yet through their righteousnesse they should but saue their own soules. For cōcer∣ning suche it is true, which vseth to be sayde, that it is foremarked out by God, who and by what meanes must bee spared. But if, as in these times it chieflye commeth to passe,* and as Luther saieth of the plague of Wite∣berge 1527. through our own vnwarines & rashnes, yt I say not enuy & despising of good counsel such cōmon sicknesses do arise, & visit some certaine citie particularly and by little & little infect those especially wt are next, as pitch doth those yt touch it, I nothing doubte (I say) but that it is lawfull for the godlye & wise to flie and shun such places, especially hauing a decree of the Magistrate set downe to that effect, as hath byn saide before. For why, if my neighbor wil of purpose set a fire his house, shal not I fly from the flame ther∣of? But if it bee also ordayned by the autho∣rity of the Magistrate, that he yt hath no sto∣macke Page [unnumbered] to tarrie, may depart, setting his thin∣ges in such order before hand, that nothing be wāting vnto any bodie, which in these distres∣ses should be greatly needful: his conscience in this case may be altogether free: but if he cōmaund it, there can be no resistance with a good conscience. For the same in this behalf is behooueful oftentimes, which is in greate fires and burnings of houses, to the quēching wherof, because al persons are not fit, some certaine in some cities, are appointed, who onelie vndertake this charge, & is not lawful for others to come run vnto it: or that whiche is done in the besiegings of cities, that olde men, women, children, weake persons, who may be only a cumbrance, & no help vnto the common wealth, be for a time put a side into a more conuenient hauen, vntill the citie bee deliuered from the enemy.
And this way I both a Christian, & also a Phisition, leaning vpon the grounds of Phi∣losophy & diuinitie, without affection & loue to the parties, (as in other matters) the which hath alwaies done much harme to all trueth: moreouer diligently examining the reasons on both sides, with a well aduised mind haue iudged, that the parties at variāce may bee made friendes, vnlesse of striuers Page 77 they wil become wranglers. But yet if anie man (that I may repeat this again) wil per∣aduenture complaine as one not contented, I graunt him the Apostles, let him appeale vnto what higher iudge he wil: or returning to the old fathers doubtles worthy men & fa∣mous for godlines, learning, and wisedome, let him renew & wage his law a fresh. I be∣ing dispatched out of these matters, returne to mine owne businesse.
Of carrying foorth of the dead, and ac∣companying the corse to the buri∣all. Cap. 4.
IF it now fall out (whiche is vsuall in suche a state of things) that some dye, which are anon to be car∣ried forth and buried, be∣cause such a matter requi∣reth diligent heedtaking for the letting of infection here also must bee seene what way may be found out by the pre∣seruers, that it may be done with as little dā∣ger as may be. And it consisteth chieflie in 2. Page [unnumbered] articles, to wit, by whom, & how this thing ought to be done. Here therfore it shalbe need¦full to followe the custome of our Elders, who had a certayne kinde of Mōkes▪ whom, because they wer for the most part vnlerned, they were in some places called Ignoraunt brethren,* or Begardes, as if you would say, Keepers of the sicke: or Lollardes, be∣cause they mourned for them that were dead. Whose office was, to attend vpon the dead, which required their seruice, but especially, to serue such as had the plague, and the same priuately, sometimes also by admonitions to strengthen and comfort them, and to put the dead in coffins, & to carry them to burying. A custome verily not to bee despised. And there is extant or abroade a certaine treatise, whiche goeth vnder the name of Saint Hie∣rom, but falsly, in which the first degree of orders in the Churche is ordayned to bee of them, which burye the dead, whiche office nowe a dayes is counted moste vyle. But howesoeuer it bee, there must needes bee some certayne appoynted, and hyred vppon a publike stypende, menne not of ill name, nor spendthriftes, nor of the very basest con∣dicion, of the whiche some shall bee called Sockers, or Buriars, or Dressers and Page 78 layers foorth of the dead: other Tumbe or Graue makers: others Cleansers and car∣riers foorth of the dead: and their office must bee to digge graues, to make Coffins, and to put the Corses in them, to carrie them foorth and burie them. Moreouer also in such manner as we shal hereafter set forth for to cleanse, wash, and make cleane the infected houses, and al things appertayning thereun∣to, so farre as of them shall bee required. And these beyng thus hyred, shal eftsoones be by an earnest othe, & certaine penalty set downe restreined, that they go to no other nor make graues for any other, thē such as lie sick of ye plague, or are dead, but yt they keep thēselues either at home, or goe abroade marked with some mark, as a white wande, or some suche like thing: neither yet so notwithstāding that they mixe themselues in the company of mē, or come neere vnto them.
I would moreouer haue thē admonished, that they perswade them selues to take in hande and execute this charge vile and re∣prochefull before men, not so much for lucre sake, as for the common bande of charity and humanity: but yt they shold know yt they doe a most godly work: which somtimes holy mē of God, nay Angels thēselues are read to haue done.
Page [unnumbered]Therfore that they behaue themselues sober∣ly,* & quietly, & honestly vse the corses of the dead, as which shal be againe the holy houses of the soules, and renewed againe with their soules, albeit for a time only they haue depar∣ted from them, shal rise againe out of ye earth, and being lightened with heauenly glorie & diuine brightnes shal liue with God for euer. We doe greatly esteeme,* and giue singuler reuerēce vnto those infants of great princes, whom we think shal in time to come possesse the kingdom, & be rulers of so great honors, & shal we despitefully or vnreuerētly handle those bodies, in the which we shal one day see our God and brother Iesus Christ after like sort clothed, & shall reigne with him for euer and euer? It is an hainous offence, by anie meanes to violate temples made by the hāds of men, and he which did ease himselfe in the temple of Apollo Pithius, is noted with an immortall infamy, and thought to haue com∣mitted a most great offence, how much lesse shall it be lawfull for vs, to handle despiteful∣ly and rashly the temples of the holy ghost, as if they were the carkases of bruite beasts, af∣ter the manner of the Cinik Philosophers? [reason 5] When as seruants lay their maisters in bed, going to sleep, they doe not boysterously cast Page 79 them downe, but handle them softly & hand∣somely, lay them downe and couer them, it is therefore muche more meete and comely, reuerently to lay downe our dead that sleepe in the Lorde, in this bedde out of which they shalbe raysed vp vnto life immortall. What [ 4] king can take it well, if he eyther heare or see his children that are dead to be vsed vnhono∣rably? When as therfore it is to be beleeued, that those which die in faith, are the sonnes of God, much more will he be offended, if he see any thing done vndecētly vnto the bodies of his faithful. Finally to be short, they which shall haue the charge of this matter, must re∣member that the same which S. Paule saith, that al things in the church are to be done de∣cently, and in order, apperteineth also vnto this purpose.
But some man may aske this questiō,* what solemnity then, and as it were publike honor shal there be, wherewith the dead are wont to be carried forth vnto their graue? In sundrie cities sūdry customes are obserued, but we in this case require as little solemnitie as may be. Not that I denie it to becōe christians to be honorably buried, but these times require other manners. And because that now pryde creepeth in by little and little, as in tymes Page [unnumbered] past through the couetousnesse of Masse Priestes, and through abuse defileth a thing otherwise commendable.* I haue knowen greate menne, who haue by will diligently prouided, that they woulde bee buryed with∣out all pompe. But these are outwarde thinges and indifferent, for the whiche ey∣ther admitted or omitted no man ought to bee iudged. For albeeit the prayseable cu∣stome bee not rashelie to bee despised, yet it is reason, that the solemnitie giue place to necessitie: which necessitie in the iudgement of all wise men, is not subiect vnto lawe, but the lawe ought to serue and bee subiecte vnto it, which might be proued by many ex∣amples, if it were needefull. But if men can not otherwise be perswaded, but yt there must some solemne fashion be vsed, the same ought to be most moderate or measurable, least any hurt might grow therby vnto the whole soci∣ety or fellowship, & least (as that same Cato sayd) in death it selfe wee might seeme to bee ambitious and proude.
*Furthermore because it is the manner in some Cities, for suche as are neere in kinne at that time to goe into the house of the sicke, there must commaundement bee gi∣uen, that this bee not lawfull for anye: for Page 80 the houses of diuers are verye straight, and stinking, which stinck moreouer is not a lit∣tle increased with the breath of sundry men, and maye doe verie muche hurte to tender and weake natures, and such as are not vsed to it.
Agayne,* none out of the infected and cor∣rupted houses must bee suffered to accompa∣nie the corse, albeit custome require it neuer so muche: likewise as wee haue before ap∣poynted these thinges to bee diligentlie ob∣serued. The same is to bee iudged of heapes of children that are schollers, who in some places are woont to be and sing at burials. For they are alwayes in more daunger of taking the infected ayer, by reason of their tendernesse of age, and vnwary kynde of dyet. All whiche thinges that they may by one way bee auoyded, I leane vnto this opi∣nion, whereas I haue saide before also, that all multitude of people is to bee shunned, that this custome bee so long broken of vn∣till the publike sickenesse cease and asswage it selfe. For the ceremonie is not so much to bee regarded, that for it sake wee shoulde in∣daunger our health. For ceremonies ought to serue vs, and not we ceremonies. And we haue byn long sithence perswaded, that what Page [unnumbered] soeuer of these thinges is done, that it is not done for the helpe of the dead (as our Aunce∣tors haue fōdly beleeued) but for the comfort of them that be aliue (as S. Augustine spea∣keth in another place) namely, whilest they see, that euen after death there shall some re∣garde be had of them, and that there is hope of another life, which may comfort in vs this sorowful departing. But if any wil pretend and alleadge the duety of charitie, the whiche by this meanes may seeme to be diminished, and as it were withdrawen from the poorer sort, they shal easily be pacified, when as they shall see the same order to be obserued in all. As for such as moued with a singuler zeale shall more earnestly vrge and cal for this olde custome, in them their zeale is to be praysed, but knowledge is to be required. They must be instructed therefore, that they may learne in what thinges the duetyes of sincere god∣linesse and chastity doe consist, That the true honour & true burial customes, is the praise of vertues, and remembraunce of valiaunt deedes done, the which albeit it be lawfull in deed to solemnize with outward shewes, yet is it not alwaies expedient. To be short, that the publike health is more to bee regarded, thē zeale of a few priuate persons, that I say Page 81 not the will of superstitious men, not right∣ly instructed: for too hot zeale and ioyned wt ignorance is superstition.
