Maison rustique, or The countrey farme· Compyled in the French tongue by Charles Steuens, and Iohn Liebault, Doctors of Physicke. And translated into English by Richard Surflet, practitioner in physicke. Now newly reuiewed, corrected, and augmented, with diuers large additions, out of the works of Serres his Agriculture, Vinet his Maison champestre, French. Albyterio in Spanish, Grilli in Italian; and other authors. And the husbandrie of France, Italie, and Spaine, reconciled and made to agree with ours here in England: by Geruase Markham. The whole contents are in the page following
Estienne, Charles, 1504-ca. 1564., Liébault, Jean, ca. 1535-1596. aut, Surflet, Richard, fl. 1600-1616., Markham, Gervase, 1568?-1637.
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Page  333

THE THIRD BOOKE OF THE COVNTRIE FARME.

The Orchard, or Greene plot.

CHAP. I.

Of the differences of Orchards, or Greene plots, and the in∣closing of the Fruit-Garden.

THere are three sorts of Orchards or Greene plots, the one (o∣therwise called an Arbour) contriued with great bankes, and this is pointed out and prouided in a field couered with green grasse, and a fountaine in the middest of it, and wrought-into duers plaine and euen plots and braunches, consisting of lots, which are sustained and borne vp with carpentrie or frames of timber, vnder which a great number of people may sit couered ouer head. Of this sort I haue seene at Basill and 〈◊〉 other places in Germanie: and, to it a place for this manner of greene plot, it 〈◊〉 requisite that it be cleansed from all manner of stones and weeds, not so much as 〈◊〉 roots left vndestroyed; and for the better accomplishing hereof, there must boy∣••ng water be powred vpon such ends of roots as saying behind in the ground can∣••ot be well pulled vp, and afterward the floore must be beaten and troden downe 〈◊〉ightily; then after this, there must be cast great quantity and store of turfes of earth 〈◊〉 of greene gra••e, the bare earthie part of them being turned and laied vpward, 〈◊〉 afterward daunced vpon with the feet, and the beater or pauing-beetle lightly 〈◊〉 ouer them, in such sort as that within a short time after, the gra••e may begin 〈◊〉 peepe vp and put forth like small haires; and finally, it is made the sporting green 〈◊〉 for Ladies and Gentlewomen to recreate their spirits in, or a place whereinto ••hey may withdraw themselues if they would be solitarie and out of ight.

The second sort of greene plots is that which our auncient Frenchmen, who first ••rote our Romane discourses and histories, haue taken and vsed for a place of 〈◊〉 for Princes, and was called in ancient time after the manner of a sojou••ing 〈◊〉 abiding place,* but now by the name of a beautifull prospect. Which beside the ••ately building singularly contriued in partitions,* diuersitie of workes, and most ••aire windows, compassed in with goodly water ditches, ed from continuall run∣••ng Springs, doth containe an ••ner and base Court with gardens for pleasure and Page  334 fruits, with vnderwoods, warrens, fishponds, and whatsoeuer goodly and beautifull thing is wont to stand about princely palaces.

The third sort of greene plots, is that which we intend to trim vp in this place, and it may supplie the place of the fruit garden, for a house respecting and looking to thrift, and to keepe a houshold for husbandrie: such a one as we haue here 〈◊〉 to furnish and set out euerie way well appointed, and in which vve are 〈◊〉 to regard profit, joyned with a meane and moderate beautie and co•••nesse, than any vnnecessarie umptuousnesse.

Therefore to goe on in our designed course and intended plot, this place requi∣reh,* that next after the kitchin and flower gardens, with their appurten••••, vve make readie and trim vp a greene plot for fruit trees, containing in it as much ground as both the other gardens, and that without any manner of other a••eys of 〈◊〉 beewixt it and the gardens, or in the middest of it selfe, than such distance and spare, as must of necessitie be betwixt the trees, and whereof we will speake more 〈◊〉, and without also whatsoeuer other husbandri, grasse, or other things, whereof you might hope to make some proit vnderneath, whether of hay, or any such other thing which would grow there: for the fruit tree would not haue his sustenance puroyned or kept from it, by the ••lling of other plants which might be eared about it, nei∣ther doth it craue to be kept vvame in Winter time, but onely tilled and ordered according to his seasons, because that otherwise it would yeeld no profit vnto the owner thereof.

The situation of the orchard would be vpon some hill top, or some little hill, ra∣ther than in a plaine ground: for besides that such seats haue better ayre, more ple∣sant and delightsome for contentment of contemplation and view, and diuers other allrements which will there offer themselues; the tops of hills are yet more apt to containe greater number of fruit trees to be planted therein, than the plaine gro••• possibly can: for such as stand in plaines, if they be planted any whitneere, do annoy one another vvith their shade: the other on the contrarie side (according as it 〈◊〉 more and more from the foot) causing euerie tree to ouer-looke his fellow, taketh away the discommoditie or inconuenience of such ouershadowing one of another. It must also be planted somewhat more vpon the North than vpon the South quar∣ter, that so it may minister matter of rejoycing to such as shall behold it out at the windowes in his beautie and jolitie: Indeed if it be planted vpon the South, it 〈◊〉 more open vpon the Sunne, whose heat is verie requisite for fruit trees, but then 〈◊〉 would not stand so faire for prospect: besides, that it vvould be offended and 〈◊〉 of the dust and filth of the threshing foore vvhen the corne is thresh, if in case it should stand neere vnto it.

In any case let it not stand vpon the North-West quarter because it is a mo•• deadly enemie vnto all sorts of plants, but principally of flowers, which it singeth as if a fire had passed that vvay, and the cause, is, for that it commeth from the 〈◊〉 side, and taketh part with the North, vvhich is verie rough and sharpe, but yet not so dangerous as that North-West vvind vvhich bloweth once a yeare, chi••ly 〈◊〉 the Spring, and spoyleth the cher••e-tree-flowers and the vine more than any of the 〈◊〉 Whereupon there arose this Latine verse, Vae tibi galerna, per qum sit clausa 〈◊〉 In any case let not the ground vvhereon you plant your orchard be marshie or 〈◊〉 terish, for the fruits growing vpon such grounds are not vvell relished, neither 〈◊〉 vvill they last long▪ it must likewise be inriched one yeare before that it be cast and digged, to make any nurceri there, either of seeds or steckes, and after it hath 〈◊〉 the second time digged and d••ged, or marled, you must let it rest & digest his dung and marle: and in like manner pick out the stones that are in it most carefully▪ And as concerning the naturall disposition and goodnesse thereof, it must be at in hand∣ling, blacke in colour, and vvhich murleth easily in breaking and stirring it vvith your fingers, not being hard, clayie, chalkie, or sandie. Yet if it be so that the situation of your Farme lyeth in such a soyle as is marshie and vvaterish: for 〈◊〉Page  335 man cannot make choice of his abiding; and it is a brauer reputation to the Husband∣man to make a barren earth fruitfull, than to make a fruitfull ground pleasant: there∣fore (as said) if your ground lye low, and be much subect to wet and rottenne••e, you shall trench it diuers waies, almost in the manner of a Labyrth, cutting one rench into another, in such wie, that the water may haue a descent of falling away into some Brooke, Riuer, or other Dike, which as a Sewer may carrie away the wet, and keep the Orchard dr••: and also you shall bring from some other Grounds, Lakes, or Ponds, great store of earth, mudde, and other compas, wherewith you shall raise and heighten the bankes betweene the trenches, in such ort, that they may re∣maine and be farre from the danger of washing or ouerflowing of anie water: and these bankes you shall stake well with strong Oaken stakes on euerie side, and plant great store of Oziers also about them to maintain and hold vp the earth from falling. Then as soone as you see these bankes firme, and beginning to grow to haue a greene swarh vpon them, you shall plant your fruit-stocks, of euerie seuerall kind, vpon the same, and without all doubt they wil prosper and grow there as well as in any ground whatsoeuer, as may be seene in diuers places both of this and other Kingdomes.

The inclosure or defence vnto the Orchard shall be either a hedge of Quickset, which is in truth the most pleasant and conuenient, though yet the wall be more pro∣fitable, as being more strong, and built in lesse time, which also being planted and handsomely dressed, affoordeth not much lesse pleasure than the hedge: or else if you like it better, a ditch cast about it, with a Quickset hedge set vpon the raised side there∣of: but in this according as the sufficiencie and reuenues of the Farme will beare it 〈◊〉: yet alwaies prouided, that it be out of the way of the cattell, and where no man 〈…〉, except he enter in at the gare•• and graunted, that the wall is the surest kind 〈◊〉 defence, as also the strongest, most profitable, and perfected in least time. Besides, the wall, of all other ences, is most needfull for the Orchard, as well for the strength, indurance, and safe keeping of the same, as also for the great profit which commeth thereby to all maner of fruit which is planted, and plashit vp against the same, chiefly in those cold countries where the Sunne is not altogether so violent, nor so readie to 〈◊〉 as in these our 〈◊〉oyles of France, for it is most certaine that by planting any daintie or render fruit close to a wall, and spreading his braunches open against the same, which with loopes of leather, or felt, together with small nailes, may easily be done, a••ning euerie principall braunch and materiall twig to the wall, it will doubtlesse put orth as early, flower, knit, and ripen, being in a cold and hard oyle, as if it were in the warnest and fertillest earth which doth best of all agree with its nature, as may be seene daily both in the cold and barren countries of Fraunce, as also in other kingdomes much more Northerly and lesse beholden to the Suns warme∣nesse. And herein you shall vnderstand, that the principall fruit trees which delight to be planted against a wall, are peches, abricos, nectaryas, all orts of sweet plumbs, herries, oliues, almonds, and such like, for the reflection of the Sunne cannot beat or play vpon them too much, they are so infinitely in loue with the same. And in as much as the Orchard is altogether dedicated and appointed for the matter of plan∣ting, grafting, and transplanting of trees in it: we will assigne out certeine places wherein the urceri of seeds and the other of stockes may conueniently be appoin∣ted: which nurcerie of seeds shall be as a well furnished shop to afford new store of plants, to furnish the orchard at all assaies and times of need.

We will first sow our nurceri of seeds on that side by which we go into the Or∣chard,* and close vnto it the nurcerie of stockes, where shall be planted wild ones, re••oued from out of the seed nurcerie, to be afterward grafted vpon in their time and season▪ On the other side, we will plant fruits vpon nut kernells, and transplant and gra•• them after diuers waies. In those parts of the two great void places where they are sundred the one from the other with a great path, we will according to their kinds, ute out and set out great trees: and at the end of them, we will pricke out ozi∣•••, so as they may for their better growth receiue refreshment from some small brook or waer course.

Page  336

CHAP. II.

Of the seed Nurcerie, that is to say, of the planting of Trees on Pippins or Seeds.

CErtaine it is, that Trees grow and spring out of the earth, either vvithout the vvorke and industrie of man, or else by his oyle and skill painully imployed: of such as grow by the skill and industrie of man, some grow of seeds, that is to say, of kernells, commonly called Pippins, or of other seeds, as of Nu kernells, cherrie stones, plumme stones, &c. being thrust into the ground: othersome of shoots and small twigges, branching from the root at the 〈◊〉 of the Tree, hauing their nourishing roots, and drawing fibres from the full growne roots of the Tree, or else of themselues. Some grow of buds and blo••omes, as ••••∣ces: or of young braunches, or of boughes: some of the multiplying of branches, if especially the Tree be yet young and pliant: others are grated one vpon another. We will first intreat of the making of them grow in the seed Nur••rie of their seeds, and so in order afterward vve vvill intreat of other meanes of making Tre•• to grow.

For the ordering therefore of your eed Nuceri, and furnishing of it vvith Pear-Trees, Apple-trees, Quince-trees, and others growing of seeds, you shall cause to be digged good and deepe, a great quarter in a good earth and cherishing ould: and that if it be possible a Winter before you sow them, to the end it may thereby be∣come well seasoned, and you shall almost mixe amongst it halfe as much dung as the earth comes to that you turne vp, that so it may ripen and rot vvith the 〈◊〉, and so be kept in great ridges, vnto Cyder time, vvhich is in September and October. At vvhich time take the dro••e of the said fruits as it commeth out of the presse, or a little after, so that it be before the seeds be rotted or corrupted, and chase and vvipe them verie vvell betwixt your hands, then lay flat and square your plot or quarter, and 〈◊〉 good and close, and make it out into borders of the bredth of foure sector the•••∣bout, and making paths, by casting vp the ould betwixt uerie two, to the end th•• they may be vved vpon the one side and the other vvithout treading vpon them. This being done, sow your drosse there in such sort as that the earth may therewith be lightly couered, and then afterward couer it againe vvith the earth vvhich you haue cast vp in making of the paths or hollowed furrows betwixt the said bord••, and rake them ouer afterward, that so the drosse of the Apples may be vvell broken and spred, not lying together on heapes. This is an excellent vvay for the sowing of much ground, and a great deale of seed, because if one pippin come vp of a 〈◊〉, yet the husbandmans labour is saued, and his profit sufficient: but in case where such plentie is not, but that a man must rom an Apple or two get all the seed e must ow, or that by chaunce lighting of some few especiall pippins, vvhose like ••ockes e is desirous to be maister of, in this case you shall by no meanes bestow them into the earth thus rude and carelesly, because it is to be vnderstood that the kernell of the Apple is a pleasanter and more sweet seed than any other vvhatsoeuer, and thereby inti••th vvormes, and such like creeping things, sooner to deuoure and eat them 〈◊〉 any other: therefore to keepe them from that miscarriage, and to make them take soone, you shall take a common garden pot, such as you vse to plant Gillo-flowers in, and filling it vvith fine mould vvithin three fingers of the brim, lay in your seed, and then 〈◊〉 vpon them other fine mould till the pot be full, and so let them stand where they may receiue both Sunne and Raine till they sprout, and be growne at least halfe a foot aboue the earth: then hauing drest a piece of earth, and manured it vvell for the purpose, you shall take those young plants, together vvith the earth and all vvhich is about them, and place them orderly in the new drest ground at least 〈◊〉 foot distance one from another, and these also you shall place in comely rowes, so 〈◊〉Page  337 euerie eye may distinguish the seuerall alleys that passeth betweene them: Other waies there be also of sowing of pippins, as on the bankes of ditches new cast vp, or else amongst the quick-set, or in smal urrows digged and turned vp for the purpose, and such like, but yet none is so certaine as this alreadie rehearsed.

Otherwise; dri the forsaid pippins, and keepe them to the Winter following, and afterward about the later end of Nouember, or the beginning of the Spring, ••ow them in manner as hath beene aid, without casting vp any earth out of the pas∣sage urrowes betwixt the borders when you shall measure them out: but rake them in a little vvith your rake, and thrw thereupon good store of thornes and boughes verie shortly after you haue thus sowne them, that the hennes or hogges may not do them any injurie. When the pippins are put forth of the earth, and growne for the space of a yeare, take away the thornes, and weed away all the weeds from amongst them as oft as you can, and suffer not any one to grow vp in height with them, for feare that when you shall come to pull vp a stiffe and strong growne weed, you pull not vp therewithall the little pippin and seed of the Tree. Water them if the Som∣mer shall fall out drie, and begin to vveed and lop them, to acquaint them with the hedgebill, and to keepe them still so bare of braunches, as that their sap may be imployed wholly in the making of one faire and lustie bodie and stocke, and not many: afterward, pull them vp toward Winter, before they haue begun to blossome, to transplant and remoue into the nurcerie of stockes. To cause them to shoot and put the sooner out of the earth, you must steepe their kernells in vvater or milke, for the space of two or three daies. And you are here to vnderstand, that the 〈◊〉 of the Mulberrie-tree doth not grow so ha••ly, or bring forth so good fruit as the seed of the Figge-tree.

For to sow the Elme, you must gather his seed before the tree be couered with leaues,* which is in the beginning of March, at such time as it beginneth to be yel∣low: afterward, they must be dried two daies in the shadow, and after that sowne in a suffcient firme ground an inch deepe, and watered often, if there fall no raine.

The Bay-tree must be sowne a foot deepe in the ground, and foure seeds toge∣gther: transplanting and remouing it a yeare after into some other place: and in like ase you are to deale with all such like seeds, whether they be of Cypres trees, My•••• trees, or others.

CHAP. III.

Of plants comming of stones.

FOr your plants of stonie kernells, as of Oliue-trees,*, Cherrie-trees, Plum-trees, Almond-trees▪ Peach-trees, Chesnut-trees, Pomegranat-trees (if so be that Pomegranat-trees be rather to be reckoned amongst them which haue stone-kernells, than amongst the other which haue the soft kernells) Abricots, and Date-trees; you must drie the stones, as they come fresh out of their fruits, which you meane to set in the ground at such time as the Sunne is not v••ie sharpe, and in the shadow thereof: and see that it haue beene seeped in milke or vvater three or foure daies before, and then thrust it into the earth. But this must not be done but in the beginning of Winter, that so they may first breake forth in the Spring; for and if you put them into the earth before Winter, they may also sprout and put forth before it come, and so finding them young and tender when it commeth, may preuaile against them to kill them, they not being able to resist the rigour and rough••esse of the cold and frosts. But and if for your auoyding of 〈◊〉 labour, you will grat them in their nurcerie, that is to say, in the place where you first 〈◊〉 them, and where they haue put forth, without remouing of them to any other place, then se in eueri hole, three, foure, or fiue stones: and if all of them spring Page  338 spring vp and take root, yet you must let none but the fairest stand and 〈◊〉 to grat vpon in the place, and as for the rest, they would be pulled vp and remoued in∣to some other place.

In what season soeuer it be that you set your stones,* yet see to it, that the ground be good, and digged verie deepe, but put much small dung amongst it, either alone, or mingled with dust gathered out of the high waies, and see them three fingers within the earth, and halfe a oot one from another, watering them three times euery mon•••, especially in Summer when it falleth out drie, and weed them once a moneth. Espe∣cially see they be set in a faire soile, and open vpon the Sunne, if so be you would 〈◊〉 a well-ed and pleasant-tasted fruit: for otherwise, if you set them in a shadowed place, though it be of a good soyle, indeed the fruit may be faire to looke to, but 〈◊〉 ynough to eat. When the stones are set, and haue taken sooting, and are become 〈◊〉 what preily fed, pull them vp about Aduent which you mind to transplant, and breake off the points of their roots, and strip them of all their branches, before you set them downe againe in their new appointed standing: and know, that a double re∣moue doth make the wild to become free conditioned and better, bringing vnto them great aduantage.

And as concerning particular properties belonging into euerie stone,* and how it must be set, it is to be knowne, that grosse Nuts, all manner of Peaches, wild Figge, Almonds, Chenuts, small Abricots (but especially and most singularly well the bran∣ches) becommeth free and reclaimed, being set of a stone, foreseene that they find as good and as faire a soyle, as the trees enioy from whence the fruit of the said 〈◊〉 were taken.

The stone of the Peare-Plum-tree must be set in a cold place, a foot deepe in the ground, the point downeward, euerie one a foot from another, and this in Nouem∣ber in high places, and in Ianuarie in low places.

The stone of the Iuube tree* must be set after the manner and fashion of the stone of the Peare-plum-tree, but it is long and slow in growing out of the earth.

The stone of the plum-tree* must be set a fat ground, a foot deepe, and that in No∣uember and Februarie, and they are to be remoued the same time of the yea•• making their holes and pits neither too wide, nor too deepe.

The stones or nuts of the Pine-tree* must be set in cold places, in Februarie and March, or about the fall of the Pine-apple, or shortly after, in pits well digged and of a good mould: the apple may not be broken by violence, or with any 〈…〉 to get out the kernell, but you must attend till it be opened, and set vpon 〈◊〉. And the Pine-nuts must be steeped three daies before you set them, and then you must set seuen together. Some lay them in little baskets, and cut them when they are sprung up. They need no remoue, but and if you do remoue them, you must look in the taking of them vp, that you hurt not the chiefe and principall roots.

Small nuts* and plums of all sorts, peaches* the small and great,* and great abric•••,* in whatsoeuer good ground and pleasant soyle their kernells be set, yet they grow not altogether like vnto the fruit of their trees whereof they were gathered: and there∣fore they delight rather to be grafted vpon their young stockes.

The stone of the Date,* which bringeth forth the Date-tree, must be set the great 〈◊〉 downeward, two cubi•• deepe in the earth, and in a place enriched with Goas 〈◊〉, and the sharpe side vpward: it desireth to be watred daily, and that there should 〈◊〉 yeare be salt sowne about it, and withall it must be remoued.

The seeds of Limons, Citrons, Oranges, Assyrian Citrons, and such like, as 〈◊〉 bin said in the second Booke, must be prickt downe vpon beds well prepared & 〈◊〉 about the moneth of March, & the sharpest end downward, halfe a oot 〈◊〉 from another, and a finger and a halfe deepe in the ground: they loue to be much 〈◊〉 after, when they are growne a foot high, remoue them to the foot of some wall, op•• vpon the South: and in Winter, when the time is hoarie, couer and fauour th•• in such manner as wee haue spoken of in the second Booke. As much may be said of Pomegranat kernels, and Bay-berries, as you may vnderstand by the second Booke.

Page  339 Pistaces* doe require greater diligence and delight to be sowne; as well the male as the female, in a verie fat ground and vvell ared, the backe turned to the East, and this abou the first day of Aprill: and at the same time of the yeare you may gra•• them vpon themselues, notwithstanding that some doe graft → them vpon the almond-tree.

The peach stone would be set presently after that the fruit is eaten,* there remay∣ning still some small quantitie of the lesh of the peach about the stone: and for the longer lasting and keeping of it, it loueth to be grafted vpon the Almond-tree.

CHAP. IIII.

Of the nurcerie for stockes.

IF you vvould haue a beautifull and pleasant fruit of your trees, it is not ynough that you should onely sow or set your seeds or stones in a good soyle, but it standeth you as much vpon to remoue them after one yeare into another place: for this translating of them doth so delight them, and reuiue their vigour and spirits, as that they yeeld more pleasant leaues, and a 〈◊〉ed and liking fruit. For and if you will bestow this fauour vpon vvild 〈◊〉, you shall find them to become of a gentler nature, and farre more exc••ling 〈◊〉. Wherefore when the Trees which shall haue sprung vp of seeds or stones, 〈◊〉 or sowne, shall haue come by some little nourishment, and grow in the seed 〈◊〉, take them vp vpon a new Moone, at night, with as many roots as possibly may be; and if it happen that any of them be spoyled or broken, cut it: looke vnto it al∣••, that you doe not pull it vp when the Northerne wind bloweth (for this wind is an enemie vnto new set plants) and set them againe presently, least the roots should spend themselues, it must not be in a hot, or cold vveather, nor in an excessiue vvind, nor in raine, but at such time when it is calme and verie faire, chusing rather a clou∣die day, than when the Sunne breaketh out hot, and the Moone being in her 〈◊〉: but and if you should not haue the leisure to remoue them so soone; or and if you would send or carrie them somewhat farre, bind them vp in their owne earth mingled vvith dung, and make it fast thereto with vvoollen cloth or leaues. When as you take them vp, marke what part standeth vpon this or that quarter, to the end that you may set them downe againe vpon the same quarter and coast of the heauens, for and if in remouing them you set them in a contrarie oyle and situation, in re∣spect of the heauens, they will not thriue so vvell: and that is the cause why those that buy new plants, most diligently inquire in what manner of ground they stood, and what aspect of the Sunne they were most open vnto, that so they may set them downe againe in such like ground, and in the same aspect. True it is, that this ob∣ser••tion seemeth too ceremoniall vnto me, and exceeding hard continually to be kpt, seeing vve buy trees at Paris sometimes to plant, whose first situation we doe not know, neither can vve learne, and yet notwithstanding being planted, they cease not to thriue and prosper. And againe, what cause is there of any such ceremo∣nie, seeing the Sunne vvhich is the nursing father of all plants, doth visit euerie day all the sides of the Tree, and that the ground wherein it is planted, is no lesse nou∣••shing vpon the one side than vpon the other? These things weighed, about the third of December, you must lay flat another plot, and make a furrowed quarter, where you shall lodge according to the order of a hundred, the small wildings, which you shall haue taken vp out of the eed nurcerie, cutting off the end and beards of all their roots, and which may be in any place about their slender little stockes, and that in a good ground, yea much better if it be possible than that is of the seed nur∣cerie. It is true, that the furrowes must be made according to the goodnesse of the ground, & the nature of the tree: for in a clayie or hard ground, you must make your Page  340 furrows the depth of three cubites: in a watrie and marshie place, of three feet 〈◊〉▪ Some plants, as the Ash and Oliue tree, grow better in the vpper face and top of the earth, than in the depth and lower parts of the same. Set in order your young •••∣dings in the said furrows halfe a foot one from another, and there couer them, and leaue the space of a foot betwixt one furrow and another, that there you may make paths to go about vveeding with ase, and passe betwixt euerie two furrows. When thus your wildings are set, you must cut off their stockes close by the earth, and fil vp the paths with dung, without euer going about to hide or couer the pla••• in the earth, and so soone as they grow, they must be well wed round about, and 〈◊〉 from vveeds, and vnderdigged, or lightly digged sometimes in Smmer round a∣bout, not comming ouer neere the roos in any ase: and they must be vva•••d also on euenings, when it hath beene a verie hot day, and when they haue put forth •••∣ces for one or two yeares, then going ouer them all, leaue not moe than one 〈◊〉 to euerie plant, and let it be the ••eekest, best liking, tallest, and comliest of all the rest, cutting the other off close by the stocke. As these •••nces shall grow on so 〈◊〉 picke off cleane from them the small superfluous wood growing vpon them vpward, and euen close also vnto the stocke: and this must be done in March, or Aprill, and then must some small prop or stay be prickt downe at the foot of euerie wilding, for to ••∣rect and guide it by, tying them both together with wreaths of gra••e, but 〈◊〉 mo••e or some soft thing betwixt them, that so the hardnesse of the prop may not gal it when it shall be growne thicke. And thus you shall order and husband then til the time come when you must remoue them▪ if rather you make not choice to gr••• them vpon the place as they stand. When through forgetfulnesse you shall haue 〈◊〉 your wildings or planes growne vp of feeds for two or three yeares vntaken vp, 〈◊〉 must furrow them as hath already bin said, but with deeper digged furrows, and th•• you shall not breake the roots so much: and it will be it and conuenient to cut off their branches vpward, as occasion shall require.

There are found kernels of peares or garden apples that haue beene gathered 〈◊〉 trees that vvere sometimes wild ones,* or growne vpon trees, which haue alreadie 〈◊〉 oftentimes grafted, vvhich bring forth verie streight trees, and also of comely wood, as if they had beene grafts from the beginning, not hauing any prickes or 〈◊〉, to argue them uer to haue beene wild. Such young trees if you will remou them 〈◊〉 they are, or plant them out of their nurserie, without other manner of grafting them, they vvill not faile to bring you good fruit for the taste and eating, as also to 〈◊〉 Cyder of, but the best fruit doth alwaies come by grafting: for the fruit comming vpon grafting, doth alwaies retaine a better forme, and groweth more and more kind, and withall much the greater:* but that which groweth of a kernell doth chaung〈◊〉 oft as the tree is changed which beareth it. And besides you must note, that 〈◊〉 all trees which haue a strong fruit, grow better of kernels than of boughs▪ ye so it 〈◊〉, that a late eed doth bring forth but an ill-fauoured plant, especially the said eed be∣ing put besides his familiar and well pleasing ground.

CHAP. V.

Of Plants, Siences, and Shoo••.

THe little siences of Cherrie-trees growne thicke with hairie 〈◊〉, and those also which grow vp from the roots of the great Cherrie-trees,* being remoued, doe grow better and sooner than vpon stones: but then they must be taken away and planted whiles they are young, 〈◊〉 whiles they be but two or three yeares old: for when they are growne thicke they thriue not so well: againe, if you stay till they be growne gro••e, in remouing of 〈◊〉 you must then op them, and strip them cleane of their braunches, setting their Page  341 great end in the earth the depth of a foot, and after treading downe the earth, and pricking downe withall at the foot of euerie plant a little stake to hold them fast, and to let the vvinds and vvhatsoeuer other thing from harming them. But especially you must see that you cut not sinces at any other time than in Winter: for that moisture and coolenesse (during the time of Winter especially) is a meanes to con∣serue and keepe them, and thereupon also they grow and bring forth their fruit the better afterward.

The Mulberrie tree* groweth after the same manner of little iences, although the best way of planting it be by taking a twigge thereof from the great branches which are cut from the old tree, of the length of a foot, and setting it good and deepe in the ground, and that in such sort, as that the ground may couer it, three or foure fingers, and this done, you must see that in Sommer it be watered diligently.

F••berts in like manner doe grow of smal shoots, which grow forth of the roots of good Filbere-trees* that are well rooted: these iences must not haue their braunches cut off when they are remoued, except they be growne great and ful of branches: but three yeares after that they are remoued, if they doe not prosper and grow faire, you must cut them close by the ground, and they will put forth a bush of streight siences, verie smooth and neat, and of these you may chuse whether you will suffer the fairest onely, or all together, to grow vp and continue.

The siences of the Oliue-tree which you intend to transplant,* must be long and faire ones, and full of grosse and thicke moisture, so as that they may be taken and grasped in the hand, and the barke thereby nothing hurt. They must be drawne ouer with dung mixt with ashes, the head and the foot, and after laid in the earth, as they vvere vpon the Tree, the lower end more downeward and into the earth, and the higher end more vpward and looking into the aire, for else they will not take at all: and this must be a generall obseruation in transplanting of all manner of siences.

The siences of a vvell stringed root of a good plum-tree not grafted, doe yeeld, being transplanted,* a fruit no vvhit inferiour vnto that of the chiefe and principall plum-trees, from which you haue aken them. But and if the old plum-trees be grafted, you must also take grafts and graft → them in other plum trees, or wild cher∣rie-trees, or vpon oure Cherrie-Trees, and not to vngrat siences to transplant them.

Garden plummes and hartlike cherries doe not grow naturally,* being planted of siences, but desire rather to be grafted of grafts.

CHAP. VI.

Of pricking downe or fastening in the earth of small or great braunches.

SPrigs or plants taken from boughs or branches doe grow more speedily, and come to better perfection, than the eed of kernels, or the setting of stones, especially if it be put a little besides his owne ground and soylie, and of this sort are ig-trees, quince-trees and pomgrant-trees.

When a man is disposed to pricke downe some small sprig of a Mulberrie, Figge,* Quince, Cornell, Pomegranat, and Plum-tree, or many sprigs of all these kinds, and their diuers sorts, he must cut them off betwixt the first of Nouember, and the later end of December, or a little after: and he must see that these his sprigs be faire and well fauoured ones, hauing a sound barke, full of little eyes, and as thicke as a sticke, or thicker. He must chuse such as be streight and full of moysture, consi∣sting of one onely rodd, and of young vvood, as of some three or foure yeares old, and that they haue also as much old vvood as they haue young: and they must be sharpened like a stake for the value of the length of halfe a foot, but the bare must Page  342 be left on vpon one side, that their end which you meane to put into the ground, must be writhen and steept in vvater: or else you must cleaue it a little in quarters, and make it stand vvide open and gape, vvith a beane in the cleft; or else some 〈◊〉 little small stone put in the middest thereof, and so pricke it downe in the earth a foot d••pe: or else let it in a little-boxe of pease full of water, and so put them all into the ground together. The braunches must be gathered vpon a tree that is a good hand∣full thicke, and hath borne fruit: they must likewise be verie ound, and they may be watered with a pipe, which goeth downe vnto the root. Obserue and marke 〈◊〉 the place, nature of the soyle, and aspect or scituation of the tree from whence you haue gathered the branch, to pricke it downe on the same side, the like soyle and the same scituation, and lay vpon it some Elder-tree, if so be that you would not haue it 〈◊〉 shoot vp into a tall tree, but to continue alwaies low: the braunches being such, they will take the better, and not breake in the gathering.

To plant the Figge-tree after the manner of the Genowais,* which shall beare fruit within three yeares after (and it may be thus planted all Sommer time) there must be taken a Figge-tree branch that hath borne fruit two or three yeares, and that 〈◊〉 hauing leaues and fruit vpon it or not: it must be sharpened and cut biace, and pick∣ed thicke about that end which shall be set into the ground, and afterward planted in a pit halfe a foot deepe; in such sort as that the top of it may abide aboue the ground with three or foure of the little eyes, and be cou••ed with straw for 〈◊〉 daies, and watered euerie one of those sixe daies: afterward let it be vncouered, because by this time it will haue put forth, and in the end of the yeare, towards the moneth of Februa∣rie, you must cut off that which is put forth close by the earth, and after that 〈◊〉 will shoot so mightily as that it will beare fruit the second yeare.

CHAP. VII.

Of the manner of making Siences for to plant.

FOr to make Siences of diuers sorts, which you may plant and set ••••∣ding as you shall haue need, cut in the Winter some great tree, if it be∣gin to be yellow, or vvaxe bleake and pale, and whereof you 〈◊〉 haue increase: saw off some stockes of the thickest braunches into •••∣choons about the length of a foot, and make a furrow in some verie far ground, and of that depth as that you may set your ••uncheons in them endwaies, the earth cast vpon and courering them some three or foure fingers, and prouiding that being thus 〈◊〉 in this furrow they may stand halfe a foot one from another: couer them well and vva∣ter them in Sommer if there be need, and weed them verie well: its space of time they will put forth iences, which you may remoue when they haue taken root••• two or three yeares: but and if they haue not as then any roots, set them good and deepe in∣to good earth, that so you may cause their roots to grow. And these iences will p•• forth other which will likewise serue. Marke it, that all trees that put forth 〈◊〉, if you cut them in Winter, they will shoot out aboundance of iences, all which will be good to be planted.

The barberie,* redde corant, and goose-berrie-trees, are planted likewise in Win∣ter vpon iences that come out of their roots, and they must haue some hairy 〈◊〉 but and if they haue no roots, there must some be procured to grow out of them.

Page  343

CHAP. VIII.

Of planting of shoots of a yeares growth.

PRopagating or planting of Trees is fittest for such as haue beene planted of siences, and such as doe put forth siences and small shoots from their roots: for this causeth them to beare a more beautifull fruit, and more a∣boundantly, and more durable, because they attract and draw a greater quantitie of iuice out of the earth. For this cause, Plum-trees, Cherrie-trees, Pome∣granate-trees, and all other Garden-trees, that are wont to be grafted vpon wild ones, would be propagated or planted: for in as much as the wild one doth not draw such and so much iuice as the grafted tree doth require, it is necessarie that it should be planted. As and if a sweet Cherrie-tree should be grafted vpon a wild Cherrie-tree, or one that beareth verie sowre Cherries, such a Cherrie-tree would not con∣tinue and last long, neither indeed will it beare anie sweet Cherries, if it be not planted a yeare or two after that it is grafted: and the reason hereof is, because the wild Cherrie-tree draweth not iuice ynough to cause the tree to grow, and withall, the iuice which it doth draw, is not so familiar or fit to bring forth and nou∣rish sweet Cherries.

There are foure sorts of planting or propagating:* as in laying of shoots or little branches, whiles they are yet tender, in some pit made at their foot, as shall be said hereafter: or vpon a little ladder: or in a basket of earth tied to the bottome of the branch: or in boaring a Willow through, and putting the branch of the tree into the hole, as shall be fully declared in the Chapter of Grafting.

There are likewise diers seasons for to propagate in:* but the best, is in the Spring and March, when the trees are in flowers, and begin to grow lustie. The young plan∣ted siences, or little grafts, must be propagated in the beginning of Winter a foot deepe in the earth, and good manure mingled amongst the earth, which you shall cast forth of the pit wherein you meane to propagate it, to tumble in vpon it againe. In like manner the superfluous siences must be cut close by the earth, when as they grow about some speciall impe which wee meane to propagate, for they would doe no∣thing but rot.

For to propagate, you must digge the earth round about the tree, that so the roots may be in a manner halfe layd bare; afterward draw into length the pit on that side where you meane to propagate, and according as you perceiue that the roots will be best able to yeeld and be gouerned in the same pit, so vse them, and that with all gen∣tlenesse, and stop close your sience in such sort, as that the wreath, which is in the place where it was grafted, may be a little lower than the sience of the new wood growing out of the earth, euen so high as it possibly may be. If the tree that you would propagate, should be somewhat thicke, and thereby the harder to plie, and somewhat stiffe to lay in the pit, then you may cut the stocke almost to the middest betwixt the root and the wrythen place, and so with gentle handling of i, to bow owne into the pit the wood which the grafts haue put forth, and that in as round a compasse as you can, keeping you from breaking of it; afterward, lay ouer the cut with gummed wax, or with grauell and sand.

If there be manie siences and impes in the plant which you would encrease, mul∣tiplie, and propagate, and that all of them by hap or casualtie doe breake in propa∣gating of them, the remedie will be, to set the tree straight vp, and to couer the roots gaine with the earth that was about them before, and which you had taken away, and then to cut all the broken siences a little vnder where they are broken, and to leae them so vntill another yeare, when they shall haue put forth new shoots, which the Winter following you may propagate: but and if of all those siences there re∣maine some one not broken, goe forward and propagate it, cutting close by the Page  344 ground some of the wrythen place, and of those shoots which are not broken. In propagating of them, see that you lay good quantitie of the siences of your branches into the pit, couch them there verie round, couering them with the earth which you cast vp in making the pit, after that you haue first mixt it with good fat ould, and tread it downe by little and little aboue, and looke that none of the said siences doe rise againe after you haue so troden them downe. This being done, 〈◊〉 right vp all the ends which shall come out of the earth, and that so high as you can, and to 〈◊〉 them rest for three or foure yeare before you furrow them, euen vntill the 〈…〉 taken earth, and be alreadie become full of hairie strings: you must prickestickes a∣bout them, for to handsome them, taking heed that you breake them not. Three or foure yeares after you must doe the earth from them, and that in the beginning of Winter, and hauing cut in sunder all the branches that haue put forth haine 〈◊〉 to∣gether with the stocke, that is aboue the wrythen place, you may plant euerie one of them where you please, to abide and continue there for euer: not but that you may leaue some one of them still standing in the same place, if it be fit and good 〈◊〉 it, and then you may not pull from it his hairie roots, as you doe from the other. If these plants of grafts be growne thicke alreadie, and full of branches, then when you hae taken them vp, you must cut off the brauches before you plant them, and then 〈◊〉 they haue beene remoued, they are free and reclaimed, and all those which shall grow of them afterward, will also become free and reclaimed. Againe, if you would pre∣pare the stocke from whence you propagated your siences, and 〈◊〉 it 〈◊〉 after that you haue cut off all his armes, let it alone with his cuts and grafts, and out of those cuts it will put forth other siences, of which you may make other free and re∣claimed trees propagating them, and taking them vp at the end of three or four yeares. No siences are propagated,* but such as haue no roots of their owne, for and if they had roots by themselues, then they should be taken vp and planted againe with the spade, and not propagated.

CHAP. IX.

Of grafting young Plants, and other Trees of diuers sorts, diuers wayes and at diuers times.

ALthough the transplanting and propagating of trees maketh them and 〈◊〉 fruit both verie faire and great, yet grafting doth excell both them in this kind; for by grafting, not onely wild trees are fattered and ouercome, and those which were barren, made fruitfull; those of an ill aft, become deli∣cate; the late bearing, bringing forth an early fruit; and those which were 〈◊〉, to be late; but also the fruit growing thereby, are fairer and better fed: adde 〈◊〉, that grafting doth oftentimes bring forth and beget trees and fruits of great admiration; as we ee in Apples, Peares, and manie other fruits, which doe alter both in colour and tast by the skill and cunning shewed in grafting. Furthermore it causeth, that not on∣ly one kind is changed into another, and that diuers ruits doe agree together, and that vpon one tree; but that strange and forraine trees doe come vnto vs, and 〈…〉 conueyed vnto other Countries.

There are fiue principall sorts of grafting: There is one way to grast in the 〈◊〉, that is to say, betwix the wood and the barke; and this is but in trees that are 〈◊〉 and of a good age, hauing a hard and firme barke: There is a second way to graftin a cleft, that is to say, vpon a stock that is clouen; and this must be vsed in young 〈◊〉, for old ones doe not easily admit anie cleft in their stocke: The third way is to graft → in a whistle, or pipe; and this is by taking the barke of one tree, cut in manner of a ppe, to be fastened to the bough of another tree: The fourth is to graft → the 〈◊〉 in manner of a soutchon: And the fist is also to graft → in the bud; bu of these in 〈◊〉Page  345 in his proper and fit place. Before we goe about to graft → anie thing, we must consi∣der whether the ground or countrey be fit for Pippins, or stones, and what trees are best laden there.

The best is to grat the same kinds together, although grafts and buds may take as well in trees of diuers kinds, but then such grafts come not to so good an end, seeing it is impossible, that two differing sappes should agree, sute, and carrie themselues so well in all points the one toward the other, as and if it were in 〈◊〉 that are 〈◊〉, of like sort: Adde hereunto, that the fruit doth retaine and follow the nature of the tree whereupon it shall be grafted, rather than the graft → , and so, after a sort, becom∣meth degenerate and estranged from his owne nature: which maketh me, that 〈◊〉 re∣gard not the grafts which are wont to be made vpon Elmes, for the fruit that grow∣eth thereon, doth keepe the tast and fauour of the Elme, which is not verse tooth∣some: and yet I set lesse by the grafts chat are grafted vpon the Colewort stalke, or the white Thorne, or Gooseberrie tree, Vine branches, Rose trees, or such like: for besides that such grafts are nothing durable (as being made vpon a subiect of a more feeble and vnfirme nature than the graft → it selfe which is set to them, wherefore the contrarie course is that which is to be followed at all times in grafting) the fruits that come thereof, will be either of no ast, or else verie vnfauorie in the eating. Notwith∣standing, although the hardest and most solide young plants be to be preferred in the matter of grafting: yet so it is, that if you graft → in young stockes of a soft and moist nature, as vpon the Poplar and Beech tree, and such like, the graft → will grow the sooner, but there is not anie profit arising: and such grafts are not dealt in by anie but by Gardiners, which either affect curiositie or deceit, as desiring to haue grafts often, rather than for anie thing else. It were better therefore to graft → in trees of the same kind, or else if you should graft → in trees of diuers kind, yet to chuse those which 〈…〉 vnto the nature of the graft → , which is the commanding partie, and where∣unto the plant should verie neerely assist and be commaunded by, notwithstanding that it is the feeder of the other. And in anie case you must graft → the trees that beare timely fruits vpon others that beare timely fruit, and the late fruits vpon the late fruits.

And although that by the assistance and helpe of grafting, men bring in infinite mmbers of monstrous things as well in trees as in fruits, mingling diuers kinds to∣gether, yet we must not thinke, that we may graft → all sorts of grafts indifferently vp∣on all sorts of trees: for neither will the Oake admit the Peare tree, nor the Figge tree or Oliue tree: and on the other side, the Pine tree, Firre tree, Cypresse tree, or ge∣nerally anie other kind of tree that yeeldeth Gumme, Oyle, Liquors, Pitch, or Rosin, will not admit the coniunction or grafting of anie tree vpon them, as Pluarch tea∣cheth in his second booke of Table-talke, because they are fat, and cast out an oylie humor, which (as all other sorts of oyles) is enemie to all manner of plants: insomuch, as that there is no readier a meanes to kill such a tree as you would haue to die, as likewise Bees, than to annoint them with oyle: adde further, that the trees which yeeld the Petroine, haue so thinne a barke, as that they cannot procure anie firme or 〈◊〉 footing or meanes to receiue the sappe, or to incorporate themselues with the grafts, which should be set into them, as it falleth out with all wood which hath a ve∣rie moist and soft barke; for thereby is hindered the growing of the graft → vnto the parts which are vnder the barke. I adde yet further, that as men and women which are verie fat, doe not beget or beare children, because that spending the greatest part of their nourishment in the grosenesse of their bodie, they leaue no profitable su∣perfluirie to make seed of; in like sort, trees which drop Pitch and Rosin, spending all their substance and nourishment about the making of themselues great and thick, they accordingly grow tall and thicke, but they beare no fruit at all, or else but a verie little, and that late in the yeare before it come to his full ripenesse: wherefore it is no 〈◊〉 for a stranger, not to be able to liue there, where the home-bred is scarce able to feed and maintaine himselfe. Trees that haue a verie hard and solide wood, as Box and such other, or which haue a verie tender barke, are not fit for grafting: for the one by Page  346 reason of their great tendernesse, cannot hold the graft → fast and close ynough, 〈◊〉 the other through their great hardnesse doe wring and choake the same.

It is good to graft → about the beginning of December, or somewhat later, 〈…〉 Ianuarie,* according as the weather is enclining vnto coldnesse, or otherwise, especial∣ly Hart-Cherrie-trees, Peare-trees, and such as beare early fruit. As for Apple-〈◊〉 and Medlar-trees, it is better to stay till from the end of Ianuarie vnto the beginning of March, at such time as they begin to bud, for they are not so forward as the other▪ And at the same time also it will be good to graft → the thicke-growne young 〈◊〉, betwixt the barke and the wood, with late grafts, or such as haue beene 〈◊〉o the ground. All moneths are good and it to graft → in, whether it be by graft → 〈…〉 moneths of October and Nouember excepted: but the graft → is commonly 〈◊〉 in Winter, as hath beene said, at such time as the sappe riseth vp into the 〈…〉 they begin to bud, for then the grafts doe grow and take a great deale 〈…〉 may graft → likewise in Aprill and May, if the gra••s be full of little eyeles, and that they haue beene kept buried, and their tops out of the ground in cold and 〈◊〉 places. It is true, that the time of grafting must be measured and iudged of, accor∣ding to the countrey and qualitie of the Region; for in a cold Countrey▪ it must be later, and earlier in a hot: notwithstanding, to speake generally of all 〈◊〉, the fittest time to graft → , is from the first day of Februarie vnto the first 〈…〉 May, ta∣king regard to the nature of the plants: for such as haue most iuice, 〈…〉 grafted; and those later which are the drier, the Pomegranate and 〈…〉 which alhough they be drie, will notwithstanding be grafted 〈…〉 in the yeare.

It is certaie, that grafts must be gathered in the decrease of the Moone, to be grafted at the same time of the old of the Moone, or else in the new, or when you shall thinke good, alwaies foreseene, that the grafts be gathered in the old of the Moone, euen all the grafts that may be. It is true, that the graft → and the bud doe take better in the new than in the old of the Moone, for the Moone is the 〈◊〉 of sappes, as of all other iuices, marrowes, and humours, or moist things; which sappes runne betwixt the plant and the graft → , and bind the one to the other, being of more force and power in the new of the Moone than in the old: by the like reason there is a precept to be obserued and kept in the matter of grafting, forbidding to graft → , the wind blowing at South, because such winds are sharpe and drying. On the 〈◊〉, shoots must be cut in the end of the Moone, if so be you will haue them to bring forth much more fruit: for being cut at this time, they haue their sappe drunk〈◊〉 with setled abode, and by being notched onely, they do not spend themsel••• so much as when they be cut off, their sap then being in his full course and 〈◊〉. Notwithstanding we trie it daily by experience, that the gathering and grafting of grafts may be done at any time of the Moone, as we will declare hereafter.

Some hold them for the best daies to graft → in, which are the next three or four daies before and after the increase of the new Moone: but their reason taken from the sap binding, and ioyning together of the grafts with the plants, and from the do∣minion and rule of the Moone ouer the said saps, doth shut out the first part of that opinion: it being certaine and true, that the weaker the Moone is, so much the 〈◊〉 also are those inferior bodies which she hath power and gouernment of. To graft → vpon the wild stocke,* hath more hold, and is more durable than that which is 〈◊〉 vpon the reclaimed tree: but the fruit of the reclaimed tree is of a better taste, as like∣wise the fruit of the graft → will be which is grafted vpon a tree which blossometh and flowreth at the same time, and hath a liuing and moist barke, and the reason thereof is verie apparant.

It is vsed to graft → in the barke from mid-August, vnto the beginning of Winter, and also at such time as the Westerne wind beginneth to blow,* being from the se∣uenth day of Februarie, vnto the eleuenth of Iune: but there must care be had not 〈◊〉graft → in the barke in a rainie season, because it would wash away the matter of ioyn∣ing together of the one to the other, and so hinder it.

Page  347 It is vsuall to graft → in the bud in the Summer time, from about the end of May vn∣till August, as being the time when the trees are strong and lustie, and full of sappe and leaues,* as in Iune and Iuly: that is to say, in a hot Countrey, from the middest of Iune vnto the middest of Iuly; but in cold Countries, vnto the middest of August, after some small showers of rane. And if the Summer be so exceedingly drie, as that some trees doe detaine and keepe backe their sappe, then you must wait till that it be returned, and then to graft → thereupon so soone as the grafts are gathered, without ha∣uing anie regard either vnto the new Moone, or to the old, whether it be in grafting in the stocke, or vnto the stocke. It is true that is spoken, that we can neuer haue hope of much fruit by grafting in the new of the Moone, but in the old, beginning the first day of the full of the Moone.

You may graft → in the Cleft, without hauing regard vnto raine,* when the time is good and coole, as from mid August vnto the beginning of Nouember, for the cap and warming stuffe which is laid vnto those grafts, doe put away the wast and spoyle which the raine and blasting would otherwise bring vpon them. It must likewise be considered whether the tree vse to beare timely fruit, or not, and so to fit it with a graft → of the like condition and qualitie. Againe, the time and season must be considered whether it be forward, or backward; for the seasons are not in all yeares gouerned and carried by an vnchangeable and vnvariable line and measure, for either they are more forward or backward, and participate oftentimes one of anothers qualitie. And in all the sorts of grafting, it is a singular thing, and of great preseruation for the graft → , to keepe the plants with Cowes dung mingled with straw.

As concerning the particular time of grafting,* it is better to graft → at the euening than in the morning, and neerer vnto the roots than vnto the boughs, because by how much lower the graft → is set, by so much the greater strength and force it receiueth from the moisture of the earth.