And these thinges as we haue saide,* the Preseruers must commaund diligently to be kept: whereunto also they shall adde this, that neither the chesting of them, nor the ca∣rying of them foorth to their graue, be done eyther too slowly, or too hastily. For the one may bring danger of increasing the infectiō, to wit,* by carrying of ill vapours or reekes frō the rottē carkasse, & somtimes also intol∣lerable sauours, and doth greatly hurt the hole: the other hath sometimes beene hurt∣full vnto them that haue been thought to bee dead, but were not yet dead in deede.* We know, saith Alex. Benedictus, some to haue been drawne to their graue by the handes of the buriers half aliue, others of the Nobles to haue been put into their sepulchres, whose life as yet lay hid in the corners of the hart. One of the noble matrones so buried (name∣ly at Venice) a little while after was seene dead, who notwithstanding sitting vp, and remoued from her place among the dead carkasses had reuiued,* whereof her torne haire, and brest rent with her nailes were a great token. Alas, howe often beeing a∣liue Page [unnumbered] among the dead, did shee call vppon the goddes in vaine? The same hath been tolde mee of a certaine other, the whiche beeing great with childe at Padway, and thoughte to bee dead, and buried, a little while after in the very sepulchre, brought foorth aliue two twinnes, who wt their crying, admonishing the keepers of the Churche in the night of their miserable case, together with their mo∣ther were deliuered from the daunger. And least any man shoulde maruaile that they coulde remaine aliue, who coulde not choose but be choked by reason of being kept from drawing of the ayre, let him know that it is the manner of the Italians, that worshipful houses haue peculiar places in the churches, to wit, large cellars and vauted, in the which they lay their dead, put in no coffins, nor co∣uered with earth. The like in maner is manifest, & that by ye testimonie of a publike table painted and hanged vp at the Church of the Apostles, concerning a certaine wo∣man of Coloine, who albeit shee were che∣sted, and couered with earth, yet deliuered by chaunce, and returning vnto her husband liued with him a long time after. For when as hee which buried her, minded in the night time by digging vp the graue, to fetch away Page 82 a ring which was left vpon her finger being buried, with that stirring and pulling, her poore soule beeing raised vp againe, whiche was thought to haue beene departed from her body, whereas it was but only in a sowne, reuiued. Last of all at Tholossa in Aquitania I knewe a poore fellowe, who being buried after the same sort but beeing neither put in a coffin, nor couered with earth, returned againe vnto life, which falsly hee was thought to haue lost, when as hee was rather taken in a long traunce, at that time when as many dyed daylie of ye plague. What shall I say more? It is no easie matter among so many dangerous & great euils not to commit some folly & ouersight. Wherefore wee must deale both wisely and courteously, least whilest wee goe about to saue the life of the one, wee rashly betray the life of the other.
Of a Church yarde to bee placed with∣out the Citie, and of the manner of building of the same. Chap. 5.
THere remaineth that we speake something also of the place of buriall, the which in respect of ye rest, wherein we waite for life euerlasting with God & his blessed Angels, or bo∣dies being laid in the earth,* is called a sleep Chamber, or as we vsually speake, a church yard: of the which, when as it is the opinion of all Phisitions in a manner, that there doe arise from thence infectious and corrupt ex∣halations or reekes, whiche doe infect the ayre, and wonderfully increase corruption (insomuch yt also in the keeping of a health∣full diet, they would haue mens houses to be farre from church yards) this care also must be taken in hand by ye Preseruers of health, that laying their heads and purses together, they builde church yardes in a place most fit for that purpose without the Citie. Whiche Page 83 thing besides the profit shall not a litle make also for the publike decencie & comelines, & the keeping back of profaning and abusing the same, farre vnbeseeming christian Cities & vntollerable, as it is eloquently & grauely some where written by Martyn Luther, whose words because I haue iudged thē meet to be set down in this place, I haue thought good thus to translate:*First of all (saith he) I leaue this to be discussed by the iudge∣mēts of phisitions, who vnderstand this mat∣ter better then I, whether it be done without danger, to haue Church yardes within the walles of Cities or no. For truly I cannot tell, whether any vapour bee drawen out of graues, which may infect the ayre. Whiche thing if it bee so, that shal be cause sufficient that they be builded without the territorie of the cities. For wee haue said a little before, that all men at all handes are bound to resist infection, when as God himselfe hath cō∣maunded vs to haue care of our bodie and life, and when as he biddeth not the contrarie, to take heede vnto ourselues from perilles: againe with a stoute cou∣rage to despise daungers, when as the case so requireth, so that wee may seeme readie vnto him alone, both to liue and Page [unnumbered] also for to die. For no man liueth vn∣to himself, neither doth any man die vn∣to himselfe: as Saint Paule speaketh in his Epistle vnto the Romanes.*And this I am assured of that among the olde as well Iewes as Gentiles, as well godly as vngodly, this was the custome, to haue their burials and graues without the Ci∣tie, who notwithstanding were no lesse wittie nor wise then wee. That whiche I haue said, the Gospel of Luke doth shew, when as Christe before the Citie Naim raised from death the sonne of the wid∣dowe. For the text saith, that he was car∣ried without the Citie to be buried, and that many followed him. So that there is no doubt, euē by the vsage of this one place, that those men had their burials without the walles of the Citie: as also it is euident that the sepulchre of Christe himselfe was without the Citie Hierusa∣lem. Abraham bought himselfe a pecu∣liar place in the fielde Ephron, where all the fathers vsed to be buried, whereup∣on also the Latine worde hath his origi∣nall, that the dead are saide to be carried out, that is, to bee carryed out of the towne or Citie, which we call to be car∣ried to burying. Albeit some nations v∣sed Page 84 also to burne the dead carkasses,*and bring them to ashes, that there shoulde nothing remaine, that might infect the ayre. This therfore shalbe my counsaile, that folowing the examples of these, we builde our Church yardes also without the citie. And verily as ours of Witeberg is placed, not only necessitie but also ho∣nestie and godlinesse ought worthilie to admonish vs, nay to force vs, that ano∣ther should be builded without. For it is altogether beseeming that such a place should be reuerend, & in a quiet roome, aside from the high way, as in the whi∣che a man might bee with some religi∣on and deuoutnesse, to thinke vppon death, the resurrection, and last iudge∣ment, and to pray. The place (I say) ought to bee honorable &*holy, that no mā shold enter into it without fear & reuerēce: whē as it is to be beleeued, that there are not wāting there many of the saints & elect of god. As for ours it is any thing, rather then a sleepe chamber, or church yard, nay it is almost nothing els, thē 4. or 5. common streetes, and 2. or 3. maket places, so yt in a maner there is no place of the citie more trodē & more vn¦quiet. Page [unnumbered] Ouer this aswell Cattaile as men doe course day and night. Into this euery mā hath either a gate open into his house, or els a way made, in this all thinges are done, and oftentimes some such thing, as ought not to bee named. Heereof it commeth that all reuerence and ho∣nour towardes the monuments, whiche are there placed, is key cold, neither are they any more esteemed, then some vile Golgotha, into the whiche the carkasses of bruite beastes are cast aside: so farre that the very Turke doeth not suffer his Church yardes so vnreuerently to bee prophaned, as wee in name Christians: when as it were meet, as I said before, in this place for vs to renue the memory of true godlinesse, of death, & of the resur∣rection, to thinke vpon the liues of holy men that lie buried heere, and to giue*honour vnto their ghostes. Nowe howe can these thinges bee doone conueni∣ently in a place lying so open and com∣mon vnto euery bodie? Truly for mine owne part, if there be any honour at all to bee sought in buriall of mine, I had as leeue bee buried in the Riuer Albis, or in a wood, as in such a Church yarde. Page 85 But if it were in an other place seuerally without the citie, whereunto there were no common entrāce or passage through for euery body, then doubtlesse it would seeme a thing religious, honourable to behold, and holy, which might stirre vp the commers thither vnto the studye of godlynesse. And this my iudgement, he that lyst may folow: If there be any bet∣ter thing reuealed vnto an other, let him vse his own iudgement. I am not Lorde ouer any man. Thus farre the opinion and mind of Luther, the whiche I haue la∣boured to interpret and translate not so eli¦gantly, as faithfully and plainely, when as it seemeth a matter of great weight, of which we intreate, and that of greater weight, then commonly it is supposed to be. For, albeit it be reported of certaine people, that they vse euery man in his owne house to keepe their dead put in Coffins, like as wee in a manner as fondly bury in Churches, such as many tymes are not worthy of the high way: yet that is too barbarous, and vnlesse they bee well dressed with manye precious things, vntolerable.