The furniture and tooles wherewith a grafter should be furnished, when he is dis∣posed to graft → ,* are a Basket to lay his grafts in, Clay, Grauell, or Sand, or some such Earth as is strong, to draw ouer the Plant where it is cut or clouen, and for the ioining of the Graft → vnto it: Mosse, Woollen clothes, or barkes of Willow, for to ioyne and tye vpon the lute or earth before spoken of, that so they may keepe both it and the graft → fast: and Oziers to tie againe vpon the barkes, to keepe them firme and fast: gummed Wax to dresse and couer the ends and oppes of the grafts newly cut, that so the raine or cold may not hurt them, neither yet the sappe, rising from below, be consrained to returne againe vnto the shoots: a Hand-saw or little Saw to saw off the stocke of the Plant: a little Knife or Pen-knife to graft → , and to cut and sharpen the grats, that so the barke may not pill or be broken, which often commeth to passe when the graft → is full of sappe: you shall cut the graft → so long, as that it may fill vp the cleft of the Plant, and therewithall it must be left thicker on the barke side, that so it may fill vp both the cleft and other incisions, if anie need to be made, which must be alwayes well ground, neat, burnished, and without all rust: two Wedges, the one broader, for thick trees, the other narrower, for the lesse and tender trees, but both of them of Box, or of some other hard and smooth Wood, or of Steele, or of verie hard Iron, that so they may craue lesse labor in often making of them sharpe, and they must serue to fet wider the cleft of the Plant: a little Hand-bill, to set the Plant at more libertie, by cutting off some of his superfluous boughes, hauing a handle or helme of Inorie, or Box, or Brasill, or some other Wood which is ve∣rie hard.

Trouble not your selfe with maruelling at them who graft → their trees so soone as they haue planted them, or very shortly after: for the yong plant which can attract & draw but weakely and at hand any substance for it selfe, will hardly bestirre it selfe in such strong manner as to feed both the graft → and it selfe, and therefore the graft → cannot but drie vp: and againe, in very deed the poore plant hath iniurie ynough to be taken vp from out of his place, and to be remoued to another, without heaping vpon it this new or double charge▪ and therefore it would not be till a yeare after that it hath been Page  348 transplanted, and then the next yeare it will beare fruit; for it neuer thriues well of his grafting, if it thriue not the first yeare: and when as it hath sped thus ilfauouredly, 〈◊〉 will be best to cut it off, and grat it againe, but lower.

CHAP. X.

How to chuse, gather, and cut Grafts, to graft → in the cleft, tocke, and rind.

YOu must chuse your Grafts of shoots that are a yeare old or two as the most (especially if you would graft → them vpon old trees) which are verie new, and so thicke as ones little finger, full of sappe, hauing grosle and hicke set eyelets, one of them being neere vnto another, for else they will not beare fruit so plentifully: They must also take some part with the old wood, that is to say, part of that which was a sience the yeare before, and part of the new, that is to say, of the present yeare, so that it must be a piece consisting of two seuerall yeares: and you must, if it be possible, gather them from on high, euen from the top, or at the least from the middest of the tree, and not of the lowest and thickest of the boughes of Fruit-trees: and they must be in their sappe, and taken from that side of the tree which standeth vpon the South, for the East is not so 〈◊〉 and conuenient for vs in this cold Countrey. They must also be grafted in the same situation and goodnesse of soyle that they enioyed when they were gathered; for 〈◊〉 you graft → them in the contrarie to either of these, it will fall out with them as with plants, so vnaduisedly transplanted or translated out of a hot Countrey into a cold. Notwithstanding, we daily perceiue, that such ceremonies are of small effest, seeing that the Sunne, which is the Nurse-father, visiteth euerie day all the sides of your tree, and that the Earth, wherein it is planted, is not lesse nourishing on the one side 〈◊〉 on the other.

You must not gather your Grafts to plant, at such time as the trees begin to flower, especially if the trees whence they be gathered be timely fruit, as Cherry-trees, Plum-trees, Medlar-trees, Almond-trees, Peach-trees, and such like: but the time togther them, is about the foure and twentieth of December, and not sooner, for then the trees are full and well slcred of a mild and sweet humour. But and if you should be constrained to gather them sooner, whether it be vpon occasion to carrie them from one Countrey to another, or such like, stay at the least till October, at which 〈◊〉 the leaues will be fallen from the trees. The men of auncient time obsered and made great ceremonies (as some doe as yet) in gathering of Grafts vpon the en∣ding of the Moone, and for the grafting of them presently after the change: but we find by experience, that vpon all manner of daies they may be gathered and graf∣ted, in what quarter soeuer the Moone is found in, as well for Fruis of stone, which are more difficult to graft → , as also for those of Seeds, or Pippins, which 〈◊〉 more easie.

If you purpose to keepe them after they be gathered,* especially such as you mind to graft → in the barke (for such Grafts may be gathered without eyeless about the moneth of October) sticke them downe in the ground at the foot of a tree, lay 〈◊〉 in a pit of halfe a foot depth, couer them well with earth, marking the place so, 〈◊〉 that you may be sure to find them when the time of grafting commeth. Some 〈◊〉 them in earthen pots well stopped and couered, which afterward also they burie in the ground. But and if you would carrie them farre, you must pricke their ends in a Turep that is new gathered, for by this meanes their naturall iuice and hu••e will be preserued: or else wrap them about with earth, and with a cloth, or other thi••, that they may be fit to be handled, as that they may be grafted, and not dried ay by the wind and force of the Sunne: or else shut them close betwixt two 〈◊〉 or Page  349 Reedes, putting them thereupon in honey. Some, the better to keepe them, lay them betwixt two Tyles, neere vnto some Riuer, and couered well with earth. If they be sent you from afarre, looke that you goe not about to graft → them, before you haue first sleeped them a certaine time in water, somewhat to refresh their iuice, and to set in strength againe their eebled and appalled force.

For to gather them,* you must cut them off betwixt the old wood and the new, in such sot as that there be some of the old wood vnder one of the old eyelets of the graft → ▪ and so also, as this eyelet or little eye may be behind the graft → , when it shall be set out of the cle•• of the plant: but and if this eyelet or little eye be verie small, then it were better to cut it away. You may make of one long graft → two or three trunchi∣ons, of which also you may at anie time make verie good grafts, and so let goe that o∣ther with partie woods, beginning at the greatest eyelet of the same, and making in∣cision close vnder it, to fit it, for to be set in the tocke.

In cutting your graft → ,* make incision vpon the one side and vpon the other vpward on high: let it be well taken downe and squared, that so it may the better close to the stocke of the plant: and likewise, let it be so flatted, as that by measure it may be all one in length with the elest of the plant, when it is put downe into it; and yet it is not required, that it should ioyne close with the same in all places.

When you cut the grafts of hart-Cherrie-trees and Plum-trees,* doe not flat them so much as you did the others, for they haue a thicker and greater pith, which you must beware not to come neere vnto, neither vpon the one side, nor vpon the other, saue onely that at the eds they must be verie flat. And further, if the same incision be not made for the taking downe and diminishing of anie moe than one side, it will be better than and if it should be so ordered also on the other side, and cut byas, as wed∣ges are which are made for to cleaue wood withall; and so at the end you should take downe both sides, after the manner of the head of a Speare.

In cutting your graft → , you must looke well, that you raise not the vttermost barke from the wood, and that withall, you leaue it thicker than that which is on the other edge within.

CHAP. XI.

Of the preparing of the young Plant whereon you meane to graft → .

NOw when you haue chosen your Graft → , you must likewise make choice of your Plant: which, that it may be a faire one, must be right and streight, round, not wreathen, of a beautifull colour, a sound, near, and smooth barke, without knots, verie flourishing and moist, and of a tree that hath borne fruit. It must also enjoy the like good soyle and situation it did before in the place where you gathered the graft → , if it be possible: it must bud and blossome at one and the same time, to the end that the new sience may take the more easier footing and kinder nourishment there. And if in case the Plant were wreathen, ioyne the graft → cunningly vnto it, and be sure, that in fitting of it you make them both ioyne well together, and euer matching the grossest Plants with the grossest Grafts.

And in as much as the Plants are verie little, therefore you must cut them low and neere vnto the earth, and that rather with a Knife than with a Hooke or Saw. Some say, that a Saw doth so shake and loosen the barke, as that afterward it doth not take so easily with the graft → : but that makes no matter, because neither the barke nor wood doe euer take with the graft → ; but the skinne or barke, which groweth and swelleth vp from the foot of the tree, is that which coupleth it selfe vnto the graft → , wor∣keth all, and by it selfe encreaseth, making a bodie of the said foot; not that the sawed Page  350 wood doth ioyne it selfe with the said graft → , but abideth dead. If it be of the thick∣nesse of a inger, or thereabout, you must cut it to the length of a foot, or halfe a foot, from the earth, byas-wise, like the fashion of a Goats foot, for to cleaue it and for therein onely one graft → .

If it be as thicke as a cudgell, cut the stocke round with a Saw vp on high, a foot or two from the ground, to put two good grafts into the cleft thereof: of which afterward you shall cut away the least and weakest when they begin to bud.

If the plant be as thicke as an arme, cut it likewise round some two or three foot high from the ground, for to cleave it and set therein three grafts, two in a cleft, and one betwixt the barke and the wood, and that vpon the side that bh the most roome.

If it be as thicke as a legge, or more, cut it foure of fiue foot high from the ground, and cleaue it crosse, and set therein foure grafts: or cleaue it with one onely cleft, and graft → two in the cleft, and two betwixt the wood and the barke or, which is better, graft → them all betwixt the stocke and the barke, when the sappe shall be vp, for the wood of such great plants doth pinch and wrinch the graft → mightily, if you put not a wedge of greene wood into the cleft.

After that the plant is cut either with a Saw or with a Knife, cleanse the wound ei∣ther with a little Saw-knife, or with some other thing: then make it plaine with a knife that is cleane, and not infected with anie euill smell; and again make it cleane againe the second time, that so it may not be infected anie manner of way with they∣ron, because the sappe of the tree may be corrupted by it: then chuse out the best place in all the stocke to fasten your graft → vnto, without anie care of making the cleft, on what side soeuer it be. I speake this, because it pleaseth some to affirme, That the tree ought not to be clouen on that side that the wind standeth, at such time as they goe about to graft → it. It is true, that and if the wind should proue great, and with all as North-east, that then you must turne your backe vpon it, and stand betwixt the wind and the cleft, at such time as you are sitting and putting in your graft → ; because it is sharpe and scorching, verie dangerous vnto all sorts of plants, as also fruits, of what condition soeuer they be, but chiefely when they are blossomed.

Before you make wide the cleft with your wedge, bind and tie with two or three turnes about with a wickar, drawne verie strair, your tree foot vpon the place where you intend to make your cleft, that so your tree foot may not cleaue too farre: which is oftentimes the cause that grafts take not, the cleft being so open, that it cannot 〈◊〉 shut againe and grow together, and so by that meanes breatheth out whatsoeuer it hath of life in that place, and both the graft → and the foot doe thereupon also per••• but this happeneth oftest in Plum-tree stocks and branches of trees, because they are more subiect to cleaue thus than anie of the other sorts. Great trees, and such as yet goe beyond the fore-named measures, cannot be grafted by a cleft in the stocke, bt verie well in the branches, as wee see accomplished in great Apple-trees, and wild Peare-trees, for they would be rotten before that the grafts could shut and close vp the wound in the stocke.

If the small branches be drie and without anie sappe, you must cut their stockes or armes: and after two or three yeares, when they haue put forth new siences, graft → the best, and cut away the feeble and starued ones. And afterward, when the grafts 〈◊〉 put forth verie well, you must strengthen and vnderprop them, or else wrap them one within another, and tie them with wood amongst, for feare that the wind should breake them: or else if it be a good and well reclaimed tree, let new siences grow 〈◊〉 of it. And this thing wee see much practised in Normandie, Bretaigne, and other Countries, where they esteeme of Apples and Peares to make Cyder of.

Page  351

CHAP. XII.

To graft → in the cleft.

THe manner of grafting in the cleft,* that is to say, in the stocke, being clo∣uen, is proper not onely vnto trees which are as great as a mans legge or arme, but also vnto others which exceed these in greatnesse. It is true, that in as much as these trees cannot easily be clouen in their stocke, that therefore it is expedient to make incision in some one of their branches, and not in the maine bodie, as we see to be practised in great Apple-trees and wild Peare-trees, and as we haue alreadie declared here before.

To graft → in the cleft, you must make choice of a graft → that is full of sappe and iuice, but it must not be till from after Ianuarie vnto March: and you must not thus graft → in anie tree that is alreadie budded, because a great part of the iuice and sappe would be alreadie mounted vp on high, and risen to the top, and there dispersed and scattered hither and thither into euerie twigge; a newes nothing welcome to the graft → . You must likewise set downe and resolue not to gather your graft → the day that you graft → it, but tenne or twelue daies before: for otherwise, if you graft → it new gathered, it will not be able easily to incorporate it selfe with the bodie and stocke where it shall be grafted; because it will come to passe, that some part of it will drie, and by this meanes will be a hinderance in the stock to the rising vp of the sappe, which it should communicate vnto the graft → for the making of it to put forth: and whereas this dried 〈◊〉 will fall a crumbling and breaking, through his rottennesse, it will cause to re∣maine a cauitie and hollow or void place in the stocke, which will be an occasion of the like inconuenience to befall the graft → : and on the other side, the graft → being as yet new and tender, might easily be hurt of the bands, which are of necessitie to be tyed round about the stocke, for the keeping of the graft → firme and fast. You must further∣more take heed, and see, that the tree whereupon you intend to graft → haue been trans∣planted and remoued from out of your stocke-Nurcerie for a long time before, that so you may assure your selfe, that his rootes are long since well inseaoned, and haue fully taken with the earth, and thereby also hath sufficient store of sappe and iuice,

When you are minded to graft → manie grafts in one cleft, see that the incision made vpon their ends be alike great: which if you looke not to, it may happily come to passe, that the cleft of the stocke shall be forced wider on the one side than on the other. You must likewise foresee, that the grafts be of one length, or not much squaring; and it is ynough if they haue three or foure eyelets without the wrench.

When the plant is once sawed and lopped of all his small siences and shoots round about, as also emptied of all his branches, if it haue manie, then you must leaue but two at the most before you come to the cleauing of it: then put to your lit∣tle Saw and your knife or other edge-toole that is very sharpe, cleaue it quite through the middest in gentle and soft sort, first tying the stocke verie sure, that so it may not cleaue further than is need, and then put your wedges into the cleft vntill such time as you haue see in your grafts; and in cleauing of it, hold your knife with the one hand, and the tree in the other, to helpe to keepe it from cleauing too farre; After∣ward, with the same hand wherewith you held your tree, put in your wedge of Box, or Brasill, or Bone, at the small end, that so you may the better take it out againe when you haue set in your grafts. If the stocke be clouen, or the barke loosed too much from the wood,* then cleaue it downe lower, and set your grafts in, and looke that their incision be fit and erie iustly answering the cleft, and that the two sappes (that of the graft → , and the other of the plant) be right and euen set, the one against the other, and so handsomely sitted, as that there may not be the least apparance of Page  352 anie cut or cleft: for if they doe not thus iumpe one with another, they will neuer take one with another, because they cannot worke their seaming matter, and as it were car∣tilaginous glue, in conuenient sort and manner, to the glung of their ioints together▪ You must likewise beware not to make your cleft ouerthwart the pith, but some∣what aside.

The barke of the Plant being thicker than that of the graft → , you must set the graft → so much the more outwardly in the cleft, that so the two sappes may in anie 〈◊〉 ioyned and set right the one with the other: but the rind of the plant must be 〈◊〉 what more out than that of the grafts on the clouen side.

To the end that you may not faile of this worke of imping, you must principally take heed, not to ouer-cleaue the stocks of your trees: but before you widen the cleft with your wedges, bind and goe about the stocke with two or three turnes, and tha with an Ozier close drawne together vnderneath the same place where you would haue your cleft to end, that so your stocke cleaue not too farre, which is a verie vsuall cause of the miscarrying of grafts, in as much as hereby the cleft standeth so wide and open, as that it cannot be shut, and so not grow together againe, but in the meane▪ 〈◊〉 spendeth it selfe, and breatheth out all his life in that place, which is the cause that the stocke and the graft → are likewise spilt: and this falleth out most oft in Plum-trees and branches of trees. You shall also be verie carefull to ioyne together the rindes of your grafts and the plants, that so nothing may continue open, to the end that the wind, moisture of the clay, or raine, running vpon the grafted place, may not 〈◊〉 in. When the plane cleaueth verie streight, there is not anie danger or hardnesse 〈◊〉 sloping downe the graft → , if you leaue it somewhat vneuen or rough in some, pla∣ces, that so the sappes both of the one and other may the better grow and be 〈◊〉 together.

When your grafts are once well ioyned vnto your plants, draw out your wedges verie softly, least you displace them againe. You may leaue there within the cleft some small end of a wedge of greene wood, cutting it verie close with the head of the stocke: or else so soone as your wedge is drawne out, put some small chip of green wood vpon the cleft of the plant. Some cast glue into the cleft, as it were to 〈◊〉 and glue together the sappes of the two substances. Othersome sprinkle into it Sug••, or powder of Cinnamon, or some other such spice, or some sweet smelling liquor, and withall dippe the ends of the grafts in honey, or in some other sweet and 〈◊〉 quor, hoping that by this meanes the fruits of the trees will retaine the tast thereof. But howsoeuer it is, couer the cleft of the grafting all about with grauell or sand 〈◊〉 on like a causey: or else with gummed waxe, which is better to couer withall 〈◊〉 the former, or any other thing that can be learned: and that the cleft may be very 〈◊〉 filled, it must be laid on two fingers thicke, or thereabout, that so neither wind 〈◊〉 raine may enter or get in: and you shall couer it ouer with Moste, or Ryestra, 〈◊〉 Barke, or the thinne rinde of the Elme, prepared with a little earth, and 〈◊〉 of old Woollen clothes, or the barke of Willow, and tie them on verie strait with small O∣ziers; but in binding them, take heed that the wreaths doe not shrinke to the one side or the other: and if you haue not clay, then arme and couer ouer, as hath beene said, the said clefts with gummed waxe: and for want of both these, mingle small hay and the earth of the place where you graft → in manner of lome or mortar. When thus you grafts shall be well wreathed, asten some small boughes about them, for to keepe and defend them.

Furthermore,* if the stocke of the plant whereupon you intend to graft → , be 〈◊〉 so thicke as your graft → , you shall graft → it after the fashion of a Goats foot in 〈◊〉 manner: Make a cleft in the stock of the plant, not direct, but byas, and that 〈◊〉 and euen, not rough; then apply and make fast thereunto the graft → , with all 〈◊〉 barke on, and answering vnto the barke of the plant: this being done, cover 〈◊〉 place with fat earth and mosse of the wood, ried together with a strong band. 〈◊〉 to the end that the tree may not be hurt either of the winds, or other things, 〈◊〉 downe, neere vnto it, some pole of wood, for to strengthten and beare it 〈◊〉Page  353 They are greatly to be blamed for their fault committed, who hauing faire wild uses or others (the fruit thereof displeasing them) doe cut them verte low, ha∣uing faire branches aboue, and a bodie of the thicknesse of a mans legge, and there graft → them, when as fiue or sixe years will scarce couer the wound that they haue made by such their kind of grafting: whereas they might with as much eale haue grafted vpon the branches of the same, and then they had not beene aboue a finger thicke, and would haue growne better, and brought more profit; because that and if you haue foure branches, you may make as manie grafts thereof, and these will beare fruit the second yeare.

CHAP. XIII.

Of grafting in the ends of branches.

FOr to graft → at the end of such branches as haue goodly new wood, and great siences on high, although the tree haue beene grafted before, and that it be as yet not throughly growne, take grafts of what sort of tree you will, and cut some of the siences off from the high parts of the tree where you mind to graft → : and if the grafts should be thicker than the siences, then graft → them after the manner of the Goats foot, as hath beene said alreadie of small Plants. And if the siences be of the same bignesse with your grafts, then cut them between the old and new wood, or a little higher or lower, and cleaue them a little, and cut the graft → of the like thicknesse to the sience which you haue cut off, making but a short incision, and reseruing the barke vpon both sides, and looking that both the sides be of equall thicknesse: then set your graft → , thus fitted, into the cleft, and that so, as that the barkes of both sides the graft → may stand euen with the barkes of the branch. And for these grafts, it is ynough if euerie one of them haue one good eyelet or two about the wreathing; for to leaue them anie longer, would not be good: and you must wreath and wrap them in earth and mosse, and couer it ouer againe with Woollen clothes, and tye them vnto the same verie strongly, as hath beene said.

Also by this meanes you may procure, that one tree shall bring forth diuers fruits, so that they be not such as the situation of the Countrey and qualitie of the Ayre doe refuse and reiect: as I haue seene sometimes at Padua, in the Garden of Messire Ga∣briel, where one stalke of a tree hath borne fruits of diuers sorts. And there is no∣thing that should hinder or let vs in this Countrey from doing the like, if it be not (perhaps) that in some places the fauourable furtherance and mildnesse of the ayre is not so correspondent and answerable.

Moreouer, if you will graft → little Plants in this manner, see that they be of the same thicknesse of the grafts, and graft → them neere vnto the earth, as some three fingers off, or thereabouts.

This manner of grafting at the ends of branches, must be done in trees whose branches haue beene formetly cut off, by reason either of some great want, or else too great aboundance of sappe: and that there be put forth of their stocke some new shoots, which three or foure yeares after may be grafted after the manner wee haue spoken of: Thus Columella teacheth vs to graft → the Oliue-tree vpon the Figge-tree.

Page  354

CHAP. XIIII.

To graft → betwixt the wood and the barke.

IT is vsuall to graft → betwixt the wood and the barke, when trees begi••• put vp their sappe, as about the end of Februarie, and after vntill April, for then the barke parteth better from the wood: and chiefely this man∣ner of grafting is vsed in thicke plants, which cannot easily be eleuen in the middest, either crosse, or otherwise, and in the stockes and branches of trees that haue a thicke and fat barke, as Figge-trees, Plumme-trees, Peare-trees, and Chefx, trees. The grafts that are thus to be grafted, must be gathered and kept long before, as wee haue alreadie said, least peraduenture wee should not meet with trees of late bears about this time, which haue not as then budded, and of which there may be grafts gathered without buds; such as is the short-legged or short-stalked Apple-tree, and such other like.

In this kind of grafting, the plant must be sawed vp on high, and the grafts our af∣terward, as hath now alreadie beene said before: but the incision of 〈◊〉 grafts 〈◊〉 not be of anie great length or thicknesse, but the barke must be taken away a little 〈◊〉 the end of them, and fashioned after the manner of the head of a speare, and as thicke on the one side as on the other: afterward the stocke must be verie well cleansed, to take away the roughnesse and vneuennesse of the Saw, with a verie shap 〈◊〉, that so the grafts may grow close thereunto: then thrust in a sharpe-pointed knife, or some Scizars of Bone, or Iuorie, deept ynough betwixt the barke and the wood of the plant, and so much, as that when it shall be drawne out, the cut and fitted end of the graft → may inter therein, and that the graft → may ioyne vnto the stocke when it shall be fet therein: this being done, it must be couered and wrapt well with 〈◊〉, or o∣ther strong earth and mosse. After this manner you may pricke in manie graft → about your stocke, according as the thicknesse of it will beare. After this manner are Abri∣cos grafted, and Apple-trees, Almond-trees, Peach-trees, small Peach-trees, Figge-trees, Peare. Plum-trees, Chesnut-trees, Peare-trees, and young and little Plum-trees, being the thicknesse of a little finger, and the thicknesse of an arme, as also all such 〈◊〉 haue their barke somewhat slender and tender; for in thicke trees, which haue 〈◊〉 barke verie hard and thicke, this cannot well be vsed, except it be vpon some of 〈◊〉 branches, which haue a daintier barke and better disposed for the doing hereof.

CHAP. XV.

Of grafting in a Pipe▪

THe manner of grafting in a Pipe, as also that of grafting in the 〈◊〉 af∣ter the manner of a Scutchion, is verie forward in bearing fruit, 〈◊〉 weake and caste to be hurt, because it is borne vp onely by the streng•• of the barke▪ and therefore it must not be practised in any trees, 〈◊〉 such as are full of sappe, as the Figge-tree, Oliue-tree, sweet Quince-tree, 〈◊〉 Peach-tree, Abricot-tree, Iuiube-tree, sowre Cherry-tree, Cheery-tree, and 〈◊〉-tree, and not at anie other time, than after the beginning of Aprill vpto the end of Iune; or if the time be not too hot, in Iuly, August, and September: but such grafts are not profitable, neither yet comming so soone to perfection, as those which 〈◊〉 grafted in the cleft.

Chuse therefore in a fruitfull tree that is full of sap, a very faire branch that is full 〈◊〉 eyelets, from whence cut with the point of a knife that is very sharpe, a piece of 〈◊〉Page  355 fashioned like a Flute, at the least three fingers and a halfe, long, hauing one eyelet ound and entire. Then doe as much vpon some braunch of that Tree vvhereupon you meane to graft → the same, in such sort, as that the barke vvhich you take away from the place to be grafted, may be of the same bredth, length, and situation or as∣pect of the heauen, that that is vvhich was cut downe from the place where the graft → grew, and it must likewise haue one sound and intire eyelet as well as the other. When you shall fasten it vnto the place, beware that the barke which you shall fa∣sten, be not wer or moist, and that it doe aunswer and fit the window, whereout the barke was taken, and that in such sort, as that the eyelet in the barke to be grafted, may answer justly vpto the knob which remaineth ound and vndeminished in the vvood, and that this knob goe into the eyelet, of the pipe-like barke, which you are about to graft → . By this meanes all will agree verie well together, neither will there be seene any chinker, gaping, or rise, betwixt the commissures and joynes of the two barkes. This done, bind and wreath aboue and below the said grafted barke with a band of verie drie hempe, being vvithout any manner of moisture, that so the barke may cleaue to the better, and take the sap of the tree the sooner: but still you must looke to it, that your band doe not touch the eyelet, or pinch the barke too hard, for this vvould keepe it that it should not take, and neither the barke, nor the band must be wee.

The Chesnut-tree may be grafted after this manner, and profit more by it than a∣ny other Trees, because the barke thereof is more ap to fashion after the forme of a pipe, than the barke of any other Tree. This way is long in working and taking, and withall nothing sure or certaine: and therefore I would counsell the Gardener to trouble himselfe but little at all with it.

CHAP. XVI.

Of grafting in the bud after the manner and forme of a Scutcheon.

FOr to graft → after the manner of a Scurcheon, you shall not varie and dif∣fer much from the manner of grafting which is after the fashion of a flute or pipe, saue onely that the Scutcheon-like graft → hauing one eyelet as the other hath, yet the wood of the Tree whereupon the Scurcheon∣like graft → is grafted, hath not any knob or bud, as the wood whereupon the barke is grafted in manner of a pipe: wherefore in both the sorts of grafting, we may follow the forme and order which followeth.

In Sommer when the trees are well replenished with sap, and that their new sien∣ces begin to grow somewhat hard, you shall take a shoot at the end of the braunches of some noble and reclaimed Tree, whereof you would aine haue some fruit, and not maine it of his old store or wood, and from thence raise a good eyelet the tayle and all, thereof to make your graft → : but when you chuse, take the thickest and gros∣sest: diuide the taile in the middest before you doe any thing else, casting away the leafe (if it be not a Peare-plum-tree,) for the Scutcheon graft → of a Peare-plum-tree, would haue two or three leaues) without remouing any more of the said taile: after∣ward with the point of a knife that is verie sharpe and will cut well, cut out of the barke of the said shoot, the patterne and resemblance of a Scutcheon or Shield, of the length of a naile, in vvhich there is onely one eyelet higher than the middest, together with the residue of the eaile which you haue left behind: and for the lifting vp of the said graft → in Scutcheon, after that you haue cut the barke of the shoot round about without cutting of the wood within, you must take it gently with your thumb; and in pulling it away, you must presse vpon the wood, from which you pull it, that to you may bring the bud and all away together with the Scutcheon, for and if you Page  356 should leaue it behind with the wood, then the rest of the Scutcheon were nothing worth. You shall find out if the Scutcheon be nothing worth, if looking within it, when it shall be pulled away from the wood of the shoot, you find it to haue a hole within, but more manifestly, if the bud be stayed behind with the wood in the shoot, when it ought to haue beene in the Scutcheon. Thus your Scutcheon being well rai∣sed and taken off, hold it a little by the taile betwixt your lips, without wetting of it, euen vntil you haue cut the barke of the tree where you would graft → it, and looke that it be cut without anie wounding of the wood within, after the fashion of a 〈◊〉, but somewhat longer than the Scutcheon that you haue to set in it, and in no place cutting the wood within.

After you haue made incision, you must open it and make it gape wide on both sides, but in all manner of gentle handling and entreatie, and that with little 〈◊〉 of bone; and separating the wood and the barke a little within, euen so much at the Scutcheon is in length and breadth, you must take heed that in doing hereof you doe not hure the brake. This done, take your Scutcheon by the end, and the 〈◊〉 which you haue left remaining, and put it into the incision made in the tree, listing vp 〈◊〉 the two sides of the incision with the said little Scizars of bone, and cause the said Scutcheon to ioyne and lye as close as may be vnto the wood of the tree (being 〈◊〉 hath beene said) in weighing a little vpon the end of the rind so cut, and let the vpper part of the Scutcheon lye close vnto the vpper end of the incision or barke of the said tree: afterward, bind your Scutcheon about with a band of hempe, as thicke as the pen of a quill, more or lesse, according as the tree is small or great, taking the same hempe in the middest, to the end that eyther part of it may performe a little seruice in wreathing and binding of the said Scutcheon, into the incision of the Tree, and it must not be tied too strait, for that would keepe it from taking, the joyning of the one sappe to the other being hindered thereby, and neither the Scutcheon no yet the hempe must be moist or wet. And the more justly to bind them together, begin at the backside of the tree, right ouer against the middest of the incision, and from thence come forward to joyne them before, aboue the eyelet and taile of the Scut∣cheon (crossing your band of hempe so oft as the two ends meet) and from hence recurning backe againe, come about and tie it likewise vnderneath the eyelet, and thus cast your band about still forward and backward, vntill the whole cleft of the incision be couered aboue and below with the said hempe, the eyelet onely excep∣ted and his taile, which must not be couered at all; this taile will fall away one 〈◊〉 after another, and that shortly after the ingrafting, if so be that the Scutcheon will take, Leaue your trees and Scutcheons thus bound for the space of one month, and the thicker, a great deale longer time; afterward looke them ouer, and if you 〈◊〉 them growne together, vntie them, or at the least cut the hempe behind, and le•• them vncouered, cut also your branch two or three fingers aboue, that so the impe may prosper the better, and thus let them remaine till after Winter, about the mo∣neth of March and Aprill. If you perceiue that the bud of your Scutcheon swell and come forward, then cut off the tree three fingers or thereabout about the Scut∣cheon: for and if it should be cut off too neere the Scutcheon, a such time as it pur∣tech forth his first blossome, it would be a meanes greatly to hinder the flowing of it, and cause also that it should not thriue and prosper so well: after that one yeare 〈◊〉 past, and that the shoot beginneth to be strong, beginning to put forth the 〈◊〉 bud and blossome, you must goe forward to cut off in biace wife the three fingers 〈◊〉 the top of the tree, which you left there when you cut it in the yeare going before, 〈◊〉 hath beene said. When your shoot shall haue put forth a good deale of length, you must sticke downe there euen hard joyning thereunto little stakes, tying the toge∣ther verie gently and easily, and these shall stay your shoots, and prop the vp, le∣ting the wind for doing any harme vnto them.

In this sort you may easily graft → white Rose-trees in red Rose-trees, and red Rose-trees in white Rose-trees, to haue Roses of diuers sorts vpon one and the same Rose-tree. You may graft → after the same manner two or three Scutcheons, prouided that Page  357 they be all of one side: for they would not be equally set together in height, because that so they might all become staruelings: neither would they be one directly ouer another: for the lower would stay the rising vp of the sap of the Tree, and so those which were aboue should consume in penurie, and vndergoe the foresaid incon∣uenience.

You must note, that the Scutcheon which is gathered from the Sience of a Tree whose fruit is sowre, must be cut in a square forme, and not in the plaine ashion of a Scutcheon.

It is ordinarie to graft → the sweet Quince-tree, bastard Peach-tree, Abricot-tree, Iujube-tree, sowre Cherrie-tree, sweet Cherrie-tree, and Chesnut-tree after this fa∣shion: how beit they might be grafted in the cleft more easily and more profitably, although that diuers be of a contrarie opinion. As thus for example:

Take of the grafted of the sweet Quince-tree, and bastard Peach-tree, of the fairest wood and best fed that you can find growing vpon the wood of two yeares old, be∣cause the wood is not so firme and solide as the others, and you shall graft → them vp∣on small plum-tree stockes, being of the thicknesse of ones thumbe: these you shall cut after the fashion of a goats foot, you shall not goe about to make the cleft of any moe sides than one, being about a root high from the ground, you must open it with your small wedge; which being thus grafted, it will seems to you that it is open but of one side, afterward you shall wrap it vp with a little mosse, putting thereto some gummed Waxe or Clay, as hath beene said before, and bind it vp with Oziar, to eepe it the surer, because the stocks is not strong ynongh of it selfe for to hold it, and you shall furnish it euerie manner of vvay, as others are deale withall. And this kind of grafting is more profitable, and sooner growne vp than that which is done in the forme of a Scutcheon.

CHAP. XVII.

Of other sorts of kinds of grafting vpon all sorts of Trees.

YOu may graft → in the bud, by taking vp the bud of a young shoot or plant, and putting it with a little barke in the place of another, which you shall haue pulled from the Tree, vvhereupon you meane to graft → , bin∣ding it there aboue and below in manner as hath beene said of the Scut∣cheon-like graft → , and this may be done at the same time, and vpon the same trees.

You may graft → all manner of grafts, vpon all manner of trees after this manner: Make two pits, foure foot euerie way, and the one hard by the other, in the one of these plant an Oliue-tree, and in the other a Figge-tree, or any other such like sort of Trees as shall best please you: when the Oliue-tree hath taken root, you shall bow downe such plants of the same as seemeth vpto you the fairest of the rest, and bind them to the foot of the said Figge-tree: this being done, cut away all the other plants of the said Oliue-tree, except they be such as you meane in like manner to graft → : then cut downe the Figge-tree, and make smooth and euen the cut: after this, clause it in the middest with a wedge, after which scape both the sides of the ends of the sien∣ces of the Oliue-tree, such as the Tree beareth, and put them in the cleft of the Fig-tree, in such manner as that they may reach through, afterward ome the said cleft of the Figge-tree on the one side and on the other with tough ome, and tie fast with∣in the stocke of the said Figge-tree, the said plants, in such sort as that a man cannot pull them away. Thus three yeares after, the Figge-tree and Oliue-tree will grow together, and the fourth yeare when they are well growne, you shall cut and vn∣cople the plants of the said Oliue-tree from it, as is done in propagating, so they Page  358 shall seeme not to appertaine any longer vnto the Oliue-tree. This manner of graf∣ting is verie vsuall in the Countrie of Mans, where I remember I haue rasted of a grape which had the cast of a nut: because the vine that bare this grape, had beene grafted into a nut-tree, and after that manner that I haue now spoken of.

To graft → in a Canon,* Flute, or Cornet, is thus perormed: You must raise a long Gun or Canon hauing two or three eyelets, from oft a new and reclaimed plant, that is a finger thicke or thereabout, and cleaue it casily the whole length of it: after, you must raise of the barke of some branch of a plant, of the like thicknesse, a Canon of the like length to the former, and in place of this later, you must make fast the fore∣said Canon of the said barke of the new branch, as forward and close as it can be set, and the superfluous barke of that wherewith there is nothing intended to be done, is bestowed vpon this thus grafted to defend it: after this, it is tied aboue and below the eyelets so carefully, as that they may not be hutt, then you must cut away the wood which is aboue the root, and worke it ouer with gummed waxe all along the seames, and at the end.

To graft → in the bodie of a Tree is thus:* You must pierce the stocke of a Tree with a wimble euen vnto the pith, and afterward cleansing the hole of the wimble 〈◊〉 well, you must by force put a graft → thereinto, which hath two or three eyelets with∣in, and then after that close vp the hole verie sure with waxe.

To graft → vpon a Willow,* or Colewort: Make in the pole of a Willow, or stocke of a Colewort, two holes, reaching to the marrow or pith, either halfe a foot from the other, set therein as it were by force euen in either of them, a graft → of such fruit as you your selfe will, hauing their barkes seraped off, and this in such fot as that the holes be stope all of them therewith: after this, you must stop the same holes verie will with Waxe, pricking downe the said pole within halfe a foot of some water, after such a manner as that the grafts may be three fingers vnder the earth, and at the end of the yeare when it hath taken root, cut the plant in peeces, and plant euerie graft → where you your selfe will.

Thus you may graft → in the Crowne:* You must cut oft the bodie of a great Tree, rather than a little or thinne one vp on high, but yet it may not be old, though it may haue a hard barke rather than a soft and thinne: afterward, you must open it vp a∣boue on high, in three or foure places, in the cut of the barke of the said socke: which done, you must with the helue of a penknife of bone being verie sharp poin∣ted, put into euerie one of those opened places a graft → , gathered from the most Easterly part of his owne Tree, then you must stop and couer well with togh 〈◊〉 or clay the wound that is aboue, and lay a good cap vpon it, so as that neither the raine may be able to wash and corrupt it, neither yet the ayre to drie and chinker it: after this, you must tie the Tree with a coard or band neere vnto the place where the Tree was sawed of, that so it cleaue not, then you must thrust in your wedge betwixt the barke and the wood, after which, it remaineth that these grafts be 〈◊〉 to set round about the bodie of the Tree, one distant from another, no lesse than foure fin∣gers: then, for the shutting vp of the matter, taking away the coard or girth, you must tie the barke with a companie of Oziers, being of that length as that they may goe about the bodie of the Tree three or foure turnes and doubles, that so by this meanes the grafts may be garded, and stand fast against the winds and whatsoeuer o∣ther violence: and against the bodie of the Tree you must set a stake or prop, for to beat it vp and stay it, taking away all the shoots that are about it: because that by how much the number shall be the lesse, by so much the more will the sap proout the strength and grouth of boughs.

Some doe graft → in a Sience after this manner:* They make way into the Tree, and that to the verie pith thereof with a penknife, and after grafting a plant therein, stop it vp close with Waxe. Otherwise, and the likelier, some take a sience of one joy••, and writh it, afterward taking from it his joynts and bark, and so graft → it vpon a sheet as thicke as it selfe, and it taketh quickly.

To graft → in a morsell,* you must take in the moneth of March a peece of the thick∣nesse Page  359 of ones thumbe, and sufficient broad and long, together with the eyelet and si∣ence belonging thereto, and so verie speedily graft → it altogether vpon the braunches of another Tree, cleauing the barke into three or foure, and fastening it thereto ve∣rie close and strait, and vnto the head of the stocke, if so be that the morsell goe into the barke of the other, without hurting of his owne barke: it being thus grafted, will take without any other thing or preparatiue: notwithstanding it would doe no euill to put tough ome or earth tempered thicke vpon the said joynt, and to tie it well with some little peece of Woollen cloth about the morsell, not touching the eyelet in any case. In Iune and Iuly you may graft → in this manner on high vpon braunches without vsing of any band thereto: and when this morsell hath well taken, some doe vse to cut off that part of the branch that is aboue.

Some graft → vpon poles after this manner:* vvith a French wimble they pearce a pole of Willow, or other white wood in many places, but with this caueat, that the holes be halfe a foot one from another: afterward, they put in these holes thus pear∣ced great store of shoots of such Trees as they are disposed to graft → , and thus they set them in the ground, in such sort as that nothing but the end of the shoot is seene: alter which, if so be they take, the pole is broken, and they remoued into other places.

Some there are that make impes of Peare-trees and Apple-trees in a greene lath of vvitch-bazell, where they put their grafts, betwixt the barke and the wood, and going afterward to chuse a moist place, therein they burie the said greene lath halfe a foot deepe, leauing the shoots a foot long, of which they gather some impes, which they cut away, as also the band of the lath where they are grafted, and transplant them 〈◊〉 other places, where it liketh them best: but this is not counted the surestand most infallible way.

In Normandie likewise they make plants of sprigs and new braunches growing vp from the eet of the Peare-trees and Apple-trees, these they cleaue in foure quar∣ers and in the middest of them they put the end of a Barly care, or else a Beane, and 〈◊〉 reported by that meanes to breed good and naturall trees, without any other ma∣ner of grafting of them: but I am of opinion, that neither the Beanes not yet the Barly doe any good for the helping of them to take root, because that commonly uch sockes as are planted doe not put forth root at the end of the foot, but higher, 〈◊〉 almost euen at the top of the earth, there being the most nourishing part of the arth.

Some put young braunches and sprigs into the ground, yea and the thin rindes of lum-trees, which afterward take root, and thereupon they plant abricots, but this ommonly happencth in a moist, good, and fruitfull soyle.

Some doe ordinarily plant stockes of the Garden-quince-tree, and graft → Peare-rees thereon, as also Apple-trees and great Peaches, the fruits whereof tast as if they ere Peach-plums, but they must be grafted halfe a foot within the ground, because hey neuer haue any faire trunke, and being grafted thus low, the graft → will put forth oots of it selfe, which will make it endure and continue the longer time.

Some haue likewise found out a way to graft → the vine,* which is a verie singular nd profitable thing, for hauing a vine that is not of a good plant, you may by graf∣ing of it, soonet come to haue fruit, than by pulling of it vp, and planting another 〈◊〉 the place.

Some graft → vpon the foot of a plant, which is a great fault, because that at the most rom thence they cannot gather aboe two or three impes, putting things also in ad∣enture, as well by reason they are not sure that they will take, as also because that the ranch is not strong ynough to defend it selfe from the wind. Notwithstanding see∣ng that the vine taketh root of it selfe, you may make a triall what it will doe by graf∣ing it vpon a branch after this manner:

Make a great pit, like as if you would burie some Tree, then make your choyce rom the foot or stocke of some vine which pleaseth you not, of certaine braunches hich you shall find fit and meet to receiue grafts, whther they be new wood, or of Page  360 two or three yeares growth, cut them off and cleaue them some three or foure finge, euen vp vnto some ioint: then sharpen the other branch which you meane to graft → , and sticke it in the cleft of the other, ioyning together the rind of the clouen one 〈◊〉 euerie side, in such sort, as that they may seeme to be but one, wrapping round aboue some mosse, and after binding it vp with some pack-thread, or else with Ozie••, 〈◊〉 well. Hauing thus done, prepare a place where you will set it, and lay don•• your your graft → , after the manner and fashion that you vse in propagating: then lay alide Horse dung, not throughly rotten, vpon the place where you haue joyned the 〈◊〉 branches. By this meanes, of one Vine-stocke you shall make manie, turning in the earth vpon your grafts of the stocke of the Vine, as is done when one lay••h Vines in the ground. Afterward acquaint your grafts with little stakes, as is vsed in propa∣gating, and these impes doe thriue and grow as well as the propagated, and 〈◊〉 fruit as soone.

You may likewise make the like kind of grafts vpon Pomegranat-trees, Nut-trees, Rose-trees, and other such like low and little trees.

CHAP. XVIII.

Speciall obseruations of grafting, planting, and sowing of Trees, for to haue exquisite fruits thereof.

IF you graft → a graft → that bringeth forth a late fruit,* vpon a tree that brin∣geth forth an early fruit, the graft → will bring forth an early fruit in his kind: as and if you graft → a Peach vpon a reclaimed Mulberrie-tree, it will come two moneths sooner: The same will come to passe, if you graft → vpon a Vine stocke, or a blacke Vine vpon a Cherrie-tree, or a Medlar-tree vpon Goose-berrie-tree, or reclaimed Mulberrie-tree. The cause of this hastened 〈◊〉 is the nature of the tree whereupon you haue grafted, which being the onely 〈◊〉 to the graft → , and being of a timely fruit in respect of the nature of the graft → , doth 〈◊〉 and bring forward the fruit. On the contrarie, if the tree be of a late fruit, and the graft → of a timely, the graft → will afterward bring forth late fruit in his kind: and stay∣ing after his due and wonted time, as if it be an Apple-tree vpon a Quince-tree, 〈◊〉 Apples will proue to hang on the tree till Nouember, and will take so much after the nature of the Quince-tree, as that they will keepe two yeares. By how much the 〈◊〉 you graft → vpon a tree of the same kind and condition that the graft → or bud is Apple-tree vpon an 〈…〉 an Apple-tree, a reclaimed one vpon a reclaimed one, or a wild 〈◊〉 vpon a wild one: by so much the fruit becommeth greater, and is of a better rast, as hath beene said.

Graft → one Apple-tree vpon another,* and likewise in Goose-berrie-trees and reclai∣med Mulberrie-trees, and you shall haue fruit all Summer time, till the beginning of Nouember.

To cause fruit to grow that shall be halfe Peach and halfe Nut,* take an eyelet of the one and of the other, and cut them as neere the eyelet as you can, both the one and the other, and scrape their buttons a little; then ioyning them, bind them also verie and together, and after cut away their toppes: the fruit growing from these, will be halfe Peaches and halfe Nuts.

You may make one fruit to haue the tast of foure fruits of his kind after this 〈◊〉 Take foure shoots or grafts of foure differing sorts,* but of one kind of tree, as of foure sorts of Peare-trees, or Apple-trees: As for example; of the Apple-tree take the short stalked Apple, the Globe Apple, sharpe tasted Apples, and Apples of Paradise (be∣cause that the shoots or grafts must be of one sort of trees) tie them verie well together, in such sort, as that their barke may touch one another: afterward couer them with glue, or with sand, or some at earth, so close, as that they may seeme to be all 〈◊〉Page  361 put them thus in some well digged ground that is full of manure, that so they may take root: the fruit that will grow vpon these, will haue the taste of foure sorts of apples. It proceedeth of the same caue if you take two grafts, the one of a sowe apple-tree, and the other of a sweet, and coupling them together so close and neee, as that they may seeme to be one onely; vse them as before, and looke as the grafts were, so vvill the apples be. In like manner if you couple, joyne and close together in such close and fast manner two small figge-tree boughes, the one of a blacke figge-tree, and the other of a white, and so set them, and after that they haue put forth and blosso∣med, tie them againe, to the end they may incorporate and grow together, making but one stocke, the figges that come there of vvill haue a red flesh on the one side, and a white on the other. Some to worke the like effect, doe put into some linnen cloth the seeds of two sorts of figge-trees, and hauing tied them verie strait, digge them in the earth, and when they are growne vp, they remoue the figge-tree which is growne vp vpon them.

Some doe likewise make grafts to beare halfe Peares, and halfe Apples, clea∣ning one Apple-tree-graft → , and one Peare-tree-graft → , and after joyning the one halfe of the one to the other halfe of the other, and tying them close together, and oming the joynts and seames verie well with Gum and Wax mixt together, in such manner as that the water cannot find any entrance at their joynts, and when this is done, they graft → this double graft → vpon the stocke of such a Tree as shall fall for their purpose: But you must thinke that this manner of planting is verie hard to bring forth fruit. Wherefore they which take pleasure therein, must be conten∣ted with two sorts of grafts, and not to plant them, but rather to graft → them vpon a∣nother Tree of the kind of the said grafts, binding them close together, and sharpe∣ning them verie itly for the purpose at the lower end, in manner as if they were but one onely graft → .

If you hollow the branch of a Cherrie-tree taking away the pith,* and after set it againe, it will bring forth fruit without any stone: or else thus better: cut off a young Cherrie-tree within a foot of the earth, cleauing it also euen to the root, take out the pith both of the one side and of the other, afterward joyne them together againe, and tye them close with a strait band, and a yeare after that this Cherrie-tree hath taken, graft → therein a graft → of a Cherrie-tree which neuer bare fruit, and the fruit which commeth of such a graft → , vvill be without any stone. Otherwise, cut off from such stone-fruit-tree as you desire, a graft → which may be easily bended: sharpen it on the two ends, and graft → it likewise on the two ends vpon two parts of the Tree, make close the two grafted places with the mosse of fat ground, and tye them carefully with a band: the yeare following, if you see that the two ends of the graft → haue taken some force and strength from the stocke, putting forth some buds, then cut the graft → asunder in the middest, and take cleane from it the thickest sprig that it hath, and let the other grow, and it will beare in his due time fruit that hath no stone. The same will come to passe, if you propagate the ends of the smal∣lest boughs of the young Cherrie-tree, plum-tree, or other stone-fruit-tree, and after that you see that they haue taken root, if you cut off the thickest and fairest twig, and let alone the leanest and slenderest. The reason and cause of this is, for that the stone cannot grow, if the tree lacke his pith, but in the tops and ends of little boughs there is no pith: therfore the fruit that commeth of them, whether they be planted or graf∣ted after the manner that hath beene said, will haue no stone, euen no more than that which groweth of trees whose pith is taken out.

If in the vine,* figge-tree, cherrie-tree, or apple-tree, you cleaue a branch which hath borne fruit, and take the pith out of it, putting in steed thereof some laxatiue or soluble thing, and binding it well and streight, you shall make the fruit laxa∣tiue, according to the nature of that which you haue put in: and if you put therein some sweet smell or pleasant colour, the fruits will smell of and shew the same: and if you doe this in a rose-tree, the effect will appeare in the rose: and who so shall put ••tacle or my thridate in the vine, wine made thereof wil cure the bitings of serpents, Page  362 and not the Wine onely, but the grape, vinegar, branch, and ashes of the braunch, will be good against all manner of biting of venimous beasts.

To graft → speedily, take a graft → of one knot and writhe it, and take away the 〈◊〉 with the kno, and after inuest and decke vp therewith some shoot that is of the like thicknesse with the graft → , and it will take.

To graft → a Vine vpon a Vine:* you must cleaue it as you doe other Trees, 〈…〉 to say, euen to the verie pith, and afterward putting the graft → into the cleft, you must stop it vp vvith Waxe verie vvell, and tye it about verie close: but you 〈◊〉 obserue, that it is no fit time to graft → the vine, except it be in the moneth of Febr••∣rie in vvarme places, and in March in cold places, and that when the Wineshed▪ deth a kind of thicke liquor, and not thinne like vvater: the like may be done in May, and in the beginning of Iune, vvhen the sap or juice of the 〈◊〉 is all fallen, but in the meane time, you must keepe the grafts that you vvould graft → in cold and shadowed places, that they may put forth buds and spring. See more hereof aboue.

To haue plums of diuers sorts all the Sommer time,* and vnto Nouember, graft → di∣uers sorts of plums vpon the Goose-berrie. bush, reclayined Mulberrie-tree, or vpon a Cherrie-tree.