Now, concerning the situation and man∣ner of buylding,* it shall bee more agreeable Page [unnumbered] vnto reason, that it be lying more towarde the North, then the South: and that it be set rather in a high and dry place, then in a low and wette place. For as it hath beene sayde before, when as there aryseth alwayes out of Church-yardes aboundance of infectious exhalations and breathes, and corrupteth the ayre, the situation, lownes, and moystnes of the ground, may not a litle increase this inconuenience: which they witnesse, who sometimes white linnen cloathes there. For manye times they finde that they gather an vnpleasaunt smell from out such places: by which meanes it likewise happeneth, that of∣ten in low and foggy places, kitchins & val∣lies there appeareth a certaine fier gentlye touching without any hurt, the haire or gar∣mens,* as Virgil writeth of the childe Asca∣nius, and Titus Liuius of Seruius Tull. For this commeth of a certaine fat moystnes, or clammy fatnes, which is there more plente∣ous, whereof aryseth somwhat a thick exha∣lation or fogge, but yet not so hotte, that it can get vp vnto the highest regiō of the aire, much lesse that it can get aboue it. Wherfore by reason of the coldnes of ye place, it is dry∣uen down, and either through the rubbing of it self hard together, or by the restraint of the Page 86 extreame cold,* is by the force of it own heat set on fire. As they also say of ye rouing and wandring fire (which some call fooles fire, Pliny nameth it Castor & Pollux, ye Greeks tearme it Polydeukes) the which is wont to folow or go before such as trauel in ye night, especially such as ride or go by sea, not with∣out some frighting of the ignoraunt, which thinke it to be a spirit, whereas it is a thing altogether naturall and harmlesse, the which hurteth no body. But because we are fallen into the mentioning of this naturall imagi∣nation, I wil adde hereunto,* that wonderful fabulment or tale, which Hier. Cardanus reporteth of certain dead mē, that were wont to be seene about Sepulcres and Graues. The which, least any man should think that I forge vpon him, whē as it is a thing almost incredible, I will set downe his own words: Dead bodies (saith he) to be seen in fields about graues, and especially murthered,*and not deepe buried, & which in their life time were fierce and cruel, to be seen I say, in the night tyme, and chieflye of suche as are ignoraunte of this, is a thinge altogether naturall: When as the moyst and freshe bodye of man in the graue, dooth cast vppe a va∣pour Page [unnumbered] alwayes of one likenes according vnto his greatnesse, which carryeth the shape of a man. Whereas in times paste, when the bodyes were burnt, and put in a vessell, no such thing was seene. This saith he, fearefull doubtlesse to bee heard, but much more to bee seene, and the which I rather referre vnto a cunning mockerye of the Deuill (for Sathan mocketh in the mindes of men, and after the manner of Iugglers, maketh many sights to appeare, by the which he driueth the fearefull eyther into a vaine feare, or else vnto idolatry) then vnto the trueth of a naturall thing, if so bee also that they be done, as they seeme to bee done. The which also may hereby be vnder∣stoode, in that hee saith, that they are cheflye seene of those, which are ignoraunt of the matter. For the Deuill can sooner deceaue these, as who a good season haue tossed these thinges in their mindes, and in their thoughe and power of imagination do conceaue and bring forth vnto them selues the phantasies and imaginations of such thinges,* so that they thinke they see outwardlye, the thing whiche they haue imprinted and shaped in their owne brain the which is no new thing in those that are sicke of the Iandice, and in Page 87 melancholike persons. And that such visi∣ons doe seldome or neuer appeare vnto stout men, beecause that by reason of their coura∣giousnesse they neuer feare them, or do once so much as conceaue imagination of them, Theodorus Bysantius, and after him,* the most worthy Phisition Iohn Wierus dooth testifie: Wherefore, if Cardanus had sayde further, that those spirites had oftnest beene seene of Children, women, fearefull tender, and sicke persons, who by reason of the weakenes of their mind and body, are troub∣led with continuall feare and vaine dreams, that which he saith should of me more easily be credited. But now I cannot chuse, but put it among the true tales of Lucianus. In these thinges I am to stay no longer, if I shall onely adde this one thing, that those which doe in such sorte asscribe all thinges vnto nature, doe oftentimes delight them selues in vaine with their owne errour, and doe imbrace the Image of Helena, for the Goddesse her self: when as the most of such straunge woonders are often doone by the sleightes of Deuilles (as I haue sayde) and many also rather by god his miracles, wher∣of men can yeelde no reason, then by any naturall cause. Cardanus therfore a most Page [unnumbered] learned man must pardō my beeing against him in this poynt, for as much as by his own testimonie, it is alwayes lawfull to doubte of a generall trueth, howe good soeuer the man be that affirmeth the same.
And whereas I sayde that the Church∣yardes are to be placed towards the North, it hath the same cause, the which hath beene alleaged for the building of the plague hou∣ses.* For the wind which bloweth from this parte, with his thinnesse and purenesse, dooth easilye consume and scatter abroade all thicke and troublesome vapours, and cleanseth the ayre. Wherefore he wil not bringe anye infectious smell, or hurtefull breath into the Citie, the which wee haue proued to be vsuall to rise out of such pla∣ces.
*Furthermore, although it be but a very small matter: yet that all the circumstan∣ces may be agreeable vnto the nature of the thing, it must bee made of a rounde, and not square, or any other figure, and compassed with a stone wall. Why so? whether because this figure of al other is the most capable? or beecause it is the moste perfecte? When as all other are founde in this? Verelye for both causes, but ye former is of lesse force, Page 88 the latter hath a more fine signification. For when as oftentymes manye are to bee buryed, chieflye at that tyme, it shall bee profitable, that the space be large, leaste wee bee driuen to breake vp and open some graues that are not verye olde, and to make bare corses half rotten, which wil be euil fa∣uoured and lothsom, and bringeth danger of infecting the ayre. The roundnes of ye figure betokeneth perfection, both that which they that lye there, haue already receiued, & that also which they yet looke for. In which con∣sideration the heauen it selfe is rounde, and those which we reckon for saints, and which are appoynted vnto blessed eternitie & euer∣lastingnes, vnto the same we are woonte to paint a round figure. For there is no end of the circle or spere. It may also signifie, that which the Greekes say: Al things belong∣ing vnto man,* are as it were a round cir∣cle. For whē as al things wt are vnder hea∣uen, do after a sort frame them selues vnto ye first mouing of the firmament, going from lyfe it selfe as from the East, vnto death, as vnto the West, they finish their circle with the motion of the whole heauen: like as hee which is returned frō whence he went forth, is sayde to haue ended his course and circle. Page [unnumbered] Hereunto also appertaine the grates of y∣ron before the doore of the Church yardes,* and the dores or gates, when as they are o∣pened, falling to againe of their own accord, and shutting themselues, that the bruite beastes cannot come into them.
But now it is time, that making an end of this Chapiter of the place, situation, fi∣gure, and ornamentes of common bury∣all, I goe vnto other matters of greater weight, then those of which we haue hither∣to intreated.
Of the cleansing of houses, and things infected. Cap. 6.
IT followeth therefore in or∣der, that when as the sicke, and those suspected, whiche haue beene with them, haue nowe eyther beene carryed out, or the dead buryed, wee speake some thing of the cleansing of the houses, and of such thinges as are in them. For this industrie or paine taking seemeth to serue for many thinges, naye without the Page 89 which all other labours are taken in vayne, and the mischief doth eftsoones grow again, yea after long resting, taking againe as it were new strength, dooth sometime rage more fiercely, then at the beginning. For truely without al question, it is a thing wor∣thy the wondring at, why oftentimes so ma∣ny men die in one house, in the which some bodye hath died of the Plague. The which thing, when as none of vs doubte to hap∣pen through the poysoned ayre of yt infected place, we muste altogether folow the prac∣tize of the olde Testamente, when as the leprye vsuall vnto that time accustomed to cleaue not onely in bodyes, but also in gar∣ments, sheetes, walles, and other partes of the house, so that those things were not only to be washed, but also sometimes to be bur∣ned. In like manner (I say) we muste deale here, when as the poyson of the Plague is no lesse woont to infect al things, and many times hideth it self in the chincks and wals, and lyeth hid many years doing no hurt, vn∣til that getting an occasiō to do harm, it brea∣keth forth with great force, and infecteth as many as come with impure bodies, and take in the same by their mouth, or other passages of their body, and ceaseth not from hurting, Page [unnumbered] before that either the subiectes fit to receyue it are remoued, or the naughtie quality of the ayre, bee sufficiently amended and scattered. So Alex. Benedictus telleth of a certayne mattres,* which through the negligēce of the seruaunts being vnwasht, and vndressed, lay cast in a corner a long tyme, and when as af∣ter seauen yeeres it was brought forth, and occupied, that which in the meane season by meanes of lying stil, and of the cold, was vn∣hurtfull, being stirred vppe againe with the heate of the place and of men, and drawne in by the pores or small holes of the skinne, shewed forth her poyson, to the destruction of the whole house. I recited a certaine like thing before of a letherne garment, and diuerse other infected thinges, of which I had experience. For it is manifest and vn∣doubted, that the pestilente ayre maye lye longe in suche places and housholde stuffe: the which, if it bee stirred vp, and get into a corrupt and impure bodye, it verye easilye kindleth.*H. Cardanus indeede a manne much red in histories, telleth, how yt in a cer∣taine Village called Lachiarella, neere vn∣to Millain, at the buryall of a certaine olde woman, there were found two chests full of lynnen cloath, and cloathing, hydden for Page 90 feare of warres by the space almost of thir∣tie yeeres. The which beeing opened when as they curiously searched, as the manner is, they found nothing corrupted in them, yet as many as were present at it, or touched & handled the thinges that were layd vppe in them, either then or afterward, dyed al with∣in three daies. Marcilius Ficinus also affyr∣meth, that wals, olde yron, and such things as be made of wood, vnlesse they be holpen and remedied by washings, perfumes,* and fiers, do keeepe still their infection a whole yeere, or more also. Also that garments of woollen, and such like, vnlesse they be often ayred, washed, perfumed, or be hanged by the fire, or in the winde or sunne, do remain three yeares and more, infected. You knowe (saieth he) that the smell of an hoare orange is kept many yeeres in the boxe wherein it did hoar. Likewise, that the smel of the mosse or down in ye silk worm cōtinueth long, such as it was before in his silk worm. Truely as oile is nourishment vnto fire,* so wol is a no∣rishmēt vnto this infection, & doth so nourish it, that it doth not onely preserue it, but also increase & strenthē it. Also in an other place: As cōcerning (saith he) the disposition of the onely ayre, hee vnderstandeth the common Page [unnumbered] and not the priuate ayre) onely speedy ta∣king is sufficient: so when as al men, who soeuer they are, haue remayned three monethes free from this sicknesse, it may be iudged, that the ayre is now purged. But bee thou moste warye in comminge neere vnto,*or in touchinge of those thinges, which holde the infection fa∣ster then the ayre dooth. The boughtes of fornaces or ouens in walles doe keepe the infected qualitie longer then wood. Wherefore all thinges are diligently to be purged, with fires, wa∣shinges, ayering, purfuminges, smels &c. Men for the moste parte are cleansed in the space of 14. dayes. Houses, wood∣den thinges &c. in 21 dayes: cloathes, garmentes, and suche like in 28. dayes. Horses, money, houshold, fardelles, and such like, vnlesse you deale merueilous warily, are woont to keepe the infection a long season. Wherefore bee thou watchfull, warye and wise, and prouide for all thinges in order.
These thinges hitherto in a manner hath Marsilius Ficinus, at the ende of whiche woordes, that I may beginne, I doe by all meanes exhorte and admonishe our Preser∣uers Page 91 also, vnto whome I muste returne a∣gayne, that they vse especiall wisdome in this poynte, and diligentlye prouide for all thinges in order. And firste, that they giue commaundement, as I haue sayde, by whome this cleansinge must be doone, and secondlye, howe it ought to bee doone.
Wherefore, if they bee yet alyue,* and in health, whiche were lefte in the infec∣ted houses, this charge muste be commit∣ted vnto them, a threatning and penaltie beeing sette vppon their negligence. But if the house be cleane ridde of men, this businesse must bee doone by those, whome wee before haue named Buriars, Carry∣ars forth, and Sockers or Dressers and layers forth of the dead. And these firste of [ 1] all muste open the doores and windowes, that the winde may passe through more free∣lye. Secondlye, they muste make fiers of [ 2] conuenient matter, as of Oke, Iuniper, Beach, Willowe, &c. that the ayre of the whole house maye bee purged. Third∣lye, if there bee anye thinges of small va∣lewe, [ 3] as of cloathes, garment, and linnes of little worth, they must eyther cast it into the riuer, or burne it in a place by it self out Page [unnumbered] of the company of men. Fourthly, touching settles, tables, garmēts of some price, cloths, beds, &c. they must not onely wash them with a special care, but also soak them in lie, beat them, and hange them out on breathing in the aire: For if it be not so done, it is to be feared, least the infection be not sufficiēt∣ly [ 4] vanished away, and least that within short time after it reuiue againe. The wals also must be scraped with tooles of yron for the purpose, and be done ouer with new lime, & whited. Fiftly the whole house must be oftē purged with perfumes of the dried leaues of Oke, or beries and wood of Iuniper, or frā∣kensence, or such other like smelling things. [ 6] Sixtly, when as they haue doone al these things, with such painfulnes, order and dili∣gence, as I haue sayde, they must at length strowe all the flooers with sweete hearbes, as with Sage, Isop, Lauender, Feuerfew, Basil, Rue, Spike, Rosemary, Roses, Wa∣ter lilly, Violets, Vine leaues, and Willow leaues, &c. according vnto the time of the yeere, the which particularly here to sette downe is needelesse. And all these thinges ought farre more diligently and painfully to be done in those dwellings which are vnder the earth: because that whilest there is here Page 92 no free vent, they do much longer keepe, the hidden and imprinted infectious poyson of the Plague, then those which are in an open and free ayre.
Of keeping of those, which haue beene in infected houses. Cap. 7.
WHat order is to be taken for those whiche haue beene in companye with the sicke of the plague, albeit I haue made some mention hereof before, yet in this place som∣thing is to be said thereof againe, and that more expresly, for it seemeth not to be conue∣nient, yt they should goe euery where vp and downe at their pleasure, or occupy their cō∣mon trades, setting opē their houses streight after the dead corses are caryed to burying. Therefore they either haue beene with them of necessitie, as housholde seruaunts, which tended vpon the sicke, and Phisitions, Chi∣rurgians, Preachers, which applyed medi∣cines vnto the bodye and soule, and briefly o∣thers that carried forth ye dead to burying: or Page [unnumbered] else they were with them not of necessitie,* as those which came not vnto them daylye, but by the way peraduenture once or twise to see them. These if they vse some dily∣gence in cleansing their bodyes and gar∣ments, it shall be sufficient onely for the space of 14. dayes to keepe them selues within their owne houses, if so be that no worse thing haue followed. But they which haue doone the office of Phisition & Chirur∣gian, it hath beene already set downe, that these ought to refraine the companye of o∣ther men the whole time of the Plague. The housholde, and suche as haue daylye kept companye with the sicke in one house, haue need of a longer time to cleanse them. But if yee be minded to giue them leaue to go abroad, neuerthelesse for the auoydinge of infection, they muste be forbidden pub∣like Churches and other assemblies, vnlesse they openly carry with them a little staffe, or white wand, as a token of the plague, and that notwithstanding they diligently shun ye company of the sound. If any shall refuse so to doe, they are to bee punished by a sharpe decree of the Preseruers, that for the space of sixe whole weekes, they venture not to goe out of theyr houses, yet ought Page 93 they much more streightly to bee kept in,* who themselues haue had the Plague, al∣though nowe they bee neuer so much healed of it. For in such a cleansing there needeth the space of two monethes. But they of all other most streightly, which presently yet now haue the Plague: of the cleansing of whome what ought to bee decreed, because they haue yet nowe to wrastle with death, it cannot bee set downe. For albeit they be for the most part weaker, then that they can goe abroade out of their houses, yet it some∣times falleth out, that the sicknesse graun∣teth them truce for certaine dayes, when as the poyson cannot goe so speedily vnto the principall members, nor take the Castle of life, being letted either by the thicknesse of the bodie, or by the naturall strength of the bowels, or els by the lesse or weaker qualitie of the disease. These then are wont wil∣lingly to shufle in themselues among the as∣semblies of men, led either by a certaine sim∣ple errour, for that they thinke, that they thē selues shalbe deliuered, if they can rub their disease vpon others. For such wit hath the olde Diuell the master of mischiefe to indue men with false beliefe, and (as the common people saith) to turne the wheele, promising Page [unnumbered] vaine hope of health: or els they are led by errour ioyned with lewdnesse: that is, with a mind to commit a most notorious and cru∣el offence, namely, to infect and kill many o∣ther with them. For some are of so pestilent a minde, that they farre exceed the pestilence of the body. He that hath not had some ex∣perience in the worlde,* nor seene the townes of many men, nor knowen the minde, will scant giue credite vnto my wordes: but in truth I can boldly auouch, that I haue seene with these eyes, them, who, when as they haue had the sore running vpon them, so that they could not doubt of the sicknesse, haue thrust thēselues into the Church, & secretly haue together with others receiued ye bread of the Lorde, and out of the same cup haue drunken the wine of the Lord: I tremble at the telling of it, albeit at that time there en∣sued hurt vnto none thereby: the Lord doubt∣lesse so prouiding, who doth deliuer vs from all euill. But who woulde not thinke suche fellowes rather Diuels (I speake with M. Luther) then men? Or at the least wise to bee most pestilent men, then whom the pest∣lence it selfe is more gentle? And as pri∣uie murtherers, doe one while thruste these into the hearte with a dagger, and another Page 94 while these, the which it is not knowen vnto whome it may bee laide, so these most noto∣rious infected murtherers, and mad dogs, do here infect a boy, there a man or a womā. And when according to their power they haue infected all things, they prate that their faulte is to bee laide vnto none but vnto the will of God. And they reioyce and laugh in their sleeue, as if the matter were well done, when as they heare of the miseries of others, of the whiche they themselues were causes. O most cruell poysoning: the which ought by no meanes to remain vnpu∣nished, nay is worthie eyther of equall or also of greater punishment then the mur∣thers of common robbers.*Cardanus telleth howe that it happened at Casalis a Citie of Salassia in the yeere 1536. that certaine conspired together (namely fortie men and women togeather with the hang∣mān) that they would make annoyntment, wherewith they would annoynt the barres of doores, that they which touched them, might bee infected: and would also make a powder that being secretely sprinkled vpon the garmentes of men, shoulde woorke theyr destruction: (the plague had been extreeme in that place a little before, Page [unnumbered] and nowe was ceased) but their conspiracie beeing founde out, they were all put to death with singuler torments. They con∣fessed also, that they had determined at a so∣lemne pomp vpon a certaine Saint his day, by annoynting the seates to slay all the Citi∣zens, & that they had prepared aboue twen∣tie pottes for this purpose. They attempted the same also sometimes at Geneua, and were executed. And is the facte of these I pray you more haynous, then of those whō I haue spoken? Or who woulde thinke that men baptized with the Baptisme of Christe, and ordeined vnto the kingdome of God, could fall into so great a wickednesse? Who had not rather liue among beastes, thē in one Citie with such altogether vnworthy of the names of men? Wherefore it behooueth our Preseruers to bee stout puni∣shers of so great enormitie or disorder, that for the common safetie of the societie and fe∣lowship, they suffer not such priuie enemies and wicked traitours to goe scotfree, after the example of moste woorthie common wealthes, of which there hath been mention made.
*Further they which haue been sicke of the Plague, and nowe are somewhat reco∣uered, Page 95 ought volūtarily to admonish others, to shunne their companie, for when as they, being in this miserie haue been courteously holpen, hauing now recouered health they ought againe to consider, that they driue not others into the same miserie, the which were a tricke of most vnthankfull persons. If God himselfe (saith Luther) in the old Te∣stament commaunded, that the Lepers shoulde bee put a part without the Citie frō the companie of the people, for the auoiding of infection, and that they shoulde not be re∣ceiued again vnlesse they were iudged cleā∣sed, it behoueth vs much more in this dange∣rous infection to followe the same: neither in this case may we be vnruly and disobedi∣ent, &c. For I haue before rehearsed more, spoken Christianly by him to this purpose. In the which, to speake freely, albeit the coūsaile of seperatiō do greatly like me,* yet do I not thinke this opiniō to be allowed of al, in the cause, wherin this danger in the in∣fectiō of ye Leprous is thought to consist (vn∣lesse peraduenture this sometime happen for the contempt of God his commandemente: for their companie was very streightly for∣bidden) into the mention of whiche thyng because I am fallen againe, and haue often Page [unnumbered] before spoken of it, I will not refuse to re∣peate it againe in fewe wordes. For first it is not certaine that the Leprie of the olde testament was a disease, hurting the actions of nature, or curable by any counsaile or re∣medie of man: nay in the opinion of S. Augustine,* it was rather a defiling and vn∣cleannesse, in deede not common, but especi∣ally sent by God, then a disease of the body, and (as hee speaketh) rather a blemish of the colour and skin, then of health, or of sounde∣nesse of the senses and members. Wher∣fore the Scripture also doth oftner vse the worde of cleansing then of healing, when as it speaketh of the curing of this griefe. And in my iudgement certaine famous Phisitions doe very well distinguishe this our Leprie, whiche is called of the Greekes, Elephantiasis, from that of the Hebrews, which of thē is named Saharath, and of the whiche mention is made in Leui∣ticus and in the Euangelists. For this di∣sease (say they) is not of them, which tho∣rowe errour are wont to happen in sixe not naturall thinges, where as it is in∣deede a griefe proceeding from the wrath of GOD,* whiche according to the Page 96 nature of the sinne is wont to happen not onelye vnto the bodyes of menne, but also vnto garmentes, and the walles of houses, in the which those transgressours dwelled: according to the greatnesse (I say) of the faulte. For if the fault were small, certaine small spottes dyd aryse in the walles of the house: if it were greater, they did cleaue vnto garments: but if it were a most greate sinne, then the bodie of the sinner was defiled with the same. And those that were suspec∣ted of this Leprie, were iudged of the hygh Prieste by the space of fourteene dayes, whether they were to bee shutte out of the companie of men or no. For there was no neede of the helpe of man to the curing of the same, but onely of the hande of GOD. All which this (lyke as manie other) are nowe cea∣sed.