To make Medlars,* Cherries, and Peaches, that they may be aromaicke in eating and smelling like spices, and that they may be kept vntill new come, graft → them vp∣on the reclaymed and well husbanded Mulberrie-tree, as I haue told you, and in grafting of them, wet the grafts in Honie, and put therein a little of the powder of small Spice, as of Cloues, Nut••eg, and Cinamome, and the fruit will haue a taste of them.

To cause Medlars to grow without stones,* and withall to be sweet as honie, graft → them on Eglantine, and in the grafting of them, wet them in honie. But to haue 〈◊〉 in their greanesse two moneths before ordinarie, and that one may be better than twentie others, graft → them in a reclaymed Mulberrie-tree or a Goose-berrie-bush, and at the grafting thereof wet the graft → .

To haue Peares of Augusta,* of Parma, or of S. Rieule, a moneth or two sooner ripe than others, graft → them in a reclaymed Mulberrie-tree, and if you would that they should indure and keepe good vntill new, graft → them vpon a quince-tree, that they may come late, and on a reclaimed mulberrie-tree for them to come 〈◊〉.

To haue reclaymed mulberries earely ripe,*graft → the mulberrie on the peare-tree, chesnut-tree, or goose-berrie-tree: and to haue the late ripe, as towards Nouember, graft → * them vpon the medlar or quince-tree. They must alwaies be grafted in the 〈◊〉 crease of the moone, and yet better three or foure daies before the first quaner, for how many daies the moone is old when it is grafted, so many yeares will it be 〈◊〉 the Tree bing forth fruit, as we haue touched before.

To haue nuts without shells,* you must take a keruell which is verie found and not any whit hurt, and wrap it in wooll or the leaues of a vine, or in plane-tree 〈◊〉, that it may not be eaten of Auts, set it thus inwrapped, and the nut-tree comming thereof will bring forth nuts without shells: the like may be done in alm••d-trees, if you oftentimes put ashes vnto the foot thereof, or vnto the roots vnder the ground, and this also holdeth generally in all other fruits which haue an outward shell if they be let in this order.

To haue great nuts, plums, and almonds,* take foure stones of the foresaid fruits, and put them in a pot or other vessell full of earth, joyning the one to the other as neere as may be, and turning the pot and the bottome vpward, make a hole in the said bottome, and the stones shall be constrayned to put forth their prout vpon high through the said hole, and by this constaint the foure sprous will joyne and incorporate themselues together in such sort, as that they will all make but one stocke of a nut-tree, which according to his season will beare fairer nuts than any other trees of the same kind and nature. But for the more easier doing hereof, you must after the fruit is once shaped & fashioned, take away from the nut-tree, almond-tree, plam-tree, and such like, all the small and rascallie sort of fruit which you shall find vpon Page  363 them, and so the juice of the Tree will giue it selfe wholly to the remainder: which also by that meanes will be the better fed and nourished, as hauing betowed vpon them all the substance which was prouided for the others that are taken away if they had not beene gathered. Wherefore the case stands plaine in the whole matter of nourishment, vvhether it be in things that haue life, or those which are vvithout life, that the starued or rascally sort doth come, by the juice his conuersion and being tur∣ned vnto the nourishing of other fruits which are greater: and it cannot be other∣wise seeing the distributiue vertue of the Trees being occupied about many, must needs haue the lesse for euerie one, vvhereas when it hath but a few to feed, it dealeth the more bountifully.

To cause an oake or other tree to continue greene as well in Winter as in Sommer,*graft → it vpon a Colewore stocke.

Write what you will in the eyelet of the figge-tree,* vvhich you meane to graft → , and the figge growing thereof will containe the said writing.

The figge-tree will not loose his fruit* if the stocke be rubbed ouer with Mulber∣ties; or if you cause it to be cast about with pits while the seuen starres doe appeare, vvatering the foot with salt brine and vvater mingled together equally.

The Cherrie-tree will beare a pleasant and sweet smelling fruit,* and will not be subject unto the eatings of snailes, catrpillers, and other small wormes if it be grafted vpon a bay-tree.

The peare-tree that you vvill graft → ,* vvill beare a peare smelling like roses or muske if you cleaue the graft → which you meane to graft → , and put into the cleft thereof a graine of muske, or a dried leafe of a sweet smelling rose, and so graft → it. And the like may be done in other fruit Trees to haue vvell perfumed and sweet smelling fruit: by this peece of cunning skill, Roses become to smell of muske, and the eyelets haue the smell of cloues.

It must stand for a generall rule, that neither any graft → after the blossome, as nei∣ther that which is laden with fruit, is to be grafted.

If the white Poplar be grafted vpon the Mulberrie-tree,* it will bring forth white Mulberries.

The Cherrie-tree vvill beare his fruit more earlie,* and before his ordinarie time, if you lay quicke lime vnto the roots: or if they be watered oft with vvarme vvater: some say likewise, that if you graft → a blacke vine vpon a Cherrie-tree, that then the vine vvill beare grapes in the Spring, the reason whereof we haue set downe in the beginning of this Chapter.

Graft → Citron-trees vpon Pomegranat or Mulberrie-trees, and the fruit thereof will be of a red colour.

If you would transforme fruits from their naturall shape,* into some other diutrs and artificiall shapes, put the said fruits when they begin to be some what bigge, be∣twixt two mouldes of plaster or baked earth, within which there are portraiures of diuers forts, cut and tie them sofely, for the fruits as it groweth will take the stampe and impression more and more: but in the meane time, you must conuey ayre into the moulds at little holes: for else the fruit would rot within.

The graft → that is made vpon the Alder-tree or Oake, bringeth forth a verie strong Tree: but if it beare fruit, yet the fruit is of no sauour or raste.

To haue Peaches or Almonds to grow with letters written vpon them:* after that you haue eaten the Peaches or Almonds, steepe the stone two or three dayes, af∣terward open it softly and take out the Almond, and vvith a brasse pen or otherwise vvrite vpon the rinde of the Almond, vvhat you please, but doe it not too deepe, af∣terward put the Almond againe into his stone, vvrapping the said stone about vvith paper or parchment, and so plant it, and the fruit growing thereupon vvill be vvrit∣ten and ingrauen.

To make Peaches redd:* seuen dayes after you haue set the Peach stone, take it out of the earth againe, and vvithin the opening of the shell put some Vermillion or Cinnabrium, and then set it again: It will fall out likewise after the same manner, Page  364 if you graft → the great Peach vpon the red Rose-tree, or vpon the Almond-tree, 〈◊〉 vpon the red damaske Plum-tree: you may also make the Peach of such other co∣lour* as you will, if according to the manner aforesaid, you put such colour as you would haue it of within the shell of the kernell.

To preuene that Peaches doe not become withered and rotten, you must take a∣way the barke of the stocke of the Peach-tree, that so there may issue out from 〈◊〉 some small quantitie of moisture, after you must draw the place ouer with mtter, mixt with straw. Pearce the bodie of the Peach-tree below, and take away the pith, and fasten within it a stopple of Willow or Corneile-tree, and then you shall haue Peaches without any stone.*

Pomegranat-trees will proue verie fruitfull,* if you annoint the stocke of the Tree with purcelaine and spurge stamped together.

Of an Almond-tree that is hard and bitter,* you shall make a soft and sweet, if you bare the stocke euen vnto the roots which lie shallowest in the ground: and water them oft during certaine daies with warme water, before that it bloslome, and thus the Almonds that before were bitter will become sweet.

To make good Muscadell:* Take an yron wyre and put it in the plant of a stocke, which is cut with three eyes, vsing the meanes to haue all the pith forth: after which fill vp the said stocke with Nurmegs, stopping it so therewithall that the water may not get in: and the rootes that these three eyes shall beare will bee Muscadell rootes.

That nut will haue a ve. ie tender shell and a verie thicke kernell,* in whose foote, stocke and rootes there are put ashes.

To cause a Nut-tree that beareth no leaues before Midsommer,* vpon Midsom∣mers euen to put forth both leaues and fruit together, and withall to haue his fruit ripe and readie to care as soone as any other: fill a pot with greene Nuts gathered the said Midsommer euen, and make a hole in the bottome of the pot, that the wa∣ter may runne out, putting it after that vpon the said Midsommers euen into the earth. Plant the shootes that come of these, and you shall find the thing before spo∣ken of.

The grafting* which is performed to a graft → vpon a tree correspondent and 〈◊〉 to the nature of the graft → , proueth of most beautifull growth, and most fruitfull, and his fruit most durable: which falleth not out when this correspondencie, syn∣padne and fellowship is wanting: and this is the cause why the Peach-tree though better being grafted in the plum-tree than elsewhere, and the Peare-plum-tree in the Almond-tree, and there continue a longer time.

If the eyelet of the Peare-plum-tree,* and of the Almond-tree be grafted together, the kernell of the fruit which commeth thereof will be an Almond.

The Plum-tree grafted vpon the Almond-tree beareth a fruit like vnto the Al∣mond,* and if it be grafted in the Nut-tree, the rind or huske will be like vnto the nut huske or rind, but within it will be a plum. Againe, if it be grafted vpon a quince-tree, it will bring forth a fruit of a diuers fashion, according to the nature thereof.

Graft → a Plum-tree graft → or any other fruit trees graft → vpon the figge-tree, and you shall haue your fruit to grow without blossoming.*

Graft → the grafts of an apple-tree vpon a owre peare, and vpon the Richardine apple-tree, and you shall haue apples of a yel∣••• or straw colour,* and of the chesur-tree: & to haue such as will last vnto Nouember, you must graft → them vpon a quinc-tree, and other late trees, and so they will be for to keepe two yeares.

Take two grafts of apple-trees,* the one sowre, and the other sweet, and joyne them close together when you shall graft → them: the apple will raste both of the one and o∣ther fauour, as we haue said before.

If any tree bring forth his fruit late,* or if it be altogether barren and without fruit, and yet full of both leafe and vvood: set in the middest of his maine roots, 〈◊〉 else in the middest of his stocke about Winter, a wedge of greene-wood, 〈…〉 yere following it will beare fruit. The reason is, because by the meanes of 〈…〉, Page  365 the sap and substance which wandred abroad and imployed it selfe about the bea∣ring of leaues and increase of wood, will draw in it selfe, and goe a closer and neerer way to worke, conuerting his seruice to the making of fruit.

You shall haue Cherries on many Trees which will be good to eat vnto No∣uember,* if you graft → the Cherrie-tree vpon a reclaymed Mulberrie-tree, and vpon a wild one.

If you desire that the fruit of your grafts should increase in goodnesse,* and fur∣passe the tast of the common grafts as they are when they are grafted, you must first before you graft → them, steepe them in honie tempered with Rose-water, so long as till they be throughly moistened, and then grafting them, draw them oer afterward in steed of morter with Virgins-wax, and other things fit to lute withall: if after this manner you graft → Medlar-trees on Goose-berrie-bushes, and vpon naturalized mul∣berrie-trees, and withall, in the grafting wet your graft → in honie, you shall haue a ha∣stier or earlier and better fruit.

Graft → Chesnur and Calio-peare-trees vpon a Goose-berrie-bush,* if you would haue them to beare their fruit earely: and vpon the white thorne, for to beare it late, or else vpon the sowre peare-tree.

To make apples red,* you must water the tree with vrine, or else plant Rose-trees neere vnto the Apple-trees.

Peares will haue no stones, if at the first you picke away the stones and all other grauell from vnder them verie carefully,* making the ground where the Tree shall stand free thereof, and withall lay vpon it at the roots being planted good store of ited earth, watering it afterward verie diligently: but and if the peare-tree be al∣readie growne vp, and become a perfect Tree, you must lay it open to the lowest roots, taking away all the stones and grauell that is vnderneath, and about it, and ca∣sting in the earth againe which you cast forth abroad, but after that it hath beene ited, and some dung put vnto it, seeing that it be watered, after you haue so cast in your earth.

The pomegranat will become verie red,* if you water the pomegranat-tree with water and lee mingled together.

The sowre pomegranat will become sweet,* if you lay about the root of the pome∣granat-tree the dung of swine, and water it with mans vrine.

Graft → the graft → of the Peach-tree vpon the Quince-tree,* you shall haue Peaches and Quinces together: likewise if you graft → vpon the Peach-tree, the graft → of the Quince-tree.

The graft → of an Almond-tree grafted vpon a Peach-tree,* or that of the Peach-ree grafted vpon an Almond-tree, causeth the one tree or the other to bring forth oth Peaches and Almonds, whose rind and kernell also will be good to eat.

To haue a pippin or kernell to bring forth a faire fruit and timelier than any other graft → vpon the same stocke,* take the branches of the Peare-tree or Apple-tree, and 〈◊〉 the lower end make little holes, but not cleane through, and not within a hand-redth one of another: they must be one right ouer against another, and haue a grain 〈◊〉 two of alt put into them, and hereupon the branch laied in the earth with a few ats, cutting oft the end as is vsed to be done with grafts when they are grafted. If ereupon the branch take and wax greene, it wil beare a fairer and timelier fruit than ny other of that kind.

To haue red Apples,* you must plant Rose-trees or Mulberrie-trees neere vnto the Apple-trees. Or else set some stake in the earth neere vnto the Apple-tree, and there eere at hand set a vessell full of water, whereupon the Southerne Sunne beames may liestly beat in such sort, as that the vapour which shall rise from the water may beat gainst the fruit: or else vncouer the Apple-tree at the foot in the Spring time, and ater them sundrie times with vrine: coueting them againe aboue ten or twelue daies fter, and watering them with vrine betwixt times.

To make apples sweet,* you must water the roots of the apple-tree with mans vrine, herein hath beene disolued goats dung, and the lees of old wine.

Page  366 To haue great cherries,* you must often breake the cherrie-tree.

To haue great quantitie of apples, you must compasse the stocke of the apple-tree the height of a foot aboue the earth, with a plate of lead taken from the pipe of asp•••, and when the apple-tree beginneth to blossome, you must take away this band of lead. This banding may be renewed euerie yeare, to make the apple-tree fruitfull: the like course also may be taken with the peare-tree.

To make a tree to beare grapes together with the fruit of his owne kind▪* Put the stocke of a vine in the foot, and boring the tree cleane through with a wimble, you shall at this hole put through the vine stocke, in such ore as that there may be two joynts remaying within the stocke, and so much o your vine stocke at remay••th within the stocke of the tree must be pilled, and the barke taken away, that so the sub∣stance of the tree and of the vine stocke may more easily grow together 〈◊〉 this, you shall stop the holes of the said bore verie close, both of the one side and of the o∣ther, to preuent all daunger of water getting in, and at the end of three yeares, cut off the vine stocke behind, thus your tree will beare grapes, and his owne naturall fruit, and both they will grow from the same trunke or bodie.

Graft → the graft → of an apple-tree vpon a peach-tree,* and likewise the graft → of a peach-tree vpon a peare-tree; and on the contrarie, and you shall haue a strange fru•• called peach-apples, and peach-peares. And thus likewise standeth the case, if you graft → (as hath beene said) the graft → of a peare-tree.

CHAP. XIX.

Of the time of planting and manner of transplanting of grafted trees, both great and small.

SOme say,* that it is best to plant in the Spring Equinoctiall (which is the time about the twelfth of March) because that trees at than time, 〈◊〉 root, and bud more readilie, and put forth the sooner, especally 〈◊〉 places. The greatest part of this our countrie of France, 〈…〉 transplant trees before and after the foure and twentieth of December, at which 〈◊〉 we see here in the citie of Paris euerie Wednesday and Saturday great sale of 〈◊〉 sorts of trees: and yet in my judgement this is not the best time to plant and ••••∣plant, because that trees would not be washed nor wet about their fee, in such 〈◊〉 as they are planted: but for the time before and after the foure and 〈◊〉 of No∣uember (which is called the dead Moneth) it doth nothing but raine for the 〈◊〉 part, as we haue obserued for this ten yeares space: and although this 〈◊〉 were cold, as some commonly report that for three weekes before this day, and thr•• weekes after, great cold doe rule and raignes then if the cold be so great, how should it be but that the roots of the Trees transplanted, as also other plants should 〈◊〉, especially the earth being newly stirred, as is most euidently app•••• in 〈◊〉. But the best time to transplant Trees, 〈…〉 Autumne, because that in 〈◊〉 there is as it were a shadow of Sommer, S. Martins▪ Sommer, and in this time 〈◊〉•••∣meth as though Trees would make a new Spring, as the blossoming of some Trees the same time doth seeme oftentimes to peruade, and for that in this 〈◊〉 Trees 〈◊〉 root much better than in Winter, in which time there is nothing almost 〈◊〉. And if the case so stand as that it is fit for to plant great thicke Trees, the 〈◊〉 must be made sixe moneths before, and that▪ because the earth should thereby be corrected, and as it were renwed by the ayte and hear, as husband 〈…〉 workemen know verie well which turne their grounds before Winter, and all the time thereof let them lye thus tilled, then by a farre stronger reason, you 〈…〉 it is much better to plant trees 〈◊〉 Autum••e than in Winter. But howso••• it be, when you plant any thing in 〈◊〉, it must be done some fiue daies before the Page  367 end of August: and in high and drie places men plant at all times and seasons. It is good to sow or set the first day of the first quarter of the Moone: but the 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 17, and 18, it is not good. If you plant in the decrease of the Moone, the tree will yeeld the more profit, and fruit will grow the sooner thereupon; and by how much your planting falleth to be neerer vnto the end and going out of the Moone, by so much the tree will be of a more beautifull growth, and becomming more fer∣ile and fruitfull: but and if you plant in the encreasing and new Moone, indeed your trees will take better, and become more durable and lasting: they will spread in root, and wood, and leaues, but they will giue ouer so much the more to beare fruit. If con∣strained by some necessitie, you plant in the new of the Moone, then it will be best for you to breake off the shoots that they shall thereupon put forth about the later end of the Moone, and then they will beare their fruits as others doe. Notwithstan∣ding, this limiting and bounding of the time of the Moone is not of such warrantie, but that the tree may be as profitable at all other times of the Moone, as well as either then, or else in the encrease and new of the Moone.

Some plant in Ianuarie the plants that haue the shanke or foot of their shoots ut by as, as also the plant that is set of stones, and in a well tempered place: but in a warme place, men are wont to plant in the moneths of October, No∣uember, and December.

Trees that haue a grosse thicke root, are planted in October, Nouember, and December: but the shoots or little branches are planted in March, when they are in sappe.

Trees that haue a great pith, as Figge-trees, naturalized Mulberrie-trees, Hazell, and such like, are planted without anie root, from after mid September vnto the be∣ginning of Nouember: but other trees which you would plant with roots, must be planted about the beginning of December, or verie shortly after.

Grosse trees are transplanted from one place into another in the moneth of No∣uember,* and they must be freed from Snailes, and lopt and cropt before they be transplanted, for so they take the better, and put forth their siences verie powerfully: and if in taking of them vp, or transporting of them, it happen that the barke of their roots be broken, you must draw the pilled and vncouered place ouer with good dung or earth, before that you put it into the ground againe, and stirre vp the earth verie well round about where you intend to let them downe againe, to the end that their roots may spread and seat themselues to their good contentment, without being pin∣ched or straitned.

Some doe remoue from after the beginning of Nouember vntill March, when the trees begin to enter into their sappe; for the sappe once drawing vp aloft, doth forbid all remouing of the tree: and therefore, in such case, the sooner the better, that is so say, if presently after the leaues be fallen, which is in the beginning of Winter, you goe about it; but in waterie places it is good to stay till Ianuarie and Februarie: but nothing must be done this way when it raineth, or when the earth is wet; for it would so harden vpon the drying, as that the roots would be oppressed and choaked.

The young grafts which you haue grafted in the stocke-Nurcerie,* or elsewhere, must be remoued as soone as the grafts shall haue closed vp the cleft of the plant, as some are of opinion: but yet this is hazarded ware, the graft → hauing not as yet taken almost anie disposition or good liking of the sappe of the plant, which being thus againe remoued, it halfe atonished and put out of the high way of his well-pleasing nourishment, and so beginneth to wither when it commeth to take a cast of his new dishes and prouision: but and if you stay till the graft → haue put forth a faire branch, before you remoue the graft → , you shall shunne the danger that might other∣wise ensue.

You must plant your trees againe as soone as you haue taken them vp,* if no other weightie matter let you: but if you be put off from doing it, either because it is brought you from farre, or vpon some other occasion, you must, so soone as they be Page  368 taken vp, couer their roots with the earth from whence they were taken, new leaues, and slraw, that so the raine may not wash them, and make them afterward to 〈◊〉 when they become drie againe; and to the end also, that the ayre and breath 〈◊〉 of the wind or of the Sunne, or yet of the Moone, may not drie them and 〈◊〉 the moisture, which keepeth their roots in good hearr, and fit to grow, 〈…〉 things being verie hurtfull, but the raine the wore of the two.

Sowre Cherrie-trees cannot abide to be remoued: for being transplanted, they will hardly put forth anie siences, especially if they haue their chiefe and principall root maimed.

Before you remoue great trees, you must loppe off their boughes verie diligeraly, at hath beene said: but as for little ones, you need not crop them, to take off 〈◊〉 of their heads, neither yet to take anie of their boughes from them, if they haue 〈◊〉 too bushie a head: If you desire to know a reason wherefore, it is thus▪ If you 〈◊〉 the head and toppes vpon trees when they are growne somewhat great and thicke, they will still be lending of their sappe vpward, not looking to the feeding of the roots, for that the ayre attracteth the nourishment of plants: as may easily be proued by example, when there groweth anie small tree vnder one that is verie great, for there the small tree will not thriue so well as if it were abroad in the ayre, and 〈◊〉 vnder the shadow; and so that which hath his head cut off, will take root sooner than and if it were whole and vntouched. But if the tree which you remoue, ex∣ceed not the thicknesse of a great ynch, you shall let it remaine whole because young plants take root more easily than those which are old, and the reason is openly knowne.

If the rootes of the trees which you would remoue, be much longer than is needfull, you may take off the ends thereof in setting them down againe, and that so much as may fit best for the hole wherein you meane to set them, for so by this meane they will not be stopped vp of the sides of the hole, but will amast and draw moisture out of the earth for the nourishment of the tree a great deale more aboundantly.

When you remoue anie tree, you must lay his rootes round about with 〈◊〉 earth, and take heed, that the weedie earth which you haue digged or cut away 〈…〉 pit whither you meane to remoue it, doe not fall in amongst the roots, for it would put them in danger to be ouer-heated: or else, that they growing vp againe, might diminish the nourishment of the tree. If it happen, that the earth which you 〈◊〉 taken out of the pit be full of wormes, which might hurt the rootes, then 〈◊〉 therewith some lee and ashes. When the rootes haue taken foot, trample downe the ground as hard as may be, or else beat it with a Pauiers beetle, watering it afterward if it be drie, or else not.

CHAP. XX.

Of the place and soile for Trees in generall.

THe principall point in growing of Trees, is to prouide them of 〈◊〉 ayre and earth, because that these doe cheere and season the, and are the proper subiect of their nourishment. And as concerning the earth, that is recommended into vs, as to be had in regard and loo∣ked vnto more than anie thing else, as that it be such as is verie murlie, temperate in cold and heat, and of a meane and middle sort of moisture and fatnesse, for such ground as exceedeth in anie one of these things, is not so fit for anie Fruit-tree. This is a rule to stand generall in and for all Fruit-trees: but as for particular kinds of Trees, it is verie well knowne, that euerie particular Tree craueth his seuerall 〈◊〉 particular soyle, whence it may gather fit and agreeable nourishment for it 〈◊〉, Page  369 as Theophrastus testifieth. In like manner, one desireth a diuers kind of placing and situation from the other. Wherefore the trees which craue the refreshment of hauing their stockes taken vp, doe commonly thriue better in valleyes than in high places, as well for that their seat must not be altogether so drained of moisture as the higher places be, as also for that the moisture which is in higher grounds conueyeth it selfe and distilleth into the lower and hollow, whether it be raine or anie spring rising from thence.

In watrie places you must not make your pit verie deepe, wherein you mean to plant your tree; but in drie grounds you must set them somewhat more deepe: nei∣her yet must you heape too much earth in vpon those pits when you fill them vp a∣gaine, that so the raine may the better stay about them and water them.

That which is commonly receiued, as that in good ground there grow good fruits, must be vnderstood with respect had to the naturall goodnesse that the fruit hath in 〈◊〉 selfe, if both the industrie and skill of man to husband and keepe it neat, and deli∣••er it when anie inconuenience presseth vpon it, to drie and to season it so as that it may yeeld his fruit in due time, be not wanting▪ for these failing, the fruit will likewise greatly faile of his goodnesse, tast, and durablenesse, and so will falsifie the generall rule aboue named.

Set downe with your selfe, to remoue your trees into so good a ground, or rather better, than that from whence you tooke them vp, hauing respect to other especiall obseruations besides to be obserued, according as will be required of the particular natures of euerie one. And if it is be possible, remoue them into the like situation for the receiuing of the Sunne-shine, vnto they which they were first set and planted in: and that you may not faile hereof, marke their barke vpon such or such a quarter, and set 〈◊〉 vpon the same againe in remouing of it. But this obseruation (as I must confesse) is not alwaies kept, for the reasons aboue named.

Also plant those of a forward Spring in a late soyle, and a late soyle in a hot round.

The greatest part of trees doe delight in the South Sunne, and to be seated vpon ome Sunnie banke, from the Westerne wind, as being verie contrarie vnto them, specially to Almond-trees, Abricot-trees, Mulberrie-trees, Figge-trees, and Pome∣ranate-trees, but principally from the North-east wind, because it is sharpe & swith∣••ing, verie hurtfull for all sorts of plants, euen to all fruits, of what qualitie soeuer that hey be, but chiefely when they are in blossome, and that because it bloweth from off he Sea, as also for that it is halfe North, which is verie sharpe, but not so dangerous 〈◊〉 the North-east: and some say, that this wind bloweth once a yeare, as in the Spring, nd that it spoyleth buds, especially those of the Vine: Vnde versus; Vae tibi Galerna, re quam fit clausa Taberna. On the contrarie, Chesnut-trees, Cherrie-trees that beare 〈◊〉 sowre fruit, Quince-trees, and Plum-trees, doe not much affect or sport and delight hemselues either with cold or much heat.

In watrie places trees commonly grow great, and beare much fruit and leaues, but hey are not of anie commendable rellish, colour, or durablenesse: yea, they beare ruit commonly the yeare they are set, if they be accustomed to beare. Trees must be et the thicker in a fruitfull soyle.

If you meane to plant trees in a cold place, and that yet the tree should not be hurt of the cold, you must plant them on the Sunnie side of the banke, from the North, ut towards the South.

Page  370

CHAP. XXI.

Of the place and time wherein euerie Fruit-tree delighteth to be sowne, planted, and grafted in particular: and first of the Almond-tree.

THe Almond-tree* delighteth in hot places, looking towards the South or East, or where the ayre at the least is moderate; as vpon the tops of hills, or places neere vnto hills, that are somewhat stonie and graulie, stonie or marlie: in which places it doth not onely flourish well, being planted, and blossome aboundantly, but beareth therewithall great quantitie of drie Almonds, as also hard and well-rellisht ones. But contrariwise, if it be planted in a moist and watrie ground, and cold place, it neither groweth well, not beareth fruit well, neither yet continueth long. The fit time for the setting of it, is about the Win∣ter Solsice, which is the eleuenth day of December, euen vnto the end of the same moneth, or somewhat after: for the plant of this tree being forward and early in put∣ting forth buds, if it were planted in the Spring time, it might let slip and loosen the time of the yeare, which might be the fittest for the maintaining and comforting of his blossome. If you would haue it to grow of the stone vnbroken, and if I may so say, of his seed, you must let it be in Ianuarie and all Februarie, in such places as are temperate, or in October and all the moneth of Nouember in places that are hat. And thus to cause it to grow of his fruit, you must take new Almonds, thicke ones, hauing white shells, verie porous and spongie, and lay them in steepe for the space of twelue houres in honied water, and after this digge them in the earth foure finger deepe, the sharpe end downeward, and after to water them three of foure times a moneth. It groweth also of shoots and siences, but the sience must be taken from the top of the tree, full of pith, sound of barke, and cut vnder the knot. And as concer∣ning the grafting of it, you must take the time of Autumne, for (as hath beene said) this tree is a quick-spur and fore-rider: but and if you stay till the Spring time, you shall breake it off when the sience is fully put forth. And for the chusing of grafs that will take well, you must take them vp on high, and on the top of the tree, and not from the middest, much lesse from below; and these grafts you may graft → either in the bud, or in the cleft, and vpon a tree of his owne kind, or vpon the peach or Plum-tree: indeed the Almond-tree that is grafted, is not of such growth, or so ••••∣full, as that which is planted.

The good Farmer must plant and make grow great store of Almond-trees,* seeing they are not chargeable to maintaine, neither yet their fruit to keepe, but rather of greater profit and lesser losse than anie other, seeing that euen vnder them Come will grow iolly and faire, the Almond-tree hauing but a few leaues, and those little ones.

The barren Almond-tree* will become fruitfull, and beare, if you lay open the roots in Winter: or else if you pierce some part of the stocke close by the earth, and put through the hole a wedge of Oake, watering it about with mans vrine.

You shall make bitter Almonds sweet,* if you lay round about the roots of the Al∣mond-tree Swines dung, and Vrine, casting much earth vpon it afterward, and this yearely: or if you bore a hole in the stocke of the tree, and put therein a wedge dipe in honey: or if (as Plinie and Theophrastus say) you bore the stocke through and through below, and let the sappe runne out.

Of sweet Almonds you may make sowre ones,* if you let the beasts browse and crop off the first and tender branches.

The Almond-tree will be free from all annoyance of fogges, if so be there be smll grauell laid vnto the rootes before it blossome, and when it shall begin to blossome, then to take it away.

Page  371 You may haue written Almonds,* if you breake the shell of an Almond veri fine∣ly, without doing anie harme to the kernell, whereupon hauing written what you thinke good, wrap vp the shell and kernell in paper, and so set it well couered with dyrt and Swines dung.

Almonds are gathered* when their huskes gape through the force of the Sunne: and hauing beat them downe, if you shell them altogether, and wash them in salt brine, they will become white, and will keepe a long time, prouided that before you lay them vp to keepe, you drie them in the Sunne. Their huskes will be easily taken off from them, if you spread them vpon straw.

The place to keepe them well,* must be drie, whether it be Coffer, Presses, or Gar∣ner: and if the number be great that you would keepe, you must see that the place haue good store of ayre, and be lying open to the North wind.

The bitter Almonds haue power to resist drunkennesse,* as Plutarch witnesseth, of a certaine Physition, which did vse to drinke out all commers, and not be drunken himselfe, and that by eating fiue or six bitter Almonds before he did drinke: but they kill Hennes and Chickens if they eat them. The bitter Almond bruised and rubbed or layed to the browes and temples, doe appease the head-ach, and procure seepe, especially if you put vnto it water of Veruaine.

The vse of sweet Almonds is good for them which are troubled with clammie fleame in their throat,* or which haue weake lungs, and are subiect to the grauell in the reines, or difficultie of vrine, as also to restore natures force, and to make men apt to venerie. The gumme of the Almond-tree doth quickly stay the spetting of bloud: yea, the daily vse sufficiently sheweth how profitable this fruit is, for it serueth all the yeare long for the making of Almond milke, Potage, Pennets, Marchpanes, and other such daintie deuises.

CHAP. XXII.

Of the Peach-tree, Abricot-tree, Spanish Peach-tree, Peach-Plum-tree, bastard Peach-tree, and the small Peach-tree.

PEach-trees are planted of their stone, setting it two fingers within the ground, and the small end thereof vpward: it delighteth in sandie pla∣ces, in drie places, and where the Sunne hath his full force; but in cold, moist, and windie places it dieth presently, if it be not defended from he said inconueniences. You must set the stone with the sharpe end turned into the round, and when it is in the earth, digge it, battle, and stirre vp the earth about it at he foot, at the least thrice a yeare: you must allow it dung, a fat soyle, and a small ould, and that a little before Winter come, and especially Swines dung, which ma∣eth it to grow more thicke than anie other sort of dung or batling; by this meanes ou shall haue good Peaches, thicke ones, and fleshie. You must likewise weed them ft: after, when it is two yeares old, you must remoue it, and lay it along in his pit, uen after the manner that they vse Vines, letting one onely bough stand out of the arth, which may grow to serue for the stocke and bodie, and thus it will continue ong by reason of the great number of roots which it will haue both to stay it as a oundation, and to feed it: but you must cut off the longest branch, and that which 〈◊〉 the straightest of all the other, which is the thing that would be diligently practised pon all fruit trees, because that it is the thing which keepeth them from bearing ore and aboundance of fruit. It is not to be grafted out of it selfe, if you will haue it xcellent: howbeit, to make it last the longer (in as much as it soone waxeth old) it is ood to graft → it vpon a bitter Almond-tree, damaske Prune-tree, or Quince-tree, but 〈◊〉 otherwise than scutcheon or flue-like.

Page  372 It must be watered at euenings in hot weather, with coole water, and sometimes with water mingled with the lees of wine, especially when it withereth and begin∣neth to fall away: as also to remedie it when it is in danger of fainting and drying, you must lop it and cut away all the boughes, as is wont to be done with Willowes when they are headed; for by that means they become lustie and frolike, and to haue as manie boughes as they had before. It must also be sayed vpon some Pole or Wil∣low, because his roots be verie tender, small, and not creeping farre into the earth: like∣wise we see that the Peach-tree doth grow old and fall away incontinently.

It beareth a diuers fruit, as well in colour and tast, as in substance, and this diuersitie commeth, for the most part, of the ground, but principally of the husbanding of them. And that it is thus, the Peach-trees that are planted or grafted vpon Vines, bring forth Peaches of a better tast and more solide substance: the Peach-tree graf∣ted vpon a Mulberrie-tree, bringeth forth Peaches that haue red flesh: the Peach-tree grafted vpon a Nut-tree, doth beare Peaches with huskes like Nuts, whose tree is but small, and hath leaues like vnto the Almond-tree, and a reddish flower. It is true, that such a tree may become such a one of it selfe, as we see infinitely in France. The Peach-tree grafted vpon an Almond-tree, beareth Peaches which haue a kernell like vnto the Almond, but the rind and the flesh like vnto the Peach.

There may as much be said of Abricots,* called of the Latines Praeocia, or Arme∣niaca; of Spanish Peaches, Medlar-tree, bastard Peach-tree, and small Peaches, which are kinds of trees agreeing much with the Peach, all which are verie tender in frost, especially the grafted Abricot-tree, and it continueth not past halfe the time of the Peach-tree: all of them are subiect to be spoyled of the cold, snowes, frosts, and fogges, which happen after that they are blossomed: but to keepe them from these dangers, it will be good to graft → them vpon the Quince-tree or Almond-tree: all of them will beare great fruit, if when they blossome they be watered with Goats milke. Concerning the particular vertues of the Peach-tree, see more aboue in the nineteen•• Chapter of this Booke.

The flowers of the Peach-tree are excellent good against melancholie and the wormes,* if you make syrrups thereof of seuen or eight infusions to be taken fasting. The gumme of the Peach-tree is taken with good successe in the spetting of bloud with the water of Plantaine or Purcelane: for the cough and difficultie of breathing▪ with Hydromel, or the decoction of Folefoot: for the grauell and stone with the 〈◊〉 of Radishes, Citrons, or white Wine, the weight of two drammes. The leaues stamped and applyed vnto the belly, doe kill wormes: the iuice thereof dropt into the 〈◊〉, doth the like: the kernels eaten, take away the wringings of the belly: eaten to the number of six or seuen in the beginning of meat, they preuent drunkennesse: 〈◊〉 and boyled in vineger to the forme of a broth, and after rubbed in place cone∣nient, they hinder the falling of the haire: stamped and made in forme of milke with the water of Veruaine, and ubd about the browes and temples, they cease the head∣ach: the oyle made by expression ceaseth the paines of the eares; and 〈◊〉, the Collicke and Sciatica.

He that hath regard of his health, must not vse these fruits but as sparingly as he can possibly, and fasting rather than otherwise, because they corrupt easily in the stomacke: but aboue all things, they may not be eaten dipped or steeped in wine▪ because wine correcteth them not, as some thinke, but rather causeth that their 〈◊〉 pierceth the more suddainely and easily into the veines. The Peaches of Corbeil••• counted for the best, hauing a drie and solide pulpe, and somewhat red, not sticking or cleauing anie thing vnto the kernell. The Romanes made great accoun of the Peaches which they called Persica Duracina,* as doe also the Brittons: The least dan∣gerous, least subiect to be corrupted, and most pleasant, are the Abricots; which also some haue left out of the number of the kinds of Peaches, and placed amongst the Plums, as well because of their pleasant smell, as for their harmelesnesse, and 〈◊〉 both within and without they doe rather resemble the Plum than the Peach. The oyle pressed out of their kernell, is maruellous good against the Hem••••〈◊〉 and Page  373 swelling of vlcers, and is also vsed as a remedie against the impediments of the speech, and paine of the eares.

CHAP. XXIII.

Of the small Nut-tree or Hasel-tree.

THe Hasel-tree (which is called the small Nut-tree of the small fruit which it beareth, or the Filberd-tree, of the great fruit that it beareth) grow∣eth in anie aire or ground: but it best delighteth in a leane ground, that is sandie and moist, neere vnto waters, or in places that men vse to wa∣ter, because this helpeth them as well in the bringing forth of their fruit in great store, as for to make them endure long: adde hereto, that they put forth and spring in such sort at the root, as that thereof one may set as manie as he will in other places. When they are sowne, they must be put two fingers vnder ground: but indeed they grow better of a plant that hath root, or of a shoot cut by as, and hauing old and new wood, as we haue alreadie declared in the sixt chapter. They are planted in October and Nouember, in a warme and temperate place, or in Februarie and March: and it is better to leaue vpon them some boughes when they are set, than to set them of one single rod, for so they beare the more fruit. They must yearely be digged anew at the Spring, neere vnto the foot, and round about, and their shoots all cut away, without leaking anie standing, saue three or foure for to plant and make thick bushie shadow, and the same verie neat and cleane for height, not leauing anie branch or bough after three or foure fadome from the top. Wherefore, if they be oft lopped, picked, and pruned, they will grow the more streight, compact, and high, and will beare better and fairer fruit: but otherwise, if a man neglect them, they runne out all their nourish∣ment into wood and leaues, without fruit: Their fruit is called the small Nut or Fil∣berd. The Filberd of hot Countries (where such trees are called Filberd-trees) is more round and fleshie than the French small Nut, and it is a fruit verie easily dried and made yellow. But and if you would keepe it fresh and white almost all the yeare long, shut it vp close in an earthen pot, and set them in the earth; and when it is thus kept, it bringeth not so much annoyance with it as otherwise it would, for it naturally procureth drowsie headach and inflammation of the stomacke. I know not by what obseruation of our ancestors this speech hath growne common amongst the people, That the yeare which yeeldeth plentie of Nuts, doth also yeeld manie mariages. Both the little Nut-tree, as also his fruit, haue a certaine contrarie vertue against venimous beasts; for if you hang a cluster of small Nuts in anie part of the house, no Scorpion or venimous beast will enter thereinto, but slie away presently. The Countrey people haue likewise marked in all ages, that the Serpent, Lizard, or other venimous beast, dieth presently, hauing beene stricken with a branch, staffe, or rod of the Hasel-tree. And it is no maruell, seeing Nut kernels eaten with Figges and Rue doe resist venime and the biting of venimous beasts. The best small Nuts and Filberds and those which haue red shells, and which are hardly broken. The raw shell finely powdred, and drunke with water of Carduus Benedictus, doth heale the pleurisie in the beginning thereof: being drunke to the quantitie of two drammes with red wine, it stayeth the flux of the belly, and the whites. It is true, that for the flux of the belly, and whites, he red part of the kernell which sticketh vnto the shell within is a great deale better and more forcible. The Filberd nourisheth a great deale better than the Nut, as being closer but not so fat a substance.

Page  374

CHAP. XXIIII.

Of the Cherrie-tree, sweet Cherrie-tree, bitter Cherrie-tree, and the hart Cherrie-tree.

IT is apparant, that common Cherrie-trees, sweet Cherrie-trees, bitter Cherrie-trees, and hart Cherrie-trees, are sorts of trees agreeing in ma∣nie things, for they all delight to grow in a cold and moist ground, or else altogether indifferent, betwixt hot and cold; for a hot ayre they 〈◊〉 hardly endure: and so likewise they refuse to haue anie dung, because it ouer-heatech them, and is contrarie vnto them: and for this cause they must neuer be planted in a manured ground. Notwithstanding, if you so temper the dung, as that it may not be ouer-hot for them, it cannot urt them to be dunged, no more than (as wee will shew by and by) to haue vnquench〈◊〉 laid to their feet, to hasen their fruit: but this is true, that if you dung them yearely, that then you shall not haue them of anie log continuance. They delight rather to haue their roots compassed with small branches, and the broken parts of their owne siences, or small lumpes and gobbets cut from their owne small branches, for in these they greatly reioyce and profit mightily, ••∣uing them in stead of dung. You may either digge the kernell into the ground, and burie it, or else plant of the siences neere the tops of hills and mountaines, whether 〈◊〉 be in a high or low place, in October, Nouember, December, and Ianuarie. You may graft → them in Nouember, or (according to Palladius) from the twelfth day of Decem∣ber vnto the first of Februarie. The best is to graft → them in Februarie and in March: albeit that it be the best cutting of all trees that yeeld gumme, when the gumme is not yet rising, or after it is quite gone downe and returned from whence it rise. Lastly, Cherrie-trees neuer thriue so well, being nothing done vnto but planted, as when they are gra••ed: they delight to haue their dried branches often weeded out from them∣selues, and the siences growing at their foot: they delight also to be set in hole and pits that are digged and cast, and to be often digged about. And if you would haste and cause them to bring forth their fruit sooner, you must lay Quicke lime to the foot of them, or else water their roots often with warme water; but then such fruit is 〈◊〉 altered and made worse, retaining but little of his naturally goodnesse: euen as 〈◊〉 will proue and find by the hastie Cherries which the inhabitants of Poictiou send 〈◊〉 vpon horsebacke.

They may be grafted vpon the Plum-tree and Corneile-tree, but best vpon one of their owne kind: in such sort, as that sweet Cherrie-trees being grafted vpon 〈◊〉 Cherrie-trees, doe beare a more soft Cherrie than those are which grow vpon sweet Cherrie-trees, grafted into sweet Cherrie-trees. Cherries grow fairest vpon small Cherrie-trees, and more plentifully also than they doe vpon high and tall ones▪ Wherefore, who so shall graft → the small Cherrie-tree vpon the great, shall procure greater store of fruit, and more thicke ones, such as are the wild Cherries, and also 〈◊〉 haue more store of great boughs, than those trees haue which doe but as it were 〈◊〉 on the earth. In like manner, if when you graft → them, you set the bud and the 〈◊〉 of the graft → below, the boughes that grow forth thereupon will fall out after 〈◊〉 like manner.

The Coeurs and Agriots may be grafted vpon the common sweet Cherrie-tree, but better vpon wild ones than vpon garden ones. We must therefore acknowledge eight sorts of Cherries growing vpon Cherrie-trees: that is to say, those which are properly Cherries, hauing a verie short stalke & round apple, being also red, fleshi•• full of iuice, sharpe, and hauing a sweet kernell: wild Cherries, which haue but a li∣tle flesh on them, but are red also on that side toward the Sunne, and white on the other side, the stone cleaing to the flesh: blacke Cherries, whose iuice is so blacke, as that it coloureth the hands and lippes: bitter Cherries, which are somewhat of a Page  375 bitter tast, whereof they haue their name: Guyens Cherries, so called, because their first originall was in Guyenne; they are long ones, and manie hanging together at one stalke; they are also verie sweet: Piugarres, and these are grosse thicke ones, white, hauing a hard flesh, but sweet, and cleauing vnto the kernell: Coeurs, which are like vnto a mans heart, as well without as within their kernall, some doe call these Cherries Heaumes, and the Cherry-tree Heaumier, especially in the Countrey of Aniou: Agri∣ts, which are ripe last of all, are sharpe relished, and endure carriage farre off, and they are also the same which are wont to be preserued.

Of the speciall properties and vertues of the Cherry and Cherry-tree, see the nine∣••enth chapter of this Booke, wherein is declared how the Cherry may be made to grow without anie stone. If the Cherry-tree be hurt of Pis••ires, you must rubbe his stocke with the iuice of Purcelane: if it be too full of sappe, you must make a hole in the principall root.

Cherries how faire soeuer they be, yet they are of small nourishment, beget uill humours in the stomack, and wormes in the bodie, and such are those especially which re called Coeurs. The sharpe sweet Cherries are verie delicate, fit to preserue with Sugar, as well for such as are found, as for them which are sicke. The bitter Cherries re good raw, but better drie, and in sawces, pastes, and tart stuffe. The sweet Cher∣ies are chiefely commended, in that they make the bodie soluble, as the sharpe or ager ones doe bind it, coole it, and temper the heat of choler. The gumme of Cher∣ry-tree drunke with white wine doth breake the stone as well of the reines as of the ladder. The water of Cherries newly gathered being distilled with a gentle fire, and taken at the mouth in the quantitie of halfe an ounce, doth put off the fit of the alling sicknesse; a thing verie happily and with good successe tryed in manie, as Manardus assureth vs.

CHAP. XXV.

Of the Quince-tree.

ALl Quince-trees, as well that of the Garden as the wild one, and of the Garden ones, as well the male as the female, desireth a cold ground, and especially that which is moist withall; notwithstanding that we haue seene them as well to grow in the places lying open to the Sunne, as at Con∣lans, a place belonging to Monsieur de Ville-roy, neere vnto Paris, but yet indeed not farre off from a Riuer: and this kind of tree doth so much craue to haue the companie of moisture, as that if the time fall out drie, the necessitie thereof must be upplyed by watering of it: and if for want of moist and waterish ground, it be set 〈◊〉 a drie ground, or in a stonie or clayie ground, it must then also be often refreshed with water, and must also be vnder-digged and laboured about the foot, that so the •••et of the night may pierce and sinke downe vnto the roots, that so it may bring orth good fruit and good store thereof. When it is planted of rootes, it grow∣••th so well, as that the second yeare it beareth fruit: but it beareth not so soone, when it is planted of branches. It would be planted during the encrease of the Moone, in the moneths of Februarie or Nouember. This tree is verie commonly vsed to graft → other trees vpon, because they being grafted thereupon, doe conti∣nue and endure longer, and beare a more delicate fruit, than if they were grafted vpon trees of their owne kind. The best time for the gathering of this fruit, is in the moneth of October, when that blasting comes, and it groweth to be of a gol∣den colour, for this is a signe that it is ripe; and this must bee in cleare and faire weather, and in the decrease of the Moone: and then you must cleanse it from the mossie hoarinesse that is vpon it, and lay them out orderly in the Sunne vpon hurdles.

Page  376 If the Quince-tree make anie shew of being sicke,* you must water it with the •••∣lings of oyle, mingled with equall quantitie of water, or else with Quicke lime and Fullers clay tempered together with water. You may make Quinces of what fashi•• you will, if you teach them to grow in moulds of wood or baked earth. As co••••∣ning the meanes to keepe them, we shall speake of that hereafter.

The garden and reclaimed Quince-tree beareth two sorts of fruits, the 〈…〉 male, which is called the Quince Apple, the other the female, which is called the Quincesse, thus differing: the male is lesse, more writhled and wrinkled, drier, of a sweeter smell and of a more golden colour than the Quincesse: the wild Quince is verie odoriferous, but of a verie hard flesh. If you graft → a male Quince-tree vpon a female, or the female vpon the male, you shall haue tender Quinces, and 〈◊〉 as may be eaten raw, whereas the other are not fit to bee eaten before they 〈◊〉 prepared.

The smell of Quinces is contrarie vnto venime and poyson:* also the Quin••〈◊〉 selfe doth comfort the stomacke, stay the flux of the bellie, and make men to 〈…〉 sweet breath. For which reason, wise Solon (as saith Plutarch) did 〈…〉 onely the betrothed, but also the married women, that they should neuer lye 〈◊〉 their husbands, but that they should first eat of the flesh of a Quince. And yet not∣withstanding, the woman with child, when she draweth neere the time of her deli••∣rance, may not vse Quinces, although that in vsing of them in the time of her beig with child, they will be some meanes of her bringing forth of a faire babe, So•• make a confection of Quinces, called Marmalade, which is verie soueraigne again•• the flux of the bellie,* which is prepared and made in manner as we will shew in the fiue and fortieth chapter; according vnto which patterne, wee may make a laxat••• Marmalade after this sort: Take of Quinces cleansed from their Pippins, cut the in quarters, but pare them not, boyle them throughly in water, then sraine them through a cleane Linnen cloth, and wring them out diligently, then boyle them a∣gaine with Sugar, putting thereto a sufficient quantitie of Rubarbe in powder. This Marmalade purgeth verie speedily,* and withall comforteth the stomacke and the liuer. In stead of Rubarbe, you may put some other laxatiue thereunto, as 〈◊〉, Agaricke, or such like. The Cydoniatum, or Marmalade of Lyons, is 〈…〉 Scammonie.

CHAP. XXVI.

Of Oranges, Assyrian Citrons, common Citrons, Limons, and Pome-adams.