But concerning this our Elephan∣tiacall Leprie,* which doth moste greatlie differ from this other, this is manifeste out of the bookes of Phisitions, and nature of the same, yt it is a disease comming of the fault of the bowels, & humours, very fierce Page [unnumbered] and as it were a canker of the whole bodie: the which in times past (as histories report) was peculiar vnto Aegypt: and not seene in Italie before the age of Pompeius Mag∣nus. What? that euen at this day it is more seldome in Italie, then in our countrie of Germanie,* or the lowe countries of Bel∣gia neere vnto it, or in Fraunce: the which some write to happen vnto the one, because of their vnsodden meates, and vnto the other by reason of the constitution or qualitie of the ayre:* but howe truly, see they, whiche make themselues so readie arbitrers, and as it were vmpiers in weightie causes and controuersies. For Galen thinketh that it is seldome seene in Germanie, often in A∣lexandria, looking peraduenture vnto his times: I with Amatus Lusitanus doe ra∣ther ascribe it vnto their ill maner of diet. For they indifferently & without any choise or order feede on fish, podware, some fruits, milke,* and white meates. The Leprie called Elephantiasis is described by Plinie after this maner, that it is saide oftentimes to be∣gin at the face, first in the nose, as it were a little Lentill, anone going ouer the whole bodie, spottie, of diuers colours, and the skin vnequall, in some place thicke, in some Page 97 place thin, with an hard or rough scab, & last of all increasing and eating the fleshe to the bones, the fingers and toes swelling both in handes and feete. This is the definition of Plinie. That manner of curing is chiefly cō∣mended by Galen,* whiche is done by the vse of Vipers fleshe: the whiche I my selfe also in Italy, haue hearde to bee commended by most excellent Phisitions, and haue seene also fitly vsed. But these thinges are not for this place. But this heereout appeareth, that there is a great difference betweene the Ele∣phantiasis, that is the Lepri of this time, & that, when in the old testament was an espe∣ciall punishment of sinners, both as concer∣ning their nature, and manner of curing: the whiche Leonhardus Fuchsius hath also ob∣serued in his Paradoxis:* but not in like sort Franciscus Valleriola in his medicinall enarrations.*
But some man will obiect:* yet both of them must be infectious, when as both that are infected with thē, are separated from the company of men. I aunsweare,* what if there bee not in them both the like cause of separa∣tion? For peraduenture they were for this cause separated among our auncetours from other men, because it was a foulenesse and Page [unnumbered] certaine filthinesse that God woulde not a∣byde in his people: as whiche it behooued to excell in the cleannesse as well of bo∣dye as of mynde: or for that they whiche were defiled with these spottes, shoulde sustayne some punishement: to witte, that both they shoulde abstayne from the compa∣ny of others, & others likewise from theirs: which thing in the iudgement of some was an Image of our excommunication at this daye, whiche they commonlye call banni∣tion or abannition, that is absence for one yeere. But our Leprous are herefore remo∣ued from the companie of men, because they haue a disease both grieuous and also infec∣tious:* Albeeit to speake as I thinke, I doe not iudge the infection to bee so greate, as manie doe suppose. Nay rather in my iudge∣ment that disease is more infectious, whiche in our tyme wee call the Frenche pockes, because of eyther the beginning or propa∣gation and spreading from thence, and the whiche Ioan. Manard. iudgeth to bee a kynde of Elephantiasis,*but not truelie in my iudgement: albeeit that it bee not so daungerous, especially at this daye, when as the force thereof waxeth weaker by lyt∣tle and little, so that wee maye hope that it Page 98 will at length cease altogether, as of the tetter whiche Plinie mentioneth, there re∣mayneth at this daye no tokens. But as concerning the Elephantiacall lepri, I haue often diligentlye enquired of them, whiche were diseased with it, but I coulde seldome vnderstande that anye was infected by their companie, albeit those that are sounde are of∣ten conuersaunt with them,* nay (that which is more woonder) albeit the sicke husbandes vse the company of their sound wiues, & some times beget sounde children: which shoulde be incredible, if the force of the infection were so great, as it is thought of many for to bee. Whiche thinges sithence they be so, and yet neuerthelesse they are put apart from the company of other and that with greate care∣fulnesse, for what daunger soeuer of infec∣tion, or at leastwise suspition of infectiō: I say agayne that whiche I haue often sayde al∣readye, that there muste farre more care be vsed in the infection of the Plague. But these thinges peraduenture may seeme more at large debated then was meete: whiche the indifferent Reader will easilye pardon mee, if he shall consider that it is not vnprofitable, that sometimes wee bee put in minde of sun∣drye matters. For this thinge stirreth vp Page [unnumbered] wise men to a more diligent searching out of trueth: which trueth, as Pythagoras saide, is drowned and hidden in a most deep well.
An admonition vnto euerie subiect of the common wealth, to imploye his seruice to keepe away the common daunger of infection by the plague. Cap. 8.
BVt peraduenture there will not some bee wanting, who with discontented minds wil speake against these our con∣stitutions or orders, eyther for that through lack of iudg∣ment they cannot throughly weigh and vn∣derstand the matter, or for because they can∣not away with such counsaile, whereby they perceiue thēselues to be brought into order: for the common sort vseth to be vnwilling to beare all yoke. But these are foorthwith to haue their answeare.* As for those who per∣swade themselues that the Plague cōmeth alwayes immediately from God as a peculi∣ar and immediate whip, and therefore attri∣bute nothing vnto the helpe of man, I can do Page 99 no more but counsaile these, to suffer them∣selues to be better instructed. Such as can a∣bide no order setting themselues openly a∣gainst our Preseruers, and will vrge or bee earnest for their olde custome & liberty, these I would altogether haue admonished, to con∣sider, that they alone are not heere prouided for, but also their wiues, children & kinsfolke, yea the whole society and fellowship. What barbarousnes then shoulde it be, to be vnwil∣ling for a small time to beare that which thou mayst safely doe, to the ende thou mayest bee deliuered from it, which if it happē vnto thee, thou canst not beare but with the hazarde of thy life? Goe to, who would not willingly in the time of warre, or in the besieging of a ci∣tie, suffer to haue some newe lawes,* but yet necessary for that state, by the Senate, or Lieuetenant of the souldiers, to be prescribed vnto him, by the which he vnderstandeth that both his goods and life, and also his countrie mens may be defended and preserued? Nay who would not labour with all his might & mayne to keepe away the enemy from his borders, if he be absent: or to thrust him out if he be entred the citie? Who in a common ouerflowing of water, will not take paynes to keepe and mainteine the bayes, to streng∣then Page [unnumbered] houses, to deliuer cattell, to helpe men swimming, to giue if it bee but a borde to them that are like to bee drowned, if hee can doe no more? Who woulde not run and help the sheep, if the Wolfe somewhere breaking into the folde, shoulde teare the flocke? Who (I saye) is indued with so cruell an heart, which in these miseries wold not both with hande and foote, so farre as hee were a∣ble, bring ayd in things going thus to wrack and ruine? Who of tendernesse coulde with a quiet minde beholde these miseries of his neighbours? O heart altogether deuoyde of all humanity, and as hard as the Adamant, or rather bruitish, that in this case thinketh that there is anye place for slouth and sluggishe∣nesse? Bruite beastes helpe one an other, and that readilye, if anye trouble befall them from others: and shall manne that hath his name of manhoode (whiche woorde con∣teyneth in it all kinde of duetie) for the retei∣ning of an vnprofitable libertie in the gree∣uous affliction of a whole Citie, not be con∣tent to haue commendable, commodious, ne∣cessary lawes, yet not perpetuall, but tem∣porall, prescribed vnto him? And according to the equitie of these lawes to haue the Page 100 common wealth, and the safetye and lyfe of his fellowes mainteyned?* But (saye they) the examples whiche you bringe are vnlyke: because GOD is the Authour of the Plague, but men, or other creatures are the Causers of these. As though anye thing came to passe without the prouidence of God, yea or without his diuine decree.* As if there were anie euill in the Citie, whiche God hath not done.*
But these thinges in tymes paste haue beene handeled by vs. Goe too, if we see any manne to bee pressed with hunger, doest thou not thinke that by the commaundement of GOD we are bounde to giue him meate? Albeeyt hee bee a Turke, albeeit hee bee an Heathen, albeeit hee bee our enemie? Howe muche more then doe wee owe this duetye vnto our brethren, our neighboures, our ci∣tizens, whose helpe wee canne neuer bee without? Nowe if wee withdrawe our helpe from those whiche are in suche sorte in neede, bee wee not murtherers before God? Saynt Iohn sayeth, hee that loueth not his neighboure, committeth murther, and that loue doth not remayne in him. And such was one of the sinnes whiche GOD Page [unnumbered] layde against Sodome, as Ezechiel saieth, Behold these are the sinnes of thy sister Sodome, idlenes, riot, not regarding of her neighbour. After the self same sort shal Christ say at the last iudgement: I was an hungred and ye gaue me no meate, I was sicke, and ye did not visite me, and if then it be so great a fault, to denie meate, or not to visite the sicke, how much more great a fault shall it be, not to take away according to our power as it were present death and destruc∣tion? I wold to God that with these pratlers and contemners of the publike safetie, the counsell of the most excellent and noble M. Luther might finde place, who so wisely, so godly,* and finally, so carefully perswadeth al kinde of helpes to bee vsed, which by anye meanes may profit: and will by no meanes haue any thing omitted, which any way may quench such a fire. So behaue thy self (saith he) as one that is desirous to quenche a common fire in a citie.*For what els is the plague, then a certaine fire, which doeth not consume and deuour wood or chaff, but the life and bodie? Therefore e∣uery one of vs ought thus for to thinke: if Satan by the will of God, either by him selfe or his ministers hath wrought vs Page 101 this deadlie infection, I on the other side before all thinges will praye vnto God, that of his mercie hee will take away the same from vs: Then I wil put to my sim∣ple helping hande, both by perfuming and cleansing of the ayer, both by vsing of medicines, & also in shunning the in∣fection, where my presence is not neces∣sary, least I might seeme my selfe to haue neglected some thing, or be cause of death vnto others, who through my neg∣ligence may take harme. But if God ne∣uerthelesse will haue me visited with this sicknesse, or cal me out of this world vn∣to him, at leastwise I haue done that whi∣che was my duetie, neither haue offen∣ded any thing, either against my selfe, or my neighbour. But where my seruice is needefull, there I will let passe nothing of all thinges which either can or ought to bee done of mee. Beholde this is that godlie faith indeede, whiche doeth no∣thing rashly, neither tempteth God in a∣nie thing. Thus muche in a manner after this sort hath Luther, but in Dutche. Ther∣fore if suche wisedome and fidelity were seen first in the Magistrate, then in the Citi∣zens, truely the Plague woulde bee muche Page [unnumbered] more tollerable. But wheras the one are too rashe and carelesse, & the other contrariwise too feareful, there Sathan easily at his plea∣sure tosseth all thinges vp side down, and the misery doeth so farre daylie increase, that at the length there is a pitiful plight of ye whole citie.* For traffick waxeth cold, there groweth a dearth of al things, the Churche assemblies cease, charity is in ieopardy, al things are su∣spected, & as the Poet saith, The wandring guest doth stand in dāger of his host, the host in daunger of his guest, & fathers of their sonne in lawes, yea seldom time do∣eth rest betweene borne brothers suche accorde and loue as ought to be. Due ho∣nor is giuen neither vnto the magistrate, nor vnto parents, al discipline is neglected. No∣thing but trembling, despaire, crying of yōg children, a noyse of women, weeping, mour∣ning, sorow, feare, dying of families, falsifi∣ing or staying of testaments and willes, con∣fusion of inheritaunces, wasting of the Citie, decay of the common wealth, & to conclude, nothing is heard or seene but al kinde of mi∣serie. All which things they ought worthilie to set before their eyes, which doe so little e∣steem of this cause, yt they wil beare nothing, no not for a small time onelie, for the sake Page 102 thereof, the which is both easie to be done, & vnhurtfull, nay profitable for them: but either vnder colour of religion, whose force they knowe not, or through rebellion they despice commendable & profitable lawes to the com∣mon wealth: and vnthankfully reiecte those, which giue thē healthful counsel with greate trauaile, and faithful carefulnes, whiche they may vse & cost them no money: vnto whose ignoraunce notwithstanding in respect of the publike profite, our Preseruers ought in no case to yeeld: but rather ought to follow that excellent counsel of Hippocrates, that they constauntly follow and continue in the same, which at the beginning they haue by graue aduice thought most expedient.
Let euery man thinke these thinges to be sayde vnto him eyther in my name, or in the name of the Preseruers, and earnestlye indeuour faithfullye to helpe his distressed Countrey. Whiche if hee doe not, let him feare punishment both at the handes of God and men.
Of the punishement of such as rashly of∣fend. Chap. 9.
WHerefore, because that hi∣therto we haue set downe what is needefull to bee done, neither haue let passe any thing yt by rea∣son might be saide, or is appertaining profitably vnto the matter: and also haue exhorted all men diligently and earnestly vnto the obser∣uation or keeping of these constitutions or orders, it now followeth, that if any man be found slacke or vnfaithful in his office, that he, the cause being knowen, suffer punishmēt according vnto the greatnes of the fault. For what shall it profite to haue made many good lawes, if they be not kept? And they wil not be kept, vnlesse there be due punishment vpō the offenders. For such as are good, will of their owne accorde doe all those things whi∣che are best. For the law is not made for the iust, but for transgressors or offenders. The Magistrate also carrieth not the sword in Page 103 vayne, but is a feare vnto those that do euil. There is one hath sayd very well, yt no com∣mon wealth can stande without lawes, that lawes are worth nothing, if there be no acti∣on: and that al action is in vaine, if there bee no execution. Let vs therefore beginne at the beginning, and let vs see, what penalty is to be set downe to euery one that shall rashelye breake the lawes of these ordinaunces, the which I protest that I feare not to make, if I shoulde be in daunger to loose my life for the same.
First of all concerning the Preseruers themselues,* albeit they shalbe the rulers and ouerseers of these lawes, yet they ought not to claime vnto themselues more liberty, then the highest Emperor his maiesty it self wold haue vnto himselfe: who although he cōfesse himselfe to be aboue the lawes: yet he saith yt he wil obey & be subiect vnto the lawes.* And truly equity doth require, that looke what e∣uery man ordeineth vnto others the same also he beare himself. It is ye saying of Isocrates, that the common people willingly folow the same which they see their rulers to be deligh∣ted withal. Therfore let the Preseruers by al meanes indeuor to maintein their authority, & let them labour not only in name, but also in Page [unnumbered] deede to be Preseruers of health, and from their heartes to procure the common safety. But if either they thēselues shal do any thing negligētly, or of fauour (which in ye iudgmēt of the very heathē becōmeth not a magistrat) beare with others: by the decree of ye Senate or whole benche, whiche thing will procure them infamie, let them be put from their of∣fice, and be brought into the order of common Citizens.
*Phisitions, Chirurgians, Apothecaries, if they commit any thing through ouersight, whiche men neuer knowe of (for oftentimes such things may happen (let them know that they shall haue God a reuenger. But if they shalbe foūd guilty of some light fault, let thē recompence it with greater diligence. They which cannot doe all thinges so handsomely and skilfully as only ye most excellēt Phisiti∣ons cā do, they are cleared by the law it selfe. For it is alwaies a hard thing to attaine vnto that which is rightest,* neither can wee all bee Hippocrateses or Galenes. As for such as haue made an open fault, that is of grosse & purposed ignoraunce, haue offended in that the whiche for the most part all men of their calling woulde haue done otherwise, and better, let them sustayne some arbitrary pe∣naltie Page 104 according to the pleasure of the ma∣gistrate, which may consist either in putting thē out of office, or abridging of their stipēd, or finallye in impayring their estimation and good name. Other faults are left to be puni∣shed according vnto ye imperial lawes or con∣stitutions & statutes of princes. In the meane season both these and the ministers of the Church that followe, must absteine from the company of others, or els sustaine an arbitra∣ry punishment.
The ministers of the Churche, who are the Phisitions of the soules,* cannot easily of∣fend in their office, if they bee desirous from their heart to be that which they are called, & shewe not thēselues slow vnto any, nor haue respect of persons, which doth at no hand be∣seeme them. Wherefore publike crimes ex∣cepted, if they shal do any thing negligently,* or not behaue themselues godly, we wil leaue them to be punished vnto God the vncorrupt iudge, & searcher of things, and of the heart, or at the most suspend them from their office, and in the meane season take from them a monethes wages.
Among the Citizens,* whosoeuer shall be found a breaker or transgressor of ye order appoynted, let him haue punishement accor∣ding Page [unnumbered] vnto the nature of his fault. If any man be found drunken,* he is to be punished either by some publike shame, or forfeyture of mo∣nie, obseruing the circūstance of persō, occa∣siō, oftennes, & greatnes. They that shall daunce,* trim vp or goe vnto publike bathes, or be married, shall haue some smal punishe∣ment: but if they get a speciall priuiledge, no punishment at al. For there may such causes fal out, why some thing may be graunted vn∣to some, the which ought not commonly to be done vnto all.
They that shal aduenture to bring into the city,* & to sel things forbiddē, are worthily to be punished with the losse of ye thinges thēsel∣ues. The same punishmēt is to be laid vpon ye buiers, if they yet now haue wt thē the things hole & vntouched: otherwise let the punishe∣ment be equal vnto the price of the things.
*Hee that is founde selling of profitable things, as meats, or drinks, in any other place then in the place appoynted, let him beare the losse of all that he setteth to sale.
Whosoeuer of his owne priuate authority shal couetously increase the price of thinges saleable aboue that is resonable,* or aboue the appoynted rate, let him be vnder the punish∣ment of vnlawful vsuries, and for a time for∣bidden Page 105 to occupie any more.
Whosoeuer shal not put away beasts for∣bidden,* nor carry away the filth which they make, let him bee punished with a certaine summe of money: but if he throw it into the publike streete, let him bee punished double, and neuerthelesse compelled to carry it out of the Citie on his owne charges. If he shal forslow it, let the punishment bee increased according to the number of euerie day: or els let it bee caused by the officers to be carryed away vpon his double charges.
Dogs, cats, goates, &c.* which seuerally be∣long to euerie man, vnlesse he keepe them at home, let him pay an arbitrarie summe of money: and let it bee lawful for euery one yt taketh them, to kill or keepe them, vnlesse it may be proued to be done without the neg∣ligence of the owner. Horses, if they breake out of the stable, and run away, must bee re∣stored vnto ye owner. For such are not wont to runne vp and downe.
If any either stranger or citizen comming from infected, or suspected places,* haue not a testimoniall of health, & of the soundnes of the things that he bringeth with him, let him bee shut out: and if he shall priuilie come in∣to ye citie, let him suffer ye losse of his things, Page [unnumbered] and concerning himselfe being punished let him be put backe for a time, or els shut out for altogether.
*The keeper of the gates whiche shall re∣ceiue any comming from a strange place wt∣out a testimonial of health, if he do it witting¦ly, let him for certaine daies bee imprisoned: but if he do it vnwittingly, as it may come to passe in a multitude passing by, yet he is to be punished with some money penalty. The same is to bee ordeined concerning Inkee∣pers, and such as lodge strangers.
*Whosoeuer after the prohibition of the Preseruers shal dare to go out of any house infected with the plague without an appoin∣ted mark, shalbe punished with a money pu∣nishment: but if noted with some marke, he shall rashly goe into other folkes houses, or thrust himselfe into the companie of mē, let him want libertie to goe out afterwardes, or let him bee carried into the Plague houses. The same is to be ordeined against thē, whi∣che go out of one plage house into another.
*He yt being in health or sick shal contemne Phisick, let him be cōdēned of stubbornes, & counted as an heretike: vnto whō also after∣wards, lesse benefit & dutie is due frō others, nay he shalbe counted vnworthie the fellow∣ship Page 106 of Citizens. For he hath tempted God, & with the rebellious Iewes required my∣racles, when as without myracles he might haue had experiēce of the grace of God.
Whosoeuer shal affirme,* yt it is lawful for christiās in the time of ye plague without a lawful cause, & consent of the rulers, to leaue his citie & church, he is worthie the name of a schismatike: and if so be he so runne away, he is to be depriued of the freedome of the citie. And he yt shall hold euery plague to be as an immediat punishment from God, is to be cō∣demned of ignorance, & to be despised as an euill speaker: as one yt layeth vpon God his owne rashnes, & blame of his owne rechlesse negligence.
They yt haue charge about burials,* graue makers, cleansers, & such as are put in office about carrying foorth of the dead, if they re∣fraine not thēselues from the companie of o∣thers, as those that in houses infected haue byn of ye houshold (if they offend after ye same sort) are to be punished. If they haue at any time buried any that were not dead, as wee haue said yt it doth at som time happē, if they haue don it willingly, let thē be held for mur¦therers: but if they haue done it ignorantly, let thē aske god forgiuenes for their fault.
Page [unnumbered]*If they shall steale away any thing out of houses that they had to cleanse, let them be giltie of theft: but if they haue giuen the same vnto any other, let thē be giltie of gi∣uing of poyson, and be punished with a bodi∣ly punishment.
*If any man before the time prescribed, shal goe out of his house without license, & thrust himself into the company of others, he shalbe bound to begin afresh the time of shutting in, & bee punished beside with an arbitrarie pu∣nishment. But if the same partie beeing in∣fected before, and yet scarce wel recouered, or but meetly recouered, shall aduenture to doe the like, hee is to be accused of great vn∣thankefulnes, and to be depriued of all bene∣fites vsuall to be done vnto him, and besides to be restrained with longer keping in. But if being now in very deede infected with the plague, he shalbe founde to haue committed this hainous offence, vpon notorious & wic∣ked boldnes, as a murtherer, after the losse of his goods (if he be without children) let him be deliuered ouer vnto the hangman.