THe Orange, Assyrian Citron, and Limon desire to be set vpon the South or South-west wind: for being touched with such winds as are 〈◊〉 and moist, they become more aboundant in iuice, better coloured, and thicker: which is the cause, that the Sea-coasts being haunted with 〈◊〉 said-winds, doe abound with durable plants, and such trees bringing orth 〈◊〉 fruitfully; for others, set vpon the North and North-east, are not thereby so 〈◊〉 fitted. Some make Nurseries of these kind of trees, sowing their seeds in 〈◊〉. They will affirme and giue it out likewise, that they grow of siences set and 〈◊〉 downe in small furrowes, or stucke downe in baskets: and some do〈…〉 vpon the stocke neere ynough vnto the root, and that in Aprill and in May: 〈◊〉 some say, that they may be grafted after the manner of the Scutcheon like graft → , 〈◊〉 the moneths of Summer, putting their pippins in a pot or basket neere vnto 〈◊〉 tree where you would they should be grafted or halfe swallowed: but the 〈◊〉 certaine direction and instruction about these Trees, is that which is set 〈◊〉 in the second Booke, and whereunto also wee referre you for the same 〈◊〉

Page  377 The Pome-adam-tree is much to be esteemed, euen of the best Gardiners, not in re∣pect of his fruit (which indeed is more beautifull than profitable, in as much as it is ••either good to eat raw, nor yet to preserue, but onely fit to wash the hands, or else to 〈◊〉 in the hand) but to graft → Citron-trees, Orange-trees, Limon-trees, and Assy∣••an Citron-trees vpon, as wee haue said in the second Booke, because they prosper ••aruellously vpon this tree, and bring forth verie quickly faire and great fruit, espe∣••ally the Orange-tree. We haue entreated in the second Booke, of the differences 〈◊〉 Oranges, Citrons, Meons, and Assyrian Citrons; whereunto we will further adde, 〈◊〉 the Citron of Assyria is of a verie good smell, but of little sweetnesse, or anie ••ther tast: and therefore it is vsuall to eat his flesh with salt or sugar, or with salt and ••ineger. The Limon differeth from this kind of Citron, because the Limon is lesse, 〈◊〉 colour drawing toward a greene, bunching out both aboue and below, after the ••anner of womens nipples.

As for Pome-adams,* they are round, twice or thrice as great as Oranges, not ha∣••ing a verie thicke rind, rugged, vneuen, and hauing manie clefts or chaps, varie ma∣ifestly appearing like to the prints of teeth. Some thinke they had this name giuen, f being the Apple which Adam did bite vpon in this earthly Paradise. They are ••ellished almost like Limons, but not altogether so pleasant. If you cut it in the alfe, and season it with the fine powder of Brimstone, and after rost the same vn∣••er the ashes, and rubbe therewith the itching bodie, or anie part thereof, it will eale the same.

CHAP. XXVII.

Of the Figge-tree.

FIgge-trees are either white, carnation, red, pale, or green; and some also be blacke. There are some that beare before the cold come; others are more late in their fruit: and againe, of all these, some beare a small fruit, as namely, the white ones; and othersome a great and grosse fruit, stan∣•••ng out with great bellies, as by name the blacke ones, of which yet further there 〈◊〉 one kind that beareth long Figges, hauing almost no bellies, and these draw no∣hing neere in goodnesse vnto the great bellied ones, and those which are more short. All sorts, of Figge-trees loue a hot ayre and countrey, a drie and stonie ground, inso∣uch, as that it ceaseth not bearing of excellent fruit amongst the heapes of small ••ones, prouided, that there be good store of depth of earth to spread and sinke owne his roots into at ease. Such a tree, as manie others, is apt for hot Countries: ut hee that would haue of them to grow in cold Countries, must make choice of ••ose which bring forth their fruit before the cold time of the yeare, and must couer 〈◊〉 with some shield in Winter, and compasse it about the foot with fat ground, or ung of Oxen, or Asses, verie well rotted, for otherwise it will yeeld him no plea∣ure. This tree is so full of pith, and his fruit so moist, as that if you water it, the fruit will not keepe: but yet you may vnder-digge and digge it, to the end that the nights et may enter into it. You must take from it all dead and rotten wood, not suffering y it the water to find anie standing vpon the tree, for otherwise the fruit would not haue anie tast or sauour.

The Plant of the Figge-tree, which is of a branch or of shoots newly put forth, 〈◊〉 planted in October and Nouember, in a warme and temperate ayre, but in Fe∣bruarie, March, or Aprill, where it is a cold ayre: and yet the Genowayes doe plant branches all the moneth of August, as they are laden with leaues and fruit. As for the grafting of it,* that may be done in Aprill, as well in the bodie, or stocke, as in the barke or rind. Some say, that the Figge-tree planted amongst Vines, Page  378 doth it no annoyance, which is in some part true, because there is some 〈◊〉 and agreement betwixt the Figge and the Grape, and both their woods are full of thick pith; and Raisins or dried Grapes being wrapped in Figge leaues, doe not onely keepe well and sound, according to their nature, but amend and become better 〈◊〉 in tast and smell: and in part false, because the Figge-tree casteth one such large branches and broad leaues, as that the shadow thereof doth hurt the Vine. There are some low dwarfish Figge-trees, like vnto the Peach-tree, the fruit of which Peach-trees is somewhat agreeing with the Grape: so as that the Peach being 〈◊〉 into red wine, doth most highly content and please the tast; and these indeed 〈◊〉 doe small harme vnto Vines standing amongst them: but hee that troubleth 〈◊〉 the Vine stockes with anie kind of tree at all, shall doe better than hee which 〈◊〉 otherwise.

If you desire to haue low Figge-trees, and such as may be kept in 〈…〉 vnder your windowes, to satisfie your desire with their pleasant sight; cut in the Spring time a shoot of the Figge-tree before it bud, wrythe his top with your hand, set it, the wrythen top downe in the earth, and the end, where it was cut, vpward, and out of the earth, it will put forth manie small boughes all about the 〈◊〉 which will beare pleasant fruits, the tree continuing to remaine alwaies low. You shall haue early Figges, if you water the Figge-tree with oyle and Pigeons dung: and o the contrarie, late ones, if you take away the first buds when they are growne to be as bigge as Beanes.

The Figge-tree the elder it is, the more fruitfull it falleth out to be. It is verie sub∣iect to be eaten of vermine, and the meanes to free it from this mischiefe, is to set by it some Onions: or else for to kill the vermine, you must scatter Quicklime, or 〈◊〉 old Vrine, or the lees of Oyle there about the place. It will not be cost soft to an∣noint the stocke with the iuice of Mulberries: or if you spread and loame it ouer with red Fullers earth when it is a full Moone: or if you hang at the branches of it young Figges newly put forth. Furthermore, Figges will grow with letters vpon them, and garnished with what shape you desire, it when you graft → the 〈…〉 you write in the eye of the Figge-tree such proportion as you would hae that 〈◊〉 Figges should beare: and besides; without vsing anie such curious course, 〈◊〉 delighteth to sport her selfe with this fruit, in such manner, as that shee 〈…〉 an infinite number of figures and indented notches full of pleasantnesse to 〈◊〉, and these are tokens of the goodnesse of the Figge: for as it is verie 〈◊〉, the 〈◊〉 doth constraine the skinne to fall into wreaths, and to quarter out a thousand shapes. This is a maruellous thing, that although the fruit of the Figge-tree be verie 〈◊〉, yet the leaues thereof are of a sharpe and bitter tast. Likewise the wood being 〈◊〉, doth yeeld a sharpe smoake, and the ashes a verie scouring lee, and 〈◊〉 strong, because of his sharpnesse; as if the Figge-tree had bestowed and 〈◊〉 all the whole substance of his sweetnesse vpon the Figge, and had let 〈◊〉 a 〈◊〉 for it selfe. This is also a maruellous thing, that the Figge-tree is not subiect vnto the Thunder-claps.

We haue oftentimes tried, that if you steepe two or three Figges in 〈…〉 night, that such Figges eaten in the morning doe cure the shortnesse of breath. 〈◊〉 milke of the Figge-tree dropt into the eare, killeth the wormes therein. The 〈…〉 the Figge-tree rubd, doe prouoke the Hemorrhoids. Looke for a more ample dis∣course of Figges and the Figge-tree in the second Booke.

Page  379

CHAP. XXVIII.

Of the Apple-tree.

THe Apple-tree which is most in request,* and the most precious of all o∣thers, and therefore called of Homer, the Tree with the goodly fruit, groweth any where, and in as much as it loueth to haue the inward part of his wood moist and sweatie, you must giue him his lodging in a fat, blacke, and moist ground; and therefore if it be planted in a grauelly and san∣die ground, it must be helped with watering, and batling with dung and smal mould in the time of Autumne. It liueth and continueth in all desireable good estate in the hills and mountaines where it may haue fresh moisture, being the thing that it sear∣cheth after, but euen there it must stand in the open face of the South. Some make nurceries of the pippins sowne, but and if they be not afterward remoued and graf∣ted, they hold not their former excellencie: it thriueth somewhat more when it is set of braunches or shoots: but then also the fruit proueth late and of small value: the best is to graft → them vpon wild Apple-trees, Plum-trees, Peach-trees, Peare-trees, Peare-plum-trees, Quince-trees, and especially vpon Peare-trees, whereupon grow the Apples, called Peare maines, which is a mixture of two sorts of fruits: as also, when it is grafted vpon Quince-trees, it bringeth forth the Apples, called Apples of Paradise, as it were sent from heauen in respect of the delicatenesse of their cote, and great sweetnesse, and they are a kind of dwarffe Apples, because of their stocke the Quince-tree, which is but of a smal stature.

The Apple loueth to be digged twice, especially the first yeare, but it needeth no dung, and yet notwithstanding dung and ashes cause it prosper better, especially the dung of Sheepe, or for lesse charges sake, the dust which in Sommer is gathered vp in the high waies. You must many times set at libertie the boughes which intangle themselues one vvithin another; for it is nothing else but aboundance of Wood, wherewith it being so replenished and bepestred, it becommeth mossie, and bearing lesse fruit. It is verie subiect to be eaten and spoyled of Pisnires and little wormes, but the remedie is to set neere vnto it the Sea-onion: or else if you lay swines dung at the roots, mingled with mans vrine, in as much as the Apple-tree doth rejoyce much to be watered with vrine. And to the end it may beare fruit aboundantly, before it begin to blossome, compasse his stocke about, and tie vnto it some peece of lead ta∣ken from some spout, but when it beginneth to blossome, take it away. If it seeme to be sicke, water it diligently with vrine, and to put to his root Asses dung tempe∣red with water. Likewise, if you will haue sweet Apples, lay to the roots Goats dung ingled with mans water. If you desire to haue red Apples, graft → an Apple-tree vpon a blacke Mulberrie-tree. If the Apple-tree will not hold and beare his fruit 〈◊〉 it be ripe, compasse the stocke of the Apple-tree a good foot from the roots vp∣ard, about with a ring of a lead, before it begin to blossome, and when the apples shall begin to grow great, then take it away.

Apples must be gathered when the moone is at the full,* in faire weather, and a∣bout the fifteenth of September, and that by hand without any pole or pealing downe: because otherwise the fruit would be much martred, and the young siences broken or bruised, and so the Apple-tree by that meanes should be spoyled of his young vvood which would cause the losse of the Tree. See more of the manner of gathering of them in the Chapter next following of the Peare-tree: and as for the 〈◊〉 of keeping of them, it must be in such sort as is deliuered hereafter.

You shall 〈◊〉 frozen Apples if you dip them in cold water, and so restore them to their naturall goodnesse. There is a kind of wild Apple, called a Choake-apple, because they are verie harsh in eating, and these will serue well for hogges to eat. Page  380 Of these apples likewise you may make verjuice if you presse them in a Cyder-presse, or if you squeese them vnder a verjuice milstone.

Vinegar is also made after this manner:* You must cut these Apples into gobb•••, and leaue them in their peeces for the space of three dayes, then afterward cast them into a barrell with sufficient quantitie of raine water, or fountaine water, and after that stop the vessell, and so let it stand thirtie daies without touching of it. And then at the terme of those daies you shall draw out vinegar, and put into them againe as much water as you haue drawne out vinegar. There is likewise made with this sort of Apples a kind of drinke, called of the Picardines, Piquette, and this they vse in steed of Wine. Of others sorts of Apples, there is likewise drinke made, which is called Cyder, as we shall declare hereafter.

An Apple cast into a hogshead full of Wine,* if it swim, it sheweth that the Wine is neat: but and if it sinke to the bottome, it shewes that there is Water mixt with the Wine.

Infinit are the sorts and so the names of Apples comming as well of natures owne accord without the helpe of man, as of the skill of man, not being of the race of the former: in euerie one of which there is found some speciall qualitie, which others haue not: but the best of all the rest, is the short shanked apple, which is marked with spottings, as tasting and smelling more excellently than any of all the other sorts. And the smell of it is so excellent, as that in the time of the plague there is no∣thing better to cast vpon the coales, and to make sweet perfumes of, than the rinde, thereof. The short stalked Apple hath yet further more one notable qualitie: for the kernells being taken out of it, and the place filled vp with Frankincense, and the hole joyned and fast closed together, and so rosed vnder hot embers as that it burne not, bringeth an after medicine or remedie to serue when all other fayle, to such as are sicke of a pleurisie, they hauing it giuen to eat: sweet apples doe much good against melancholicke affects and diseases, but especially against the 〈◊〉: for if you roast a sweet apple vnder the ashes, and season it with the juice of licoice, starch and sugar, and after giue it to eat euening and morning two houres before meat vnto one sicke of the pleurisie, you shall helpe him exceedingly.

CHAP. XXIX.

Of the Peare-tree.

BVt the Peare-tree (being the most in request and precious (next vnto the Apple-tree) amongst all the fruit-trees that are) is ordered for the most part after the manner of the Apple-tree,* although the vvood and fruit of the one be more firme than that of the other, and that the Peare-tree bring forth his fruit late, as not before the end of Autumne, vvhen as all the great heat is alreadie past: notwithstanding you shall set it in the same ground with the Apple-tree: and in the first foure or fiue yeares of his grouth, you shall lay it open at the foot, a litte before the end of December, vncouering it euen vnto the root••, which you shall shaue and trim with a knife bowed againe: and in the end of Ia••∣arie you shall couer it againe with his owne earth mingled with good made mould, keeping from thence forward his place well weeded, the foot verie neat and cleane, and the stocke verie well freed from intanglements of boughes so farre as the hand can doe it, and throughout verie carefully cleansed from mosse, snailes, and caterpil∣lers, husbanding and ordering the earth at the foot of it euerie two yeares at the be∣ginning of Winter: for the fruit which the Peare-tree thus husbanded shall beare, will be both more faire and better relished, and keepe longer. The Peare-tree that is planted in a leane, drie, chalkie or grauelly ground, is but of a starued growth, bea∣ring Page  381 a sharpe, small, and ordinarily a stonie fruit. The kernels are sowne in the Nurce∣rie, as those of the Appletree, but the hoped fruit is long in comming, and scarce at∣tained throughout the whole life of a man, for it is farre longer time in comming to perfection than the Apple-tree. It groweth also of a branch well chosen: and he that will haue it so grow, must plant it in September and October in hot Countries, but in cold Countries in Februarie and March, and in temperate Countries it may be done in either of the two times, as it shall best please him. But the Peare-tree that is most sure and likeliest to bring contentment of it selfe, is that which is grafted vpon the young plant in the Nurcerie, and in such curious sort maintained and ordered, as hath beene said, as also if it be remoued some three yeares after, affoording it a large and deepe roome in a good mouldring earth. It may also be grafted in a Peach-tree, Quince-tree, and Almond-tree, but yet better vpon it selfe than vpon anie of these, for so it becommeth of a better nature. It is knowne by proofe, that the Peare-tree, grafted vpon a Mulberrie-tree bringeth forth red Peares: and if it happen that your Peare-tree bring forth a stonie Peare, you must remoue the earth from the foot, and powre in vpon the rootes euerie day, for the space of fifteene daies, the lees of good old wine.

Peares must not be gathered before the later end of Autumne,* when the great heat of the yeare is past, because their moisture being weake, and in small quantitie, the Sunne suffereth not that it should come vnto anie good consistence, before such time as the ayre begin to turne and change into coldnesse: and therefore (saith Theophra∣••us) this is the onely fruit-tree that ripeneth his fruit best and soonest in the shadow. Such gathering of Peares also must not be taken in hand but after that the Autumnall blasting and dew be fallen at the least three or foure times vpon them, because it strengtheneth them greatly, to their better enduring and lasting, and encreaseth their goodnesse. But in anie case they may not be gathered in raine, but rather in drie wea∣ther, being themselues well dried by the Sunne; and that in gathering they be not hurt by anie manner of meanes whatsoeuer, but to chuse them one after another, by cutting them downe with a good knife made fast to the end of a pole: or else to make them fall into a cloth spread vnderneath for the receiuing of them, and in it separating the rotten, spoyled, or hurt, from amongst the faire, sound, whole, and vnhurt ones, that so they may be layed vp to keepe in such sort as wee will declare hereafter in his place.

Although generally, and without saying anie thing of anie particular by way of comparison, the Apple be farre fuller of iuice, and for the most part more sound than the Peare, notwithstanding, if one should stand vpon the tast, the Peare is commonly more pleasant and better relished, and more contenting and agreeing with ones tast, eaten in his season, raw, rosted, or preserued, than the Apple: wherefore I am asha∣med, that men giue not themselues to plant moe Peare-trees than Apple-trees, seeing that besides the reasons alledged, the Peare-tree, of all other fruit-trees, is the fairest, streightest, and couering no whit so much ground with his shadow as the Apple-tree doth, bearing also his fruit almost euerie yeare, where the Apple-tree is but a iourney-man, bearing one yeare, and not another.

There is a drinke made of Peares,* called Perrie, whereof we will speake: as also vineger of wild Peares, as hath alreadie beene said of Apples.

The Peare hath this speciall vertue aboue the rest, that the often vse of the kernels should be maruellous profitable vnto such as are troubled with the inflammation of the lungs; as also for them that haue eaten manie Mushromes, that they may rid their stomacke of so great a load, there is nothing better than to eat Peares: for the Peare by his weightinesse and astringent iuice, maketh the Mushromes, eaten and lying in the bottome of his stomacke, to descend and fall downe from thence.

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Page  382

CHAP. XXX.

Of the Medlar-tree.

CErtaine it is, that the Medlar-tree* groweth into a thicke stock: it endu∣reth the cold ayre easily, and yet delighteth best in a hot or temperate ayre, and in a sandie and fat ground. It is planted either of roots or of branches, and that in Nouember: and some sow it of stones in a ground mixt with dung: it will beare fruit in great quantitie, if there be layed to the foot of it earth mixt with ashes. It may be grafted vpon it selfe, or vpon the Peare-tree, Apple-tree, or Quince-tree: and that it may be well grafted, and with good grafts, you must prouide your selfe of those, which grow out of the middest of the Medlar-tree, and not of the top: and it must be grafted in the cleft or highest part of the stocke, not in the barke, because the leanenesse of the barke would not be able suffi∣ciently to nourish it.

If you graft → it vpon a Quince-tree, the fruit will be verie faire, and the reason is verie manifest, because the stocke which receiueth the graft → , and nourisheth it, is gi∣uen naturally to bring forth a thicke grose fruit: and yet it will yeeld a fairer with∣out all comparison, if you graft → it vpon the hawthorne, vvith which it is joyned in exceeding familiar and friendly league, also the fruit that commeth thereof is more beautifull and plentifull: it may also be verie fitly grafted vpon any other thorne, it selfe being pricklie: if you graft → the Medlar-tree vpon any other Tree that is not of his owne kind, the Medlar will haue either no stones, or verie few, or else verie little ones. If the vvormes assaile the Medlar-tree, you must water the stocke with vine∣gar, or throw ashes vpon it.

Some hold it for certaine, that the flesh, and especially the small stones of the medlar dried either seuerally and alone, or else together, made into powder, and drunke with white wine, wherein hath beene boyled the roots of Parsly, doe breake and consume the stone as well of the reines as of the bladder. Looke into the second booke in the Chapter of Turneps, as concerning this remedie. You may make a ca∣taplasme of drie medlars, cloues, white and red corall, and nutmeg, all incorporated with the juice of Roses, to lay vpon the bellie in the great fluxes of the same, and vpon the breast for the spitting of bloud.

CHAP. XXXI.

Of the Mulberrie-tree.

MVlberries grow vpon a certaine kind of Tree which hath a firme wood, but a brittle fruit and leaues, it buddeth the last of all other Trees, after that the cold is ouerpassed, vvhereupon it is called by the name of sage or wise, wittie, and prouident; it putteth not forth his leaues till all other Trees be laden with leaues, if at the least you hasten not forward his budding▪ by gi∣uing vnto it fresh and new dung in the new of the Moone of Februarie. This Tree is of two sorts, the one vvhite, because of the white Mulberries; the other blacke, because of the blacke or red Mulberries which it beareth and bringeth forth: which though they resemble one another in this, that both of them doe put forth their leaues later than any other Tree, yet notwithstanding they are vnlike in flowers, leaues, and other considerations. For the blacke doth not onely bring forth a farre fairer and better relished fruit, and that of greater aboundance of liquor than the white: but it hath besides a thicker stocke, and a greater and harder leafe, it groweth verie hardly Page  383 and with much adoe being planted, and it is a great while in growing before it be∣come great, and therefore is no shame that there are so fw, it being so vnapt of it selfe to grow being planted of plants and siences, as also propagated and multiplied vnder the earth, with the stocke that bare it, euen as is vsed to be done with the white ones, which yet doe grow infinitely euerie where, as well planted of shootes, and propagated, as sowne: both the one and the other doe loue a hot ayre, or at the least a temperate, a ground that is fat, and well battled with dung, and labour at the foot, and to be kept cleane from mose and caterpillers, and without any dead, wood. They are planted, especially the white, either of shoots or of roots, or buds, and that in October and Nouember, even in like manner as the figge-tree. In plan∣ting of them, you must make them deepe and large pits, and couer them with earth mixt with ashes: they may be grafted vpon the chesnut-tree, apple-tree, wild peare-tree, cornaile-tree, elme, or white popler (and then they will beare white mulberries) and this must be in the cleft; and vpon the figge-tree in the scutcheon-like graft → : they may also be grafted vpon themselues, and the one vpon the other, as the vvhite Mulberrie-tree vpon the white, and the blacke vpon the blacke, and that chiefely and principally after the pipe or flute-like fashion: in what manner soeuer you graft → them, the grafts must be chosen of a good thicknesse, and from such Mulberrie-trees as beare fruits full of good seed and kernells. It would be but labour lost to sow them vpon kernells in the nurcerie in this cold Countrie, for besides that but a few Mulberries haue seed, yet those which haue, doe bring forth neither tree nor fruit al∣most that is any thing worth. But whatsoeuer it is, or in what place soeuer you plant, graft → of sow them, let it be farre from houses, to the end that the infinite number of flies which flocke thicker when the fruit is ripe, may not become tedious to the in∣habitants, but yet let it be in such a place as that the hennes may eat them when they fill downe, because this victuall doth fat and feed them verie mightily. It buddeth the last of all Trees, as we haue said, but for a recompence it becommeth ripe by and by.

The mulberrie-tree hath alwaies beene of great request and great profit in coun∣tries where cloth of silke is made, as at Luckes, Geynes, Almerie, Granado, Auigni∣on, and afterward at Tours and other places, because the small wormes making silke, are brought vp and nourished of the leaues of this tree: which for the same purpose are carefully sought of them which doe make account to draw silke into a fleece: whereupon it is come to passe, that there are to be seene in many places about the said townes of great Mulberrie-trees, as it were little wings of forests, the said Mul∣berrie-trees being planted after a just and due proportion and leuell of line, and most exquisitely maintained and looked vnto by them which owe them: for from hence they reape large summes of money, selling the leaues yearely for the purpose before spoken of; for as for the fruit, they make no great purchase of it, because the Mulber∣rie-tree will not be robbed of his leaues, for so it would come to passe that it should not bring forth fruit, of the value of three halfe pence.

The wood of the Mulberrie-tree is good to make chests, forkes, and compasses of; and such other workes as must yeeld and be pliant: it is also good about ships and boats.

Mulberries must be eaten before all other meats, and that without bread, or else but with a verie little, because if they be mixt with other victualls they doe but cause them to corrupt: it is true that they coole and moisten verie much, and doe also loo∣sen the bellie.

Mulberries put into a glasse vessell well stopt and couered with their juice may be kept a long time.

The juice of Mulberries halfe ripe mingled with honie of roses, is a singular re∣medie for the inflammations of the mouth and throat, as also for the purified teeth and exulcecrated gums.

Page  384

CHAP. XXXII.

Of the timely Peach-tree.

BVt now to speake of the timely Peach-tree,* it beareth a verie small fruit, but earlier than other Peach-trees doe, and hauing his name thereupon▪ it is of a verie good relish, and no way harmefull, in euerie thing else it is like vnto the other Peach-tree, both the one and the other delighting in cold grounds, and open vpon the wind: they likewise craue no other manuring, than that of their owne leaues, and content themselues to be planted three or foure fingers deepe in the ground: but and if they lye verie much open to the force of the wind, they require either to haue some wall, or else some other trees to stand in the forefront betwixt them and the wind to breake it off. The timely peach craueth such a ground as the Plum-tree, and groweth either of the stone or of a plant. It is to be planted in October or Nuember, or else in Ianuarie or in Februarie. It may be grafted verie vvell vpon it selfe, or vpon the plum-tree, peach-plum-tree, and al∣mond-tree, and in drie times it must be oftentimes watered and digged: it craueth the like husbanding and ordering that the other peach-tree doth. See more aboue in the Chapter of the Peach-tree.

If you fill vp a great companie of the new leaues of the timely Peach-tree,* or common Peach-tree into a glase viole or earthen pot, and after stop it and 〈◊〉 it well, so as that no moisture can get into it, and so set it a foot or two within the ground neere vnto some brooke, or else in a heape of horse-dung for the space of a moneth, and after straine out the said leaues with a presse, you shall draw a singlar oyle to temper the rage of agues, annointing the wrest of either arme, the temples, and backe bone of him that hath the ague therewith, before the fit take him.

CHAP. XXXIII.

Of the Walnut-tree.

AS for the Walnut-tree,* it is a tree verie common, and sufficiently knowne in all parts, so called by reason of the annoyance that it worketh others which are neere vnto it, as also the places where it is planted, men, yea and the verie beasts: in so much as that it is proued by experience, that if a man doe sleepe vnder it, at his awaking he shall find a great heauinesse in his head, and withall become so light and giddie, as that he will not be able to stirre: yea the shadow thereof is so malignant, as that no good thing can grow vnder it, and the roots (as well as the shadow) stretching and spreading themselues farre, doe hinder and trouble all the ground where the same tree is seated and planted: so that it must not be planted in arable ground, but especially not in fat and fertile ground, but ra∣ther vpon the North quarter by the high way sides, or elsewhere, so that there be no other fruit-trees by to take harme by it. This tree is for many causes to be gotten of the husbandman: in as much as it needeth no great dressing or prouision for the maintenance of it, it suffereth and beareth injuries of those which oppresse it, and yet neuerthelesse extendeth and yeeldeth his fruit in liberall sort euen with it owne losse, it prospereth both aboue and vnder the earth, and there is neither leafe, fruit, shell, or gristle betwixt the kernell, but there may profit and commoditie be raised of it, both night and day, as shall be declared in euerie of his particular properties. It es∣pecially delighteth in a fat, mouldrie, light, and (in a word) in a good corne ground, the husbandman likewise delighteth in such a ground: but the Walnut-tree refuseth Page  385 no kind of ayre or ground, for it can verie well endure to beare and suffer much. For the planting of it, you must make choyce of such walnuts and trees as beare aboun∣dance of fruit, hauing thin shells, and a vvhite, full, and thicke kernell. And to make it grow, you may digge the nut into the earth, the pointed end downeward, or else plant it of the shoots that are faire growne,* and that in Nouember, and throughout all December in hot countries; but in Februarie and March in cold countries; and in temperate countries, in which of the two seasons you vvill. But such as would haue it to grow of the nut in Nouember and all December, must obserue and see that the nut which they would burie in the earth for this purpose, be but a yeare old, of a fair shell, sound, and drie: and, if it be in the moneth of Februarie, or any part of March, the nut must be steeped, as some are of opinion, for foure or fiue daies aforehand, in some childs vrine, or else (as I gesse) in cows milke: for the tree that shall grow ther∣of, will beare his nuts as little displeasing either in eating or in the oyle thereof, as if it were the fruit or oyle of sweet almonds.

If you would haue this tree to grow faire,* and full of nuts of a good tast, you must remoue it, but let it be possessed of the earth where it grew either of a graft → or otherwise: and in remouing of it, some find it not good that the small rootes should be cut away as it is vsed in other Trees: both because the Maister-rootes doe gather footing and strength thereby, as also for that being as it vvere relieued by such shootes, vvould become more strong and more able to pierce the earth, and to sucke and suppe vp greater quantitie of the moisture of the same. I could be of mind, that when it is remoued (which must not be but when it is two or three yeares old) there should be taken from it at that time whatsoeuer surplusage and surcharge of roots, euen so manie as may be tearmed bastard or by-roots, and not of the master or maine ones: for as for the cutting off of the ends of the great roots,* that is done but for the opening of their mouth, that so they may the better sucke in the moisture and iuice of the earth (if one may so speake of the new nurse which you haue ap∣pointed and assigned it.) In respect of his pits and holes whereinto you remoue it, they must be digged of a great depth and widenesse, and be well stirred round a∣bout, and set distant thirtie or fortie foot one from another, that so it may the better spread forth his branches, which are wont to couer and occupie a great deale of roome round about it: and if they should be anie neerer one vnto another, their boughes would grow one into another, whereas they craue to haue their sides free and open. And this is the reason why they should be planted vpon the borders of grounds lying vpon high wayes: for by this meanes the great compasse which their branches take, doe not hurt seed grounds, or not aboue halfe, and by this meanes the looking-glasse wherein the husbandman may behold such hinderance and disad∣uantage as might come by scarcitie that yeare, shall not be farre off from him or his hinds,* vvho hold it for certaine, that great store of Walnuts doth prefage great spoyle of corne. To set a Tree of some other kind amongst them, is no more profi∣table than to lay the inheritance of some base and meane fellow, betwixt the demaines of two great noble men: for the Walnut-trees which are naturally great spreaders in the earth vvith their great roots,* vvill robbe it and eat it out of food and suste∣nance euen home to his owne doores, and couering it aboue vvill take from it both the Sunne, and the libertie of the ayre. But in as much as the things of this vvorld are so framed,* as that there is nothing vvhich hath not his enemie, you must beware of placing the Walnut-tree either vpon seed or plant neere to the oake, as also not to set it in the place where any oake hath stood at any time before: because that these two Trees haue a naturall hatred one vnto another, and cannot couple or sure to∣gether.

The Walnut-tree is grafted in Februarie vpon it selfe,* and vpon the Plum-tree in a clouen hole: howbeit, the Walnut-tree doth not profit much, or thriue, when it is grafted vpon anie other tree than vpon it selfe, because it abhorreth the companie of all other trees. It must be digged about, that so it may not grow hollow by reason of the grasse. It must be remoued in hot and drie places in October, when the leaues Page  386 are fallen, and yet better in Nouember: but in cold places in February and in March▪ and at either time in temperate places.

This is a maruellous thing of this tree,* that the more it is beaten yearely, the more fruit it beareth the yeare after following, although the boughes be brused and bro∣ken: for which cause good farmers are carefull to geld and weed out some of the boughes of such a Tree, and withall doe make great and diers incisions with some edge-toole in the stocke of the tree.

If you cast and spread ashes sundrie times,* and oft at the root, and vpon the stocke of the tree, the nut will haue a more tender shell, and a more brittle kernell. It vvill grow fairer, and beare fruit sooner, if you strike a copper naile into it euen to the middest, or else a wedge of vvood. It will not let drop any vnripe fruit, if you hang at some of the branches, or tie vpon his roots white mullem, or some rent and 〈◊〉 fustian taken out of a dunghill.

Walnuts will grow without shells,* if you breake the shell vvithout brusing the kernell, and afterward wrap the sayd kernell in vvooll, or in the fresh leaues of the vine, and so put it into the earth. If the Walnut-tree displease you in respect of the harme it may doe vnto his neighbour trees, you may cause it to die, and present∣ly drie away, if you strike into the root thereof a verie hot naile, or a wedge of Myrtle-tree-wood, or if you put beanes to his roots, or a cloth dipped in the 〈◊〉 of women.

Walnuts must be gathered when they begin to cast their rind,* and when they are gathered, they may not by and by be layed vp, but first dried in the Sunne.

The profits that the Walnut-tree yeeldeth vnto his maister are infinite:* for of it he may gather to make excellent preserues, taking his nuts about Midsommer: it yeeldeth wood for the kitchin, by being lopt of dead boughes, wherewith it is of∣tentimes troubled:* but in cutting off this dead vvood, care must be had not to cut it off round, because it would be a meanes for to make way for the raine to enter in, and the vvet of the night would settle therein, and in tract of time rot it to the heart, but it must be cut biace, and with a ridge, that so neither raine, nor the vvet of the night may get in,* or rest vpon it. It giueth a rind which is good for the things spoken of hereafter: it affordeth shells, which make good ashes: it affordeth a ker∣nell to be serued at the table, seruiceable in the kitchin, and in lampes: and further∣more, of the drosse of the kernell some make candles, in such countries as where the oyle is much in request, as in Mirebalois, and thereabout: it affordeth a gristle be∣twixt the two halfes of the kernell,* which being dried in the shadow (after that the kernell is once perfected) and afterward made into powder, and drunke with a 〈◊〉 draught of red vvine, doth by and by assuage the paine of the colicke: as also, the fruit comming of it, when it is worth nothing but to make refuse and outcastings of (as the nut growne old and all hoarie) ceasth not notwithstanding to doe good ser∣uice: for and if you burne it lightly, or squeese it out easily with a hot yr••, the oyle that then wil come forth of it, is singular good to take away blewnesse of strokes, whe∣ther about the eyes, or elsewhere in the face or other part of the bodie: the old 〈◊〉 serueth also for other vses as shall be said by and by.* The wood of the walnut tree is good and handsome to put in worke, when you would make any faire and 〈◊〉 worke, because it is listed and smooth of his owne nature.

The small buds of the walnut-tree (called of he Latins Iuli) appearing in March, being dried, and after powdred and drunke with white vvine, the weight of a French crowne, are exceedingly good in the suffocation of the matrix. The oyle of the nut drunke to the quantitie of fiue or sixe ounces, doth cure the colicke: if you mixe a little quicke lime amongst the oyle of nuts, it will make a singular liniment for the swellings and shortnesse of the sinews. The old oyle of walnuts cureth the falling of the haire called Tinea.

If you pill off the greene pillings of the walnuts,* and cast them into water, and af∣ter cast this vvater vpon the ground, there will grow from thence great store of wormes, good for fishers: if you boyle the pillings in a cldron after they be fall••Page  387 from the Tree, as opening of themselues, and rubbe any kind of white wood what∣soeuer with this water, it will turne to the colour of the Walnut-tree, but more faire and beautifull.

Some steepe the barke of the roots of Walnut-trees in vinegar,* and after lay it vp∣on the wrests of such as haue the ague. This draweth out all the heat of the ague: but it swelleth the skin of the wrest.

Some make a soueraigne mithridate* against the plague (as we haue said in the chapter of rue) with two old walnuts, three figges, twentie leaues of rue, and one graine of salt.

The walnut closed vp in a hen or capon set to the fire to roast,* causeth the said hen or capon to be the sooner roasted.

The distilled vvater of vnripe Walnuts,* gathered about Midsommer, is singu∣lar good to driue away tertian agues, if one take about some foure or fiue ounces of it.

The Walnut either new or drie (but yet the drie somewhat lesse) is of hard dige∣stion, causeth head-ach, and hurteth the cough and short breath, and therefore it must be vsed sparingly: steepe whole walnuts, pillings and shells and all, in a suffici∣ent quantitie of water, vntill such time as that their shell be sufficiently softned and moistened, and that the kernell may be pilled easily from the thin filme that coue∣reth it ouer, as it falleth out in greene walnuts: this done, take the kernells so pil∣led, and let them steepe in a pot vvell couered in verie good Aqua-vitae; giue two daies after, two or three of these kernells whole to a woman that cannot haue her termes, for the space of eight or nine daies before her accustomed time of hauing her termes, and that in the morning, and after that she hath purged. This medicine hath neuer a match in prouoking of the termes that are stayed, and it is a thing well proued. And as for the manner of keeping and preseruing of them, we will speake in his fit place.

If the same day that you haue beene bitten of a dogge (which you doubt to haue beene madde) you put vpon the biting an old nut well brayed,* and after take it a∣way, and cast it to a hungrie cock or hen, if the same eating it die not, it is a signe that the dogge which did bite you was not madde, but and if it die, then it is a signe that he was madde, and therefore the sore must be looked vnto as is meet within three daies.

CHAP. XXXIIII.

Of the Oliue-tree.

NOw we come to speak of the Oliue-tree, which is for the most part small, thicke of leaues, and round, for there are some sorts also that haue great branches dispersed here and there out of order: both the one and the o∣ther sort are contented with a shallow ground, for in many places they grow vpon the thin green swarth or turfe that couereth the rocks, & vpon the ground hanging vpon the sides of some great steeres; thus you may see how the oliue-tree disposeth of it selfe euerie where, how vnfitting and vnlikely soeuer that the ground be, prouided that it haue a warme ayre, and Easterly or Southerly wind at command. He that would carefully appoint it out such a plot, as the vine would require, might erre in many places: for the oliue-tree is not so much to be regarded in respect of his soyle and seat at the vine, for it contenteth it selfe with a great deale lesse than the vine vvill. If you giue it ground that is good and fat earth, and the Sunne and Winds, which it delighteth in, in other places, doubt not but it will doe as the Spa∣niard, who pleaseth himselfe with as good as nothing, when he knoweth not how to amend himselfe, or do better, and performeth his seruice therewithall: but if he come Page  388 where he may but haue the smell of it, he is stuffed as full as the greatest 〈◊〉 in all Lymosin: so the Oliue-tree being once seised in his tallance of a good piece of ground, contenteth it selfe, and beareth fruit handsomely. As concerning the plan∣ting of it vpon the North in hot Countries, and there searing it vpon the toppes of mountaines, or lesser hills or vpon the South in cold Countries, these are but troubles and paines without anie great foundation: for as concerning cold Countries, there is no talke to be had of growing of Oliue-trees in them; and as concerning hot Co••∣tries, there is neither taking nor leauing of quarters or coasts in respect of this tree.

The Oliue-tree doth encrease it selfe by shoots which it putteth forth at the soot for being pulled vp vnhurt,* and planted elsewhere, they grow vp verie speedily. And to prepare them a faire place to grow in, you must digge them pits where you mind to set them, a yeare before hand, of foure foot depth: and if you cannot haue holes made readie for them so long before, but must be constrained to set them downe in new digged ones, then you must season and purifie the said holes, by burning of the leaues and some small branches of the Oliue-tree therein, or else some straw at the least; for the fire drieth vp the euill iuice of the earth of the said hole in the same man∣ner as the Sunne should haue done by little and little all the yeare long. Some would, that it being prickt downe of a branch, it should not be set in so fat a ground, because the oyle would not be so excellent, as and if it were planted in a ground betwixt fat and leane, and that not without apparance of truth. But whether it be planted in the one or the other, it wil be husbanded euerie yeare for the space of a great circle round about the foot: for indeed, he that tilleth and dresseth his Oliue ground yearely, doth a great deale better than he that doth not. In anie case it would not haue the rootes scanted of libertie, but to spread and lie at large. And if you bestow any manure vp∣on it, being the thing it loueth well, then bestow vpon it Goats or Horse dung well rotted, and that after you haue digged it about the foot, to the end that the dung may mingle well with the earth so digged. After you haue once set it, remoue it not thence for the space of foure or fiue yeares: neither then must you dare to be so bold, if that it haue not gotten a stocke as thicke as a mans arme: and taking it vp, take vp there∣withall the greene turfe of the ground where it stood, and whereunto his roots sticke fast, and when you set it downe, giue it the like situation for coast and quarter that it had before.

You may graft → it vpon it selfe,* and it will beare more thicke and kinder fruit: or ele vpon the wild Oliue, but then the profit is not like, as when it is grafted vpon the garden and ame one. The Italians graft → it vpon the Vine, boring the Vine∣stocke neere vnto the earth, and putting into this bored hole a small Oliue branch, that so it may take neere at hand, and at the first offer, both the nourishment and vinie qualitie of the stocke of the said Vine: along the which must be set a stake or thicke prop to helpe it to beare vp the weight and burden of the graft → when it is great, and these Oliues will tast both of the one and of the other, and become as it vvere vined Oliues. Such a proofe is not to be misliked, in as much as the variable∣nesse of nature is shewed thereby, which is content to suffer her selfe to be drawne to bring forth a mungrell fruit or second hermaphrodite, by the coupling together of two natures in one: but the end of such experiments turne not to profit, neither for the preseruing of the Oliue, nor for the drawing of oyle Omphacine, nor yet any other, for vvhich ends God ordayned and gaue vs the Oliue-trees. And to speake the truth, the mingling of kinds and differing rootes of Trees, (if it be not according to, and jumping with the naturall vertues of them both, and according to an agreement in some good measure of perfection, and yet furthermore well and throughly allowed and approued by reason:) becommeth rather a monstrous birth, and an inforcement of nature, than any profitable impe either for the health of man, or for the sauing and sparing of it selfe. Hereof are sufficient vvitnesses, I know not how many sorts of Apples, Peares, and Cherries, this iumbled together by offe∣ring force vnto nature without judgement or reason: and but that they become some∣what admirable vnto the eye, they yeeld no profit vnto the bodie of any man, more Page  389 than to draine his purse drie: except there be aduised judgement in making choyce of that thing and way which may be both for the aduauncement of the yearely profits of his ground, and for the good preseruation of his health. But leauing off these discourses, let vs returne againe to the Oliue-tree, which hath both more beau∣tie in it selfe, and more profit for the maister, if it be contayned in a reasonable sta∣•••e for height, and spread it selfe abroad, than and if it should shoot vp and become verie long and tall. For if it exceed the height of ten foot and a little more, it is aba∣ted and hindered in the putting forth of so many blossomes as it would, and hath his boughes crushed in peeces which grow vp at that pitch, when the wind bloweth strong, and thereupon also it casteth his fruit in vntimely sort, euen when it is verie full. For this cause in many places there are some found which perforce doe turne downeward such boughes as grow so high, not regarding their standing out like bosses and bunches, prouided that they be low and lurkingly couched: because that being so trussed vp, they are free from stormes and tempests, and abound the more in fruit: and if yet the Oliue-tree would be climing higher, then you must cut off such aspiring boughes or braunches▪ and this must be done after the gathering of the O∣liues is past. It is true that the Oliue-tree must be eight yeare old, before you re∣forme it in the boughes growing ouer high, by cutting them off with a saw: but as for the shootes putting forth at the foot and along the stocke, you must not refuse the cutting of them off how young soeuer they be. The profit comming both of the one and the other, is, that it aboundeth more in fruit: and this is the cause why some commonly say, That hee that husbandeth and ordereth it with care and taking of paines about it, helpeth it forward in the bringing forth of his fruit; as also he which manureth it, as it earnestly craueth: but he that cutteth downe some boughs off from it, compelleth it by all manner to meanes to become fruitfull; seeing the nature of the Oliue-tree is such (as Quintilian saith) as that it being cut off and made bare of boughs and high mounting tops, it spreadeth rounder and broader, and putting forth moe boughs, doth also beare the more fruit, because the propertie of the Oliue-tree is to be ranke either in boughs or in fruit. It happeneth sometime to the Oliue-tree, that it bringeth forth but one onely bough exceeding all other in beautie and height: when this falleth out, it must be cut off without delay, for this is a signe that the tree in space and time will conuey all his whole workemanship that way, and will leaue nothing for anie thing else; and vpon this, will barrennesse come in the end. And whereas the Oliue-tree craueth to be left bare and thinne of boughes, and then bea∣reth more fruit, yet if the boughes be stricken downe with poles when the Oliues are beaten downe, it groweth much worse, and goeth backward, forsaking and for∣lowing his former fruitfulnesse. So that hereupon you see, that in gathering of O∣liues, you may not beat them downe with poles, but rather you must haue ladders borne vp vpon a Goats foot, to lift you as high, as that you may gather the Oliues with your hand. There are some Countries where the Oliue-trees doe rest and giue ouer bearing for one yeare after that they haue borne, and then the yeare after that they beare out of all measure, as in Portugale, and the oyle that is made of those is good in the highest degree. You must in any case looke to the inconueniences and harmes that the Oliue-tree is subiect vnto.* Many times in drie or moist places O∣liue-trees are spoyled, and become all ouergrowne with mosse, which must be taken away with one toole or other: for else the Oliue-tree will neither abound in leaues nor fruit.

Sometimes the Oliue-tree, although it be faire,* yet beareth no fruit, and then you must bore through the stocke with a wimble, and put in good and deepe the graft → of a greene bough of a wild oliue-tree, or of some other oliue-tree that is fruitful, and that vpon either side of the hole: then afterward, to close vp both the said holes with mor∣tar mixt with straw, and the tree as a new made thing wit become fruitful by the graf∣ting in of this graft → . Others in such case doe vncouer the root, and renew the seat that it standeth in▪ Againe, it may be remedied, and the foot not vncouered, with the lees of vnsalted oliues, with mans vrine that is old, or with the stale vrine of hogges.

Page  390 It falleth out many times that the fruit is spoyled and lost by the naughtinesse of the ground where it is planted:* and then it must be thus remedied. The Tree must be vncouered verie low at the oot round about, and quicke lime put into it, more or lesse according to the greatnesse of the Tree, for a little tree craueth but a little. The Oliue-tree sometimes beareth much fruit or flowres, and notwithstanding by a se∣cret disease that is in it, it cannot bring them to a good end to ripen them: vvhen th•• happeneth, the stocke must be vncouered round about, and the lees of oyle mixt with sweet water afterward applied thereto.

Sometimes the Oliue-tree becommeth all withered,* and falling into a consumpti∣on, which thing may happen through wormes or other vermine which spoyle and eat the roots, and the remedie is to water the foot with lee of Oliues. It sometimes al∣so falleth out that the frut of the Oliue-tree falleth before it be ripe: for a remedie whereof, take a beane that hath a weeule within it, close vp the hole with wax: after∣ward take a greene turfe from neere vnto the root of the Oliue-tree, and put the beane in it, and so couer it with earth, and the fruit of the oliue-tree will not fall.

Aboue all things, you must keepe oliue-trees from Turtle-doues, Stares, and other such like birds which are exceedingly giuen to ••corishnesse. As concerning the O∣liue-tree and oliues, you may see more at large in the second booke, and of the oyle in this third booke.

CHAP. XXXV.

Of the Date-tree.

COncerning the Date-tree,* it hath much a doe to beare fruit in this co••∣trie, but and if it beare, yet it is verie late: it craueth to haue a hot ayre and countrie, or at the least well tempered, and the fruit which it bea∣reth, is ripe before the Oliue-tree be good. It delighteth in a light, sandie, and vntilled or champian ground: and it is a plant either for Aprill or May, to be planted of a small plant with the root. The stone is set new in October, and there must ashes be mingled with the earth where it is planted: and to make i grow and beare goodly fruit, it must be watered often with the lees of wine. Looke in the second booke.

Who so is carefull of his health, let him not eat any Dates, or else as few as possib∣le he can, because they cause the head-ach, obstructions, wringings in the bellie, and in the stomach. And yet notwithstanding this, they stay the flux of the bellie, and put into gargarismes, they cure the frettings and cankrous vlcers of the mouth.

CHAP. XXXVI.

Of the Chesnut tree.

LEauing the Date-tree, we come now to treat of the Chesnut-tree, which groweth verie great, high, and thicke, differing but a little from the wal∣nut-tree, it beareth a profitable fruit, and hath not his like, whether you respect the shape, his nature, or the nourishment it yeeldeth 〈…〉, as is to be seene in Auuergne, Sauoy, Periguux, and Lymosin, and especially in Lyon∣noyse and Daulphinie, where the great chesnuts grow: in which countries, especial∣ly in Parigord, the greatest parts of the forests are of chesnut-trees, & an infinit 〈◊〉 of people liue not of any other thing but of this fruit, eating it sometimes boyled, sometimes roasted, sometimes made into bread, sometimes into broth with 〈◊〉, sometimes in meale baked after another sort. Likewise, nature seeing the profit 〈◊〉Page  391 redounded vnto men from this so profitable a fruit, hath fenced and armed it with strong harnesse and such mightie armour, as that it goeth for proofe both against the tooth of the beast, and beake of the birds, so long as it is kept within his vppermost cote and prickly couering; yea, and furthermore, vnder his rind and pilling, when it is taken away, with another rind that is good and hard, and with another that is more soft and fine, for the better preseruing of it. This tree pleaseth it selfe with such a ground as is lying vpon the North, and being moist rather than drie, or standing vp∣on the South, for as much as it loueth the shadow better than the open Sunne, the valleyes better than the mountaines, a soft ground better than that which is hard and massie, and a light ground, and yet not a sandie or clayie. To haue good store of Chesnuts, it is better to sow them than to plant them, and that in a well digged and stirred ground, being also neat and well batled, and that in the moneth of March, et∣ting them in the earth a foot deepe, the sharpe end vpward, foure or sixe of them to∣gether, taken out of great and ripe Chesnuts, and euerie hole distant from another the space of a fadome; and two or three yeares after to plant them in some other places, fortie foot asunder euerie one from another, and that in respect of the great compasse which they take with their branches on euerie side. If you would haue it to grow of a branch, it must be such a one as hath root: for to make it grow of it selfe, by pric∣king downe into the earth some sience, it will neuer be. Wherefore the most certaine way is to make it grow of the fruit it selfe, pricking it downe into the earth, as hath beene said: notwithstanding it may be propagated or multiplied, burying and sin∣king some of his new shoots in the earth. It taketh likewise, if it be grafted in the cleft or in the Canon or Gun-like graft → , and that in March, Aprill, and May, vpon it selfe, or vpon the Beech-tree, or vpon the Willow, but it then ripeneth verie quickly, and beareth a fruit of a sharpe and vnpleasant tast.

Chesnuts must be gathered in Autumne,* and kept till their rindes be become of a verie bay colour, and cast out their fruit. Howbeit, if one would keepe them a long time, it were better to beat them downe with poles whiles they be greene, and not to tarrie till they fall to the ground, for those will not keepe aboue fifteene daies, if they be not presently dried in the smoake.

The manner of keeping Chesnuts,* is to couer them with common Nuts; for the common Nut hath power to drie and inuade the excrementous moisture of all things whereunto it is applyed: or else to gather them reasonably ripe in the decrease of the Moone, and to put them in a coole place in sand, or in some vessell; but let in stand continually in the coole, and so well stopt, as that no ayre may get in, for otherwise they will be spoyled and rotten in a short time.

The fairest, best fed, and most pleasant Chesnut of all others, is that which groweth in the Countrey of Lyonnoise, and are called great Chesnuts of Lyons; or else I know not as yet from whence they haue taken their name. But howsoeuer it is, besides the profit of the nourishment and sustenance which the Chesnut yeeldeth, the Chesnut-tree is of great vse to make Vessels of, as Caske to put wine and other drinkes into, to build Bridges withall, as also Conduit-pipes, Pillars, and infinite other things about Buildings, Engines, props for Vines, Pales and Railes for Parkes, Gardens, and other such places.

The leaues of the Chesnut-tree,* after they be fallen, are gathered vp before anie raine come to touch them, and serueth for litter for Cattell; which being thus turned into dung, serueth to manure withall. Many vse them to fill featherbed-ticks withall, and call them mockingly by the nick-name of Parliament-beds, because the leaues make a noise when you lye downe vpon them, when you rise vp from them, or when you moue your selfe anie manner of way to or fro.

The ashes of the wood of Chesnut-tree is not good to make lee of,*, because it spot∣t••h and staineth the Linnen so mightily, as that such staines will neuer be got out.

Chesnuts with vineger and barly flower applyed in manner of a Cataplasme vnto womens breasts which are hard, doe make the same soft: stamped with salt and ho∣ny,* they are applyed vnto the bitings of mad dogges: the rinds or skinnes thereof Page  392 are put manie times in lees, which are made to colour the haire yellow: their red in∣ward rind, which lyeth next vnto the white kernell, being drunke the weight of two drammes, stayeth all manner of fluxes of the belly, and of bloud, as also the whites of women, with equall quantitie of Iuorie. Chesnuts, in as much as they be widie, they prouoke men to lust: being eaten excessiuely, they cause the head-ach: they swell and harden the belly, and are of hard digestion: such as are roasted vnder ashes, are lesse hurtfull than the raw or boyled ones, especially if they be eaten with pep∣per per and salt, or sugar.

CHAP. XXXVII.

Of the Pine-tree.

THe Pine-tree craueth a sandie,* light, and stonie ground: and therefore it groweth willingly in out-cast and contemned plots, such as there are manie of by the coasts of the maine Sea. It is planted in the moneth of October and Nouember, and it is not to be translated till after that it hath beene three years planted, and then it must be seated in a well digged place, and in an earth well manured with Horse dung. This tree hath a nature contrarie vnto the Walnut-tree, because it causeth to thriue and prosper whatsoeuer is set vnder the sha∣dow of it: againe, it is not so combersome as to keepe away the Sunne and the wind from the things that ioyne next vnto it, or vnder it. The Pine kernes (for to be kept) must be put in new pots full of earth, together with their shells.

Such as haue weake lungs, or are growne leane by some long sicknesse, must goe a taking of ayre into the Forests, where there are good store of Pines, because such ayre is verie profitable for them. Their kernels steeped in warme water, to take away their oylie qualitie and sharpnesse, being often eaten, doe cure the ach of the 〈◊〉, the ach of the backe, the palsie, benummednesse, trembling of the parts, weaknesse of the lungs, shortnesse of breath, vlcers of the lungs, vlcers of the reines and of the bladder, the scalding of the vrine, and make fat such as are leane and wasted, 〈◊〉 vp lust in such as languish and are weake vnto the work of venerie. They cure the gnawings of th stomacke, taken with water of Plantaine, or iuice of Purcelane. The new Nuts of the Pine-tree distilled in a Limbecke, make a singular water to take a∣way the wrinckles of the face, and to stay the excessiue great growth of wome•• breasts, if you apply a Linnen cloth steeped in this water vpto them. Set in the second Booke.

CHAP. XXXVIII.

Of the Plum-tree.

AS for the Plum-tree,* it is a common and ordinarie tree, agreeing with 〈◊〉 Countries of whatsoeuer conditions: howbeit the Damaske Plum-tree is more cheerefull, and pleaseth it selfe better in a drie Countrie and hot aire than it doth elsewhere. The Plum-tree will grow easily, and encrese in∣finitely: for and if it be once brought into a plot of ground, in a short time it eiseth it selfe vpon the whole place: and if it be planted on the one side of a wall, it will leape within a short time after vpto the other side of it, and so placeth the wall in the midst. It desireth not to be dunged, because the dung maketh the fruit to mould or rot, and easily to fall downe: but it would be oft digged at the foot round about, as frre as the compasse of his roots stretcheth, and watred in drie weather. It growth vpon a stone Page  393 buried a foot deepe in the earth that is fat, and that in Nouember or Februarie, ha∣uing sleept the said stone for three daies space before you sow or set it in lee, or longer in a composition of Cinnamon water, if you would haue it to yeeld anie aromaticall smell: or else of a meere plant, hauing a root in a pit a little digged, because it gras∣peth not much ground with his foot, but yet it must be good and light and easie to be pierced round about, for the affoording of an easie and plentifull seat vnto it. It grow∣eth also in prosperous sort, if it be grafted after the Scuti hon-like fashion, either vp∣on it selfe, or vpon the sweet Cherrie: or else in the cleft, and that besides the two for∣mer, vpon the Apple-tree, Almond-tree, Peach-tree, and Ceruise-tree: of all which sorts of grafts, that is the best which is vpon it selfe, or vpon the sweet Cherrie-tree; for all the rest are but meanes to cause the Plum to degenerate from his nature, and to become bastardly, as well in their shape as in their tast. The fittest time to graft → them, is in Februarie or in March, and then rather in the stocke than in the barke.

There is a certaine kind of scab which doth take hold of it, and that either by let∣ting the gumme to stand and hang about it, and to wax old, which it casteth forth, or else by reason of the mose which it gathereth, and for that cause it would haue his gumme taken away at the beginning of cold weather, and the mose rubbed off with a rough Linnen cloth, or a mose rubber of Horse-haire, and this at all times.

There happeneth likewise vnto it an vindisposedesse through the fault of the Gar∣diner,* not casting the ground about the foot, or cutting off the rotten and corrupt wood; whereupon it turneth in and rowleth it selfe vp into small balls, sometimes in one place, sometimes in moe: and this is a disease which being neglected, doth spread it selfe in the end all ouer the tree, from one end to another, and bringeth it wholly to distruction: and therefore so soone as you shall see the sicke tree in this sort to crum∣ple and runne vpon heapes, you must cut off verie cleane all the boughes thus disea∣sed, whereof it would be murdered and killed, euen to the sound and whole branches, and withall to order & husband it in all good sort about the foot, to the taking away of this euili humor, which in this maner crooketh and causeth to turne round his wood.

There happeneth also sometimes,* by reason of some secret cause, that it so langui∣sheth, as that it giueth ouer to beare fruit: for the putting of it in heart againe, you must lay open his roots, and cast vpon them the lees of oyle mingled with water, or else the stale of oxen, or mans vine, or cast vpon the roots the ashes of Vine bran∣ches throughly boyled.

All Plums in generall are cold and moist, more or lesse, the sweet ones lesse, the sowre and sharpe ones more.

The sweet Plums haue vertue to loosen the belly,* and yet they will purge more strongly, if at such time as when the Plum-tree is young, there be taken from it some part of the pith of the stocke, or else one of his boughes, and the place filled vp againe with Scammonie. They will in like manner procure sleepe,* if you put into the said emptied places the iuice of Mandrakes, or Opium. Sharpe and tart Plums are giuen to stay the belly.* There is great account made in Prouence of the Plums of Brignoles, by reason of their pleasant tast. In France throughout, and euerie where else, there is a speciall account made of Damaske Plums, which are of three sorts, the black, red, and violet colour, all of them prouing verie excellent in the Countrey of Tourraine, for from thence are sent, throughout all France, of them dried, which are vsed at all times. The Plums of Pardigoine are likewise greatly esteemed, by reason of their plumpe∣nesse and pleasant tast. Furthermore, Dates are verie rare and scarce in this Country, namely, those which come neere to the Dates of other strange Countries, which are more pleasant relished than anie other. Some likewise make account of Rhemish Plums dried, by reason of the pleasant tartnesse and sharpnesse which they haue.

Page  394

CHAP. XXXIX.

Of the Pomegranate-tree.

COncerning the Pomegranate-tree,* it requireth little husbanding, 〈◊〉 yeeldeth small delight to the sight, by reason of his ill-fauored branches and boughs; saue so long as it is bearing his fruit, before it come to per∣fect ripenesse, and yet put out, quartered, and as it were laid open to th shew, out of his coat and couering, this tree is the most delightsome to behold of all others: the frame and fashion of whose flower and fruit being well considered, i worke of Nature right admirable: there is not that raine, that scorching heat of th Sunne, nor yet almost that fading and decaying old age, which can cause it to forgoe his goodly shew of Rubies: and yet notwithstanding, how famous a thing soeer it be, it groweth without anie daintie or delicate handling and looking to, and that sometimes at the foot of a wall, sometimes in the midst of a heape of stones, and some∣times amongst the hedges by high waies sides. It is true, that it craueth a hot Coun∣trey, and where it may not be debarred of the Sunne: and if it happen to be set at any time in a fat ground, it maketh his best aduantage of it, being in this respect like vnto the Oliue-tree, whereof we haue spoken before. And if it be in such a Countrey as i fit for it, you need not to thinke either of the digging or vnder-digging of it: for it reckoneth not of seeing it selfe set in a great heape of stones, as neither to breake crosse-wise through a ruinous wall, neither ceaseth t for anie such thing from bring∣ing forth his good and pleasant fruit: but in cold Countries, where it hardly groweth, it would be digged and husbanded about the foot twice a yeare, that is to say, in Au∣tumne and in the Spring. It will grow either vpon roots, or of grafting in the cleft, and that vpon it selfe, about March or Aprill: but and if you will plant it vpon som branch that hath roots, you must chuse such a one as is a handfull thicke, and make it a delightsome and fine moulded pit. Some would haue it thrust into the earth with a stake by it, as is vsuall in setting Willow plants, but I cannot find that this way of thrusting it downe thus into the earth, doth proue to anie good. The Pomegranate-tree will not loose his flower, if when as it is flowred you compasse the flocke about with a ring or hoope of Lead, or with the old slough of an Adder.

The wine of Pomegranats* is made of this sort: You must take the ripe kernels cleane and free from their skins, and put them in the presse, where they must be pres∣sed by and by. Some straine them through bagges made for the purpose: some 〈◊〉 them to be put into vessels vntill it be well fined; in the end they powre oyle vpo them, that they may not corrupt or grow sowre.

The Pomegranate Apple put in a pot of new earth, well couered and 〈◊〉 with clay, set in an Ouen, and in the end so well parched, as that it may be made into pow∣der, then such powder taken the weight of halfe a crowne with red wine, doth helpe th partie maruellously that hath the bloudie flux. The innermost flowers of th Pomegranate made vp in conserue with Sugar, haue an incredible force to stay 〈◊〉 manner of fluxes of the Matrix, whether white or red, taken in the quantitie of 〈◊〉 an ounce, with the iuice of sowre Pomegranates, or red wine, or water wherein 〈◊〉 hath beene quenched; as also to stay the bloudie flux, the shedding of nature, th flux of the guts, or of the stomacke. The kernels of sowre Pomegranates died, made into powder, and after mingled, the weight of an ounce, with a 〈◊〉 of fine powdred Frankincense, and two drammes of this powder taken euerie mor∣ning, doe stay the whites.

Page  395

CHAP. XL.

Of the Ceruise-tree.

THe Ceruise-tree,* as well the male as the female, delighteth in a cold, moist, and mountainous place, but in a hot and plaine place it thruieth not. It must be sowne of the stones: and some plant it of shoots in Fe∣bruarie and in March. It is grafted in the end of March and Aprill vpon it selfe, vpon the Thorne or Quince-tree, and vpon the Peare-maine-tree, in the barke or stocke. It must be often digged and watered: and let him that can conueniently, lay dung vnto the foot of it, mingled with ashes, and that in verie deepe pits.

Ceruises are gathered in Autumne before they be ripe: they are gathered by hand∣fuls tyed together: or else they are orderly laid vpon straw to ripen them: for other∣wise they are not fit to be eaten, because of the harshnesse.

The wood of the Ceruise-tree is verie solide, close, and hard, and therefore in great request to make Tables of, and other house implements, as also to make goads and whips for Neat-heards.

There is wine made of Ceruises,* as there is of Peares. Ceruises haue force to re∣straine fluxes of the bellie: and for this cause they may be dried in the Sunne before they be ripe, and afterward vsed.

He who hath sometimes beene subiect vnto the biting of a mad dogge, or other∣wise, must not sleepe or rest vnder the shadow of the Ceruise-tree: for if hee doe, it will hazard him to cast him into his former madnesse againe: Such is the force of the Ceruise-tree, to raise vp, renew, and reuiue a qualified and ap∣peased madnesse.

CHAP. XLI.

Of the Corneile-tree.

AS for the Corneile-tree,* which the Latines call Corus, (so called, because his stocke is of such knottie and solide wood, as that it seemeth to be horne) as well the male as the female, delighteth to be planted in a fat and sandie ground: and as for other things, it would be planted or graf∣ed after the manner of the Ceruise-tree. In anie case it must not be planted neere vnto where Bee-hiues stand, neither suffered to grow there of it selfe: because that the Bees hauing once tasted of the flowers thereof, fall into a flux of the bellie, and die thereupon presently: but the contrarie falleth out in men, who by hauing ea∣ten of the Corneile-tree berries, or of the conserue made of the flowers or fruit thereof, doe fall suddenly into a costienesse. The fruit of this tree is long and ound, fashioned like an Oliue, and is not ripe before Autumne, and then it becom∣eth of a red colour, or the colour of Waxe. This fruit containeth in the pulpe of 〈◊〉 a stonie bone. Some make of the pulpe or flesh a confection like vnto 〈◊〉 with Sugar, and it is verie singular in bloudie fluxes, and the staying of womens termes.

Page  396

CHAP. XLII.

Of the Iuiube-tree.

THe Iuiube-tree is a tree that is verie rare,* and seldome seene in France, but much in the countrey of Prouence, especially about Dupon, S. E∣prit, and in Languedoc. This is a tree of great reach and compasse bot for his height and breadth, and naturally it loueth to be in hot Co••∣tries, not so much seeming to regard the soyle wherein it is set: likewise in manie pl∣ces of the said Countrey it is seene in turning waies and publike places. But and if you would haue it to grow in cold Countries, you must not so lightly regard it 〈◊〉 you must see that it be seated in a good fat ground, and manured with Pigeon dung▪ and ioyning to the side of some wall, whereby it may haue the reflex of the South Sunne, of which you must looke to giue it the full fruition before all other things. Sometimes it groweth of kernels, three or foure of them being put into the earth to∣gether, and their sharpe ends downeward, the holes must be a foot deepe, and hea∣ped full of Cowes dung mingled with ashes of Vine branches, and that in Aprill i hot Countries, and in May in such as are cold. And when it is once growne vp, and become somewhat strong, which will be about the terme of eighteene moneths, or two yeares after, then you shall remoue it into some other place, with such obser••∣tions as haue beene deliuered concerning others, and concerning the Countrey, 〈◊〉 it shall fall out, hot or cold. Some likewise plant it of the root, when it riseth vp into shoots, which haue small threddie and hairie roots, loosing and pulling them vp gently, together with some of the principall roots of the tree, for feare of parting them and their threddie roots, planting them in pits prepared some fifteene daies be∣fore, in a light ground, and that in March. As concerning their iences, to ma•• them grow, it is not so certaine a thing, as that it deserueth the troubling of ones head about it: but for grafting of it in the cleft, either vpon it selfe, or vpon the Medlar-tree, or vpon the Quince-tree, you may if you will: but grafted vpon it selfe, the Iuiubes will be more grosse and thicke, and of a more pleasant tast, as gene∣rally all manner of fruit is, being grafted vpon a tree of his owne kind. Some will say, that it reioyceth during the time of Winter to bee compassed about with a heape of stones, and when Summer commeh, to haue them taken away: and that it craueth likewise to haue Oxe dung layd vnto the roots of it: but in those Co••∣tries where there are such great store of Plants, this piece of seruice is altogether neglected, which notwithstanding is the means to cause great store of faire 〈◊〉 good fruit.

CHAP. XLIII.

Of the Bay-tree.

AS for the Bay-tree,* it is verie common, seeing it groweth in 〈◊〉 ground, 〈◊〉 ouerthwart the Conie-burrowes and heapes of stones. It groweth 〈◊〉 times from vnder the foundation of walls. It is likewise to be a Coun••i∣man in euerie coast and quarter, but yet his naturall incliation and birth-right is to be in hot Countries, or at the least temperate: And therefore being inticed ouer into cold Countries, it must be much made of and well welcomed whe it commeth there: for indeed it must be planted in a fat, solide, and good soyle of earth, neere vnto some wall, where hee may haue the South Sunne to comfort hi with a double comfort▪ and at the approach of Winter, it must be ma••red, Page  397 ouer-cast, and couered with long straw in the strength of the Winter, or else well cased and wrapped about with Mats. It must also be under-digged for the first foure or fiue yeares after his comming and bearing, and that in March and Aprill. And yet, if notwithstanding all this paine and industrie taken, it shall happen to be ex∣treamely and rigorously entreated of the frost, and that the leaes shall begin to wi∣ther away, and the wood to wax blacke, then you must adde more store of earth vn∣to it at the foot, and strengthen it there, in the moneth of March, if that the cold put forth and begin to be dealing the same yeare: for the dung will haue kept the roots and clasping gripes in force and whole vntouched, and so it will not fayle to put forth with speed new shoots and sprigges in aboundance, which will be fit to multi∣plie and propagate the Winter following in the said oneth of March, at which time the sappe draweth vp vnto the barke, if so be that you desire to haue great store. It taketh also of a branch, foreseene that it be set in a fat and blacke earth, which is moist. The time to set it of root, plant, or branch, is either in Autumne or in the Spring. It is sowne in the same seasons a foot vnder ground, and foure berries toge∣ther: and when one yeare is past, you must plant it where you will haue it abide. In anie case you may not sow it or plant it neere vnto anie of the Lattice-worke or clim∣bing and running frames made for the Vine, much lesse neere vnto the plant it selfe, because that the Bay-tree is altogether enemie vnto the Vine, as well in respect of his shadow, as of his heat, which draweth away all meanes of growth from the Vine. Looke in the second Booke.

The leaues of the Bay-tree doe preserue, keepe vncorrupt, and make faster the Fish that is fryed, especially that which is fryed in oyle, laying them by beds one vpon another. They performe in like manner the same good vnto dried Figges, Damaske or Frayle Raisins, if you strew of them amongst the said Raisins in the Frayle.

You must obserue, as well in the leaues of the Bay-tree, as in those of the Iuniper and Elme-tree, that they being cast into the fire, doe presently crackle, and that the cause of this is, for that they take fire before their superfluous and raw moisture be consumed and spent.

The leaues of the Bay-tree dried and rubbed one against another, if there be put betwixt them a little powder of Brimstone, doe cast out sparkles of fire, as doth the steele and the stone: in like manner doe Iuie leaes. The boughs of Bay-tree stucke downe in arable ground, doe keepe the Corne from mildew and blasting. Some ar of opinion, that tempests and lightning will turne away from those houses and places where there are hanging anie Bay-tree boughs, wherher it be at the chamber floores, or else at the doores or windowes.

The tender crops of the Bay-tree, boyled with flowers of Lauander in wine, doe heale hardnesse of hearing, and noyses in the eares, if the vapour be taken thereat with a funnell. The Vuula being fallen, is againe restored to his place, if you lay the ayes of the Laurell-tree verie hot vnto the top of the crowne of the head, with e∣quall weight of Cummin, Hyssope, Organie, and Euforbium, mixt together with honey. The bayes of Laurell powned with Wheat-bran, Iuniper-berries, and Gar∣icke, heated in a hot frying-panne, sprinkled with wine, and laid to the flankes, doe prouoke the retained vrine. If women with child, and neere their accompts, doe eat euerie night going to bed seuen Laurell bayes, or Bay-berries, they shall haue a more easie traaile and deliuerie.

Page  398

CHAP. XLIIII.

What space must be left betwixt Fruit-trees when they are remoued.

THat you may fitly appoint the standings of trees,* and their distances one from another, in respect of the trees themselues, compared one with a∣nother: you must first consider the height, fulnesse of the leaues and boughes, and spreading of the same, according as euerie sort of tree doth ordinarily grow and attaine vnto: and besides the ordinarie, how by place af∣foording aboundance of nourishment, the tree may exceed and surpasse it selfe in height and breadth, for that fruit-trees would not be encombred aboue head, or ouer his top, but would haue the breathing and blowing of certaine winds at libertie, and with sufficient space fauourably to light vpon them, and withall, the fruition and be∣nefit of the Sunne: in all which points, the vnequall proportion of one tree vnto a∣nother in height or breadth doth offer let and hinderance. And yet further, if they would haue their waggings and plyings to and fro to be free, that so they may play 〈◊〉 libertie when the wind tosseth them, how greatly should the exceeding greatnesse of the neighbour trees disturbe and trouble one another, if care and aduise be not take in the first planting of them? And therefore you must haue regard and cast an eye a∣bout you for this cause, that so you may well and profitably appoint out your distan∣ces and spaces betwixt one and another: for in good and fat grounds, where trees may grow much, you must allow more space than elsewhere. And further you must note, that one tree planted well at libertie, whatsoeuer the place be of it selfe, doth fructifie and beare a great deale more.

If you mind to plant thicke and grosse trees all on a row,* and vpon high waies, and against the hedges of fields, then you must leaue them some fiue and thi••e foot distant one from another: but and if you intend to plant manie rowes in one and the same place, then you must be sure to leaue fiue and fortie foot space be∣twixt euerie two, and as much betwixt one ranke and another, that so the boughes of each tree may the more freely spread themselues every way vpon their emptie and vacant sides.

As for Peare-trees, Apple-trees, and others of that bignesse, if you plant onely one row by the sides of your field-hedges, or elsewhere, it will be ynough to allow twentie feet betwixt one and another: but and if you set two rowes vpon the hedge of your Garden allies, then you must allow them some fiue and twentie feet betwixt one and another euerie way square, in such sort, as that as well the alley as the spac betwixt euerie two trees on either side may make a perfect square of fiue and twen∣tie feet in euerie line: and if the distance allowed them be of lesse quantitie, then it must be somewhat answered and helped, by not planting of them euerie one right ouer one against another, but as if you should wrap and lay them vp one within a∣nother, to let the full and planted place of the one side stand ouer-against the void and emptie of the other. Some would, that there should some small trees b planted amongst those great trees which you thus set about the alleyes for the times whiles they are in growth: but this would not doe well, if either they should be suffered to continue there alwaies (because it would breake the rule and precept deliuered before couching such course) neither yet if they should be taken vp af∣terwards; and the reason thereof is, because they draw away and eat vp the iuice and nourishment of the earth, vvhich should wholly bee imployed in growing and furthering of those which are intended for the inclosing and defending of the alleyes.

If you should goe about to plant a whole Field, or quarter of your Garden, with great fruit-trees, such as before named, you must then set them checkerwise, and allow Page  399 them betwixt twentie and thirtie foot of distance the one from the other euerie way, that is to say, from tree to tree, and from row to row.

Plum-trees,* and other trees bearing stone-fruit, and being of the like size of big∣nese, will not admit vnder foureteene or fiteene feet distance one from another in euerie row: but and if you will onely plant two rowes vpon the sides of your garden alleyes, then they need not aboue six foot distance square; but you must looke, that this proportion, or whatsoeuer other that you st downe to your selfe, doe ustly an∣swere the proportion of the length of the place intended to be planted.

Sweet Cherri-trees* and bitter Cherrie-trees doe looke to haue allowance of di∣stance betwixt tenne and twelue foot: but and if they be to be planted vpon the sides of the great alley of your garden, then it will suffice to allow them betwixt nine and tenne.

The lesser trees,* as Cherrie-trees, Quince-trees, Figge-trees, Hasel Nut-trees, and such like, are sufficiently allowed, if they be set distant betwixt eight and nine foot in your greene Grasse-plot, or Orchard, and betwixt fiue and six in Alleyes and Gar∣den rowes. When you would plant two rowes, eiher of them of seuerall kinds of trees, then set the lesser on that side that the Sunne falleth first vpon, that so the sha∣dow of the greater may not disaduantage them.

CHAP. XLV.

Other precepts about the planting of Fruit-trees.

IF you plant Peare-trees and Plum-trees one with another, it will be bet∣ter to set the Plum-trees towards the Sunne, for Peare-trees doe better endure the want and with holding of the same.

When you shall take vp a tree to plant it elsewhere,* take a great circle ound about the foot, and rayse together with the root as much of the earth cleauing hereunto as you can: for besides that thus the roots doe not loose their bed, they find themselues otherwise also infinitely better contented, when they carrie with them the earth alreade reclaimed and familiar vnto them, than and if they should be constrai∣ed in their new lodging to stoupe and conforme themselues to the earth which they hould there find.* For as for watering of the roots, in pulling of them vp to the ray∣ing vp of the more earth therewithall, it is as good as nothing, but rather doth much urt, because that this wet earth being within the new hole, becommeth stiffe and ard, which cannot but greatly offend the roots of the tree remoued: for the verie emoue doth astonish and blur them so, as that it maketh the points of their roots as 〈◊〉 were blunt, and to haue their mouths stopt, so as that they can neither draw vnto hem, or else goe forward themselues: so that if they find not the earth of their new odging so light and crumly, as that they may pierce it without straining of them∣elues, and coney themselues anie way, either the tree continueth long without ta∣ing, or else it dieth right out. For the auoiding of which discommoditie, you must ot either wet the new hole, neither yet the tree in remouing of it, nor so much as re∣oue it in a drising time: and it is ynough that the hole hath continued open before or the space of fifteene or twentie daies, and hath drunke in of the dew and wet of he night. Of one thing you must take good heed, that you giue it his iust quarters f North, South, East, and West, as it had before, and that if you take it vp from a laine ground, that then you bestow it in a plaine ground againe: and if you remoue 〈◊〉 from a hillie place, into the like, or otherwise into a plaine: then you must look that he seat wherein you set it in▪ be desended in like manner from the winds, both below nd on high, as it was in his first.

You must not plant the tree that haue beene browsed by cattell,* or haue had their 〈◊〉 broken off; for they grow not so well, except you thinke it good to cut off the Page  400 end of their tops and head, to see if that thereupon they will take and grow againe. You may plant trees also without roots,* if they haue great piths, as the Figge-tree, ame Mulberrie-tree, Hasel-trees, and other such like.

And as for the Pits wherein you meane to plane trees,* you must make them six foot deepe in clayie places, but not so much in moist places: you must likewise make them roomethie and wide ynough; for though the tree that you shall plant, should haue but small roots, yet you must make it wide, that so there may store of good erth be cast in round about the root.* And if the bottome of the earth where you make the pits be too sot, then helpe it by putting to it some drie earth, or else stay till it harde and breath out his moisture.* On the contrarie, if it be too drie, or hard and ho••ie▪ dung it and moisten it with water, letting it drinke in of the same well and sufficie••∣ly: not that you should make it like a poole, but sprinkled or bedewed with water, therewith to coole it. Againe, it is meet, that if your tree be old gathered, that they be watered and steeped at the foot two or three daies. If any of the roots of your trees proue too long,* or to haue their barke hurt, then you must cut them off byas, and 〈◊〉 the side that is most vnfurnisht be vnder when the tree shal be planted, for there will small roots come forth round about the cut.

It is a generall rule,* that before the remouing of anie manner of tree whatsoeuer, and especially if it be a tree growne vp of kernels, if it be growne thicke, for to 〈◊〉 off the branches of it first, and to leaue nothing on it, except such sprigs as are not a∣boue a fingers length, or somewhat more or lesse, according as the tree doth require: and this is it which some vtter in a prouerbe,* That he that will plant his father, must cut off his head: but as for small trees, which haue but some one small wand or ro put out of them, there is no need that such should be cut vp on high, when they be re∣moued. The stocks of the Nurserie which you intend to graft → , must be verie well 〈◊〉 forth into branches before they be remoued, as we haue said before.

And when you shall set downe your trees in their pits,* you must free their roots from being intangled one with another as much as you can, and make them all 〈◊〉 draw downeward, not suffering anie one of them to turne their ends vpward: and 〈◊〉 is not needfull that they should be set so deepe into the earth, for it is ynough, that the roots be laid in so deepe, as that the earth may couer them halfe a foot, or thereaba••, if the place be not verie scorching and stonie: and you must not fill vp your pit, 〈◊〉 leaue a hollow round about the tree with some open passage or conduit, that so the raine water staying there, may be conueyed vnto the roots of the tree.

When your trees shall be spread in the pits, and the roots thereof orderly layd 〈◊〉 large, weigh downe vpon them easily with your foot, and after mingle well 〈◊〉 earth with a part of that about the pit, and strew this vpon your roots▪ causing the smallest of it to fall downe amongst them; but lay not the grassie side of the earth ••∣wards them, for that might set them in too great a heat: you shall mingle the 〈◊〉 earth well with the other, and so fill vp the whole pit. And if there be anie wormes in the earth that you shall put in, then you shall mingle some lee ashes therewith, to kill them,* because they might doe hurt vnto the roots. Afterward, when your pit shall be filled within halfe a foot, or neere thereabout, you must tread downe the earth 〈◊〉 vpon and in the places about the roots, and it is farre better if it be drie in that 〈◊〉 than for to haue it wet.

But and if you pricke downe or plant a tree of a prop, stake,* stake, or pole without 〈◊〉, with a wooden beetle or mallet, make not way for it into his hole with another 〈◊〉 but let it make his owne hole for it selfe, not leauing it such a depth of earth to pass through, as that it cannot possibly enter without spoyling his barke: but when yo driue in the stake, tye it in such sort at the vpper end, as that it may not 〈…〉 driuing.

Page  401

CHAP. XLVI.

Of pruning, lopping, vncouering, and making cleane of Trees.

SLouthfull and negligent Hinds say, That a tree must neuer be touched af∣ter it is planted: but a good Husbandman saith, Be still doing one good turne or another vnto the earth and the tree, and they will doe the like to you againe. It were true indeed, that to say that we may not touch the tree, would haue some colour of reason, if it were to be vnderstood of the not remo∣uing of it from his first seat, it being good, and according to the nature of the tree: but to say that wee should not touch it at all after it is once planted, would be either to proue negligent, or else to be willing not to receiue anie fruit of his trees: for by how much you are the more diligent about it, and procure it the more good and pleasure, by so much the more encrease will it repay you againe: and he shall neuer haue good or much fruit, that shall not be diligent in cleansing of his trees in Win∣ter, and in the end of Autumne.* For as concerning the taking away of superfluous and bad branches, and picking of them, it is most certaine, that a tree that busieth it selfe much to grow wood, must haue his branches tamed about the beginning of December, by taking away of them so manie as are superfluous, with the vnnecessa∣rie wood, ouer tall and high boughes, and such as hinder it from making of manie buds to blossome and beare flower: in doing whereof, you may not touch the prin∣cipall branches.* Againe, you must free your trees of branches, and some part of the stocke also, when it standeth behind others that take away his Sunne, that so af∣ter such disbranching, and losse of some part of his stocke, it may set afresh vpon putting forth of new, and that so couragiously, as that it may surmount and ouer∣grow those which before did ouer-top it, and take away the Sunne from it: for the ame reason, if the Sunne enter not in forcibly enough amidst the branches of a tree, but that some are still shadowed, it commeth to passe, that those shadowed ones doe ot beare anie fruit; and therefore there is cause that it should be obserued and mar∣ed euer as it groweth, what branches there be that doe ouer-shew and drowne the other, and to take them out of the way when the leafe is fallen. You must likewise ut the boughes that looke downeward, or which grow crooked in the midst of the ree, as those which hinder the growth of it. This disbranching must be done in the decrease of the Moone, when there is not either excessiue cold wind, or raine, nd that with a good cutting toole: and not in any case when the tree is in his blos∣omes, because that so it might come to passe easily, that they should drie away. Young grafts may not be too soone pickt and pruned, least they should become too rolicke and lustie, putting vp still in height, hauing but a feeble bodie to beare so great a head: and therefore they must be let grow strong about the foot before you doe any thing vnto them.

It is like wise most certaine,* that the dead wood of a tree doth cause other braun∣hes for to die, and so by little and little the whole tree throughout: or else it keepeth he tree from growing and rising,* which is the same that we call bourgening. Then 〈◊〉 appeareth how necessarie it is to take away all dead wood, and it may be done ei∣her in Summer or Winter. This mischiefe haunteth old trees most, or else such young ones as the Sunne hath come too fiercely against,* in the place of their standing: or lse by some inconuenience of lightning, thunder, or tempest: or else of some veni∣••ous beast lurking at the foot of it, hauing bitten and wounded some fibrous part of the root: or else by hauing had some of the branches tainted and wronged by the pade or pick-axe in the laying of it open at the foot, or multiplying of it by propa∣gation. And if it be meet that that should be remedied that is aboue the earth; hen doe that also which is vnder the earth, and with greater care and diligence: Page  402 for the heat of the earth and dung doth engender vermine at the foot of the tree, which eat away the rootes: or else sometime dung cast about it, doth minister such store of nourishment vnto it, as that thereupon it is forced to put forth so great store of shoots and siences, as that these doe make it to miscarrie, without hurting or taking anie nourishment from anie other of the trees: So that then hereby it appeareth, that there is need to digge trees at the foot in Winter vnto the verie quicke of the earth, and take away from thence whatsoeuer may threaten anie danger; and as for such number of siences, to see them planted other where, whether they be of Plum-trees, Peare-trees, Apple-trees, or such other, and at the end of three years to graft → them. And here it shall not be amisse to note, that the siences of Hasel-tree being remoued, bring forth the better small Nuts.

In like manner,* the tree must haue some recreation giuen it in Winter, after hi great trauell in bringing forth of his fruit, and that in this sort: as by opening the earth, and laying his roots bare, that so you may cleanse them, and that the raine and the snow may fat them, which especially and principally happeneth in nanie places that are hot, drie, and lying verie open vpon the Sunne in his scorching heat. Fur∣thermore, if the barke of the tree begin to drie away, shewing signes of small store of nourishment within, that then you make fast vnto the foot of the same tree some dead dogge, or other carrion,* for to reioyce it withall, and some one or other scuttle full of good and small dung to lay about the foot of it: or on the contrarie, lee ashes, if so b that the ground be found too fat and full of wormes.

The age of the tree will make it to grow full of mosse: and if it be young,* then to much moisture will make it mossie, as also too much drinese. This disease feedeth vp∣on a tree, and maketh it leane, as the scab doth the beast: and we must not thinke, th•• this can happen by reason of the mose that is put about and aboue the wreath of the grafts. The remedie for this, is to lay it open at the roots, as hath beene said hereto∣fore: as also to make it cleane in Winter with a knife of wood, or of bone, for feare that the mosse continuing in peace, winne the countrey, and in fine deuoure the whole tree.

He that will haue faire young trees,* must digge about them euerie moneth, and 〈◊〉 off vnprofitable and noysome parts euerie of those times, after March and October, and so long, as vntill they be growne great: but when they are become great, they must not be digged ofter than thrice a yeare. In Winter, whether they be great or small, the earth must be taken from their feet, that so it may be mingled with dung and put into the pit againe, to the continuall retaining of necessarie moistured and comfortable influence of the heauens, as wee haue said before. And in Summer, and when it is extreame hot, there must be kept and gathered a heape of coole earth a∣bout the foot of the said tree, to helpe it to auoid the heat and drought of the laid season.

It is best to disbranch and prune trees,* when the sappe beginneth to rise vp into them, and when they thereupon begin to but and blossome in signe of approaching Summer, and this time most commonly falleth out about March and Aprill. And in this businesse you must see, that you cut the superfluous boughes off dose by the stocke, and the sappe thereupon will by and by runne out at the same cut: which thing cannot so happily succeed with them which cut trees in Winter. And to p••∣uent that the thicknesse of the weightie and great branches may not rend the 〈◊〉 from the tree in falling, cut it first halfe a foot from the earth, and after goef forward to saw off the residue verie close vnto the tree, and lastly, cast the sawed dust vpon the cut.

If you disbranch and prune your trees in Winter,* leaue the stumpes sufficient long to cut them afterward againe in March and Aprill: but and if you meane to lop and disbranch your great and old trees, to the end they may grow young againe, whe you perceiue them to loose their lustie colour, and to begin to looke yellow, then yo must doe it shortly after the first of Nouember, as after that their leaues are fallen and before their sappe put vp againe: and in cutting or sawing of these boughs, 〈◊〉Page  403 their stumps with the stocke, that so you may grat vpon them new siences, some lon∣ger, some shorter, as the tree requireth, being 〈◊〉 in all your worke to take away the most offending branches, that o the remainder may receiue the more hmour and substance.

It the tree through age or otherwise become barren contrarie to his wonted cu∣stome,* you must not cut off all his boughes, but those onely that are dead. Likewise you must vncouer his roots after the beginning of Nouember is past, and cleaue the thickest of them, and put in the clefts some shiuers of hard stone, and there leaue them, to the end the juice of the earth may enter in that way: afterward, at the end of Winter you shall couer their roots againe with good earth.

When the grafts of three or foure yeare old are broken,* broused or hurt of cat∣tell; or when as you see that at such age they increase not neither grow greater, then you must cut them againe, and graft → them more low or more high than they were. And after you haue thus cut it, you may take the vnthriuing grafts, cut off and graft → them againe, or some part of them in this new head, but somewhat deeper than it was before in the former; and let it also be well and close made vp, euen from the first setting of it into the stocke: and when you haue thus grafted the stocke this second time, you must still leaue remaining and not pull away the siences which put forth of the plants so grafted, vntill you see whether the graftes doe put forth new wood or no; for peraduenture you might kill the plant, which yet being reserued and kept aliue, you may graft → againe the third time, if the second should die or miscarrie.

After the graftes haue put forth new wood,* of some two or three foot length, if they agine put forth siences more than need, and those about the parts which you desire to cherish, and to bring to large growth, then cut away those superfluous siences, and that verie close, euen in the yeare that the grafts were grafted, but let it be at such time as the sap is in the wood: likewise it will not be amisse to cut off some of the principall members of the shoots and grafts of the first yeare, if there be too much put forth, and to ingraft them in some other place: and about foure or fiue yeares af∣ter that they haue beene grafted, and therewithall the grafts well and close growne to the plants; yet once againe goe ouer your former worke, and take away after the same manner whatsoeuer you perceiue of ydle remainder: for it is ynough for one tree to haue one good member for to make his stock or bodie of, and especially those which haue beene grafted small vpon a graft, and thus it proueth a f••rer and better tree in the end. But and if the tree were grafted after it had beene growne great, and that with many grafts, you may well afford it larger allowance, according as you shal find requisit and needfull, for the better couering againe of the clefts and cuts made in the plant.

When your trees shall begin to grow,* you must gouerne and guide them well for three or foure yeares or more, namely vntill they be come to a good shape and fashi∣on, cutting their top on high, and their small branches of superfluous wood, so long as till they come to the height of a man and more, if well it may be done, and dresse them well, and set them in good order in their principall parts and members, and that in such manner as that one branch stand not too neere vnto another: neither yet that they may take hold one of another when they shall grow great: and some also must be cut away if that th tree should be too thicke of boughes within, that so the Sunne may shew his force by hauing passage and entrance thereunto.

If it come to passe that trees being yet young doe cease to grow in thicknesse,* you must cleaue the barke of the stocke in foure all along, or else in fiue places, accor∣ding as the tree shall be in thicknesse, and after that, in a short time you shall perceiue it grow maruellously.

You must take from trees the drie leaues,* which haue shut vp within them the nests and egges of Caterpillers▪ and other such like little beasts, which are giuen to consume, wast, eat, and spoyle the leaues, tender parts, and fruit it selfe from off the tree: and besides, doe oftentimes cause to drie away, as also to die the whole tree, e∣specially peare-trees, and apple-trees, as being more subiect vnto this vermine, than Page  404 the other sorts of Fruit-trees. And it is needfull furthermore to rid the stockes of all galls and breaches which the Wormes or Pismires haue made there, because that vp∣on these occasions might follow their death and ruine.

Trees may be cut from the first of Nouember vnto the end of March:* and yo are to giue order, that there may no gashes be made of great depth: and if you cut off the siences or shoots of the tree which bringeth forth no fruit, and that it be in the decrease and last quarter of the Moone, it will cause it to become fruitfull. And when the tree which you haue grafted, shall haue growne great, you may take away his siences, and leaue remaining your grafts alone.

For the matter of watering of trees,* they must not be watered except in time of verie great drought, and then not vpon their foot and stocke, but in compasse about them: and this againe must be moderately done, because trees desire to be moistened rather by amending of them with fat and well manured earth, than with water: also wee see, that the fruits which grow in places that are not watered, are ordinarily more sauorie, and keepe longer, than those whose earth and soyle is drencht with water, howsoeuer that sometime the drinesse thereof be such, as that it doth hin∣der and keepe the fruit from comming vnto his perfect growth and accustomed greatnesse.

If that trees sor some yeares together doe beare more fruit than ordinarie,* inso∣much, as that it is as much or more in number than the leaues, you must in such case rid them of the third or halfe part, in as much as those behind will not onely grow fairer, but because also, that the yeare after it will bring forth moe than and if those should be let alone, it would doe.

CHAP. XLVII.

Of the curing of Fruit-trees.

EVen as all things that draw their force and take their growth from the earth, haue some perseuerance of that which is good for them, as those things by meanes whereof they liue: so they haue certaine speciall and particular diseases growing vpon them by reason of things that are con∣trarie vnto them, as either old age, or vvant, or ouer great aboundance of that which should nourish them. Wherefore it is no maruell if Trees and euerie one of them doe now and then suffer inconueniences, and such as if they be not quickly helped and relieued, they will not faile to die.

All trees vvhich through force of wind or otherwise shall be clouen,* shiuered, or sliuen, must be cured with myre, sheepes dung, and swines dung.

Weeds growing about trees,* doe sucke the nourishment of the earth, and they must carefully be weeded out, and the rind of the tree must be smoothed with a hed∣ging bill, but not in ouerthwart maner.

When a tree groweth not in thicknesse,* and is long in putting forth of branches, and in rising on high, after that you haue vncouered it at the foot, at such time as hath beene said before, you must cleaue asunder many of his roots, but those not of the chiefe and principall, and put vnto them swines dung mixt with other earths, and sometime powre downe in the place the lees of strong wine, round about the roots: likewise if it be growne exceeding mossie, then you must cleanse it of the mosse, with a great woodden knife, taking heed that you hurt not the barke. And in Sommer time when the earth is too wet, it will be good to digge the earth about the foot and roots of those trees, which were not vncouered at the roots in Winter, and to mix therewith some thing to better the earth withall, whether it be dung or some good mould from some other place.

Page  405 You shall make the barren tree fruitfull,* if you hang amongst the boughes a bagge full of the seed of Roses, Mustard-seed, and the foot of a Weasell.

The file is a diseases in trees that fretteth their barks: wherefore you must cut away this infection verie neat and cleane at the end of Winter with a verie sharpe toole,* and after put vpon the wound or cut the dung of Oxen or Swine, and bind it to with old clothes, and keepe them also verie close and fast with Oziers, that it being thus fastned, may continue a long time, euen whiles the plasters can be kept on, and made cleaue thereto.

There are but a few trees but they are subiect vnto the wormes,* and some more than others, as Apple-trees, Peare-trees, and all such as containe within them a sweet juice: some others lesse, as the Bay-tree, and others which beare sowre and bitter fruits. Sometimes these wormes grow of the oldnesse of the tree, sometimes of hauing taken a blow. Therefore against such wormes as vse to breed in the barke of the tree, in the place where you shall see the barke swelled or houen, you must race it with a knife, and pierce it euen vnto the wood, that so the infecting humour may issue out, and with some hooke or crooke you shall pull out the wormes and rottennesse that is within, and that with as much speed as you can: after this, put into and vpon the cut an emplaister of oxe-dung or swines-dung mingled and stamped with sage and some quicke lime, wrap it well and tie all fast, and there let it remaine and abide so long as it can endure.

The lees of Wine,* or grounds of Oyle, being cast vpon the rootes of the Trees that haue the jaundise, or else are otherwise any way sicke, doth them verie great good.

There breed in Trees certaine small beasts almost like to Weeuils,* and they are somewhat blewish or blacke, and certaine of them haue long and sharpe pointed peakes or bills, these doe great harme to grafts and other young Trees: for they cut off young siences which are yet but tender, and put forth not past the length of a fin∣ger: you must at the height of the day, when you shall see them there, lay your hand vpon them verie softly without stirring the Tree: for they let themselues fall downe when one goeth about to take them, because they cannot quickly betake themselues to flight, and if they let not themselues fall into your hand, then reach vp and take them vpon the siences with your other hand.

For Snailes and Ants,* lay ashes or saw-dust of wood, or the meale of lupines at the foot of the trees, and when the raine hath fallen vpon it, stir it vp againe, and put also new vpon it: otherwise, set certaine small vessells full of water at the foot of your trees: or else powre lees of wine round about them.

When a tree letteth fall his fruit,* you must compasse his stocke about with Iuorie, as it were with a crowne, or else with a plate of lead, or, which is best, you must vn∣couer the roots of the tree, and piece them, and put into the hole the wedge made of the wood of a ceruise tree.

To hinder the rust from huring of your trees,* you must smoke them with straw in the Spring time, and that round about.

When a tree looseth his flower,* or that the leaues doe fall from it, you must vnco∣uer the roots, and lay beane straw wet in water round about them.

The best is to looke to Caterpillers in the time of Winter before that the trees be leaued,* and if you find any remnant or remainder of them behind, or their pallaces or round gathered bunches, take them away with your Caterpiller crookes made for the purpose before they be hatched. Cut not the wood when you cannot come by them with your hand, or, as little as can be, and cleanse you trees well and through∣ly in euerie place, that so there remaine not any egges, then looke vnderneath at the feet of your trees, and see that there be no young ones, which can spin, and haue beta∣ken themselues thither, and setled themselues betwixt the siences and the rootes. If there remaine any clewes or round bottomes of them in the spring, or that some bla∣sting or small raine hath bred some young ones, then marke at the height of the day, their repa••e, in which place you shall see them together vpon heapes, whether it be Page  406 vpon the armes of the tree, or vpon the branches, from which you must either with old clothes, or else with some large and great leaues held in your hand, beat thm and kill them euerie one, weighing hard vpon them with both your hands, and often∣times haue recourse thither, and spie if you haue not let some of them all vnto th ground; but beware there sprt nothing from them in your face: and to the end they may not breed anie more, you shall tie and make fast the branches of the Sallow a∣bout the foot: These branches will serue likewise to make this vermine fall downe starke dead. There breedeth likewise a little worme, which the inhabitants of Bou∣deaux call Quayre, betwixt the wood and the barke, which eateth trees in such sort, as that it caueth them die. These you must kill with an yron wyre, probing for them on euerie side of the tree.

When a tree beareth too much,* it must, after that it hath beene vncouered at the roots, haue diuers of them (so they be not of the principall) clouen, and the water that is within them let out, if there be anie at all in them: and this will be as good for them, or better, than letting of bloud is for a man, for by this medicine the life of the tree is renewed.

The sicknesse of the barke of the tree commeth of the moisture of the place where the branch is planted: and likewise on the contrarie,* trees become ame when they be planted in too drie a place. To keepe tame young trees in the kernell Nurserie, and to cause thm to thriue the better,* they 〈◊〉 be couered a mans height with stub∣ble, or with straw, but the couering must be borne up with poles layd long and crosse-wise.

To hasten and helpe forward a tree in his bringing forth of fruit,* which is long before it beare anie thing, you must make a hole with a wimble in the thickest branch of his root, without boring of it through, and in the hole which you haue made, put a staffe, and stop it vp with wax, afterward couer the foot ouer againe, and the tree will beare the yeare following.

As concerning trees that haue beene lately planted,* and begin to wither away, if you cause them to be digged and watered, you shall much helpe them: and withall, they must be kept from heat, in prouiding something which may make them sha∣dow; and against the cold, they must be couered with straw.

Swines dung will kill wormes:* as also mens vrine put in the hole where the wormes are; and quicke-lime in like sort: but and if the barke be hurt, then let it be clouen in manie places, and likewise in the foot of the tree a little, in such sort, as that the humor may runne out.

The moisture oft times will cause wormes to breed in fruits that haue kernels: and therefore at such time you must pierce the tree with a wimble,* and that throughout if you doe well, and as neere the root as is possible, to the end that the humors breeding the wormes may pase away.

It Apples or any other such fruit fall from the tree,* cleaue the root, and put in the cleft a great stone or a wedge of vvood.

It fruits grow vpward, wash the foot of the Tree with Purcelaine water or vine∣gar; or powre about it less of vvine: or take two parts of Oyle-oliue,* and one part of blacke pitch, mingle them together, afterward annoint thm, or put ashes to the foot of the tree, or lse some vessell full of water about it, or some hoope cut and annoyn∣ted with Petroleum: or a little cord drest ouer with swines bloud, wherewith quick-siluer hath beene mixt.

To kill Ants from about a tree,* you must vncouer the earth about the tree, and put in place some chimney soot, and that a reasonable quantitie. Take also of the saw-dust of the Oake, and lay good store of it at the foot of the Tree, and the raine when it falleth will either cause them to depart, or else they will die: as for other ac∣cidents which may annoy and hurt trees, as haile, fogges, or mists, flies, frogges, and such other inconueniences, see in the second Booke, and the sixtieth Chapter.

Page  407

CHAP. XLVIII.

To keepe and preserue the fruit of Trees, to be taken and eaten in their due time and season: and out of it.

ALl such skill as man is to haue, resteth not alone in the well ordering of the Fruit-tree, and carefull maintaining of it; but the must know withall, the keeping and preseruing of the fruit, either to sell it when the time is good and fit, or else for vse of his houshold and familie, especially in places where the most delicate and daintie fruits doe grow, as in the countrie of Touraine,* which for this and such other considerations, is called the garden of France: where∣fore we will intreat briefely of the manner of keeping of fruits, and we wil begin with the Almond.

Almonps are ripe vvhen they begin to cast the huskes.* If you vvash them in salt brine, you shall make them vvhite, and to indure long, but yet the more if you drie them also: if you see that it cannot cast his huske, lay it vpon some straw a certaine time, and shortly after it vvill cast it: to keepe it long, lay it in a drie place where the South vvind bloweth not.