Let these then be the punishments of such as offend rashly: the which according vnto the circumstance of time, place, person, age, sexe, greatnes of the fault, & often cōmitting Page 107 of the same, the preseruers may either in∣crease or alter. Whatsoeuer penalties or forfaitures shalbe gathered the same must be bestowed partly vpon the reliefe of ye poore, & partly imployed vpō the plague houses.
A register or brief rehearsall, conteining the orders set downe in these two bookes, Chap. 10.
AFter that hitherto wee haue set foorth such things as we thought to appertaine vnto the office of a faithfull and wise Magistrate, in preser∣uing and deliuering the com¦mon wealth from the infection in the time of the plague, and haue hādled many things somewhat at large: it seemeth not amisse, to repeate briefly, & after ye maner of a register, the more profitable and chiefe orders: if hap∣pily any man haue not either leisure, or els like not to reade the whole discourse: for so he may both the more easily remember thē, and bee lesse wearie. [ 1]
Therefore when as we shalbe persuaded that it appertaineth vnto the office of the go∣uernours Page [unnumbered] of the common wealth, not only to furnish the citie with things necessarie, but also to keepe away things hurtful & discom∣modious (amongst which hurtful things are especially conteined common & generall di∣seases, which hurt men by infection, such as chiefly the plague is) the magistrates muste beware of this, that here they giue no place to slougth or negligence, but rather with all indeuour, studie, faithfulnes, & wisdom, per∣form ye, which they shal vnderstād to cōcerne the profit and health of the whole felowship and all their subiects.
And first of al, yt they cōmand vnto their sub∣iects [ 2] a publike repētance, & together with ye people setting before thē amēdment of life, yt they set thēselues before God ye most boun∣teous & almightie, crauing earnestly at his hands pardon both for theyr sinful life past, & hotly desiring aid in their present miserie.
[ 3] Furthermore their conscience thus appro∣ued vnto god, being wel strēgthned in faith, hope, and charitie, let thē imploy all the ser∣uice of mā, that they let passe nothing, which either reason counsaileth, or neede requireth. And because ye order in all things is necessa∣rie, whether we wil do any thing that is pro∣fitable, or hinder that which is hurtful: & dis∣order & confusion hated of God himselfe: it Page 108 shalbe great barbarousnes, in other thinges to haue good rules, & in ye breaking in of dis∣eases as it were of cruel beasts to vse no wis∣dome, to make no lawes agreeable vnto rea∣son. Wherfore as the natural Philosophers do appoint vnto euery sphere of the heauen, his mouer, & as it were gouernor: & as cōmō wealthes doe set ouer euery office a seuerall ruler: so also in ye care of ye publike health, some certaine magistrates must be ordeined, who both indeed & name must be preseruers, & by their authoritie procure all matters of this treatise, & yt in such order as followeth.
First, they shall prouide ye cōmon wealth of [ 4] meet phisitions, Chirurgeās, Apothecaries, who sufficiently furnished with a blamelesse life, & skill of things, shall attend only vpon this sicknes of ye plague, & shal (ye Apotheca∣rie excepted) altogether abstain frō other di∣seased persōs & diseases. And as these are ho∣nestly & courteously to be maintained with a reasonable stipēd: so other runnagate stran∣gers as greedie cormorāts, gaping only for their pray, are to be banished. For when as they are treacherous betraiers of the life of man, vnlearned, and desperately bolde, they are easily inforced by Satā in this plight of things to any hainous offence: that whereas they ought to take away the infection, heere Page [unnumbered] being wicked persons they perswade them∣selues to spread and increase the same.
[ 5] Now after the common wealth shall bee prouided of phisitions for the body (for this care in our treatise, wherin prouision is had for health, after the vniuersall purging of our cōscience, I iudge to be the chief & first) likewise they must also make inquirie for Phisitions of the soules, men approued in all points: if any (whiche thing I disuade not but wish and exhort) will vse their helpe, or instruction and comfort, which is done by words and speech: or if the time so require, the receiuing & partaking of the sacramēts: These also must abstaine frō the companie of others, which are not visited wt this sick∣nesse of the Plague.
[ 6] They must cōmaund such order to be obser∣ued, or kept among the citizens, that all pub∣like assemblies bee auoided, as marriages, games, dauncings, bathes, common fayres, pompous funerals or burials. Churche assē∣blies may be vsed, if they be deuided into di∣uers places, that they come not together in great heapes, and sit close one by another. Great schooles are to bee remoued into a place & ayre more conuenient: lesser scholes, and for children, are so long to be shut vp vn∣till the sicknes cease raging.
Page 169In thinges concerning meate and drink, [ 7] to be bought and solde, this foresight is to be followed, that it bee not lawfull neyther to sell in the Citie, nor bring in what things soeuer are hurtfull, and may bring daunger of infection (and what are such, wee haue se∣uerally set downe in the Treatise it selfe, as occasion serued) but holsome and necessarye thinges are to be procured, and to bee solde, euery thing in his place, and at his appointed price. Manye markettes, and a reasonable price for euerye thing muste bee appoynted,* according vnto the natures of the things and countryes, and abilitie of the buyars. Concerning which notwithstanding it is not easie by certaine lawes to make prouiso, or exactly enough to prescribe, but only cha∣ritie must needs appoint the measure & rule of this equitie.
Kyne, Hogges, Geese, and other filthye [ 8] beastes, which doe make much stenche and vncleannesse, are not to bee suffered in the Citie, but there must bee made stables for them in some place out of the Citie, especial∣ly by some Brooke, if it may be, which maye carry away all the filth, or from whence the vncleane reekes breath not into the Citie. Because that their doung and excrementes Page [unnumbered] doth greatly defile the ayre, and yeeldeth no∣rishment vnto the infection.
[ 9] The streetes also must be cleansed of all filth, and nothing caste in them eyther grie∣uous in smell, or abhominable in sight: but what kinde of such stuffe soeuer there is, it must bee caryed out of the Citie, that of the streetes there bee not made common pry∣uies, as it were: naye, that the whole Ci∣tie seeme not as it were a certayne filthye Iakes, which in some Cities is most shame∣fullye suffered. Wherefore without the Citie in places conuenient there must hou∣ses of office bee made at the charge of the common wealth, and that by a ryuer side, if there be any there, that such excrementes may bee carryed away with the force of the water, or in some open place, that they may be dried vp with the winde.
And heere the custome of the Sarmati∣ons shall nothing moue vs, who in the time of the plague vse to cast dead Dogges eue∣ry where in the streetes, to quench infec∣tion with infection. For this is barbarous, and peraduenture commodious onelye for that place. But wee must rather amend our ayre with sweete thinges: and chiefe∣lye by makinge euerye where great and Page 110 bright fiers and flames. For in a generall sickenesse the purenes of the ayre is a chiefe remedie, as Hippocrates and Galen, and all auncient wise men doe witnesse. And the fire dooth cleanse, drye vppe and purifie all thinges, and is vnto the ayre, as it were the Sunne, soule, and lyfe:* Inso∣much as looke what that notable preserua∣tiue Triacle dooth vnto compound bodies, that dooth fire vnto the ayre, of all simple bodyes, as in place, so also in vertue the highest elemente:* the which let it be lawe∣full for me to speak with the leaue of Car∣danus, who denyeth the fire to bee an ele∣ment. And it is very pretily sayd,*By howe much the ayre is better, by so much the minde is better. For men for the most part are disposed according vnto the qualitie of the ayre.
Dogges also, Cattes, Goates, and other [ 10] tame beastes, which are woont to runne vp and downe, and euery where to wander in the streetes, are not to be suffered, or at least wise must be kept at home, for such may cary about & bring vnto others ye aire of ye plague, albeit they them selues many times remaine vnhurt: the which is manifest both by natu∣ral reason, and also histories worthy credit.
Page [unnumbered]Wherefore suche as cannot easilye bee kepte at home, as Cattes, it is better that they bee killed, then suffered, and in the roome of them, to vse ginnes and mouse trappes.
[ 11] No straungers, nor Citizens which come out of infected places, are to be receyued into the Citie, without a testimoniall of health. And such testimonialles in papers sealed or written, they muste require of the Preseruers: But if this order of our polly∣cie be not yet receiued in some places, they then must be craued at the handes of the ma∣gistrate or Minister. Such as haue none, must keepe them selues without the Citie a conuenient time of certaine daies. For there muste greater care bee had for the publike health, then priuate wealth. That whiche I haue said of ye mē, must also be vnderstood of the thinges which they bring with them: as wares, packes, housholde, &c. For in these many tymes there doe lye great daun∣gers. For the ayre of the plague may hange a long time in them, as it is most euidente concerning woollen garments. For wool is woont marueilously to nourish & increase this infection. And it is knowne of many lewd persons, whoe by this meanes haue Page 111 scattered the presente sickenesse farre and wide.
Into whose houses the Plague is ligh∣ted, [ 12] they forthwith by the commaundement of the Preseruers, ought to keepe thēselues within, and must not haue leaue to go abrod, vnlesse they goe noted with some especiall marke, which shall please the Preseruers: whereby notwithstanding they shall not bee yet at libertie, to shuffle them selues into the companies of men, or to go into other mens houses. The houses also them selues must be noted with some markes, namelye by hanging before the doore a blacke, redde, or white sheete: or setting vp of clubbes, or swathes of straw, or torches vnlighted: al which are signes of sickenesse or death. If any also of his owne accorde haue gone in∣to such houses, in like manner hee shall not come abroad by the space of 14. dayes, with∣out some marke. The sicke and those of the house must prouide for them selues, the one by healing, and the other by preseruing me∣dicines: either vpō their own charges, which be able to beare it, or by the publike charges, which are poore. For Phisicke is the gifte of GOD, and Phisitions the Ministers of God, by whose seruice the Lord many times Page [unnumbered] giueth health: albeit when hee wil, hee can doe it without them, which can do al things. But it is not lawfull to tempt him, neyther ought wee to aske myracles, when as with∣out miracles, wee maye obtaine the thinge which we require.
Hereunto also appertaineth, that regard be had of women in trauell, which are not to be forsaken for feare of infection, but if they be suspected, they are faithfully to be holpen, especially of the midwiues & other women, which by a publike stipend must be hired for this purpose.