Chesnuts* vvill be good to keepe vnto the Spring time, if you first drie them in the shadow, and after lay them in drie places vpon heapes, or in vessells couered vvith sand: or and if you mingle them amongst common nuts, for by this medley they will be robbed of their excrementous humour. But chiefely to keepe them long, you most gather them vvhen they are reasonble ripe, in the old of the Moone, and lay them in sand in some coole place, or in some vessell vvell stopt. Some doe spread them vpon hurdles, or burie them so in sand, as that one of them touch not ano∣ther. Othersome set them in rankes in baskets or panniars full of straw.* You may trie if they be ound, by casting them into cold vvater: for if they go to the bottome, then they are sound, but and if they swim aboue the vvater, they are corrupted and naught.

Cherries* vvill keepe long, if you gather them from off the Tree before the Sun rise, and afterward lay them orderly in a vessell, hauing in the bottome of it a bed of Sauorie: and that by laying a bed of Sauorie, and a bed of Cherries, and a bed of Sauorie, and a bed of Cherries, and lastly, a bed of Sauorie, watering them vvith sweet vinegar. In like manner they vvill last long if you order them alter the said manner, couering them vvith Rose leaues in a barrell: they are likewise either dried in the Sunne, or stewed in their owne juice, and preserued with sugar to keepe a long time.

If you annoint your Citrons,* gathered with the leaues vpon their boughes, with well tempered plaster, you may keepe them sound a whole yeare: and if you hide them and couer them with barly, they will not rot: or if you doe but close them vp close in anie vessell whatsoeuer: or else if you doe but couer them with small straw.

The Corneile-berrie (commonly so called) must be put in a bottle of glasse which hath a wide throat,* and when they are in, the bottle must be filled vp with very good and liquid honey, or else with sugar in stead of honey: after this, the iuice rising of this sugar wherein they are preserued, is a sngular thing for the staying of the flux of the belly, and the procuring of appetite.

To keepe Quinces,* dippe them in the lees of wine, or which is better, make them vp in new earthen pots close shut, and put the same into vessels full of wine, or else dippe them in the wine, and by this meanes the Quinces will remaine fresh, and the wine a great deale more pleasant. Some keepe them in Straw or Barly, or the saw∣dust of Wood, or Figge-tree leaues. Othersome couer them with leaues and loame Page  408 made of potters clay, and afterward drie them in the Sunne: and when they would vse them they breake the clay, and taking out the quinces, find them such as they put them in.* Some put them all whole in honie. But note by the way, that you must not keepe quinces in a house where there is other fruit, for what by their sowernese, and what through their smel, they spoyle and corrupt the other fruits which are their neighbours, or neere vnto them, yea the verie grapes which one would keepe.

Figges will be alwaies greene and new,* if you put them in a pot full of honie well couered, in such sort as that they doe not touch one another, nor yet the pot it selfe: or else if you put them in gourds, euery one by it selfe, and hang the gourd in a sha∣dowed place, where the fire or smoake cannot come: or if you put them in a glasse pot well stopt with Wax. Drie figs will not corrupt if you lay them vpon hurdles in an ouen, after the bread is drawne out, and after put them in a new earthen pot, that is not glased.

Walnuts will continue a long time sound,* if they be couered with straw, or with their drie leaues, or shut vp in a coffer made of the wood of Walnut-tree: or if they be mingled amongst Omons, whereunto they doe this pleasure, as that they take from them the greatest part of their acrionie, or sharpenesse. Some sy likewise that they will be kept grene a whole yeare, if when they are gathered greene, they haue their coat taken from them and be dipt in honie: and thereupon also such ho∣nie becommeth singular for them vvhich haue vlcers in their mouth or throat to make gargarismes of for the same.

Pomegranats will keepe,* if at such time as when they are ripe, or almost ripe, you writh the little stalke by which they hang vpon the tree: or f presently as soone as they be gathered, they be couered all ouer with poters clay, tempered in water, and afterward set out to the Sunne in sweet oyle, in a broad mouthed pot couered and hung at the floore of some chamber in a close place where the frost cannot come: or else set in some caue vnder the earth: but see that they grow not mouldie there. In the meane time for the gathering of them, you must touch them softly with your hand, that so you may not crush them: they keepe verie well also in saw-dust of ake woad, in alt vvater, or salt brine. Or else you must dip them all ouer in boyling water, pulling them out againe presently, afterward drying them vpon sand or small grauell, or in the Sunne for the space of eight daies. Some hide them ouer head and eares in a heape of corne in the shadow, vntill that their rind be hardened.

Apples after they haue beene gathered in weather not rainie or cloudie,* but faire, must be kept spred vpon their eyes, not vpon their tailes, vpon a table couered with corne straw, in a cold place, but not in a caue (for in such a place they would look their sauour) and where the windows are turned toward the North, which likewise must in faire weather be set open: or vpon straw, or in barlie, or in a pot done ouer with Waxe within, and close couered: or in an arthen pot not pitched, but hauing a hole in the bottome, and yet close couered aloft, and o hung vp in a tree all Win∣ter, in vvhich case the apples will continue such as they were put in. Some warp them eurie one by themselues in figge-leaues, and after couer them with lome of vvhite potters clay, and with drie lome, and set them in the Sunne. Some after they haue gathered and made choyce of the soundest, heauiest, and fairest apples, not be∣ing yet altogether ripe, doe set a hogshead in the ground, round about which they set these fruits, and couer them afterward vvith a bed of straw, laying againe ano∣ther bed of apples thereupon, and couering the same as before, they continue th•• vntill the vesell be full, vvhich then they take out of the earth againe, and sop it ∣uerie where close, that so there may no ayre get in thereat. The Normans lay them vpn heapes, minding to make their Cider thereof: In the countrie of Orleans and Touraine they vse to drie them in ouens, for Winter and Spring time banquets. But the ordinarie and safest manner of keeping of apples is, after they are got and pick, and the bruised ones put from the rest, to spread straw verie thin, or lay mas vpon boarded floore (for the earth floore is too moist, and the plaster floore too cold) and then spread your apples vpon the same, so as they may lye close one by another, Page  409 but not one vpon another, and when extreame frost or verie hard weather shall come, you shall lay the like layre of straw, or the like quantitie of mats aboue them, as you laid beneath them, and as soone as the frost breaketh vp, you shall with a drie cloth rub all moisture from them, and where you find any one tainted, presently cast it out, for else they will soone corrupt one another. Now as soone as Februarie is past, you shall take away your straw or mats both from aboue and vnderneath them, and lay your apples vpon the plaine boards, but yet in such sort that they may not touch one another, and thus you shall keepe apples all the yeare safe, both from rotting, vvi∣thering, or vvrinkling of their skinnes.

Medlars* are kept in small pitcht vessells, or put in pots amongst grapes.

Oliues* are preserued in salt brine, or in a composition of honie, vinegar, and salt: some adde thereunto penniroyall, mints, anise, and masticke-tree-leaues: othersome, the leaues of the bay-tree; and others, the berries of the bay-tree.

Peares* will keepe a long time, if their tailes be pitched ouer, and so hanged vp. Others put peares into a new earthen pot, and powre into them cuted Wine, or wine from the presse, or common vvine as it is meet to be drunke, vntill the vessell be full. Others keepe peares couered with file-dust, or with the saw-dust of wood: some put them amongst the drie leaues of the Walnut-tree, or else in an earthen vessell which is scarce baked, and powre in thereinto wine able to be drunke, and the new prest li∣quor of grapes, and stopping vp the vessell well and close, doe so keepe it. Some lay them in pits, in a place neere vvhereunto there passeth a running water. And some diuide into quarters the Eusebian, rhodine, and bell-fashioned peares, and ta∣king their kernels out of them, drie them in the Sunne, that so they may haue them good in the Spring time.

Mulberries* that are close stopt vp in a glasse vessell, doe keepe verie long, so that therewithall they haue powred vpon them some of their owne juice.

Citrons and Oranges* are kept in some caue vnder the earth, separate one from a∣nother, or in salt brine made of verjuice, or verjuice without salt, or in maner of a pre∣serue with salt, as the oliues are kept.

Peaches* are kept in salt brine, or in sweet vinegar: or else their stones being taken away, they are dried in the Sunne, after the manner of figges. Some doe preserue them with honie.

Ceruises* are preserued in sweet Wine: or else vvhen they be gathered, the hardest are taken and set to soften in vessels of earth full or almost ful, couered ouer afterward with plaster, and set in a pit a foot depth, in a drie place, and in the face of the Sun, and after couered with earth. You may likewise cut them in peeces in the middest, and afterward lay them in the Sunne to drie.

Damaske-plums* shall be put in vessells, and cast vpon them new or sweet Wine, stopping the vessells verie diligently and close. Or if you lay them betweene mul∣berrie-leaues, or vine-leaues, one leare aboue another in a close box made for the pur∣pose, they will not onely keepe a long time, but also you may in that sort carrie them without bruising more than an hundred miles: in this sort also you may keepe or car∣rie Nertarines, Abricots, Peaches, Figs, Mulberries, or any fruit of the like nature; as for your grapes, there is no readier or better way to keepe them long, than to hang them vpon strings ouer the mantell-tree of a chimney, or where they may receiue a moderate warmth from the fire, for nothing so soone as cold doth make them rot or putrifie, and therefore you must by no meanes, so farre as you can chuse, suffer your grapes to take any frosts, nay hardly the cold dewes.

Page  410

CHAP. XLIX.

A briefe discourse of making of drinkes of the iuices of Fruits.

IN such Countries as the vine cannot beare fruit in, because of the cold distemperature and churlish roughnesse of the aire, and whereas not∣withstanding there grow singular good fruits, and in great aboundance in recompence of the same (as in Britaine, Normandie, the countrie of Mans, Chartraine, and Touraine) although there be the meanes to make Wine of a certaine kind of corne, called Bier: yet by reason of the lesse cost and charges, as also by reason of the greater profit, they vse to make diuers sorts of drinkes of fruits: and to giue them their seuerall and particular names from the seueral and particular fruits whereof they are made. As for example, hat which is made of apples, cider or citer, and so the Normans and other countries bordering thereupon doe call it, as hauing a smell or other excellent qualitie resembling the citron. Perrie which is pressed out of the Peares, and ceruise Wine, quince Wine, pomegranat Wine, mulberrie Wine, gooseberrie Wine, and slo Wine, vvhich are made of the juices of these fruits pres∣sed out. And hereof vve are to obserue that all fruits are not fit to make Wine of; but onely those vvhich vvill not putrifie easily, and haue great quantitie of Wine juice vvithin them, of vvhich kind these are vvhereof I haue now spoken. For of cherries there is not any Wine to be pressed, because their juice doth easily corrupt and putrifie verie quickly: neither yet of Almonds, Common nuts, Filberds, Pine, nuts, or other such fruits, for they yeeld an oylie and not a Wine-like humour. But for as much as we are not determined to speake in this place of all these sorts of fruit drinkes, but onely of them vvhich are called cider, perrie, and carasie, vvhich next vnto the juice of the vine, are the most profitable and necessarie liquor for the life and health of man: vve vvill set downe before hand a certaine summarie, and as it vvere a transition and plaine declaration of and vnto as well the making, as also of and vnto the qualities and vertues of the said cider, perrie, and carasie, and will referre the Reader vnto the Latine Booke now long agoe looked for from Moun∣sier Paulmie Doctor of Physicke at Paris, therein to read and learne the intire and perfect knowledge of this so pleasant and delightsome a drinke. And to begin with our purposed matter, I intend not here to stand about the finding out of the first in∣uentour and deuisour of this drinke; onely I will say, that as Noe carried away with the pleasant taste of the juice, vvhich he pressed out of the grape of the wild vine planted by him, was the first inuentor of making and drinking of vvine: so a certaine Norman hauing his taste vvonderfully pleased vvith a delicate and daintie taste and rellish of the iuice of Apples and Peares, inuented the making of Cider and Perrie▪ I say, a certaine Norman, for this is in base Normandie called the Countrey of Nez, where this drinke had first his beginning.

The way then to make these kinds of drinkes generally,* is to gather the fruit not all out ripe, and after to let them ripen some certaine time in the open ayre or to drie them in the Sunne, for the spending and wasting of their waterie humour; then to breake and crush them with Mil-stones, or such other heauie instruments; and lastly, to presse them out: but withall you must obserue this speciall qualitie in certaine Ap∣ples, which the longer they are kept, and the riper they be, the better and greater store of iuice they yeeld, though then indeed it be not so durable.

On the contrarie, wild Peares doe yeeld more liquor, and of a better tast, and with∣all of longer continuance, than doe the tame and garden ones. When the iuice is pres∣sed out from the fruit, it must be put into caske, for to boile therein a certaine time, and to be ordered after the manner of the ordering of the iuice of Grapes, as we intend to declare more particularly.

Page  411
How Cider is made.

THe drinkes made of fruits that are most commonly vsed, are Cider and Perrie, vvhich as they are pressed out of diuers sorts of Apples and Peares, so are they differing as well in taste as in goodnesse. For to make your Cider, you must see that your Apples be not wild ones, but garden and tame ones, growne and bred in or∣chards carefully and diligently dressed, kept, husbanded, and ordered all the yeare long, according to that care and diligence vvhich vve haue said to be need∣full before in speaking of the Orchard, and yet vvithout hauing any great regard vnto the place vvhere the Orchards are planted, and doe grow, as vvhether they be gardens, greene-plots, arable ground, or other such like places; alwaies prouided and foreseene, that the ground be good, and vvell seasoned. And aboue all things such Apples* must haue a firme, solide, and fast flesh, accompanied with great store of juice, of a pleasant smell, and delightsome taste, and of a beautifull colour: such are these that follow, the Heroet, Ruddocke, Maligar, Rambur, Fairewife, Gastlet▪ Clanget, great Eye, Greening, Curtaine, Grosegraft, Rucke, long, sower, and sweet Kennet, Barbarian, Rangelet, and Adoill. The Shortstart, Honie-meale, and Garden-globe, notwithstanding that they be rare and singular apples, and of a more pleasant smell, and delightsome taste, then any other sorts of Apples, yet are they not fit to make any Cider of, as well in respect of the tendernesse and delicacie of their flesh, as for the little and insufficient store of juice which they yeeld, not wor∣thie the putting into the prese to make any quantitie of Cider of. And hereto you may put another reason; namely, that these Apples are not so plentifull, neither grow they in such store as others doe, and therefore it is better to keepe them to eate, or to imploy them in broths or sirope of king Sabor, and de succis pomorum, than about the making of any common drinke.

The most common time to gather Apples is about mid-September,* after they haue beene partakers of Sommers heat, and receiued some small raine and gentle vvinds from September: some being verie ripe; others yet not altogether ripe; principally those which haue a faster and lesse delicate flesh: the greatest part vvhereof (being kept some time) yeeldeth greater store of juice, and better conco∣cted and digested by the vvorke and operation of their owne naturall heat. In the gathering of them there is necessarily to be vsed cudgels and poles, except it be that wee lay our hands to them, vvhich vvee haue a purpose to keepe: there must in this businesse also be chosen such a day as is faire, drie, cleare, beautifull, and full of Sunne-shine, for if they should be moist with any raine or dew▪ they would rot in their garners.

Being gathered, they must not all of the sodaine be taken in hand to be made into Cider, but they must be suffered to take a heat in heapes, (as the Normans call it) and be kept some three vveekes or a moneth, more or lesse, according to their consistence and kind, seeing vnto it in the meane time (at their owne perill) that they rot not; as also, they may be layed on great heapes in Gardens, or vnder some roofe open to the ayre vvhen it freezeth not, or vvhen it freezeth, to court them with straw newly threshed, or else vvith some Mattresses or Featherbeds to keepe them from the frost. Some during the time of the frost, couer them vvith linnen Clothes steeped in water, and vvrung out, and these being frozen once themselues, doe keepe that the ayre cannot passe vnto the Apples to freeze them: the best of all it to prouide them warme garners, the loores being layed neither with plaster nor tiles, but with straw, hauing the windowes verie close, the doores firme and fast shut, and all the creuises or chinkes perfectly stop to resist the entrance of the cold ayre. And notwithstanding all this, yet you must not tarrie and waite vntill they be throughly ripe, and almost vpon the rotting especially: but you must take your time somewhat before that they be come to this exact maturity and height of ripenesse, for else your cider will not proue durable, but withall will gather great quantitie of lee, Page  412 and grow couered with much vvhite mother swimming aloft: if they be frozen, then trouble not your selfe with going about to make Cider, for hauing lost their natu∣rall and accustomed smell and colour, they haue also lost all their force and vertue, and so it is not possible to make any thing of them but a raw, weake, vnpleasant, vva∣terish, vndurable, and soone sowring licour. When as therefore the apples shallbe vvell prepared, and come to a good scantling of ripenesse, not such a oe as is exact, but rather of the first or second degree of ripenesse, and that they shall yeeld and breath out a verie pleasant and sweet smell: then it shall be high time for you to goe in hand vvith making of your Cider. Which oportunitie if you foreslow and still stay longer for their further and exact ripening▪ they vvill vvither and fall a∣way, and the Cider that you shal presse out of them, wil become waterish, weake, and sowre out of hand.

There are diuers wayes vsed in pressing out this drinke made of Apples in the countrie of Neuz:* Some doe stampe them, putting them in fats, and afterward fill them vp with great quantitie of water, letting them ferment, boyle, and purge, so long as vntill the water haue got the force and strength of the Cider. Others stampe them in a morter, and after powre them together with a great quantitie of water in∣to some fat, not giuing them any time of concoction and purging: but these two wayes are not so much worth; this third is better than them both. First, you must breake your Apples in peeces, and after presse them out: the way to breake them in peeces, is to put them in a presser made ound, and containing in compasse some seuen or eight adome, the said compasse and round being contriued after the man∣ner of a trough of two foot broad and deepe at the least, in these troughes shall be put and contayned the said apples for the better staying and keeping of them in close together. Within these troughes there shall turne about one or two great milstones of stone, or of some hard, massie, and weightie wood, fashioned like a wheele, car∣ried about vvith one Oxe or Horse, or two, so as shall be sufficient for power and strength, as we haue said in the making of Oyles. When the Apples shall be suffici∣ently broken, you must gather into heapes the same, and cast them into ubs for the purpose, and there let them worke for a time as Wine doth, and when it hath wrought, then you must draw out the juice or liquor (call it as you vvill) which shall haue runne out of the substance without being prest, and turne it vp into ves∣sels, whether they be pipes or hogsheads, old, or altogether new; prouided that they haue not taken any ill taste of any vnsauourie liquor: the best vessells or caske of all other, is that wherein there hath beene Wine, and especially white Wine, for the sa∣uour of the Wine doth make this juice more acceptable, and more affected. The Ci∣der that commeth voluntarily without being pressed, is the best and sweetest, though not alwaies stronger than that which hath abode the presse: that likewise is better and more excellent which is made without any mixture of vvater: It is true indeed, that when apples haue a verie fast and solide pulpe, and haue not so much moisture, but withall some sharpe relish, that then it will not be amisse to mingle some small quantitie of vvater with them to make them breake the better, as also, after that they be broken by force of the turning stone, euen whiles they are working in their fats, or before they be put into their fats a working, euen at their going to the presse, there may vvater be mixt with them, to preuent that the Cider may not be too ranke, nei∣ther yet too sowre or greenish. The grounds of the vvorking fat shall be layed vpon the presse interlaced with long straw, to keepe the said stamped Apples steedie and stayed, that they slip not to and fro when they are pressed, (the Apples by reason of their roundnesse, not being able to stay and abide vnder the doore and other boards of the presser, except they be kept in vpon the sides with some∣thing) and that which shall run out vpon the pressing of them, shal be tuned vp into caske, and put to the former: or else, which is better, tunne it vp by it selfe, as is done by wine, without mingling of it with that which did run out vnpressed, the pressed being the stronger, though the vnpressed be the more pleasant and sweet. The drosse or grosse substance remayning after the pressing, shall be put againe into the Page  413 fat, and stamped, and sufficient quantitie of water powred in amongst, and it shall be let so rest, steepe, and boyle together for the space of foure and twentie houres: after which, there shall be made thereof spending Cider, or small drinke for the household. For the making of this household drinke, it shall be after the rate of gathering of one vessell thereof from so much drosse as made foure vessels of the best.

When the Cider is tunned vp into caske, you must let it boyle within the caske by the bung-hole of the caske lest open, and thereby to purge it selfe of all his froth, scumme, and other impurities, after the manner of wine: and when it is thus well purged, you must bung it vp very close, and so leaue it to boile againe within his ves∣sell: but you must see that at this time the vessell be not top full, least in the boiling it breake the vessell. And indeed this kind of Cider is a great deale more strong than that which boileth all his boiling with the bung of the vessell open, but somewhat more fuming, and not so pleasant as the other: and it must lye in some cellar for the Winter time, but in some caue in the Summer.

Cide, as concerning the tast, doth resemble and become like vnto Wine: for at the first it is sweet; afterward, being fined, it is somewhat sharpe; and when it is alto∣gether fined, it hath then a sharper rellish, but yet altered from his former verdure: euen after the manner of Wine, as being more pleasant when it is in fining, than when it is fined.

The Cider is better to keepe than Perrie: and there are Ciders found of two or three years old, as good, in their place, as anie Wine that is made. It is true indeed, that it is subiect vnto the same accidents that Wine is, and it must be as heedily regar∣ded in the piercing of it, as if it were Wine, not giuing it any ayre in the drawing of it, if it be possible, or if you giue it any at all, to giue it when the fossest is halfe out, causing the ayre to recoyle before the fountaine be stopt vp and shut. So soone as the Cider vessell is emptie, you must looke that the less be not let stand in it any long time, because that it would breed an infinite number of wormes, which would make it to haue an ill smell and stinke, in such sort, as that it would neuer be good afterward to keepe any Cider. And thus much for the making and keeping of Cider. Now we will speake of the making of our choise of the Apples.

To haue excellent Cider, you must make it of sweet Apples, and that but of one or two sorts, and both of them in his kind verie good, of a pleasant tast, and sweet smell: and you must breake and stampe them euery sort by it selfe, but put them together vn∣der the presser. That which is made of sweet Apples mixt amongst some sowre ones, is not altogether so excellent good, and yet in the heat of Summer to be preferred be∣fore the most excellent Ciders, in that it is more cleare, heateth lesse, and quencheth thirst better. And of a certainetie experience hath taught it, that the Cider made of sweet Apples, hauing a soft and tender flesh, is more apt to sowre, if that there be not some sowre ones mingled amongst them, because that such sweet Apples haue but a weake heat, and easily ouercome and wasted. But such sweet Apples as haue a fast flesh and thick iuice, stand not in need of hauing any sowre Apples mixt with them, to the helping of them to make good Cider. It is true, that sweet Apples yeeld lesse Cider than sowre ones: but yet, in as much as the sweet haue the lesse iuice and the thicker, therefore their Cider is the better, lasteth longer, nourisheth the body more, and is a longer time in fining: But on the contrarie, those sweet Apples which haue much iuice, doe make much Cider: but this Cider is not so good, nor making so good nourishment, notwithstanding it be sooner fined and readie for drinking. Sowrish Apples doe yeeld much iuice, that is waterie, thinne, and soone fined, but nourishing verie little.

The Cider that is all neat, and of it selfe, without any mixture of water, doth fine and become cleare more slowly than that which is made with water: In like sort it retaineth his smell and tast a longer time, and all other the vertues and qualities of the Apples whereof it was made: for water added but in small quantitie, after sixe moneths once past, or if somewhat longer, yet after one yeare it causeth the Cider to sowre, and then so much the sooner, as there shall be the greater quantitie in the Page  414 mixture, as in the houshold or ordinarie drinke. Wherefore such Ciders as you would haue to last long, must be made without water, and vse rather to mixe your vvater vvith them vvhen they are drawne out of the vessell to drinke, if then you find them too strong for you: and this also is the same course taken with Wine, espe∣cially when such a sicknesse hath seised vpon the partie, as craueth a thin, weake, and vvaterish drinke.

Ciders differ one from another, especially in colour, and auour, or relish: for as for their colour, some represent the scarlet as it were like vnto Claret-wine, and such is that vvhich is made of Apples that are red vvithin and without: such also will last long, and fine, not vnder the colour of high Clarets, and haue a taste resembling the same somewhat a farre off, but afterward comming neere to the resembling of Hyp∣pocras. Others are of the colour of Muscadells, and resembling the same also in re∣lish. The greatest part of the rest draw neere to a yellow colour, and some of them cleare as the rocke vvater.

As concerning their relish and tast, all Ciders, if they be good, should be sweet, or a little bitter or sowre, whether they be new or old: and it is as true, that some of them haue no more relish than vvater. Some are of an euill taste, and that either of them∣selues, or of the ground, or of the vessell, or of the straw, or of some other such strange cause. The sweet, as well the new as the old, and fined, are the best of all, and nou∣rish most. But it is true withall, that the new doe swell vp a man, and cause obstru∣ctions: The fined Ciders, are good for such as haue weake lungs, or those which are subject to the stone, or haue vlcers in the reines or bladder. Such as are bitter, and hold out bitter, are naught: But such bitter Cider as after becommeth sweet, is the best of all, and lasteth long. Such as are greenish, if they continue the same colour al∣waies, are not of any value: but if in time they change this greenenesse into a maner of sweetnesse, then they proue good, and last long.

You may also make Cider of vvild Apples, but such Cider although that it last longer than that vvhich is made of tame and garden apples: yet it is not so pleasant nor profitable for the stomacke.

Good housholders doe not loose the drosse of their pressings, but (as we haue said) cast them into vessells, and vvith a sufficient quantitie of fountaine vvater, make Ci∣der for the houshold: many make no account of it, but cast it out to the dunghill, as∣suring themselues that it drieth and maketh barren the place where it commeth. In suh places as vvhere they haue not the benefit of mill-stones, pressers, & other imple∣ments for to make Cider, they stampe apples, but not of all sorts, but onely wild ones with a stamper, and afterward put them thus stamped into vessells with a sufficient quantitie of water, and this is called Cider-pinet.*

As concerning the faculties and vertues of Cider,* they must be measured and judged according to their taste, age, continuance, and abilitie to last, and the manner of making of them. The taste is not to be tried onely by the sauour and relish of the apples vvhereof they vvere made, vvhich vvere either sweet or sowre, or harsh, or of moe tastes than one, or vvithout any taste at all: but likewise of the age thereof, in as much as Cider if it be kept, changeth his taste,* together vvith the time, and get∣teth another relish, after that is fined diuers from that vvhich it had, vvhiles it was in fining, or that it had vvhen it began to fine, after the manner of new vvine, which when it commeth to be old, purchaseth and getteth diuers qualities together with the time. Such Cider therefore as is sweet, because of the sweetnesse which com∣meth of temperate heat, heateth in a meane and indifferent manner, but cooleth least of all; and againe, it is the most nourishing of all Ciders, and the most profitable to be vsed, especially of such as haue cold and drie stomackes, and on the contrarie, but s••ally, profiting them which haue a hot stomacke, whether it be more or lesse, or sto∣mackes that are full of humiditie, verie tender and queasie, and subject vnto chole∣ricke vomits: so that in such complexions as are hot and cholericke, it is needfull as with Wine, so vvith Cider to mixe water in a sufficient quantitie; vvith sweet Cider vvhen they take it to drinke, especially when such persons haue any ague vvithall, Page  415 or and if it be the hot time of Summer: foreseene, that he that shall then drinke it thus, be not subiect to the paines of the bellie, or collicke; because that sweet Cider, pressed new from sweet Apples, is windie by nature, as are also the sweet Apples themselues. This is the cause why Physitians counsell and aduise, that sweet Apples should be rosted in the ashes for them which shall eat them, that so their great moist∣nesse and waterishnesse, which are the original fountaine of their windinesse, may be concocted by the meanes of the heat of the fire. Vpon the same occasion it falleth out, that neither sweet Apples nor sweet Cider can be good for them that are subiect to distillations and rhewmes, because of their windinesse, and for that likewise, that as the Arabian Physitians doe iudge, they breed great store of windinesse in the muscles and sinewes, which cannot be discussed but with great paine and continu∣ance of time. Amongst the sweet Ciders, the best and most wholesome are those which are made of these Apples, the Herot, sweet Kennet, Curtaine, and Range∣let, because these Appls are verie sweet, of a golden colour, good smell, and long lasting.

Sowre Cider,* whether it were made such by reason of the sowrenesse of the Ap∣ples, or become such by reason of the space of time, in as much as it is verie warie, and somewhat earthie, as also verie subtill and piercing, and yet therewithall some∣what astringent and corroboratiue; becommeth singular good to coole a hot liuer and stomacke, and to temper the heat of boyling and cholericke bloud, to stay cho∣ler and adust vomiting, to asswage thirst, to cut and make thinne grosse and slimie humors, whether hot or cold, but chiefely the hot. Such drinke falleth out to be verie good and conuenient, and to serue well in place of wine, for such as haue anie Ague, for such as are subiect to a hot liuer and hot bloud, for such as are scabbed, or itchie, for such as are rheumaticke, vpon occasion of hot humors, and it needeth not that it should be tempered with water. Of sowre Ciders, those are the most wholesome which are made of sharpe sowre Apples, as of Rundockes, Ramburs, and sowre Kennets.

The Cider that is harsh and rough,* in as much as it is verie cold and drie, is not good, but after a long time, as namely, not before that it haue lost his harshnesse, changing this his great coldnesse and drinesse into a meane and middle coldnesse, accompanied with some moisture, drawing thereby neere vnto some kind of sweet∣nesse or tart and pleasant sharpenesse: as we see it come to passe in fruits, which yet, whiles they are not ripe, haue a certaine kind of harshnesse in them, but comming to be ripe, change by little and little their harshnesse into an eager tartnesse, and after into a pleasant sweetnesse. Wherefore such Ciders would not be drunke till of a long while after they be made: or if that great necessitie should compell, then to allay them with a sufficient quantitie of water; for otherwise, they would but cause costie∣nesse, the strangurie, shortnesse of breath, and an infinite number of obstructions: yea, they would procure manifold crudities in the stomacke, guts, and principall veines: yea, they would ouerthrow a weake stomacke, beget a grosse, cold, and fleg∣maticke bloud in the liuer, send vp manie thicke vapours vnto the braine, which would offend the head, and hurt the sinewes and ioints: but it is as true, that they 〈◊〉 this commoditie with them, as to comfort the languishing stomacke, the qua∣sie stomacke, and that which hath altogether lost his appetite, such as commonly be∣ideth women hauing newly conceiued, and strange appetites, for which this Cider is verie fit and conuenient: as also to stay excessiue vomiting, all sorts of fluxes of the belly, all distillations also, falling downe vpon the ioints: it quieteth the beating of the heart, and cutteth off faintings: it helpeth digestion, drunke at the end of meat, so that (as we haue said) it be allayed with a little water, to diminish and reforme the heauinesse and slownesse to pierce and passe away which is in it; following the coun∣sell of Galen, who teacheth three manner of waies to vse sowre and binding Apples and Peares, without ani preiudicing of the health: the first way being to boile them in 〈◊〉, that so they may get more moistnesse and softnesse: the second, to set them in the breath and vapour of boyling water, to moisten and ripen them: and the third Page  416 being to cut them in the middest, and to take away their core, and in place thereof to put honey or sugar, and then afterward to roast them amongst the hot ashes. These kinds of Ciders are made principally of the Apples called small Ruddocke, of wild Apples, not grafted nor husbanded, of Apple Bequet, Rellet, and such other, hauing their coats diuersly spotted.

Ciders without all tast* become such by reason of their great waterishnesse, and are easily corrupted, and that not onely in their vessels, but also being drunken and vsed for drinke; and therefore there is no reckoning to be made of such.

As concering Ciders hauing seuerall tasts,* as ager and sweet, harsh and sweet, or anie such other medley; the eager sweet are much better and more wholsome than the harsh sweet, because they are not onely more pleasant, but also more speedily passing, piercing, and cutting, than the other; which by reason of their harshnesse, ioyned with some sweetnesse, and causing a thicknesse and heauinesse in them, abide and stay long about the principall parts, where they may cause crudities and manie ob∣structions.

As for the age and lasting of Ciders; such as are new made, and continue as yet troubled, not being fined, are not wholesome, and cannot be drunke without 〈◊〉 vnto the stomacke, without head-ach, and an infinite companie of obstructions and other accidents, tedious to the health. For such as are verie sowre, and begin apace to turne tart and eager, they are not lesse hurtfull than the former, and therefore they must not be vsed but when they are well fined, and in their middleage, as wee see it obserued in wine.

As concerning the compounding of them; those are the best, most wholesome, and easiest to be digested, which are made of verie ripe Apples, gathered in due time, and not ouer-long kept, which are likewise made of one onely kind of Ap∣ples, or else of manie kinds, but either agreeing in tast; or else being of a a diuers tast, yet are such as may be tempered together, and make a more pleasant tast, than if they were alone and seuerall: as for example, if one should mingle amongst sweet Apples such as were eager and sharpe, such a medley would make a farre more pleasant Ci∣der, and more profitable, than if either of the said sorts were alone. The Cider like∣wise that is made of Apples onely, is better than that which is made of Apples and Peares stamped and pressed together: better in like manner, and more wholesome, are those which are made without water, than that which is made with water, seeing water maketh it to lose his naturall tast, maketh it sowre and corrupt, and that it will not last or endure long: wherefore it is better not to mix any water at all with it when you make any, but rather at the time of drinking of it to dilay it, and powre in 〈◊〉 water, if necessitie require it, and according as there shall be any of the occasions 〈◊〉 mentioned.

The worst of the Ciders is that which is made of wild Apples, stampt and cast in∣to a vessell with fountaine water in sufficient quantitie: and yet worse than this, is that which is made of the drose remaining of the first pressing: as that also which is only cast into a vessell with sufficient quantitie of water: Wherefore, seeing that Ciders, how pleasant and excellent soeuer they be, affoord no such nourishment vnto the bo∣die as is verie profitable for them, as we will handle more at large hereafter; hee tha will be carefull of his health, shall vse none but the best Ciders. Wee will speake•• gaine of the faculties of Cider in the sixt Booke, in the same place where wee 〈◊〉 speake of the faculties of Wine.

How Perrie is made.

PErrie is made of diuers sorts of Peares: sometimes of rough, harsh, sowre, and wild ones, neuer husbanded, planted, grafted, or otherwise hauing had anie la∣bour or paines taken with them: such Perrie will keepe long, euen three or fore yeares, and be better at the end than at the beginning: Sometimes of Garden, en∣der, and delicate Peares, such as are the Eusebian and the Marie Peare, the 〈◊〉, Page  417 Hasting, Rimolt, Mollart, Greening, butter Peare, the laques du four Peare, the lit∣tle the Conie Peare, the perplexed Peare, the Alablaster Peare, the two-headed Peare, the dew Peare, and the wood of Hierusalem: and such Perrie is pleasant for a cer∣taine time, but after it is once come to be fiue moneths old, it becommeth void of all tast, and dead. The best and most excellent Perrie is made of little yellow waxe Peares, and such as haue beene throughly dresed and husbanded, as the little muske Peare, the two-headed Peare, the Peare, Robart, the fine gold Peare, Bargamo, Taho, Sq••e, and such other Peares, which haue a ast and solide lesh, and hard coat.

The Aiot Peare is commended aboue all the rest, whereof likewise is made the Perrie, called waxen Perrie, because it resembleth the colour of waxe, but which o∣therwise is called Carsie, very pleasant and delightsome, but notwithstanding indif∣ferent hard, and not so easie to be corrupted as the later. some doe also sometime mingle diuers sorts of Peares together to make Perrie of. But of what sort of Peares soeuer the Perrie is made, the Peare-trees must be carefully and diligently husban∣ded and ordered, according to our former deliuered precepts, in what ground soe∣uer that the Peare-trees grow, as whether it be in Orchard, Garden, arable ground, or other such like, so that the said ground be such and so well seasoned as is requisite to bring orth Peares in aboundance: and such as be good Peares, must be gathered to make Perrie of, some before Apples, and some after, with udgels or poles: some when they are ripe, as the Amiot, the Tahou, and the Squire, and to breake and grind the same with a turning Mill-stone so oone as they be gathered, in such manner as hath beene said of Apples. Othersome must be gathered before they be ripe, as the Peares of Grosmeuill, and others, which haue a hard flesh, rough cote, and are hea∣uie, as those which by reason of their hardnesse and heauinesse cannot ripen well vp∣on the tree. Such as these are not to be employed to make Perrie of, till they haue layne to ripen and mellow, that so they may become the tendrer and softer, to get the greater quantitie of iuice out of them.

Whether they be Peares to be gathered early or late, pressed they must be, and the like implements and meanes vsed about them in making the Perrie, that were vsed in the making of Cider: for after the same manner must you proceed, in sometimes mingling water with it, when there is need, as also in the manner of the vsing of it in the working, boyling, and purging of it, in the tunning of it vp into vessels, in ap∣pointing it a place to be kept in, in the gouerning of it, and such other necessarie care for the defending of it from all thngs that might hurt it, and that it is subiect vnto, euen in as great measure, or rather greater, than you vsed about Cider, especially in respect of the cold and frost, which Perrie cannot in anie sort endure: insomuch, as that all Winter long you must keepe the windows of the cellar or caue vnder ground where it lyeth, close shut, and well stopped with straw, or some such other thing, to driue away the cold: besides that, Perrie is not so good for keeping as Cider is, ex∣cept it be the Carisie, or that which is made of the Peare Grosmeuill, or such other Peares as haue a hard flesh and skinne, the Perrie whereof may be kept two yeares vndrawne, and after they be pierced or drawne of, six weekes, foreseene they be will ordered and gouerned. Perrie maketh as great, yea greater setling then Cider, where∣of you must ree the vessell presently after the Perrie is drawne forth, for otherwise there will breed an infinite number of wormes in the vessell, which will infect it. The good house-holders doe make a sort of Perrie for the household, of the drosse of the Peares comming from pressing, and that by casting of them into some vessell with su••icient quantitie of fountaine water. Some others cast away the said drosse, as a thing altogether vnprofitable. In all other things Perrie is to be ordered after the anner of Cider.

The faculties and qualities of Perrie* must be considered of and weighed in such manner as we haue said of Cider, that is, by his tast, age, and making. The tast of the Perrie dependeth for the most part of the rellish of the Peares out of which it is pres∣sed, and those are either sweet, or sowre, or harsh, or of mixt tasts, or else altogether Page  418 without tast, according to which rellishes you are to find out the vertues and quali∣ties of Perrie, following such forme and manner as we haue largely laid downe in the handling of Cider. It is true, that to speake particularly of the good qualities of Per∣ries, the most wholesome, profitable, and of best iuice, are thoe which are made of the Peares called the waxen Peares, the same being pressed out in the Summer time, and foreseene also that it be drunken so soone as it is fined, because it is not to be kept, being a verie delicate and tender iuice, and therefore apt to corrupt easily and verie soone. Next vnto this in goodnesse is the Perrie made of Peare Robart, and Musca∣del Peares, prouided that they be drunken also so soone as they be well fined, and their lees setled, but then also they must be drunke with water, and but in a reasona∣ble and meane quantitie, for otherwise by the piercing smell and subtilnesse thereof it causeth great paine of the head oftentimes. The Perrie called Carisie, or made of the Kersey Peare, though it be one of the best and most excellent, and of those which are last pressed, is yet to be drunke after it is well fined in a mediocritie, and allayed with water, to represse the fuming smell of the same, which easily would take hold of the braine. There is no cause why you should greatly esteeme, in respect of your health, of the Perries which are pressed out of wild Peares, and all such as are vn∣husbanded, vntamed, of a sharpe tast, fat, reddish, or of those which are pressed 〈◊〉 of diuers sorts of Peares, not agreeing together either in tast, or otherwise, neither yet of such as are made of Apples and Peares mingled and pressed together; as neither of that Perrie which is newly put vp into the vessels, and not fined▪ or that which had water mixt with it when it was made; or that which is made of the Peare called the Wood-Peare, being stampt and put into vessels with a sufficient quantitie of water. To be short, whatsoeuer we haue aid of Cider, it may be applyed vnto Perrie for the most part: and yet notwithstanding all this, we are not to confesse the Perrie to be a∣nie whit inferior vnto Cider: for although in some Countries, as in Britaine and Nor∣mandie, they make speciall account of Cider, and doe more esteeme of it both for the tast, lasting, aboundance, and profit thereof, than they doe of Perrie; notwithstan∣ding, if necessitie should driue a man to conferre the one iuice with the other, compa∣ring the sweet Ciders with the sweet Perries, the sowre with the sowre, the sharpe with the sharpe, and the mixt tasts with the mixt tasts, it would be asie to iudge, that the Perrie is more wholesome and profitable for the stomacke and whole bodie, than the Cider: for besides the astringent, binding, strengthening, and corroboratiue ver∣tue that it hath to benefit the stomacke withall, and that comming from his terrestri∣ous and earthie temperature, which all sorts of Peares doe most consist of, whether they be sweet or sowre, rough, or otherwise rellished; there is yet further in the Per∣rie a certaine secret and vnspeakeable vertue for the ouer-comming of poyson, and principally the venime engendred in the stomacke by eating of Mushrome, which indeed is the Perries naturall qualitie, as left it of the Peares from which it is pressed, Againe, wee see by experience, that the vse of the Peares is euerie where more com∣mended than the vse of the Apples, and that for this cause there is more carefull heed and charge enioyned for the keeping of the Peares than of the Apples, as those which for that cause are wont to be preserued in sugar or honey. They are also dried in the Sunne, dried in the Ouen, and made vp in composition to serue in time and place. It is true that Cider moisteneth more than Perrie: but in recompence of tha, the Perrie doth relieue and refresh a man more, and in cooling of him, 〈◊〉 withall, saue that it stirreth vp more ot the paine of the bellie and the collicke 〈◊〉 Cider doth, especially the sowre or harsh Perrie, in such as are subiect vnto the col∣licke; and the cause is, for that it passeth not away so speedily by vrine through the bellie, but stayeth longer time in the stomacke, and about the principall parts, than Cider doth, as wee haue declared in the Treatise of the Peare: For which cause, it is better to drinke of it at the end of meat, than at the beginning, so that the partie haue not anie vomiting, or flux of the bellie; following the cous∣saile of Dioscorides, who sayth, That Peares eaten fasting bring harme and icon∣uenience.

Page  419 Loe here, in my opinion, what wee are to iudge of the qualities of Cider and Per∣rie, as well in particular, as in comparing of the one with the other.

It remaineth, that we examine what kind of drinke the Perrie and Cider are, and whether there be anie such excellent qualitie in them as may match them and make them equall with Wine, that so famous and highly esteemed drink, seeing that a Physitian of our time could not content himselfe with matching of them together, but went further, and preferred them before Wine in euerie thing: but this might happen (possibly) by his being more affected towards his Country, or by being car∣ried away with a paradoxicall iudgement, than vpon any sincre mind to find out the truth of things. But for the deciding of this controuersie, we haue thought good to set downe our iudgement thereof in our Booke, written in Latine, and entituled De Salubri Di••a, that so wee may not in this place passe the limits of our Far•• and Countrey house.

The making of Ceruise drinke.

CEruises must be gathered when they are halfe ripe, euen so soone as you espi anie of them to fall from the tree: Suffer them not to mellow and ripen, ex∣cept it be a verie little, for when they be throughly ripe, they are not worth a far∣thing to presse out to make drinke of. You must breake them lightly in the trough of the Presser, let the iuice worke together in the fat, after it is prest, and when it hath wrought, tunne it vp, and lay it in some cellar, or caue, and keepe it long; for the Ceruise drinke the longer it is kept, the better it is. You shall know his good∣nesse, by his hauing lost his sharpenesse and vnpleasantnesse, and turned the same into the tast of Wine which is of a white colour: Or if you will not stay the full ripenesse thereof, then dilay it with sufficient quantitie of Fountaine water, when you will drinke it.

This drinke, though it be the first of that kind that was put in practise, as the patterne after which all other sorts of Fruit-drinkes haue beene made, and of which, nd not of anie moe, Virgil maketh mention in his Georgickes▪ notwithstanding, 〈◊〉 is so cold a friend vnto the health, as that it is not to be much set by. It is verirue that for want of other remedies, in case of necessitie, the Countrey-man may erue himselfe with this Wine, when hee findeth himselfe heauily oppressed with he flux of the bellie, whether it be that which is called the bloudie flux, or ani other kind thereof.

Drinke made of Sloes.

THe good Householders of the low Countries of Normandie, being such a will not loose anie thing, and thereupon being more carefull to gt goods, han to keepe their health▪ so soone as Autumne is come, cause to be gathered by heir people great quantitie of Sloes, whether they be ripe, or not: which done, hey powre them into certaine Vessels with sufficient quantitie of water, and stop p the Vessels, without touching of them. Before a moneth be at an end, this wa∣er thus infused doth represent the colour and tast of a sharpe, vnpleasant, and ild Wine, which notwithstanding serueth the thirstie Labourers and Hindes of hat Countrey to quench their thirst withall in the great heat of burning Agues. This drinke is called Piquette.

Page  420

CHAP. L.

Of prseruing of Fruits.

FOr to make Marmalade,* prouide your Quinces verie ripe and yellow, make them cleane, and the seedes taken out, boile them in fresh water in some Skillet, so long, as till they begin to open and burst (if you thinke it not better to cut them in quarters:) afterward force them through some Sarce or Strainer that is verie close and cleane, and so long, as till nothing re∣maine but the grosse parts: to eight pound of pulpe thus passed and forced through, put three pound of fine powdred Sugar, boiling them together at a little coale fire, mixe them well by stirring them diligently with a broad spatule of wood, and let that your boiling continue till they be sufficiently boiled; which is, when you see that it leaueth altogether to cleaue vnto or hang vpon the sides of the vessell, as being the verie marke of the perfect and sufficient boiling. If you be disposed to put any spice into it, as Cinnamon, Cloues, Nutmegs, and Ginger, you must doe it in the end of the boiling of them, and then also stirre it well about with the spatule. After the same manner you may preserue or make Marmalade of Peaches, Peares, and other fruits.

Yet there is another Marmalade which is made of Oranges,* which desireth a great deale of more curiositie in the working, and is exceeding pleasant to tast, and indeed more wholesome than anie other Marmalade whatsoeuer, especially for those which are sicke and weake: for it fortifieth the stomacke, and encreaseth appetite, it expel∣leth wind, and comforteth the vitall spirits. This Marmalade of Oranges is made in this manner: Take of the fairest and best Oranges you can get, not those which are called Ciuill, and haue a sweet tast, but those which are of a cleere, high, and bright colour, and are sowre in tast: then with a very sharpe knife pare away the vpper yel∣low rinde, I doe not meane to the white, but so exceeding thinne as is possible, taking away (as it were) but onely the smooth thinne skinne, and leauing the Orange as yel∣low as before, onely looking a little more blanke and rough: this done, you shall by them in faire running water, pressing them so downe, that they may be all couerted o∣uer with the water: then at the end of euerie fiue houres shift them into fresh water, till (hauing layne full fiue or six houres in each of them) you cannot tast anie bi••er∣nesse in the water, but that it is sweet and pleasant as when it came out of the Fo••∣taine, then you may be assured that they are steept ynough; so that then you shall take them forth of the water, and drie them with a fine cleane cloth: then to euerie pound of Oranges you shall take a pound of refined Sugar well beaten and earced, and six or eight spoonefuls of Damaske-Rose-water, and in the same you shall boil the Oranges till they burst, and become like vnto pappe, or pulpe, which you shall the more occasion, by continually stirring them with a spoone or spatule: then when they are fully broken ynough, you shall take them from the fire, and presently strain them through a cleane Strainer into your boxes, and so let them coole and stiffen. I this sort you may make Marmalade of Limons, Citrons, or anie other whole 〈◊〉, whose rinde is bitter, or vnpleasant. You may also, after this manner, preserue o∣ther Oranges, Limons, Citrons, or anie other such like fruit, obseruing not to let them boile vntill they breake, but keeping them in a verie moderate and gentle temper.

If you would make a laxatiue Marmalade, such as they vse at Lyons, looke into the 26. Chapter of this Booke.

To make good and excellent Gellie of Quinces,* cleanse your Quinces that 〈◊〉 verie ripe and yellow, taking out of them their kernels, them cut them in small quar∣ters, without paring of them, for the skinne doth encrease the smell: whiles you are thus making of them cleane, and cutting them in quarters, cast them presently into a Page  421 basin full of vvater: for if they be not cast into vvater so soone as they be thus chopt in peeces, they vvill become blacke: boyle them in a great quantitie of water, vntill such time as they be almost become like pap meat: vvhen they are sufficiently boyled strayne this water through a new linnen cloth that is good and thicke, and that euen all the decoction, and so strongly as possibly you can. To this decoction thus strai∣ned, adde the fourth part of fine sugar: cause all to boyle vpon a reasonable coale fire, so long as till in the end you perceiue it verie neere perfectly boyled, then make a small fire, that so it may not burne to the sides, for that would make the gelly to be of an euill colour: and you shall know when it is perfectly boyled, if you find it clea∣uing like glue vnto the oyle, and therefore you must then put it in boxes.

To preserue Walnuts:* Gather vvalnuts whiles they are small, tender and greene vvith their rinde and all, and make many small holes therein, and after lay them to sleepe in vvater eleuen or twelue dayes, more or lesse, cleanse then from the skinne that lyeth vpon the shell, vvithout shaling of them, and boyle them in clarified Su∣gar a long time, still putting vnto them more and more clarified Sugar, because the long boyling vvill make great vvaste: in the end put them into vessells with cloues, ginger, and cinnamome, but lesse of cloues than of any of the rest, because they would make them ouer bitter. Another vvay to preserue them, is to take greene Walnuts about the moneth of May, or of Iune, before that their pilling become hard, pill them, and let them steepe nine dayes (more or lesse according as you shall perceiue them to become tender) in pure water, vvhich must be changed euerie day three or foure times: boyle them yet afterward to make them more tender: be∣ing boyled, drie them in the shadow of the Sunne, or vvipe them drie with a linnen cloth, afterward pricke them with cinnamome and cloues: In the end, set them a boyling in clarified sugar, so long till the sugar be boyled vp to the consistence of a sirope, afterward put them in tinne or earthen vessells made for the purpose, together vvith the sirope vvherein they were boyled. Others doe them otherwise: They ga∣ther the Walnut whiles it is greene, they pricke it vpon a spindle or some such like instrument of wood, not of yron (for yron vvould make it more blacke) and let it steepe in water often changed, and then boyle it till it be tender: being tender, they cast it by and by into verie cleane cold water: being cooled, they cleanse it from a little skin which sheweth it selfe aboue the shell, and drie it with a linnen cloth, and finally, pricke it about with cloues and cinnamome: they put it thus in vessells, and couer it with sirope to keepe it in: if it happen that after some small time the sirope become too thin, then they boyle it againe, and put it againe into the vessell: this is the way to keepe walnuts alwaies greene, according to their naturall colour.* In steed of sugar or honie to make liquid preserues, you may for need vse cute, such as we will intreat of in the fit Booke: vvhich cute or boyled vvine is of no lesse sweetnesse and goodnesse than honie or sugar.

To preserue pills of Cytrons or Oranges:* chuse great pills of Cytrons or of Oran∣ges, or of Assyrian Cytrons cut in foure or six peeces, cleanse thm from their inward skin and pippins, steepe them in cleare vvater for the space of nine daies, changing the water the fifth day: vvhen the nine daies are past, put them againe in cleare vva∣ter to steepe vntill they become sweet, and haue lost their bitternesse, and withall ap∣peare cleare and transparent, which is a signe of their sufficient watering: afterward, boyle them in a vessel of brasse that is cleane, or in a leaden vesel so long as til they be tender; vvhen they haue cast out all their waterishnesse, put them to steepe in a Iu∣lep made of one part of sugar, and three of water, for the space of foure and twen∣tie houres, afterward make them to boyle at a little fire so much as is sufficient: take them out of the Iulep, and put them in a glasse vessell, and putting vpon them the Iulep of Rose-vvater thicke ynough of consistence, that so it may affoord them as it vvere a crust, you may if you vvill aromatize them with a little Amber and Muske.

To preserue whole Peaches,* you must pill them and cleanse them as carefully as may be, and after boyle them whole or cut in quarters, in a sufficient thin Iulep, not to Page  422 boile them to the full, but onely to boile out their waterishnesse, wherewith they a∣bound: and then after this, in a better boiled Iulep to boile them vp to the full, till they be become through tender and soft: and finally, to put them vp into some ea∣then vessell, and to couer them with the sirrup wherein they haue boyled. For their longer keeping,* you may aromatize them with Cinnamon or Muske. This man∣ner of preseruing of whole Peaches, is generall for the preseruing of all other grosse fruits,* as Peares,* Quinces, Apples,* Abricots, small Peaches, and timely Peaches.*

To preserue Cherries,* you must chuse the fairest sowre Cherries that you can, full ripe (for if they be not full ripe, in boiling them toward the end, you shall find nothing but skinne and bone) cutting off their starts at the halfe, and afterward boile them in their owne iuice with sugar, in such proportion, as that for euerie pound of Cherries you haue halfe a pound of sugar, taking away the summe still as it shall rise in boiling of them: when they shall be sufficiently boiled, you must put them in glasse vessels, and powre vpon them the sirrup wherein they haue boiled: notwith∣standing, if the sirrup should still seeme waterish, boile it more perfectly. Other∣wise, and better: put apart some quantitie of your said sowre Cherries which you shall presse to haue a sufficient quantitie of iuice: in this iuice so soone as you haue pressed it out, melt your sugar, and (not in anie other liquor) boile them together presently, and in boiling, scumme them: when the iuice is well scummed, clarified, and become red, without taking it from the fire, or making it loose his boiling, put the Cherries thereinto to boile, as long as needeth, without anie stirring of them, but looking well to the scumming of them with a spatule: stirre them not from off the fire vntill they be perfectly boiled, and that you shall discerne, if you see the sirrup dropt vpon a trencher to fall into drops that doe not spread abroad, for then it is ex∣actly boiled: and you must put vp your Cherries into their glasse vessels good and hot for to be kept. In this manner you shall preserue Plums, Ceruises, Gooseberries, and such other small fruits.

For the preseruing of Barberries,* you shall take the fairest and goodliest bunches of Barberries that you can find, being gotten verie drie from the tops of the trees, and as neere as you can from the Sunne side thereof, being fully ripe, and of one en∣tire colour: then with a pinne or needle you shall open the side, and pick out all the stones or kernels from the same: then to euerie bare pound of these Barberries thus stoned, you shall take a pound downe weight of fine sugar well beaten and searced, and so boile them on a gentle charcoale fire, till the sirrup be thicke: then let them coole, and afterward pot them vp, being sure to couer them all ouer with the sirrup. But if you intend to make Conserue of them,* then you shall not need to stone them, but onely picke them cleane from their branches, taking all the sound berries, and casting away all that are vnsound or spotted, and so boile them in their sugar ouer a hot fire vntill they burst, stirring them continually with a spatule of wood or steele made for the purpose: and then straine them through a strainer, not exceeding fine, and squeese them so soone as is possible: then being cooled, pot it vp, and vse it as you shall haue necessarie occasion. This Conserue is most excellent against burning feauers, or other pestilent diseases, growing from inflammation or corruption of the bloud: it comforteth the stomack, and begets an appetite: it cheareth all the spirits: and being drunke in Iuleps, bringeth the bloud to his true qualitie, and taketh away all thirst, inflammation, or roughnesse in the throat or mouth: it is also good for anie heat in the liuer.

For to haue paste of Plums: first boile the Plums with a little water,* stirring them oftentimes, that they may not burne too: afterward straine and force them through a sarce, and weigh them, that so you may put thereto for euerie pound foure ounces of sugar: set all vpon the fire to boile againe, and stirre them well, not giuing ouer vn∣till all the scumme be consumed and spent: which done, make them readie as they are where you will: afterward lay them in the Sunne to drie three daies, and then shut them vp: and in case that they grow moist, or that there spring forth anie water out of Page  423 them, you must lay them in the Sunne againe. This patterne of making this paste, may serue generally for the making of paste of anie other fruits, as Peares, Apples, Cherries, and Peaches, saue that you must haue respect vnto the quantitie of Sugar, which shall be more or lesse, according to the more or lesse moistnesse of the fruits which you are determined to make vp in paste.

To keepe Peaches, or other fruits: take Peaches,* or other fruits which you would keepe, when it is faire weather and drie, and opening them in the middest, take out the stone: then lay them all one day to drie in the Sunne, or in an Ouen after that the bread is drawne out: afterward take sugar well boiled and purified, and annoint them ouer, and lay them againe the day following in the Sunne, and so annoint them ouer againe, and so oft as they shall drie, and vntill they haue gotten a sufficient crust, and after keepe them at your pleasure.

To make Oliues readie against a day: Take greene Oliues,* and cut off a little from the one side, after lay them in water with lime and good sifted ashes (but take withall, that you must haue twice so manie ashes as lime, and let them steepe in that sort the space of 24. houres:) after you shall take them out, and wash them foure or fiue times in warme water: afterward you shal put them in a stone or glasse vessell with salt wa∣ter, and this you shall change euerie three moneths, and mingle amongst them com∣mon Thyme, wild Thyme, Anniseed, or the ribbes and boughes of Fennell: and thus you may keepe them a long time.

To preserue Oliues: lay white Oliues to steepe six daies in a vessell of Sea-water,* and vpon them powre the iuice of Grapes as it commeth from the presse, but fill not the vessell too full, to the end that the sweet wine, when it shall boile, doe not shed o∣uer, and when it hath boiled, you must stop the vessell: Some doe put a handfull of salt in first, and after it the Must of new wine, and last the Oliues, and when the new ine hath boiled, they stop vp the vessell: Otherwise, drie them in the shadow, in a place that is open for the wind to enter, then put them vp in an earthen vessell filled with honey, mixing therewithall some Spices.

Filberds or small Hasel-Nuts may be preserued two seuerall waies,* that is to say, ei∣ther in the shell, or without, by the kernell onely. To preserue them in the shell, and to haue them verie full, large, and pleasant in tast, you shall take a large earthen pot, as wide in the bottome as at the mouth, and then first lay therein a pretie thicke layre of Nuts, and then strew vpon them a handfull of Bay salt, then lay another layre of Nuts and an handfull of Bay salt, and thus doe layre vpon layre, till you haue filled the pot vp to the top: then couer it with leather & parchment exceeding close: which done, lay a smooth stone on the top of it, and then dig a hole in the earth in some drie vault or cellar, and set the pot therein, and couer it all ouer with the earth, and this wil keepe them all the yeare, or diuers yeares, in as good strength, fulnesse, and sweetnesse, as if they were but newly gotten from the trees. Some vse only to burie these pots thus fil∣led in red or yellow sand: and some vse not to burie them at all, but to keepe them in a low, coole, and moist vault: and surely anie will doe will, but the first is the best, and maketh them most full, and to haue the pleasantest rellish. But if you would preserue them without the shels in the kernels only, then you shall open them, and pick off the vpper red hull or skin, and in all points doe to them as was taught you before for the Walnut.

To make Quince-cakes thin, and as it were almost transparent,* you shall take your Quinces and pare them, and cut them in slices from the chore, then take weight for weight of refined sugar beaten and well searced, and onely moistened with Damaske Rosewater, and in it boile your Quinces till it be thick, and then take it forth, and drie it vpon a flat place-dish ouerasoft fire, not leauing to stirre it with a spoone or slice till it be hard: then put it into a stone-mortar, and beat it very well, and if you find that it wanteth sugar, then as you beat it, strew in more sugar, till it haue the tast you desire: then being come to a paste, take it out of the mortar, and rowle it forth into verie thin akes, and so print it: and in this manner you may make thin cakes of anie manner of fruit you please whatsoeuer.

Page  424 If you will make your Pastes, Cakes, Marmalades, Preserues, or Conserues of di∣uers colours,* as red, vvhite, or betweene both; you shall doe as followeth a first, if you vvill haue your paste or marmalade red, you shall take your Quinces, Apples, Peares, Oranges, or what other fruit you please, and after you haue paed or ried them, you shall cut them in halfes, and chore such as are to be chored, then take weight for weight of refined sugar, and to euerie pound of sugar a quart of faire run∣ning water, and boyle them in the same ouer a verie soft fire, and turne them ouer many times, and couer them verie close with a pewter-dish obseruing euer, that the longer they are in boyling, the better and more ruddie will the colour be▪ then when they be soft, take your knife and cut them crosse ouer the tops, that the sirrop may pase through them, and make the colour entire, then take vp some of the sirrop and coole it vpon a sawcer, and when you see it begin to be thick, then breake your Quin∣ces with a slice, or a spoone, as small as is possible, then straine it, and boxe it after you haue strewed sugar in the boxes: or if you will haue it in paste or cakes, then vse it as is before said of the Quince cakes, and so mould it, and roll it forth: Now if you will haue it of a pure white colour, you must in all points vse your Quinces, Ap∣ples, Peares, Oranges, or other fruit, as is beforesaid, onely you must take but to euerie pound of Sugar a pint of water, and you must boile them as fast as is pos∣sible, and not couer them at all, but suffer the ayre to passe away as freely as may be. Now if you will haue it of a carnation, or more pale colour, then you shall take a pint and a halfe of water to a pound of Sugar, and a pound of Fruit, and you shall so couer it with a Pewter dish, that at one corner of the same a little of the ayre or smoake may pase away, and no more: and thus obserue, that the more ayre you suffer to goe away, the paler the colour will be: and in this case you shall neyther suffer it to boile exceeding fast, nor verie slow, but of a temperate and indifferent manner.

If you will make artificiall Cinnamon stickes.* so like vnto the true Cinnamon it selfe, that the one can hardly be iudged from the other, and yet the counterfeit to be a most delicate and pleasant sweet meat, and wholesome and soueraigne to be eaten: you shall take an ounce of the best Cinnamon, from which no water hath by anie meanes beene extracted, and beat it into verie fine powder, well fearced: then take halfe a pound of refined Sugar also well beaten and searced, and mixe them verie well together: then take gumme Dragon the quantitie of a Hasel Nut, and seepe it in Rose-water, so as it may be thicke and verie glewie: then with it temper the Cinnamon and Rose-water, till you bring it to a fine paste: then worke it out with your hand, after that rowle it forth with your Rowling-Pinne, then print it, and lastly, fold it vp in the same manner that you see a Cinnamon sticke is folded vp. Now, if where you dissolue your gumme Dragon, you also dissolue with the same a graine or two of fat Muske, and also twice as much Ambergreece, it will be a great deale the better, and adde more pleasantnesse and delicacie of smell vnto the stickes.

To make Conserue generally of anie fruit whatsoeuer you please,* either sweet or sowre, you shall take the fruit you intend to make Conserue of, and if it be stone fruit, you shall take out the stones; if other fruit, take away the chore, parings▪ and seedes, and then boile them in faire running water, to an indifferent good height: which done, you shall draine them away from the same, and put them into another cleane Vessell, either with white Wine, or claret Wine, according vnto the colour of the fruit which you conserue: and then boile them to a thicke pappe, breaking them with a Slice, or Spatule, as they boile, vntill all be brought into one sub∣stance: then vnto euerie bare pound of pulpe, if the fruit thereof be sweet, you shall take a bare pound of refined Sugar, beaten to fine powder: but if it be sowr fruit, as Cherries, Gooseberries, Barberries, Bulleys, Sloes, and such like, then vn∣to euerie bare pound of pulpe, you shall take a pound downe weight of refined Sugar in powder, and so stirre the Sugar and the pulpe verie well together vp∣on the fire: then taking it from the same, you must immediately, hot as it is, straine Page  425 it through a middle strainer cleane washed, and so letting it coole, then you may pot it vp.

But if you will make Conserue of Flowers,* Hearbes, Leaues, or such like; as are Roset, Violets, Gilloflowers, Mints, Basill, and such like: then you shall take the flowers or leaues from their stalkes, and with a paire of sheeres cut away the tippes of the vpper ends of them, and the white ends at the roots thereof, leauing nothing but the heart and middle part thereof: which done, you shall put them into a stone Mortar, or into a rowling Mill, or woodden Brake, and there crush, grind, or bruise them, till they come to a oft substance, and be so like vnto a soft pulpe, that no part of the leaues or flowers may be discerned: then to euerie pound of that pulpe, as was before said, take a pound of refined sugar, beaten and searced into fine powder, gi∣uing the sweeter the lesse, and the sowre the more, and so beat them exceedingly well together, till the sugar be generally dispersed, and then pot it vp, and keepe it for your occasions.

If you will make an excellent Leach of Dates,* you shall take your Dates, and ope∣ning of them, take forth their stone, and the innermost white rind, and beat them in a stone Mortar with Sugar, Cinnamon, and Ginger, till they be well incorporated together: then take it forth of the Mortar, and worke it like a piece of paste, and then rowle them forth, and print them: and either serue them moist, or drie them in a stoou, for either kind is excellent.

CHAP. LI.

The manner of making of Oyles: that there are three sorts of preparing of Oyles, and how you must make Oyle Oliue.

INtreating in the second Booke of the Oliue-tree, wee promised a briefe discourse of the making of Oyles, a thing certainely verie profitable for our Countrey House, in as much as Oyle is no lesse profitable for mans life, nor of lesse fruit and encrease vnto a good husband, than Wine: then it shall not be from the matter, if (after wee haue spoken largely of Gardens and Orchards, and especially of the ordering of Oliue-trees, and other hearbes and trees whereof Oyles are prepared) we briefely doe specifie the waies of making of Oyles.

And to say something of Oyle in generall, Oyle may be made three waies: The first, by expression, which is most common, and the chiefest amongst the rest: The second, by impression: and the third, by distillation or resolution, after the manner of distilled waters: Wee will onely speake of the two first in this place, reseruing the third for the Discourse which wee intend to make concerning Di∣stillations in this Booke; although, in verie deed, wee haue not purposely resol∣ued to speake exactly of the making of Oyles, because it is a thing that proper∣ly belongeth not to the Husbandman, or his Hinde, but onely vnto a good Apo∣thecarie.

To speake then first of Oyle which is most vsefull and seruiceable for the Hus∣bandman, because it not onely benefiteth himselfe and his familie,* but also cureth his cattell of all manner of dangerous and corrupt diseases: you shall vnderstand, that it is the Oyle of Oats, which may be made either by expression, impression, or di∣stillation: yet for your greater ease and readinesse, to haue it vpon anie suddaine oc∣casion, you shall make it in this manner: First, you shall take halfe a pecke, or a quarter of a pecke, of the goodliest, best, and fullest Oates you can procure, of which, the whitest are the best, and these you shall hull and breake from their huskes Page  426 as cleane as is possible: then take a pottle or three quarts of new milke, and setting it vpon the fire, as soone as it is readie to seeth, you shall put into it halfe a pound of Allome beaten to powder, and stirre it about, and so let it stand an houre or two, in which time it will gather vnto a curd: then with your hands you shall presse downe the curd into the bottome of the Vessell, and then straine the Whay from it into another cleane Vessell, and presse the curd verie much, not leauing anie Whay in it that you can wring forth: then take that Whay, and put your Oates therein, and set it ouer a verie quicke fire, and boile it vntill you see the Oates breake, or be as soft as pappe: then take it from the fire, and powre it gently into a small Cul∣lender, so as the Whay may softly draine from the same, without anie force or pres∣sing at all: then when it hath almost left dropping, take a cleane Frying-panne, and put the Oates therein, and hold it ouer a gentle fire so long, as you shall see the smoake of the Oates ascend vpward: but so soone as you perceiue the smoake to stymmer or runne about the edges of the panne, you shall forthwith put the Oates into a fine cleane bagge of soft old Linnen, or Boulter, and so lay it into the Oyle-presse, and presse it with all the strength you can, and that which runneth from the same, is the Oyle thereof, which you shall receiue into a Glasse-vessell, and keepe it close and well stopped vp. In this manner, and with this Whay, you may also extract Oyle from anie hard substance either of Trees, Seedes, Leaues, Flowers, Graines, or what else soeuer, which hath anie concealed moisture remay∣ning within it.

This Oyle of Oates is most excellent for the smoothing of the skinne, and ta∣king away of itch, scabbe, or little pustules about the bodies of men or children: It also purgeth most gently and sweetly, and expelleth out of the bodie all manner of venimous and infectiue humours: it is also verie soueraigne against the stone or dif∣ficultie of vrine, being drunke with white Wine and a corroded Numeg: Also it feedeth much, and maketh a man strong and Iustie. It is most soueraigne for anie in∣ward disease in Cattell, or anie surfet taken by too violent labour: but especially it cureth all inward diseases in Horses, being giuen either with Beere, Ale, or Wine: but aboue the rest, it cureth the Glaunders, mourning of the Chyne, consumption of the Liuer, or rottennesse in the Lungs: and as it cureth these inward diseases, so also being inwardly taken (as aforesaid) it cureth all outward grieuances which come of inward corruption, as the Farcie, Maungie, Scabbe, Leprosie, Hide∣bound, the euill habit of the bodie, and such like. And as for this manner of a∣king of Oyles, although it be precisely none of the three wayes before rehearsed, but somewhat more grosse, yet seeing at auoureth of the two first, which is expres∣sion and impression, and being so readie, perfect, and easie a thing for anie man practise, it is no lesse to be embraced than anie of the other: for there is no place nor no necessitie void of those helpes and furtherances which are needfull in this Worke.

The manner of making of Oyles by expression,* belongeth not onely to Oliues, but also to manie other fruits and seedes, as common Nuts, Almonds, Nutmegs, Line-seed Hempe-seed, and such other, whereof we will speake hereafter. Notwithstan∣ding, in as much as the Oliue doth yeeld more Oyle than anie other fruit or seed, it hath deserued the name of excellencie aboue all the rest▪ for the fat and vnctuous li∣quors of other fruits and seedes are not like to haue anie other name bestowed vpon them,* than that which of right appertaineth vnto the liquor which is pressed out of the Oliue: for which reason, when we speake of the Oyle of the Oliue, we onely say, Oyle▪ but when we make mention of other Oyles, we adde the name of the fruit or seed whereout it was pressed▪ as Oyle of Nutmegs, Oyle of sweet Almonds, and so of the rest: Wherefore we will begin to describe the manner and fashion of making the Oyle of Oliues.

When therefore you haue first gathered your Oliues,* and disposed of them in such manner as we haue spoken of in our second Booke, entreating of the Oliue-tree, con∣sider diligently, if the place where the Oyle is to be pressed and made, be furnished Page  427 of all necessarie things, that is to say, of fats or vessells to put your diuers sorts of oyles in: of scoopes of yron, to draw and emptie out the oyles: couers to couer the vessells; great and small spunges: pots to carrie out the oyle in bands and cordes of hempe and broome barkes, and of many other things which must be prepared and made readie befoe you come to the making of the oyle, in like manner as is vsed be∣fore the gathering of grapes. The milstones,* oyle mills, and pressers must be cleane, as all the rest of the instruments seruing to make oyle: you must likewise haue made sufficient prouision of vvood to make good fires, therby to chae and heat the roome a good vvhile before hand, vvhere the oyle shall be pressed, if so be it be not warmes ynough by his naturall situation: for all oylie liquors doe dissolue and run the more freely by the helpe of heat, as they do keepe in and cease to depart through cold. And for this cause it were requisite that your presser stood vpon the light and clearenesse of the South Sun,* that so you may stand the lesse in need of fire and candle, when you goe about the pressing out of your oyle.

All these things thus prepared, cause your seruants and vvorkmen to cull out and cleanse your oliues: when they are cleane, let them be carried forthwith to the prese, vnder vvhich they shall put them vvhole in new Willow basket (for the Willow giueth great beautie vnto the oyle) to the end they may be pressed with as much lea∣sure,* and as softly as may be. It is true that it would be good before they were put vnder the presse to haue them troden vvith feet▪ in as much as the oyle toden vvith the feet is alwaies better, sweeter, clearer, and more delightsome to eat in salades, than that vvhich is pressed out: but seeing the treading of them is harder to doe than to presse them, the common making of oyle is in the presse: vvherefore before you put your oliues vnder the presse, it will not be amisse to breake their skinne and flesh with turning milstones, and that but gently, to the end that the kernell which spoyleth and corrupteth the taste of the oyle be not stirred: and afterward to soften and grind them most strongly in the presse, putting in thereto of salt foure pound to euerie bu∣shell of oliues, and after to presse the bones or stones of the oliues by themselues. He that shall emptie the oyle out of the vessell vvhereinto it runneth from the presse, shall make three sorts of oyle,* seperating so many one from another: for it would be great losse to mingle the first pressing with the second, but yet more to mingle it with the third, because that that which runneth from the presse being yet scarce strayned or moued, is of a farre better taste than the second, and is called Virgines oyle,* being verie beautifull and goodly, and sit for to vse with meat: the second being fitter for oyntments, and such other like vses: and the third for to burne in lampes. And yet further it will be verie good when the oyle shall be a little setled in his tups, to powre it out of them into others: for the more that oyle is ayred and stirred, so much the more cleare it is, and without lees.

The tunnes and vesslls wherein the oyle is to be put, must be well dressed with pitch and gumme,* made verie cleane (if they be old) with warme lee, and dried with a spunge, receiuing the oyle not till thirtie daies after that it is made, that is to say, 〈◊〉 the time when the lees are fallen to the bottome: in like manner the vessells and sackes of Goats haire must be well mended for the receiuing of the oyle into them, according to the manner which we haue set downe in the first Booke, in the Chapter of the Goat-keeper.

The cellar where the vessells for oyle are to be set,* shall be in some cold place; for as all liquors doe dissolue and become more fluent by heat; so they keepe fast and close in, and say their courses by the working of cold: and so oyle of it selfe is kept verie well in a cold and drie place, because heat and moisture are his vtter enimies. This is the cause why the oyle-makers giue in charge aboue all things that there be o fire nor smoke made neere vnto the presses and cellars of oyle; because the taste of the oyle is spoyled by smoake and soote:* so then it is meet if possibly it may be that the oyle cellars be situate towards the North, quite on the other side from the hot winds, as also that the oyle be put into glasse vessells or earthen pots, such as are Page  428 the pots of Beauuis, especially the oyle that is made of greene oliues that are not ripe,* and is called oyle Omphacine.

If in the time of Winter oyle doth freeze together with his lees, and cleareth it from all manner of mischiefe that can happen vnto it: neither need you feare that it should be salt: for though you should put much salt into it, yet the oyle would take no taste of it.

To keepe oyle from becomming ranke,* melt vvaxe with oyle in equall quantitie, and therein mingle fried salt, then put it all in a vessell of oyle; and this same compo∣sition serueth also to mend it if it be alreadie ranke. Anise cast into the vessell perfor∣meth the same.

If the oyle be troubled,* purifie it at the Sunne or fire, or else cast into the vessell boyling water; prouided the vessell be not weake and in hazard of bursting.

If the oyle be full of filthinesse,* frie salt and cast it hot into the vessell▪ the pine not burned, or the lees of oyle dried and parched and cast into the vessell of oyle doth the like.

If oyle haue got any stench or other euill smell:* poune greene oliues, and cast them into the oile without their stones: or else cast in the crums of barley bread min∣gled with grained salt: or else inuse in the oyle the flowers of melilot.

If the oyle be corrupt and putrified,* hang in the vessell a handfull of the hearbe coriander, and cast in besides of the same diuers times, if you perceiue that the pu∣trifaction is not taken away: or which is better, change the oyle his vessell: you shal likewise amend this fault, if you take grapes, and after you haue taken out the kernels, stampe them, and make them into lumpes to put into the vessell, and ten daies after change the oyle his vessell.

Oyle will be verie cleare,* if you stampe the barke and leaues of an oliue-tree with salt, put in all in a little knot or nodule, and hang the same in the vessell.

To make sweet smelling oyle: take Virgines oyle,* which is that which first run∣neth downe from the presse without the weight of the presse forcing it: into it cast of the fine powder of bay-tree-leaues, the rootes of aller and cypres, the roots of con∣lag, or some other sweet smelling things, such as you are disposed, all being dried and made into fine powder, stirring the vessell well: afterward, put in salt finely powdred, and set out the vessell in the Sunne for the space of fifteene daies: or else set a vessell well couered (for feare that the oyle should spend it selfe) in a caldro of boyling water, let it stay therein the space of three houres to boyle at a little sire: after take it out, and let it rest some time, vntill you perceiue all to be incorporated together, then straine the oyle, and reserue it in some vessell well stopped for your vse.

Furthermore,* you must know that as the bottome in honie, and the middest of Wine, so the vppermost part of the oyle is alwaies the best: the reason shall be deli∣uered in the treatise of Wine in the sixth Booke.

As concerning the properties of oyle,* it hath a singular vertue applied outwardly as is to be knowne by the answere of Democritus, vvho being asked of the meanes to liue long, and to preserue ones bodie in good estate and plight, said, If you arme your selfe without your bodie with oyle, and within with home. And this is the cause vvhy Hanniball gaue in charge vnto his souldiers passing the mountaines, that they should arme their bodies vvith oyle, to keepe them from the injuries of the cold: in like manner the men of auncient time to make their bodies the more nimble and readie to all actions and motions, caused all their bodie ouer to be annointed with oyle before they were to goe into the bathe: in like sort also, their vvrastlers and champions, before they entred the combate, did annoint all their bodie oer with oyle, not onely that they might not be so easily taken hold of in wrastling: but also to haue their whole bodie the more nimble and obedient, and their members the more lusti and strong.

Page  429 As concerning within the bodie,* oyle hath no lesse vertue than vvithout; for that if it be taken inwardly, it softeneth the bellie, subdueth the malignitie of venimes, and causeth vomiting speedily: furthermore, if any venime or burning haue pitcht and setled it selfe vpon the skin, and begin there to exulcerate or worke his further mischiefe; for the staying of the fiercenesse and malignitie thereof, there is nothing better than to lay a little liniment of new oyle thereupon.

Oyle powred vpon vvine or any other liquor,* keepeth it from spending it selfe: In like manner the Vinteners, wise ynough to keepe white Wine from waxing red, are vvont to cast vpon it a pint of Oyle-oliue.

Oyle is altogether enemie to plants,* especially gourds and cucumbers, which dye presently if a man place neere vnto them any vessell of oyle; or if that he which dres∣seth them be oylie, as vve haue said in the second Booke.

The lees or grounds of oyle are good to make a mortar with to lay the floores of corne garners,* because such a morter chaseth away Mise: lees also are good to keepe instruments and yron tooles from rusting: oxen are helped to a good appetite, by ha∣uing their fodder besprinkled with oyle lees: oyle lees are good to annoint the bot∣tomes of chests wherein clothes are to be laid, for they driue away mothes: they are good also to giue light vnto the familie with some wood: to keepe sheepe from be∣ing scabbed, if they be annointed with the lees of oyle, as also to heale such as are al∣readie scabbed: to cause vvood to burne and slame without smoake.

CHAP. LII.

How the Oyles of other Fruits and Seedes are made by expression.

THere are many other seeds and fruits which doe yeeld an oylie liquor by expression,* and that after the manner of the Oliue, that is to say, royall Walnuts, Filberds, Nutmegs, Almonds, both sweet and bitter, the Indian nut, Anacardies, Peach kernells, the kernells of pine Apples, Abricots, Cherries, Plums, Pistaces, Linseed, Rapeseed, Mustard-seed, Hempe-seed, the seed of Poppie, Hebane, Burnet, Citrons, Oranges, Apples, Peares, Cucum∣bers, Gourds, Melons, Citrulls, and other such like, whereof vve will speake parti∣cularly, to the end that we may giue to know what course is to be taken, and what ma∣ner and order is to be kept in euerie particular.

The oyle of sweet Almonds is thus prepared:* Pill the Almonds after that they haue sleept some time in warme water: pound them in a morter of stone or marble with a woodden pestle, and make them vp in lumpes or little loaues, which you shall knead and vvorke with your hands at the vapour of vvarme vvater a long time, if you like it not better to warme them vpon hot ashes, or hot sand for the space of an houre, or in the Sunne the space of fiue houres: or else put them in a glasse vessell vvhich shall be vvarmed at the vapour of boyling vvater in a caldron: after put them in a haire cloth or hempen bagge, for to presse in a presse that hath his planke hol∣low and bending downeward: or betwixt presses whose plankes you haue heated: but here in this you must note, that the Almonds are not alwaies blanched before their oyle be drawne, because many times a mans leasure will not serue him to doe it: though indeed it be the best way to pill or blanch them, that so the oyle may come the more neat and pure: and to pill them rather vvith a knife than by the meanes of water, either warme or cold, for feare that through the mixture of vvater, there be caused to come forth great store of vvaterish and vnpleasant oyle.* After that the Al∣monds haue beene thus pressed, you may bake the drosse vnder ashes, and vse them in steed of bread: you must obserue, that such manner of preparing of oyle of sweet almonds is onely to be vsed vvhen such oyle is to be taken at the mouth, to stay and Page  430 take away the throws & gripes of women newly deliuered of childor else to mitigate the paine of the collicke,* or of the reines, taking it in a drinke of two ounces of vvhite Wine, or with Aqua-vitae: And this oyle is drawne oftentimes without fire or any other heat whatsoeuer: sometimes the almonds are fried to giue them a light drying, and after the oile is pressed out.

The oyle of bitter Almonds is made of almonds fried in a frying-pan,* and stied oftentimes that so they may not burne to, after which they are to be pressed out so strongly and long, as till they will yeeld no more: After this manner a man may pressed out two other sorts of oyle out of sweet almonds: one appropriated vnto •••∣ments to be applied vnto the outward parts of the bodie that are pained: the other seruing for perfumers: vvhich two are made of old sweet almonds sound and whole,* and verie oylie by reason of their age: they must be fried in a frying-pan, and alter pressed with weight or presses being close wrapped in a bagg, or haire cloth. The oyles of Pistaces, common vvalnuts, filberds, Indian nuts, the kernels of pine apples, cherries, seeds of gourds, cucumbers, melons, Palma Christi, the seed of hempe, line, pionie, henbane, wild saffron, stauesacre, and other fruits and oylie seeds, are pressed out after the same manner that the oyles of sweet almonds be: euermore looking to it that the expression be not without the heating of the thing pressed, either by cha••ng and warming it selfe at the fire, or else by heating the plankes betwixt, or the weigh vnder which they are to be pressed.

Oyle of Bayes it thus prepared:* Take ripe bay-berries and new, pound them, and make them into masses or small lumps: boyle them a sufficient long time in water in a caldron, straine the decoction, and let it coole, gather the fat that swimmeth aboue, and keepe it for oyle; or else let all the water run out at some hole which shall be in the bottome of it, and the fat which stayeth behind is the oyle. Some doe not boyle the masses of bay-berries, but presse them from vnder a presse, and let the oyle fall downe into a vessell standing vnderneath with vvater: Otherwise, mixe an equall portion of bay-berries and oliues, pound them together, and presse out the oyle. The oyle of bayes is soueraigne to put in clysters for the paines of the cholick,* and to make oyntments of for cold tumors, the palsie, shaking of quartaine agues, and cold affects of the sinews. After the same manner you may make the simple oyle of my••tes, I∣niper-berries,* of the fruit of the masticke-tree, turpentine-tree, and Iuie: which is al∣so verie singular for cold distillations, and benummed members. Sometime men take an equall portion of Iuniper and bay-berries, and steepe them in Wine, pressing out the oile thereof afterward. You may likewise boyle bay-berries in oyle, and presse them out after: or else without any other mixture or preparation, you may put 〈◊〉 and greene bay-berries in a bagge, and by weight or pressing draw out their oyle.

Oyle of nutmegs is thus made: lay nutmegs on heapes,* bray them with a woodden stamper, afterward presse them out from betwixt the plankes heated: or else divide them into little heapes, and steepe them three daies in verie good Wine, after drie them in the shadow of the Sun two whole daies, then heat them reasonably in a fry∣ing-pan vpon the fire, sprinkling them with rosewater, and presently presse them out. You must note, that in this manner of drawing of oyle, which is done by expression, men are forced many times to sprinkle the matter with water or wine, to draw out the oyle both more easily, and in greater quantitie: so we see it practised sometimes in the expression of sweet almonds, that when they are too drie, there is some small 〈◊〉 of water put vnto them: but vnto other things some Wine, as in oyle-de-baies, •••∣megs, Iuniper-berries, and such like.

Page  431

CHAP. LIII.

How to make Oyles by impression.

THe Oyles made by impression are commonly compounded of Oyle o∣liue,* because it is more temperate than others, easilier to be gotten, and retayning more exactly the quantitie of ingredients whether hote or cold. It is true, that verie often in place of Oyle oliue some take the oyle of sweet Almonds, F••berds, Cammoile, or such other, according as the occa∣sion of things require, as you may know and vnderstand by particular description of such oyles. Whatsoeuer it is,* there are three things to be considered in the ma∣king of oyles by impression: the heat, vvhich is the efficient cause of the making of the oyle: the qualitie of the ingredients; and the quantitie of them. As concerning the heat, vvhether it be of the fire, or of the Sunne, or of other things which yeeld heat, it must be measured according to the qualities of tendernesse or hardnesse which shall be in the substances and matter: for flowers doe not craue so great a heat is fruits or roots;* whereupon it commeth to pase, that for the composition of such oyles, men are oftentimes contented with the heat of the Sunne, or with the heat of boyling water: otherwise called Maries-bath,* or the double vessell. And I for mine owne part jam of this mind, that for the making of these oyles there ought not any coale fire to be vsed, nor yet any other kind of fire, but rather the helpe of Ma∣••••-bath: For as by the gentle and milde heat of Maries-bath, all the parts of the ingredients are kept, and the oyle well prepared and digested: so by the heat of a vi∣olent and forcible fire, there followeth rather the exhalation or combustion of oylie things, than any digestion. The preparing therefore of such oyles as haue need of a greater heat than that of the Sun, will be a greater deale the better, if you put the mat∣ter, out of which you draw the oyle, in a glasse or tin vessell for to be infused in oyle mingled with Wine or vvater, or other conuenient liquor, or without liquor, accor∣ding as the nature of the ingredients, and the present thing requireth. After that this vessell borne vp with the small slips of broome or straw, hath infused three whole daies in Maries-bath, that is to say, in caldron full of water somewhat boyling; or (which is better) the vessell not infused or standing in the water, but rather recei∣uing onely the vapour of the boyling vvate that is in the caldron, those three daies being spent, you may presse out the things, which you shall haue infused, strayning and forcing them through some strong strainer and thicke linnen: and afterward to put in other new ingredients if it be needfull (that is to say) vntill the liquors which you haue mingled with the oyle, or the humiditie and moisture which may rise of the ingredents be consumed, and that the oyle may seeme to haue gotten out all the strength and vertue of the ingredients, and then to straine and force them as before. This is the way that is to be taken for to prepare oyles well by impression. It is true that with lesse cost and a great deale sooner they may be prepared, in putting the atter into some great brasse pan vpon a coale fire, causing it to boyle with a small fire vntill the liquor put vnto the oyle or the moisture of the ingredients be consu∣med: and after strayning of them after the manner that hath beene sayde be∣fore.

Furthermore it vvill be discerned that the oyle hath exactly drawne out the ver∣tues of the ingredients,* and that the liquor mingled with the oyle or moisture of the ingredients is consumed, if with a spatule or sticke of vvood you cast some few drops of the said oyle into the fire: for if they be all on a flame by and by, it is a signe that it is pure and near, but and if it spatter, there is yet some waterish moisture remaining in it: furthermore as it is boyling in the caldron, it will be spatering and casting vp bubbles, so long as there remayneth any of the liquor or moisture: but after that it is spent and boyled away, it will be quiet and peaceable: likewise a drop of oyle drop∣ped Page  432 vpon your hand, if there be any moisture in it of waterishnesse, it will shew it suf∣ficiently, for it will swim and ride aloft vpon the same.

As concerning the qualitie of the ingredients,* it consisteth principally in this, that the ingredients are either hot or cold, or tender, or tough, and hard. I they be cold, there is need that they should be often shifted and changed in the oyle, for the bet∣ter imprinting of their cold qualitie in the oyle, for although that oyle oliue be tem∣perate, notwithstanding it inclineth more vnto heat and a firie nature, than other∣wise: so that it is requisite to change the ingredients often, and to put new in their places for that cause; yea, and in regard thereof to wash the oyle in some common water, as we will further declare in speaking of oyle of roses: if the ingredients be hot,* it is sufficient once onely to change them for the composition of hot oyles, and that by reason of the affinitie and agreement betwixt the Oyle and the hot things.

If the ingredients be hard,* and not easily digested, and imparting their proper∣ties vnto the oyle, they must be infused before they be boyled, and also there must be put unto their decoction some liquor, as Wine, or some conuenient iuice or other liquor, as well to helpe their digestion, as to keepe them from burning, or getting some loathsome smell: but and if they be tender, they craue sometimes a simple in∣fusion in the heat of the Sunne, or vpon a slow fire without any boyling: and this way fitteth flowers: sometime a light boyling without any infusion, as many aroma∣ticall things.

And as concerning the qualitie of the ingredients,* you must obserue that oyles by impression are made, not onely of the parts of plants, but of liuing things, their parts and excrement, vvherein there must not be any shifting, changing, or renewing: and besides these, there is no other thing to be obserued; except that if the beasts be small, that then they be killed in the oyle, as it vsed in oyle of scorpions, serpents, frogs, and pismires: but and if they be great, they must be first killed, them bowel∣led, and lastly, boyled in the oyle, as is done in the oyle of Foxes.

Touching the quantitie of the ingredients,* by which the oyles made by impres∣sion are called simple or compound, you must haue regard to see that when the oyle is compound, that this order be followed, that is, to take the ingredients of grea∣test and hardest substance, and to infuse them three daies: afterward those of lesse substance two daies: and those which are the most tender, subtile, and aromaticall one day, and one night: and then afterward to boyle them in order, strayning them but once, and reseruing your Gums to mixe and dissolue with the said stray∣ned oyle, according as it shall be requisit, if so be that any gums doe goe into any such oyles.

CHAP. LIIII.

A description of the Oyles made by impression.

AS for Oyle of Roses,* it is thus prepared: Take of oyle of new oliues so much as you shall thinke needfull, that is to say, sufficiently to infuse your roses in: vvash it diligently, as well to coole it, and make it more tempe∣rate, as also for to make it the more pure, if in case it should be any vvhit salt or feculent, and thicke of the Lees. Such vvashing it made with an equall por∣tion of water and oyle, stirring them together in a vessell, vntill such time as they be mingled and incorporated, and then so leauing them till they seperate themselues one from another againe: vvhich being come to passe, there shall be a hole made in the bottome of the vessell vvhere they are to let the vvater runne out: after, there must other vvater be put in to beate with the oyle as before, and this shall thus be gone ouer three or foure times: but and if there be any hast to be made in this vva∣shing Page  433 of the oyle, then the vessell shall be kept in some warme place, to the end that the oyle and water may be the sooner seuered: and you must note that the oyle is not to be washed on this fashion, except it be for cooling oyles, as oyle of Roses, Violets, and such like: it is verie true, that there will be no need to wash any oyle at all, if you haue the oyle of greene oliues called Omphac••e. This washing of oyle being fini∣shed, haue in readinesse a sufficient quantitie of blowne Roses, put them to infuse in this washed oyle, in a vessel hauing a narrow mouth, like a pitcher or a glasse bottle, or some one of Tin, and filled vp within a quarter of the top, and afterward well clo∣sed and stopt: set them in this sort in the Sunne, or some warme place, for the space of seuen daies, boyle them afterward in a double vessell in boyling water, as we haue said, or else boyle them in a brasse kettle vpon a small fire without any flame for the space of two or three houres: vvhen the oyle hath boyled and wasted one part of the moisture that was in it, it will be conuenient to straine it through a strong strayner, and thicke linnen cloth, and after to put into it new Roses againe, doing as you did before, and that for three seuerall times: in the end, after it hath beene strayned, some put into it as much water of the infusion or other Roses, infused in water, as there is Oyle; then you shall set it in the Sunne for the space of fortie dayes, which infusion may be seuered from the oyle afterward as the water wherewith the oyle was vva∣shed. Notwithstanding it may be sufficient to take the infusion of the Roses in oyle onely, vvithout the putting of other vvater in the infusion. Some mingle now and then in the decoction of Roses a little vvine, or juice of fresh Roses to keepe the oyle from burning,* or that in boyling it should not get any loathsome smell. You must further note, that some prepare and make two sorts of oyle of Roses: one oyle of ripe oliues, and roses all opened and spred, vvhich are the better if they be red: the other oyle it made of roses being yet in the bd, with the oyle of greene and vnripe oliues: or if you haue not any of this oyle Omphacine, you shall make it with common oyle and verjuice boyled together, to the consumption of the juice. This is more cooling, astringent, and repercussiue: the other more digestiue, dicussiue, and anodine or as∣suaging of paynes.

Some there are which sometimes make this oyle or Roses without oyle of oliues,* putting red, carnation, or muske roses to putrifie in a vessell set in dung for one whole moneth being close couered. And this kind of oyle is verie fragrant and sweet.

This manner of making of oyles may be followed in the compounding of oyles,* either cold or temperate and simple, such as are the oyle of violets, cammomile, meli∣••te, yellow or red violets, of the leaues and flowers of dill, lillies, the yellow taken away, of corneflag flowers, of elder tree flowers, white mulleine flowers, jesamine flowers, poppie flowers, or of the leaues and heads of poppie, of lettuse leaues; and white water lillie flowers, to the compounding of which oyles, you must note that for want of oyle of greene oliues, you may take the oyle of sweet almonds newly drawn, or of •••berds, if it haue beene first washt.

Oyle of Quinces: Take whole Quinces with the rindes when they are verie ripe, but cast away their kernells, then stampe them, and infuse them in oyle Omphatine in the Sunne fiue dayes, or else in oyle washed as vve haue said before: afterward, boyle them with equall portion of the juice of Quinces in double vessell the space of foure houres: renew the flesh and juice of Quinces three or foure times, the old be∣ing made away, set them in the Sunne againe, and boyle them: afterward strayne all, and keepe it in a vessell for your vse: you shall draw greater store of the juice of your Quinces, if you crush them well, and bruise them, rather than if you cut them in peecs.

Oyle of Masticke:* you must take oyle of Roses, or oyle Omphacine, or of Quin∣ces, three pound, of good wine eight ounces, of masticke powdred and put vnto the rest toward the end (for it will not endure much boyling) three ounces: boyle them alltogether to the consumption of the vvine in stirring it oft, to the end that the ma∣sticke may be melted and mixt with the oyle.

Page  434 Oyle of the flowers of the Elder-tree:* Fill a glasse bottle full of vvashed oyle, or oyle Omphacine, put therein a sufficient quantitie of Elder-tree flowers, set the bottle in the hot Sunne sixe dayes, after that presse them out, and put in others new; con∣tinue this all the time of Sommer vvhiles the flowers of Elder-tree are in force: this oyle is singular to comfort the sinews, assuage the paine of the ioynts, and to cleanse the skinne.

Oyle of S. Iohns-wort:* Infuse for three dayes the crops of S. Iohns-wort in verie fragrant Wine: after that, boyle all in a soft and gentle sort in Maries-bath, and af∣ter this some small space, strayne them out lightly: infuse againe in the same Wine as many dayes as nights the like quantitie of the tops of S. Iohns-wort, boyle them, and straine them as before: afterward, put vnto the liquor of Venice-Turpentin three ounces, of old oyle sixe ounces, of saffron a scruple, mixe them, and in the said Maries-bath boyle them vnto the consumption of the Wine: you shall keepe that which remaineth in a glasse or lead vessell, for to vse, as hot as you can applie it in maligne vlcers, especially those of the sinewes, and in the leane and cold parts, in the prickes of the sinews, paine of the teeth, conulsions, tumours, and distillations. Some doe make this oyle after the simplest and singlest sort, making onely the flowers of Hypericum, vvhich they infuse all the Sommer in washt oyle in a glasse vessell, and setting it in the hot Sunne, keepe it.

Oyle of Rhue:* Take the leaues of Rhue somewhat dried, (because they are sub∣ject to a superlous kind of moisture) set them to infuse in oyle a whole Sommer: Or better, change and renew them euerie eight dayes, strayning and pressing them out at euerie change: Sommer being gone, boyle them not, but straine, presse out, and keepe them in a vessell: after this manner are made the oyles of the Myrtle-tree,* Wormewood, Marierom, Southernwood, Thyme, Cammomile, and such like: vnto which there is sometimes added the like quantitie of juice, or flowers, or leaues min∣gled with oyle: nd so they are set in the Sunne.

Oyle of Spike:* Take true Spike, or for want of it, lauander, to the quantitie of three ounces, of marierom, and baye-tree leaues two ounces: of the roos of Cypres, Elicampaine, and Zyloalo•• of each an ounce and a halfe: of numegs, three ounces: infuse euerie thing by it selfe in an equall quantitie of Wine and vvater: the infusion accomplished, boyle the whole together in a sufficient quantitie of oyle in a double vessell, the space of foure or fiue houres: this done, strayne it all and keep the oyle for your vse: that is to say, for the cold ach of the stomacke, reines, bellie, matrix,* and other parts.

Oyle of Foxes:* Take a liue Fox of a middle age, of a full bodie, well fed and f••, such as Foxes be after vintage: kill him, bowell him, and skinne him: some take not out his bowells, but onely the excrements in his guts, because his guts haue much grease about them: breake his bones small, that so you may haue all their ••rrow: this done, set him a boyling in salt brine, salt water, and sea vvater, of each a pine and a halfe, of oyle three pints, of salt three ounces: in the end of the decoction, put there∣to the leaues of sage, rosemarie, dill, organie, marierom, and Iuniper-berries after that he shall be roten sodden,* that is to say, so as that his bones and flesh doe part clea•• asunder:* strayne all through a strayner, and keepe it in a vessell to make 〈◊〉, for ache in the joynts,* the sciatica, diseases of the sinewes, and paines of the reynes and backe.

Take Earth-wormes halfe a pound,* vvash them throghly in vvith Wine, then boyle them in two pound of Oyle oliue, and a little red Wine to the consumption of the Wine, strayne and presse it out all, and keepe the oyle: yet further, it vvould be good to put into this oyle some other vvormes, and leaue them there as long as the oyle lasteth. This oyle is singular good to comfort the stiffe sinews,* and for the 〈◊〉 of the joynts.

Oyle of Serpents:* Take whole Serpents, put them in an earthen vessell well lea∣ded, fill the same with May-butter, and couer the same with a couering, the joyn being vvell lued, but notwithstanding hauing a small hole aboue: set the po neerPage  435 vnto the ire, that it may boyle halfe a day, to the end that all may be throughly boi∣led: the straine it through a linnen cloth, afterward pound it vvell in mortar, and make an end of strayning that vvhich shall be in the bottome of the linnen cloth: mixe together both these expressions, letting them coole, and reseruing them in a glasse vessell to serue your vse for distillations or rheumes, and for palies. Some take Vipers, and cutting off their heads and tayles (as is done in the making of Treacle) they boyle them in oyle, and vse the oyle for rebellious Ringwormes, and first buds of the leprosie.

CHAP. LV.

A reuiew or suruay of Oyles made by distillation.

BVt the third manner of making of Oyles hath beene said to be by distil∣lation or resolution, of which vve vvill speake, ater vve haue spoken of the distilling of vvaters: but besides that, there is an other manner of drawing of oyle (though in certaine things it be done by expression) vvhich commeth verie neere vnto this third kind of making oyles by distillation: and it is practised in egges, vvheat, mstardseed, haye, barlie, arrar, brimstone, and others.

Oyle of Egges:* Take the yolkes of egges roasted hard in water, or which is better, vnder the hot ashes, about thirtie, rubbe and chafe them a long time betwixt your hands, after frie them in a leaden pan, or in an earthen one vvell leaded at a soft fire, 〈◊〉 them 〈◊〉 turne them oft with a ladle of vvood, vntill such time as they begin to be of a sad red, after presse them vvith the backe of the said ladle: or, which is bet∣er, put them betwixt two presses, to force out their oyle, as is done with oyle of Al∣monds: you shall haue great store of oyle to run out; vvhich is verie good to take a∣way the spots of the skin, to heale ringwormes, to cause haire to grow againe, to cure istulaes, and maligne vlcers, assuage paines, take away the roughnesse of the skin, to cure the chaps of the lips, hands, feet, and fundament: to take away the scarres left after burnings, and principally for the vlcers of the membranes of the braine. Some in the making of this Oyle doe not boyle the egges hard, but frie them raw, and after by pre••ing them together in a bagge betwixt two presses, or vnder a presser, they presse out the Oyle.