Two houses, called Plague houses must [ 13] be built, large inough, of sound matter, situ∣ated towards the North, of an apt forme, in some out corner of the Citie, or rather with∣out the Cittie by the running waters side: The one for the vse of the hole, but yet su∣spected, and the other for the sicke: not ioy∣ninge together, nor hindering one another in receiuing the North winde: with Cham∣bers somewhat high, but not darkishe, with windowes open vnto the East. For the close aire is very hurtfull, of the which there haue beene seene fearefull examples. And these thinges must bee looked vnto in the begin∣ning of the sicknes, when the number of the Page 112 infected is smaller. For in a great compa∣nie of sicke persons, and in an vniuersall vi∣sitation of the citie, these things wil scarse be sufficient, albeit al things be well obserued.
The Magistrate, when as the necessarye persons and matters of the common wealth [ 14] be prouided for, may giue leaue vnto certain to go aside, as vnto women, Children, tender persons, and old men, and other vnprofitable folke, which can doe no good, but maye doe great harm, as it vseth to be done in com∣mon burninges and firinges, or besiegings of Cities: and he that shall then departe, is not to be condemned of reproch, or forsa∣king of brotherlye charitie. Otherwise it is lawefull for no man to flie, especially if by famine, which is an other plague, he bee not driuen to seeke an other place.
But if it be plaine by euident tokens, that this punishment is sent immediately by god, without the negligence of men, and natu∣rall causes, so farre of is it that wee shoulde flye awaye, that wee ought rather patiently to abide his fatherly correction, and humbly to pray for mitigation and slacking of the same. But euery plague cannot properlye be called the plague of God, but commeth sometimes by nature, somtimes by our neg∣ligence Page [unnumbered] and rashnes. In such a case there is no doubt but that wee may desire and followe al hol∣some counsailes and remedies.
[ 15] If there dye any (which at that time is a daily thing) they ought neither too slowely, nor too hastily to be carried forth and buried. For on both sides there is daunger and incō∣uenience. Wherefore a moderation and meane must be vsed. This shall be doone by such as are thereunto especially appoynted, as Bursars, Grauemakers, Cleansers: who ought quietly and modestlye to execute this charge, folowing holy men in times paste, and, that which is more, the Angels of God, who themselues also sometimes did this of∣fice. It must also be done without any com∣panies of men: and if so be that any solem∣nitie must be vsed, the same must be finished with as little comming together and char∣ges as may be, least ambition and pride may seeme to be sought in death, and the old spit∣tle of pompous funeralles or buryalles be licked vp againe.
[ 16] The Church yarde, in which they are to be buryed, must be builded without the terri∣tories of the Citie, of a conuenient largnes, in a place neither lowe nor moyst, towardes the North, of around figure, compassed with Page 113 a stone wall, with grates at the entry, and doores falling too of their own accord after they be opened, to keepe out cattel.
After that the Corse is carryed forth, [ 17] the infected house, & al thinges in it, are with singular diligence to bee cleansed & purged, setting open the windowes, to be perfumed with fire, and the walles to be whited with lyme. Thinges of no great value are to be burnt, others to be washed in lye. Lastly, al things are to be strowed with sweet hearbs, flowers and fruites. And these things must be done by those whom we haue named O∣uerseears about buryals, Cleansers, & Car∣ryars forth to burying, or by those of the houshold, if they be there. [ 18]
All those which are left aliue, must be by certaine lawes kept in, such in manner, as hath beene sayd of them houshold seruantes, which haue beene with the sicke. Those therfore which shal be in health among thē, if they will go abroad, must, aswell as they, carry a white rod in their hand.
Those which haue beene infected, and so so recouered, but yet not fully, maye not ra∣shlye goe abroad, vntill they bee throughlye cleansed, vnto the which the space of two moneths is requisite at the least. But such as Page [unnumbered] indeede are nowe presentlye sicke of this di∣sease, may in no case be found amongest the assemblies of men, as in the old testament it was not lawfull for the leprous to be in the company of the cleane.
[ 19] These orders euery one according to his abilitie and office, must indeuour diligently to obserue, as most profitable and necessarye both priuatelye for him selfe, and for the whole societie and fellowshippe. He that of conscience and religion shall be perswa∣ded to thinke that hee resisteth the wyll of God, if by the helpe of man hee labour to auoyde his punishment, hee must suffer him selfe to bee better taught, and not to laye a snare vpon his owne conscience. But he that of slouthfulnesse or waywardnes shall con∣temne the publike health, let him know, that he greatly hurteth charitie, and as it were sinneth against his own body.
[ 20] Last of all hee that shall bee founde slacke and vnfaythfull in his office, muste bee pu∣nished accordinge vnto the qualitie of his faulte: Which punishment the Preseruers shal rule and sette downe, eyther by some penaltie of money, or of reproach, or by suspention, or depryuation from dignitie and offyce, or by imprisonmente, or by Page 114 the laste punyshmente of putting to death.
And thus farre hath hytherto beene spo∣ken of the duetie of a faythfull and wise Ma∣gistrate to be vsed in the time of the plague. Which if it shall seeme peraduenture newe vnto any man, albeit that in manye places it is not altogether vnusuall: let him vnder∣stande that wee goe about a newe woorke: Newe, I say, in some place perchaunce, or at least wise in some parte newe, but yet notwithstanding not vnprofitable, or not ne∣cessarye. And holsome counsayles are not therefore to bee despysed,* beecause they are newe: For all thinges, which nowe are olde, and with reason long agoe orday∣ned, were once newe. Neyther doth it fol∣lowe: this is newe, therefore it is to be re∣fused. For is the hande of GOD short∣ned, so that in our times hee canne reueale nothing, which was not knowne of our fore∣fathers? Do there not dayly come abroad new medicins, the vse whereof beeing vn∣knowen vnto our Elders, hath beene with great fruite and profite knowen vnto vs?
Wherefore they which iudge thus, that which is vnto anye man straung and vnusu∣all, the same by no meanes is to bee receiued and allowed: do tye the Magistrate vnto too Page [unnumbered] streight bandes, to cutte away from him all libertie, to take aduice vpon most weighty matters, and such as hee neuer before heard of: Far disagreeing from the counsayle of that Prince in Homer, who (necessitie en∣forcing) saieth Hee that can better coun∣sayle geue, who so hee bee, now let him come, for be he young, or be hee olde, moste willingly the same I take.
When as therefore there are some Ru∣lars ouer al offyces of the common wealth, who especiallye take charg of those things, the dooinge whereof is committed vnto them, leaste anye thinge shoulde bee doone amisse, or disorderlye: I hope that wyse Magistrates will heerein easily also agree, to receiue this newenesse into their com∣mon wealth. The whiche albeit it shall peraduenture seeme somewhat harde vnto such as are not acquainted with it: yet by vse it will waxe milde, and by the profite thereof make it selfe by litle and litle more commendable. But if quarrellars shall crye out, that I haue taken some thinges out of other Authours into this Treatise, I haue examples, by which examples I thinke it lawefull for mee to doe that, which they haue doone. Howe many thinges, naye Page 115 almost al things hath Terence taken into his Commedies out of Menander?* And Virgil into his poesie out of Homer, Cicero although of singuler wit & eloquence,* nay the father of eloquence, was not ashamed e∣uery where out of the Greekes, to conueigh so many things into his writings, that hee may seeme rather the Translator then Au∣thour of some things. In the law, Phisicke, Diuinitie, the new writers haue almost no∣thing, or very little, the which they haue not taken from the olde: out of whose bookes also they are not afraide to write out many thinges worde for worde, and to stuffe them in their workes for the maintenance of their cause, albeit sometimes not without suspiti∣on of falshood. And these thinges they often do in the same matter which hath sometimes beene handeled before by others: with how much more right I then who doe handle a matter not perhaps so verye newe, yet throughly & as it were from point by point, set foorth hitherto by no man, that I knowe, if out of the workes of good Authours I haue fitted to my purpose suche thinges as seeme to serue the turne. It is no hanging matter, to take from others that whiche a man may profitably vse without wronging Page [unnumbered] any body.* It is the part of Aesop his Crowe vnbesittingly to garnishe her selfe with the fethers of other byrdes not agreeing vnto her, and vainely to boast of the same: and it is the point of a wise man, from euery where to take, & rightly to apply to his matter, such things as are fit and profitable for the thing in hand. For it is a great prayse diligently to search the writings of our Elders: but a greater, faithfully to keepe the things found out: for they haue by their vertues opened the way of labour, and by theyr wisedome left vnto vs the path of vnderstanding.
Now if many of the things which I here require shall seeme hard to be compassed, be∣cause that some lacke wealth, some oppor∣tunitie, some wisdome: yet is it not to bee disalowed, yt the best rule be set down, accor∣ding vnto the which, euery man so farr as he may, may order his matters. For ye example and pattern, according vnto ye which a thing ought to bee done, ought in euery point to bee most perfect,* that the following of the same may be most commodious. For wher∣as in a manner nothing by following may bee so set out as that it bee made like to the first patterne, nay that it will not many wayes be thereunto inferiour, this shalbe a Page 116 great prayse vnto the follower, yt in the next degree he come neere vnto that whiche hee hath purposed to follow. The Poet saith: Looke what wee can attaine vnto, some praise it is, though that we can performe no more: And of the wise men in the gos∣pell it is saide in a common verse: They went so farre as they could goe, where that they coulde no further passe, there stoode they still. I know it to be more ea∣sie to giue counsaile then to follow ye same: yet notwitstanding the best counsaile is to be giuen. For if some thing bee wanting in the setting downe how a thing should bee done, no doubt some thing will bee wanting in the action it selfe, that must according to that rule be performed. There was neuer such an Oratour as Cicero and Quintilian do describe vnto vs: Nor such a Phisition, as Galen requireth: nor such a cōmon wealth as Plato shapeth, nor such a Preacher, as E∣rasmus painteth out: Nor finally such a Church as Christ desireth. These, I say, albeit at no time they haue beene founde so perfect, as of thē they are perfectly portrai∣tured, yet they thought good to set a moste perfect patterne of them all before our eies, by the viewe whereof all our thoughts and Page [unnumbered] actions should be gouerned. Which things sith they are so, who can iustly finde faulte with mee, for that I require some thinges more exactly peraduenture then some com∣mon wealthes by following can bee able to performe? Wherefore those whiche can pleade no other let but want of abilitie, wyll at leastwise take in good part that good and holsome counsaile, which commeth from a good heart: And concerning the rest, muste pray earnestly with me vnto God the father, and Iesus Christe his sonne, the true tur∣ner away, and driuer backe of all euill, yt he will maintaine sound in vs the gift of life, wc hee hath bestowed vpō vs, & preserue or deliuer vs frō this infectiō of the plague, vnto the glory of his name, the amendement of our liues, and health of our soules: cal∣ling vpon him after this maner.
Imprinted at London at the three Cranes in the Vintree, by Thomas Dawson. 1583.Page [unnumbered]