Oyle of Wheat:* Presse Wheat together betwixt two plates of Yron reasonably glowing and fire red, or verie hot, or betwixt a Marble-stone, and a thicke hot plae of Yron: receiue the Oyle into something vvhich distilleth from it: or else take away from Wheat his pill or rinde, and distill it after the manner of the Phi∣losophers Oyle: this Oyle applied hote, taketh away the spots of the skinne, hea∣leth ringwormes, fistulaes, and chops in the skinne,* and the scall or skurfe in little children: the oyles of barlie, mustard-seed, and other oylie seeds are thus prepared and made.

Oyle of Haye:* Set on fire a quantitie of Haye, after quench it againe by and by, then lay it vpon coales, and vvhiles it is smothering and smoaking, spread it vpon a plate of yron, and there will gather vpon it an oyle liquor, vvhich is called oyle of Haye: and this is singular good for ringwormes, and. Anthonies fire,* scabbes, and rughnesse of the skinne.

Oyle of Tartar:* Take Tartar, that is to say, the dried lees of Wine which slick∣eth vnto the seames or hollow places that are within the Wine vessell, not that which is in the bottome, because it is verie dreggish and filthie, neither yet that which is aloft on the vpper part of the vessell, for that is too frothie and scummie, but that vvhich cleaueth round about vnto the staues of the vessell wherein there hath Page  436 beene verie good white vvine, rather than red: make it into fine powder, and make it fast in a linnen cloth, infuse it in verie good vvhite Vinegar: or not infusing it, cal∣cine it, and put it in a Hypocras bagge, or in an oxes or swines bladder: afterward, roast it vnder hot embers, vntill it become vvhite: you shall know if it be sufficient∣ly burned, by the growing of it cleare, and a little burning of your tongue, if you touch it therewith. Notwithstanding you may blanch or whiten it, if (as some hold it for a great secret) you boyle it a long time in vvater, scumming it often: powder it yet once againe, or (which is better) calcine it: then put it in the bottome of an hypo∣cras bagge, that is to say, of a bagge vvhich hath a sharpe and narrow bottome, and this you shall hang vp on high at some staffe in a caue or other cold place for the space of eight dayes, vntill it be resolued into Oyle: and if the Oyle doe not drop of it selfe, then graspe it hard, and presse it out, putting vnderneath some glasse viol, to receiue the liquor that shall distill, vvhich is not indeed properly on Oyle, but a verie sharpe vvater, or a reddish kind of humour. This humour is good for all sorts of itchings, Ring-wormes, Scurfes, Scalles, and other such diseases of the skinne: It maketh the face vvhite, cleane, and seeming young: it taketh away vvrinkles and spots, comming of a melancholicke humour: It maketh the haire of a straw colour: hindereth the falling of the haire, and causeth it being falne to grow againe: it whi∣teneth copper and siluer: and taketh away the spots of linnens, if they be rubd with this oyle hot.

Oyle of Brimstone:* hang in some high place vvith a vvire, or doues-tayle of yron, a glasse vessell in fashion like a Bell or Bason, couered aboue with Potters earth of a cubice vvidenesse, vnderneath vvhich neere the length of a cubite you shall place another vessell of glasse, being broad and verie large, able to hold much, such like as is the dish or bason vsually serued vvith Ewers: in the middest whereof there shall be a little vessell of earth in frme of a little pot, vvhich shall contayne the Brimstone, vvhich must be of that vvhich is called quicke and Virgins Brim∣stone, and not artificiall Brimstone: vvhen you intend to make your. Oyle of Bri∣stone to dstill, you shall take a sheee of yron of foure fingers thicknesse, and fire red: this you shall cast into the small pot vvith Brimstone, to make the said Brim∣stone burne and flame: the smoake comming forth of the Gode vvill ascend vp to the vessell hanging aboue, vvherein after a short time it vvill be turned into Oyle, vvhich Oyle will thence distill into the vesell below. Gather this Oyle, and re∣serue it in a vessell well stopt, for to vse for the curing of Gangrenes, Fistulas, v∣cers of the mouth, and Ring-wormes,* if you doe but touch them vvith this Oyle vp∣on the end of a feather. It is singular good against rebellious vlcers comming of the pockes▪ some giue it to drinke with balme water in the morning vnto such as are but scarce cured and recouered of the pockes, to the end it may driue out the disase. The oyle of Brimstone may be made otherwise: boyle Brimstone in Aqua-vitae, vn∣till there begin an oylie substance to swim aloft: gather this liquor with a woollen or linnen cloth, or with a little espoone: you must sometime renew your Aqua-〈◊〉, vn∣till you haue gathered oyle ynough: if presently after bathing your selfe you annoin with this oyle your bodie infected with Quick-siluer, you shall expell and draw forth the said Quick-siluer.

But concerning all these Oyles, see more in our Booke of secret remedies and me∣dicines.

Page  437

CHAP. LVII.

A description of certaine artificiall balmes.

BVt it is vvell and sufficiently knowne, how that now the true and naturall balme is no vvhere to be found, and that in place thereof the indu∣strie and skill of man hath inuented Oyles which approach and draw neere in vertues and faculties vnto the true balme: now therefore be it in like manner knowne that these Oyles are made either by distillation or impressi∣on: and that vve will speake onely of some certaine ones which are made by impres∣sion, ceasing to speake of those which are distilled for them which meddle in draw∣ing out the quintessences of things, as you shall further perceiue by our Booke of se∣cret remedies.

Balme of the maruellous apples:* Take the maruellous apples either with or with∣out kernells, but verie ripe, put them in a vessell full of common oyle, either old or new, or of the oyle of sweet Almonds or Linseed, and infuse them a long time in the Sunne, or in Maries-bath, or in horse-dung that is verie hot, or in the earth in a ves∣sell that is well couered ouer with sand, and let it remaine there one whole yeare, or else two, vvhich is the better; you may likewise make this oyle of the leaues and little cods without the fruit: some with the apples put together with the oile of sweet almonds or linseed oyle, doe joyne of liquid varnish one ounce for euerie pound of oyle: such an oyle is a singular balme for all wounds, inflammations of the breasts, and for the appeasing of outward paines and ache; for the bursting of young chil∣dren; the vlcers of the matrix; and to procure conception, if after that the woman is come out of the bath made for the same purpose, the annoint her secret parts there∣with, and drinke of the powder of the leaues with vvhite Wine: it is also singular good for the paine of the hemorrhoides, being mingled with linseed oyle, or the oile of sweet almonds. We haue spoken of the maruellous apples in the second Booke, where we haue declared how that the hearbe whereupon they grow is called Balsa∣ina,* because it hath the vertue of balme. The oyles of the flowers of Rosemarie,* white mullein,* Paules betonie,* Nicotian, and ground Iuie, being thus prepared as we haue spoken of before, haue like vertues with balme.

Another balme: Take the fruit of the elme, the flowers of Hypericum, and the buds of Roses, put all together in a glasse bottle with oyle of Oliues, stop vp the bottle close, and leaue it in the Sunne, vntill you see the same all of it in such manner consumed as though it were rotten: afterward, strayne it and keepe the oyle for your vse.

Another: Take Gumme elemie foure ounces,* oyle of vvormes, oyle of Roses, and Hypericon, of each two ounces, of Venice Turpentine two ounces; mix altogether and incorporate them vpon a coale fire, afterward keepe it in little bottles.

Another balme:* Take the flowers and seeds of Hypericon foure handfulls, bruise them throughly, and set them in the Sunne the space of ten daies in a glasse bottle, with foure pound of old Oyle of Oliues, afterward presse them out carefully, and put againe as many moe flowers and seeds of Hypericon into the bottle, set it in the Sun againe tenne vvhole dayes: after presse it out all againe, and put thereunto as fol∣loweth; of oyle of dill, and of Venice Turpentine, of each a pound and a halfe, of A∣qua-vitae halfe a pound, of Mummia, vvood of Alos, masticke, myrrhe, and Iuie∣gu, of each an ounce and a halfe, of the rosen of the pine-tree three ounces, saffron halfe an ounce, cloues, numegs, cinnamom, of each three drams: mix all together, and boile them three houres in Maries-bath in a glasse bottle close stopped, that nothing may breath out: Then set the bottle in the Sunne the space of ten daies, reseruing the oyle afterward for pains of the eares,* wounds, fistulaes, cankers,*Noli me tangere, &c to Page  438 annoint the backe bone a little before the fit of the ague come, vvhich beginneth of cold.

Another balme:* take the fruit of the elme, vvithin which you shall find a liquor like vnto oyle, put it whole into a strong viole, which viole you shall stop verie close, and burie for the space of fiteene daies in horse dung that is verie hot by reason of his being vere rotten, then set it in the Sunne for a certaine time, and after gather the cleare part that shall swimme aboue, and this vvill be vnto you a singular balme. Otherwise: gather all the liquor that you find in the fruit of elmes, put it in a strong viole, adding of the flowers of Hypericon and common oyle: stop vp the viole ve∣rie close, and burie it in horse dung that is well rotted, leaue it therein a sufficient time, and afterward taking it out, you shall haue a singular balme. See further in our Booke of secret medicines concerning balmes.

A briefe discourse of the distilling of Waters.

CHAP. LVIII.

Of the profit and commoditie of distillation.

NOtwithstanding that distillation be the vvorke rather of a Philosopher or Alchymist (otherwise called an extracter of quintessences) than of a farmer or maister of a Countrie Farme: notwithstanding the profit thereof is so great, and the vse so laudible and necessarie, as that we take not the chiefe Lord of our countrie house to be furnished vvith all such singular com∣modities as vve desire, if he lacke the knowledge and practise of distillation; not that I vvould have him to make it a matter to trouble himselfe much withall, and to be at much cost and charges therewith, as many (not well aduised) men be now a∣daies:* but onely that he would take his time thereto at his best leasure, and without a∣ny great expence; or else to leaue the same to his wife or his farmers wife; for indeed such occupation is farre better beseeming either of them than him; for as much as the maistrese or dairie-woman hath the pettie affaires and businesses belonging to this our countrie Farme, and lying vvithin the doores, resigned and put ouer to 〈◊〉. Therefore let it not seeme strange in this point, if after our briefe intreatie of Oyles, vve discourse somewhat briefely, and according as a countrie thing requireth of the manner of distilling of vvaters, and extracting of oylie quintessences, out of such matter as our Countrie Farme shall affoord; vvhich we would should serue for the vse of the Farmers vvife, as well to relieue her folke withall, as to succour her needie neighbours in the time of sicknesse; as we see it to be the ordinarie custome of great Ladies, Gentlewomen, and Farmers vviues well and charitably disposed, who di∣still waters and prepare oyntments, and such other remedies, to succour and relie•• the poore.

Page  439

CHAP. LIX.

What Distillation is, and how manie sorts there be of Distillation.

I Will not trouble my selfe here with setting downe the partie which was the first inuentor of Distillation:* as namely, whether it were some Phy∣sitian of late time, who hauing a desire to eat stewed Peares, set them a stewing betwixt two dishes vpon the fire, and hauing afterward taken off the vpper dish, and finding the bottome thereof all set with pear••e sweat, retai∣ning the smell and fauour of the stewed Peare it selfe, inuented thereupon certaine instruments to draw out from all sorts of hearbes cleere and bright airie waters: it is better that we see our selues to worke about the declaring of what Distillation is, ad what things they be which may be distilled.

Distillation,* or the manner of distilling, is an art and meanes whereby is extracted the liquor or moisture of certaine things by the vertue and force of fire or such like heat (as the things themselues doe require:) no otherwise than, as we see here below, that by the force and power of the Sunne manie vapours are lifted into the middle region of the ayre, and there being turned into water, fall downe in raine. True it is, that the word, Distill, sometimes reacheth further, and is taken not onely for things that are distilled by the meanes of heat, but without heat also: as wee see it done in such things as are distilled after a strayning manner,* that is to say, when the purer and thinner part of certaine waters or liquid iuices is separated and ex∣tracted from the more muddie and earthie part by the meanes of a Felt,* or by the meanes of a piece of Cloth, fashioned like a little tongue, or border: or out of Sand and small Grauell: or out of earthen Pots not yet baked: or out of Vessels made of the wood of Iuie: or out of Glasse made of Fearne. Sometimes likewise things are not only distilled without heat, but with cold: as nemely, when the things which you would haue distilled are set in cold and moist places: as Oyle of Tarar is wont to be made,* as also Oyle of Myrrhe, Dragons bloud, Otters, and other things. But howsoeuer, yet I would not haue the Mistresse of our Countrey House to busie her braine with all the sorts of Distillation, but that she should content her selfe onely with that which is performed by heat. True it is,* that it is meet and requi∣site that shee should know the diuersities of heat, to the end she may procure such a heat as will best fit such matter and thing as shee is in hand withall, or to goe about: for some things craue the heat of a cleere fire, or of coale, or of the Sunne, or of hot •••bers, or of small sand, or of the filings of yron, or of the drose of Oliues: others craue the heat of Horse dung, or boiling water, or the vapour of boiling water, or of Wine boiling in the fat, or of vnquencht Lime, or of some Barke, or other putrified thing. And for this cause she shall marke and obserue foure degrees of heat: the first whereof shall be called warme, like water when it is halfe hot, or the vapour of boi∣ling water, and in this there is no feare of anie hurt it can doe: the second is a little hoter, but yet so, as that it may be well endured without anie annoyance or hurt, such as the heat of ashes or embers: the third is yet hoter than the second, and so, as that it may annoy and hurt one grieuously, if hee should hold anie part or member therein anie long time, such is the heat of small sand. The fourth is so vehement, as that it cannot without great paine very hardly be endured, and such is the heat of the scales of filings of yron. The first degree is fit to distill fine, subtle, and moist things, as flowers and cold simples, as Endiue, Lettuce, and such other: The second, for distil∣ling of fine, subtle, and drie things: of that sort are all fragrant or smelling things, as Pepper, Cinnamome, Ginger, Cloues, and manie simples, as Wormewood, Sage, &c. The third, for to distill matter that is of thicke substance, and full of iuice, of which sort are manie roots. The fourth is proper for the distilling of mettals and minerall Page  440 things, as Allome, Arsenicke, &c. By this meanes it will come to passe, that the Mistresse of our Countrey House shall not haue anie thing brought vnto her, out of which shee will not be able to draw the waterie humour, and to distill cleere and bright waters.

CHAP. LX.

Of the fit and conuenient time to distill in: and of the faculties, vertues, and durablenesse of distilled waters.

EVerie thing is to be distilled in the time wherein it is best disposed,* and best fit, that is to say, rootes, hearbes, flowers, and seedes when they are ripe;* but liuing things, and the parts of them, when they are of middle age, as wee shall haue occasion to declare in his place. Now as concer∣ning the ripenesse of rootes, hearbes, flowers, seedes, and fruits, we referre you to our second Booke, where wee haue sufficiently at large laid open at what time euerie one of these things is to be gathered. But it is to be noted, that necessitie sometimes com∣pelleth vs to distill drie plants, and then it will be good to macerate and seepe them in some conuenient liquor or decoction, answerable vnto the vertue of the thing, by that means in part to renew and bring againe their youthfulnesse, and to endow them with such moisture as they brought with them when they were first gathered from off the earth, as we will further declare by and by.

As concerning the vertues of distilled Waters:* it is most certaine, that such as are distilled in Maries bath, retaining the cast, smell, and other qualities of the matter whereof they are distilled, haue not onely equall vertues with the Plan•• and matter whereof they are distilled, but become much more pleasant vnto the ast, and also more delightsome vnto the eye, than the iuices or decoctions of the said matter would be. It is true, that the waters distilled through Leaden, Tinne, Braen, Cop∣per, or such other like metall, like a Limbecke (as we shall by and by speake of) doe loose the best and most subtle parts of the substance of their matter, by suffering the same to vanish away in and into the ayre, and for that cause they doe not prou of so great vertue as their Plants. But howsoeuer it is, distilled waters are a g••at deale more pleasant vnto sicke persons, more readie for vse, better for medicines for the eyes, to make epithemes of for the heart and liuer, to make painting colours of, to put into perfumes, or other sweet things, as well for the vse of Physicke, as also for the delight and decking of the bodie, than the decoctions and iuices of Plants: and therefore there is great reason they should be distilled with greater heed and care.

It is most certaine also,* that Waters distilled in Maries bath, especially those which are distilled in the vapour of boyling water, are not of long continuance, and hardly will last aboue a yeare: likewise you must renew them euerie yeare by distillation, circulation, or by distilling of them againe, putting them also into the Still againe with some new matter vpon the cake or drossie part, left vpon some former distillation: or else to distill them by a Filtre, whereof wee shall haue oc∣casion to speake hereafter.

Page  441

CHAP. LXI.

What manner of vessels and instruments they must be wherein waters are to be distilled.

TWo vessels are needfull in distilling, which may be called by the com∣mon and generall word, a Limbeck: the one of them is properly called the containing vessell, because it receiueth and containeth the matter that you would distill▪ some call it the bodie, or corpulent vessell▪ or the gourd: The other is ordinarily called the cappe, head, or bell, being that whereinto the vapours are gathered and turned into water. This vessell hath sometimes a pipe, in shape like the bill of a bird, through which the water passeth drop by drop into a violl, or other like vessell: and sometimes it hath no beake or spour, and those are ved in circulation. But these instruments doe differ much, as well in forme and shape, as in matter. It is true,* that the first that were inuented were of Lead, like vnto a Bell, and did couer another vessell of Brasse that was full of matter to be distilled: this fa∣shioned one is well ynough knowne and vsed eueriewhere, because it draweth out more store of water than anie other. Afterward there was another fashion inuen∣ed, by which manie vessels (euerie one hauing his Leaden head or couer seuerall) are ated together with one onely fire, set in a furnace made after the fashion of a vault, to the end, that with lesse cost and labour there might be drawne and di∣stlled a great quantitie of water; the figure and forme whereof you may here see and behold.

[illustration]

But in as much as waters distilled in Lead doe not retaine their smell or tast at all, neither yet anie of the rest of their qualities of the things whereof they are distilled; but doe rather smell of the smoake, or of a stinke of burning: as also, for that wa∣ters distilled of sharpe, biting, and bitter plants, doe no whit resemble the same in the ast of their bitternesse and sharpenesse, but rather become vnsauourie sweet, Fur∣ther, in as much (as Galen witnesseth) as the water which runneth through pipes of Page  442 Lead doth stirre vp oftentimes the bloudie flux in those that drinke it, because of his nature, which is of the substance of Mercurie: adde vnto these, that in as much as wee ordinarliy see the waters distilled through Lead to become oftentimes (with the sharpe and vehement vapour which it maketh by the reason of a certaine sale dissoluing it selfe from the head) spoyled and made white and thicke as milke: I say, for and in respect of all these reasons, there is inuented another instrument, called the Bladder, whose vnder vessell and cap couering the same, are both of Brasse, and both of them standing ouer one urnace: which instrument is not onely good to distill Aqua vitae in, made of Wine, or of the lees of Wine, or Beee, but also of all other sorts of Plants powred in thereto, with a good quantitie of com∣mon water. Moreouer, it is requisite that the head should haue a great beake or spout, which must passe through the inner side of a great caske full of water, to the end that the vapours breath not out, but grow thicke, and turne into water: The fashion of it is as you may see here.

[illustration]

The later and better aduised Physicians haue deuised a fashion much better than the former, which is, to distill waters in Maries bath,* that is to say, in the bath of some boyling water, or ouer the vapour of the same: for it is verie certaine, that such waters are without all comparison better, in as much as they doe exactly retaine, not onely the smell, but also the ast, and other qualities of their plants: which happe∣neth, because the bath of the boyling water, by his moisture, retaineth, keepeth in, and preserueth the more subtle parts of the plants, and by this meanes hinder and stay them from resoluing and breathing out: as it commeth to passe in those which are distilled by a violent fire of wood or coale: which is the onely cause that there is so great difference betwixt the waters distilled in a Limbecke of Lead, and those that are distilled in Maries bath, as is betwixt Gold and Lead: because they doe not onely retaine the proper qualities of their plants, that is to say, their smell and tast; but likewise they become cleare, pure, and bright, without smelling anie thing of smoake, or burning: on the contrarie, the other alwaies h••h a tast of some sinke of the smoake, which doth not onely prouoke a lust to vomit, as well in such as be healthfull, as in them that be sicke, but also procureth great hurt vnto the parts of the breast, stomacke, liuer, and other inward parts, by reason of some ill qualitie where∣with they are infected by the vessels in which they are distilled, Which is easily per∣ceiued Page  443 by the water of Wormewood distilled in a Leaden Limbeke, for it becom∣••th sweet and not bitter, like vnto the plant: and in like sort in all other manner of waters that are distilled of plants, and are of a hot temperature, and sharpe or bit∣ter of tast: For the Leaden Limbecke receiuing vpon his superficiall part the va∣pours of heabes which are hot in effect and operation, is easily corrupted in that his superficiall part, and turned into a verie subtle Ceuse, which afterward mingleth it selfe with the water, and bestoweth vpon them an vnauourie▪ sweetnese: which is easie to be gathered and knowne by the white residence that setleth in such wa∣ters, especially if the Limbecke wherein they are distilled, be new:* for the vessell which hath serued a long time, hauing gotten by long space, and being much distil∣led in, as it were a plasterie crust or hardnesse ouer all the parts of it, is not so easily altered by the vapours, nor turned into Ceruse. And indeed it is no maruell, if the vpper face of the Lead be changed into Ceruse by the sharpe vapour of the plants,* seeing that Ceruse it selfe (as Dioscorides testifieth) is made of plates of Lead hanged ouer the vapours of vineger, and spread vpon hurdles made of reedes: but there be∣falleth no such accident to waters distilled in Maries bath:* for the bitternesse of their ast is manifestly perceiued, as also their sharpenesse, sowrenesse, tartnesse, harshnesse, eagernesse, sweetnesse, and tastlesnesse, if they be distilled of bitter or biting plants, or yet of anie other tasts and qualities: and this falleth out so, because the head of the Maries bath is of Glasse, which cannot infect them with any strange or vnnaturall qualitie. Moreouer, the waters that are distilled in the vessell called a Bladder,* which is made (as wee haue said) of Brasse, as well the head as the bodie, but yet ouer-laid within with Tinne, are much better, and of greater vertue, than those which are distilled in a Limbecke of Lead, because the fire of the furnace cannot burne nor infect with anie smoake the matter that is within, seeing they are couered ouer and boile in water: but notwithstanding they doe not throughly re∣taine the vertues thereof, because of the mixture of the water, which smothereth and dulleth their force and vertues.* Wherefore wee must needes commend as best the waters which are distilled in the double vessell, or ouer the vapour of boyling wa∣ter, especially when as therewithall they are of a hot facultie. It is true, that a∣mongst them, that sort is better which is distilled ouer the vapour of boyling wa∣ter, than that which is distilled by putting the bodie containing the matter, into the boyling water, because it extracteth and draweth out the subtle parts therein a great deale better: albeit that both the sorts thereof are excellent good, neyther is there anie hurt at all in them,* saue onely that they are not of so long lasting and continuance as others: but to helpe this in such things as need shall require, it will be good to distill one and the same thing often, that so you may alwaies haue them good.

But to come to our third kind of Instrument, which wee haue called the double vessell, or Maries bath, it consisteth of two parts: the one is a great vessell of Brasse, made in manner of a Beefe-pot, verie great, and raysed high, furnished with a couering, and it is set in a furnace, and containeth in it boyling water: The o∣ther is the Limbecke, whose bodie is likewise of Brasse, so set within the couer of the Cauldron, as that the one resteth vpon the other, and that the one cannot be put in or taken away without the other: The head thereof is of Glasse or Tinne, or of baked earth: in the couering of which, there must be a hole made in that sort, as that it may be alwaies close: it would be at one of the corners thereof; and the vse of it is, to powre boyling water into the Cauldron, when the water within the same is diminished after long time of boyling: The fashion of it is as you may see here ouer the leafe.

Page  444

[illustration]

There is another sort of double vessell, which containeth foure Limbeckes, whose bodies set within the bath, may be either of glasse or tinne, and their heads of glase▪ besides these foure, there is another standing higher than the rest, and is heated onely of the vapour of boyling water, which iseth vp on high vnto it through a pipe, and this Limbeck maketh a better water than the other foure. All these vessel being well coupled and incorporated together, doe rest vpon the Caldron, or great Brase pot, being sufficient large and wide, and tinned ouer within, and so closely set one with a∣nother, as that there may not anie vapour breath out: in like manner, all these instru∣ment and vessels be so well ordered and contriued, as that they may seeme to be but one bodie, saue onely that the heads of euerie one must be so, as that it may be sepa∣rated from the bodie, and put to againe, when you haue anie need to distill water: the fashion of it is such as is here to be sene.

[illustration]

Page  445 There are some that haue yet seene another sort of double vessell, and that a verie excellent one, whose bodie is Tinne, like vnto a great Vrinall, of the length of three good eet, verie wide and large below, and somewhat narrower aboue: The bottome or bellie thereof is set two good foot in boiling water, and the top standeth out of the water a foot good, and that in a round hole made in the middest of the couer of the Cauldron. Vpon the top of this bodie is placed a head of Tinne, couered and com∣passed also with another vessell of Tinne likewise, and much more large: this is to containe cold water, running into it through a Brasse pipe or cocke: it is to stand vp∣on the top of a shanke, and that for to coole the Limbeck continually, that so he va∣pours rising vp thither, may thicken the better, and be the sooner turned into water. And because it is not possible, but that the water which is contained in the vessell that compasseth the Limbecke, should become hot in succession of time through the heat of the Limbecke: this vessell hath a small pipe or spout, at which the water so heated is vsed to be lee runne out, turning the little pinne of the cocke; and it is filled againe presently with cold water, which is made to runne down into it from a vessel on high. But to the end the labour of emptying it so oft of his hot water, and putting in again of cold, may be remedied, things may be so carried, as that from the vessell which standeth vpon the top of the pillar there may be cold water continually running into the vessell compassing the Limbecke: and then it being once become hot, may be let out, as is said before. And to the end that the cauldron which containeth the bath may alwaies keepe full at one measure and quantitie of water, which otherwise is sure to diminish by the continuall and vehement heat of the fire of the furnace; there is at the oot of the pillar another vessell full of verie hot water, which is to be conueyed into he bath by a cock, or pipe: and this water is heated in his vessell by the same fire that the bath is heated, in as much as the wall of the pillar is hollow and emptie euen as low as the bottome of this vessell. This sort of double vessell is fit to distill waters withall in great store and aboundance, by reason of the cold water which thickeneth and tur∣••th by and by the vapours into water. The shape and fashion is as you see.

[illustration]

The Venetians distill their water in such an Instrument: The furnace is round, and containeth on euerie side, round about it, manie earthen vessels, glased within, Page  446 and fashioned like Vrinals, well luted with mortar of Potters clay, and euerie one co∣uered with a head of Glasse, or baked earth: to their snouts there is fastened a violl with a good thicke thread, to receiue the water that distilleth. This furnace is heated, as we see, after the manner that the Germanes doe heat their Hot-houses, and we ou Stoues. And if it happen, that the fire should be too hot, you must not put any thing into the vessels, vntill such time as the heat be somewhat abated, for feare that the plants, flowers, and such other things should be burnt. The mouth of the 〈◊〉 must be alwaies stopped and fast shut, to the end that the heat may beat inward for the heating of so manie vessels. For the attending and ordering of this furnace, there are required manie seruants: some of them to looke vnto the ire; others to cast the hearbes into the bodies; and others, to put the heads vpon the bodies. By this like∣wise there may great store of waters be distilled, as some hundred pints in a night and a day: and these waters are a great deale better than those which are distilled in lea∣den Limbeckes or Stillitories, or yet of other mettals, because they are not infected with anie fault or infection, which is a common companion of those which are made of mettall. This is the shape and forme of it.

[illustration]

There are other Instruments, the bodies whereof are of Brasse, Iron, or other met∣tall, hauing a long, thicke, and strait necke, on the top whereof resteth also a head of Brasse, made after the fashion of a broch steeple, and is compassed round about as 〈◊〉 were with a bucket of coole water, to the end that the vapour may be conuerted the sooner, and in greater quantitie, into water, and that the water may not tast or smll of the fire. Some in stead of this long necke and head, haue a pipe of Plate, or other mettall, verie long, and wrythen or wound about in forme of a Serpent (and for this reason is called a Serpentine) or made of manie parts, consisting of direct angle, and these passing through a bucket, or some such vessell full of water.

There are manie other sorts and fashions of Instruments to distill withall, whereof I meane not to speake at this time, contenting my selfe with those which I haue men∣tioned, as being of more common vse, and fit onely to distill waters: of which, it is our purpose onely to speake at this present.

Page  447 Furthermore, seeing the water doth take his essence and consistence, and other like qualities, from the head of the Stillitorie, it is good to make choice of the best heads that one can:* the best, are of Glasse: next, those of earth, glased within and without: thirdly, those of Tinne: fourthly, those of Copper, laid ouer with Brasse▪ fifthly, those of Brasse laid ouer with Tinne: (but the vessels of Copper and Brasse haue these two discommodities, the one, that they make their waters reddish and halfe burnt, and the second, that in Copper and Brasse* there is a venimous qualitie more than in anie other mettall) ixtly, those of yron, especially when a man would distill anie thing that is hard to be distilled, and which must be applyed outwardly▪ and not taken inwardly. Such as are not afraid of the cost, doe vse vessels of Gold or of Siluer: but seeing all are not of one and equall efficacie, it is best to rest contented with Glasse-vessels, or earthen ones well leaded, either with Glasse, or the fat, which is called earth of Beauuais, rather than with Lead, or anie other mettall: notwith∣standing, those of earth are the best: the second, those that are leaded or glazed, or of thicke fat earth:* next, those of Tinne. Those of Glasse must not be of brake met∣tall, but of Crystall earth well armed: which, seeing they cease not to be brittle, how well soeuer they be armed, must be heated by little and little, whether it be in Ma∣ries bath, or in hot ashes, or in a furnace fire: And in like sort, when your distillation is ended, to let them coole by little and little. And for as much as the head is loose from the bodie, it will be good to set them together with a hempen cloth which hath beene dipped in the mortar of Wisedome, which for the most part is made of the whites of Egges, Beane flower, and a little Masticke. The vessell whereinto the wa∣ter is receiued, and thereupon called the Receiuer, shall be a Glasse-violl, hauing a long necke, and the beake or spout of the head must goe into it; and these two, in like manner, may thus be fastened and closed together with the said mortar of Wise∣dome, least the water which shall distill, should euaporate verie much: notwithstan∣ding, that we see sometimes some Receiuers of the fashion of Vrinals, which are not made fast vnto the beake of the head at all.

CHAP. LXII.

What manner of Furnaces must be prepared for the distilling of Waters.

THe fashion of the furnaces for the distilling of waters is diuers,* as well in respect of the matter to be distilled, as in respect of the vessels which are vsed in the distilling thereof. As concerning their matter, some are made of vnburnt bricks, onely dried well in the Sunne, because they are better to be handled than those that are throughly burnt, and besides, they may be cut with a toole, and brought into what fashion one will; and fitted with fa earth; othersome are made of plaster onely; some of fat earth onely; but the best are made vvith cement, vvhites of egges, fat earth, and flockes of vvooll; others of bea∣ten bricks, hards, horse-dung, sinewes of oxen, and fat earth. But as for their fashi∣on, it must be answerable vnto the vessells that are set therein; and so some be wholly round, and those are the best and most profitable; others are foure square; others are raised high like steeples; others after the fashion of vaults; some after the manner of stones: all which you may find out by the sight of the eye in the pat∣ternes set downe before, and from which you may gather more instruction and more certaine direction, than by all the descriptions that wee can possibly make. Such furnaces as you may see with your eyes, must haue two bottomes; the one lower, to receiue the ashes of the coales, or whatsoeuer other matter that the fire is made of; the other higher, which must containe the burning coales, and must be made after the fashion of a Gridyron, hauing barres or roddes of yron passing Page  448 throughout from the one side to the other, quite ouerthwart the furnace; or else diui∣ded into manie small holes, that so the ashes and small coales of fire may fall through to the bottome below the more easily, and not stay behind to choake vp the fire that should heat the Still. The vnderfloore may haue one or manie mouthes, for the more conuenient taking away of the ashes which shall be gathered there on a heape: but as for that aboue, it must haue but one onely of a reasonable bignesse to put the coales or wood in at; but in the roofe of it, it must haue two or three small holes, to giue aire and breath vnto the fire at such time as you mind to amend it. Euerie one of the mouthes shall haue his stopple. For want of a furnace or matter for to make one, you may fit and set your Vesell, Cauldron, or Bowle, vpon a brandith, and kindle your fire vnderneath.

CHAP. LXIII.

How the matter must be prepared before the waters be distilled.

IT is not ynough, that the furnace and instruments for distillation be made readie in such sort as wee haue said; for the matter to be distilled must in like manner be prepared before that it be put into the Still. This preparation is of three sorts: that is to say, Infusion, Putriaction, and Fermentation. Infusion is nothing else but a macrating or seeping of the thing intended to be distilled i some liquor, not onely that it may be the more apt and ea∣sie to be distilled, but also to cause and procure greater store of iuice to be in it: 〈◊〉 else to helpe them to keepe their smell: or else to bestow vpon them some new quali∣tie: or to encrease their force and vertues; or else for some other ends, as we will han∣dle them in particular, and onely one. It is true, that this preparation is not neces∣sarie for euerie matter: for some there are that need not anie infusion or steeping, but rather to be dried before they be distilled, by reason of their too great and excessiue moisture: othersome content themselues with being watered or sprinkled ouer light∣ly with some liquor, as is done in the distilling of drie Roses and Ca•••••ll, which are wont to be sprinkled onely with common water. Some spread them all a Sum∣mers night in faire weather vpon a Linnen cloth to take the dew, and after they be moist, to distill them. Such as are steeped and infused, lye in the Sunne, or are held ouer the fire, the space of some halfe houre, or manie houres, a whole night, a whole day, two daies, three daies, one or moe oneths, according to the nature of the me∣dicine, the diuers intention and purpose of the Physician, and the present necessitie. Sometimes we presse and wring out things, which we infused before the distillation; and making our distillation afterward of the iuice onely that we pressed forh; some∣times againe we distill the whole infusion, that is to say, both the infused mater and the liquor wherein it was infused.* Wherefore in this preparation, which is made by infusion, you must diligently obserue two things: the time of the infusion, and the liquor in which the infusion is made. The time of the infusion must be measured according to the diuersitie of the matter: for those things which are hard or solide, 〈…〉, or entire and whole, deserue a longer time of infusion than those which ar tender, new, or bruised: whereupon it commeth to passe, that rootes and seedes r∣quire double time to infuse: the leaues and flowers a single and lesser time, and so consequently of such other matter or things. The liquors wherein infusions are to be prepared, must not onely answere the qualities of such matter as is to be distilled, in such sort, as that hot matter and things be infused in hot liquors, and the cold in cold; but likewise the scope and drit intended in the thing distilled, which is the onely cause of the vsing of varietie of liquors in the making of infusions; and these Page  449 are for the most part Raine water, Fountaine, or Rose-water, and they either raw or distilled, crude or distilled iuices, distilled waters, Aqua vitae, raw or distilled Vine∣ger, Wine,* raw or distilled Vrine, Whey raw or distilled, mans bloud, Swines bloud, and Goats bloud distilled or vndistilled. For this respect, things that haue small store of iuice, as Sage, Betonie, Balme, and Wormewood, or which are verie fra∣grant, as all sorts of Spices, all sorts of odoriferous Hearbes, all aromaticall Rindes or Woods, as Cinnamome, would be infused in Wine, to the begetting of some rea∣sonable store of iuice in them which haue but a little, and to keepe the aromaticall fragrantnesse in those which smell sweet, which might otherwise euaporate and spend, through the heat of the fire, their best and most precious parts, they being of so thinne and subtle a substance. It is true, that the best and surest course is not to in∣fuse Spices, or aromaticall things, neither in Wine, nor in Aqua vitae, but rather in common water: because in distilling of them, as proofe will make triall, the vapours will rise too soone, and leaue behind them the vertues of the aromaticall things, whereas water will not goe vp before it haue them with it.* Such matter and things as are hard and mettallous, as Pearles, Corall, shells of egges, Crystall, Emeralds, 〈◊〉, and other such, are infused commonly in raw or distilled vineger, or else in vrine distilled or vndistilled: but such waters are not to be taken inwardly, but onely to be applyed outwardly. In like manner, when it is intended that a water shall haue an opening qualitie, and pierce deepe or swiftly, the matter thereof may be in∣fused in raw and crude, or in distilled vineger: as for example, the waters distilled against the stone, or grauell, or to take away the great obstructions of the liuer, spleene, and matrix. When you desire that the water should retaine and keepe in good sort the vertues of the matter whereof it is distilled, it may, for the better infu∣sing of it, be distilled in his owne iuice, or in some iuice obtaining the like vertue. Things are likewise sometimes infused in bloud, either of Men, Swine, or Goats,* for the encrease and strengthening of their vertues; as the water vsed to be distilled for to breake the sone, whether it be in the reines, or in the bladder, may first haue receiued an infusion made in the bloud of Goats. As much, in like sort, is to be thought of the Whey of Goats milke, wherein things are wont to be infused to draw waters off, which are to serue in the cleansing of vlcers of the reines or bladder.

Generally,* regard must be had, that all infusions be made in such liquor as will strengthen and encrease the vertue and force of the things intended to be distilled: as also, that such matter, before it be set to infuse, be shred, stamped small, or brui∣ed, putting into it sometime the twelfth part of salt, as vnto those that are too moist,* as flesh, bloud of men, or other beasts, as well to keepe them from cor∣rupting, as also to helpe forward the separation of the humour that must be di∣stilled.

Sometimes the things which are to be distilled, are suffered to putriie, and then afterward they are distilled: yea, and sometimes the verie putrifaction* it selfe is the way and whole worke for the distilling of such things, as wee will declare hereafter.

Fermentation is accomplished and performed vpon the matter of infusion alone, or the whole infusion together, in the heat of the Sunne in the Dogge-daies, or else in some Furnace, or Horse-dung: it requireth manie daies continuance, as foure, or more: and by how much this fermenting and preparing of the thing is the more sub∣stantially performed, by so much the greater quantitie of water will be distilled and drawne ou.

Page  450

CHAP. LXIIII.

Generall precepts about the distilling of Waters.

AFter that the matter is in this manner and fashion prepared (as we haue said) there remaineth nothing more to be done, but the putting of it into the Stillitorie: and herein you must carrie your selfe very wisely and discreet∣ly, in obseruing certaine generall precepts for the ordering and directing of the whole worke vnto a good and perfect end.

First prouide,* that your furnaces be set in such a place, as where they may not en∣danger the setting of your whole house on fire; as that they also may not be subiect to haue any thing to fall vpon them.

If you distill Quicksiluer, or any other such thing which hath a venimous malig∣nitie,* come not neere vnto your Stills all the time of the distilling of such matter: for the smoake or fume which at that time they breath out, doth draw vpon a man the Palsie, exulceration of the Lungs, Lethargie, or oftentimes sudden death: as you may see by experience in such as are Plummers, and employed in melting of Mettals.

If you distill in Glasse vessels,* you must make choice of such as are well baked and seasoned, hauing no bubbles or knots, but equall on euerie side, and smooth, thicke, and proued before hand.

The coales must be throughly kindled and halfe burned before you put any thing into the Still, that so the fume, or yet any other noysome qualitie of the coales, may not remaine to breath vpon it: or, at the least, put some few ashes or small quantitie of sand betwixt the Still and the furnace, that so the coales may not infect the water with the smoake. Likewise the fire is not to be made with wood halfe rotten, or that stinketh, or with charcoale burned and made in a pit, or of coale drawne and dig∣ged out of the earth, whether they be of stone, or earth, for feare the stilling ves∣sels and water should be infected and marred with the filthie and stinking vapour thereof.

The fire must not be hastie or headlong at the beginning,* as well for the safetie of the vessels, which might thereby be broken, taking too sudden a heat, as also to the end, that the matter distilled may become acquainted with the fire by little and little, and that so farre, as vntill the fire be come to the third degree, if need doe so require.

You must not put into your Stills or Limbecke too great a quantitie of matter,* for so it might runne ouer, and be cast forth againe; and furthermore, that vnderneath would be parched and dried away, and that aboue would remaine as it was put in: but it is rather the safer course to shift them oft, and so by this meanes you shall haue greater store and plentie of water.

The water of Maries bath may not be hoter than the finger may endure to slay in it: howbeit, oftentimes there come things to be distilled in the double vessell, for the distilling whereof, if it should come to passe that the heat of Maries bath should not be vehement ynough, then mixe therewith some small sand, to encrease the heat of the water.

If the glasse still happen to cracke being set vpon the fire, you shall let the spi∣rits from euaporating, if you dip diuers linnen cloathes in the whites of egges vvell beaten, and applie them vpon the cracke of the glasse hot one after another: in such sort that so soone as one shall be dried like a crust, another be readie by and by to put vpon it, and so to continue.

If you distill your waters in the heat of sand (as many doe and that verie often) or of ashes,* or the filings or scales of yron made in powder, the bodie of the still must be armed (whether it be of glasse or brasse, or any other matter) with verie fine ashes Page  451 that haue beene sifted, or with sand, or with the filings of yron finely powdred, in such sort as that the ashes may be higher about the glasse than the matter is within by a hale foot good. The ashes shall be placed in the vpper part of the furnace, or in a place of hold made vpon the furnace, and heated with a coale fire which shall be be∣low in the bottome of the glasse. The waters so distilled indure much longer than those which are distilled in Maries bath: but in all other points they resemble and are like one vnto another.

If you haue not the leasure to make your distillation in a still,* and that yet you would gladly distill some certaine juice or liquor: then cause your juice to boyle in some vessell, and ouer this vessell set a glasse: in this glasse the vapour will turne in∣to water:* by this meanes vinegar is turned easily into a vvater vvhich is verie profi∣table for the spots and stayne of the eye, especially if before the distilling of it you cause some few slips of Rhue to be boyled in white vinegar.

Hot things,* that they may proue effectuall, would be distilled three or foure times, putting & adding vnto euerie time new matter, or else to rectifie them by themselues: but as for cold things, such as the rose is, once distilling is sufficient: for by this means it holdeth still his cooling qualitie in better sort, seeing the force of the fire begetteth heat and sharpenesse in things.

When you would distill one vvater three or foure times,* you must at euerie distil∣lation diminish the heat of your fire halfe a degree, and afterward a whole degree, and so consequently vntill in the end you come backe vnto the first degree spoken of before, and called such a heat as is but vvarme, the reason is, because that the mat∣ter becomming more and more subtile at euerie distillation, craueth not so great a heat at the end as it did at the beginning when it is in his grosest state and conditi∣on. But it is contrarily practised in the extracting of quintessences out of any thing:*〈◊〉 then the heat is to be increased and augmented more and more.

In all manner of distillations of vvaters,* you must carefully see to the seperating of the flegme,* that is to say, the grosest, thickest, and most waterie part of the hu∣mour distilled: and for the doing hereof you must carefully consider of the matter which you distill: because the legme commeth forth sometime first, sometimes the last in the distillation, as in the distilling of Aqua-vitae is stayeth the last, notwith∣standing that it be distilled diuers times: in the distilling of the most part of other things it commeth forth first, as in vinegar, honie, and such things: and the thing is discerned by tasting of the first and last distilled waters. And if it happen that the flegme be not seuered in this sort, as indeed it is not in some such, as with which it is mixt: then the next course is to set such vvaters in the Sunne certaine daies in vessells couered with linnen clothes, or parchment prickt full of small holes, that so the ex∣crementous part by such meanes may be consumed and wasted: or if the Sunne faile, as in Winter time, then you must set your vessell contayning your distilled waters in other vessells full of vvater, and cause them to boyle to the consumption of the third part.

The distillation is to be judged to be in good state and case,* if betwixt the fall of euerie drop, you can account to the number of twelue: and hence also is the judging of the force and quantitie of the fire to be learned and fetcht.

If any man desire that waters should haue some smell,* taste, or other qualitie of something, as of honie, cinnamome, camphire, muske, or other like sweet smelling thing, (whether it be to giue such smell to the thing that hath none at all, or vnto something that hath a bad and vnpleasant smell, as we will speake of by and by in the water distilled of mans dung) it vvill be good to annoynt and besmeare the head of the still vvith these things, or else to tie vp the same in some little knot of lin∣nen cloth, and hang them at the verie poynt of the spout or pipe, to the end that the vvater distilling through this matter, may retayne that smell or other qualitie in∣tended.

And vvhereas distilled vvaters by force of the fire are euermore seene to retaine some impressions and printes of the heat, it will be good presently after they be di∣stilled, Page  452 to let them stand some time vncouered in the vessells wherein you meane to keepe them, hauing yet therewithall regard, that neither their small nor any part of their force doe vvaste or spend: and therefore to take the fittest course, it will be best to set your vessell close and fast stopt in some cold place in moist sand to dimi∣nish and take away the great heat of the same. Notwithstanding you must marke and know that cold waters, vvhich shall be distilled in Maries-bath, will haue no great need to be so vncouered, but that they rather must be set in the Sunne in a glasse ves∣sell not altogether full: or else that they with their vessell be set ouer head and eares in hot sand for the space of fortie daies, to the end that their flegme and thickest hu∣mour may be consumed.

If your distilled vvaters become troubled,* you shall restore them to their cleare∣nesse by putting thereinto some one or two drops of Vinegar for euerie pint of wa∣ter.

CHAP. LXV.

Of the particular manner of distilling of Hearbes, Rindes, Flowers, and Rootes.

DIstilled vvaters are of diuers sorts and vertues: some are physicall or me∣dicinable, as the water of roses, sage, marierom, and such like. Others are nourishing, as restoratiues, and many both medicinable and nouri∣shing, as nourishing restoratiues: vvhereinto are put medicinable things. Others are purgatiue, as the water or liquor of rhubarbe if it were new and greene. Others serue to grace the face and hands, and to make beautifull. Others for to gratifie the nose by yeelding a sweet smell, as those which are drawne out of spices and sweet smelling simples, vsed also to vvash the hands, face, and whole bodie, and againe all these waters are either simple or compound: but we will first speake of the simple medicinable ones.

Wormewood* must be distilled in Maries-bath to draw out his vvater in such sort as that it may expresse by smell and taste from whence it came: and for the bet∣ter doing of it, you must see that you distill it not verie new, but somewhat dried, and afterward infusing it a little in wine to distill it in Maries-bath, or in hat a∣shes: Mugwort, Agrimonie, Sorrell, and such other like plants, are thus distilled also, but with obseruation had of the generall things specified before. Thus the wa∣ter of Winter cherries* is distilled, seruing against the stone and grauell as well of the reines a bladder.

The vttermost pilling of common vvalnuts,* vvhether it shale willingly or no, may be distilled in the moneth of September: and the water drawne from them, drunke in small quantitie with a third part of Vinegar, is a certaine remedie against the plague, if before drinking of it you cause the partie to be let bloud: it is singular good also to make gargarismes of, for the vlcers of the mouth: it is good also to fo∣ment goutie places withall, and good to colour the haire blacke. Water distilled of the leaues of the Walnut-tree* in the end of the moneth of May is singular for to drie and cicatrize vlcers, if they be washed euening and morning with a linnen cloth moistned therein.

To distill strawberries,* you must let them putrifie in a glasse vessell, putting thereto a little salt or sugar, and then afterward to extract and draw out their water, which is verie soueraigne against venime: as also to take away spots, to prouoke the termes, and drie vp weeping eyes:* it will performe all these vertues in admirable manner, if there be mingled with it a little Aqua-vitae.

The inward rinde of the ash-tree being distilled,* doth yeeld a singular water a∣gainst the plague, if it be drunke in equall quantity with aqua-vite, as three 〈◊〉 of Page  453 either, especially if the same drinke in the same quantitie be drunke againe vvith∣in three houres after: it is good also being dropt into the eares for the noyse in them.

The stones of blacke cherries,* being broken, or the kernells alone distilled, make a vvater vvhich doth quite take away the fit of the Falling-sicknesse in young children, presently after that there hath beene put into their mouth about an ounce.*

The distilled vvater of new filberds,* drunke the weight of two drams, is a present remedie against the collicke and gripings of the bellie, a thing that will not fail, ha∣uing beene proued and tried.

The vvater vvhich is distilled of the barke of Danewort,* or Elder-tree, be∣ing oftentimes drunke, doth euacuate and draw the vvater out of such as haue the dropsie.

The vvater of betonie:* You must stampe the leaues of betonie and infuse them a certaine time in Wine, and after distill them. The vvater of balme and sage is di∣stilled in like manner. The vvater of betonie is good for the diseases of the head, reines, and bladder. The water of balme rejoyceth men, keepeth away the fits of the Apoplexie, and Falling-sicknesse, it causeth a good memorie, taketh away the paine of the teeth, breaketh the stone, healeth the dropsie, preserueth from venime such as haue swallowed any spider, if it be drunke presently after.

The water of Gentian:* Take foure pound of the new rootes, or rather of the dri∣ed rootes of Gentian: chop them small, infuse them in wine, or besprinkle them on∣ly, then afterward distill them. This water is singular against the plague,* all sorts of venime, the stone as well of the reines as of the bladder, and to heale inward Apostumes and vlcers.

The vvater of pellitorie:* Take the rootes of pellitorie new or old, cut them small, and infuse them in verie good Wine: the water is good for no appease the ach of the teeth,* to strengthen them, and keepe them cleane, if the mouth be washed therewith in the morning, or else when it seemeth good to doe it.

To make water of eye-bright:* Take the leaues and flowers of eye-bright, distill them: the water thereof doth cleare the sight.

The vvater of Nicotian* is distilled as the other going before: but of this vve haue largely discoursed in the second Booke, and haue shewed that it hath maruellous ef∣fects, against the Noli me tangere, cankers, ringwormes, scabs, shortnesse of breath, and the dropsie.

In this sort also you must distill Paules betonie:* the vvater whereof is singular to heale wounds, scabbes, and other diseases of the skinne. The vse of this vvater is ve∣••e excellent for the leprosie,* pestilent feauers, obstructions of the liuer and spleene, and exulceration of the lungs. In this sort also is Mouse-are distilled, whereof vve ••ue spoken in his place in the second Booke.

The vvater of hyssope* must be distilled vpon hote ashes: it is excellent for the paine of the teeth, to prouoke vvomens termes, for the cough, and other diseases of the lungs.

The water of turneps:* Take whole turneps with their skins and all, or else the skin alone, you shall distill a water (especially of the pilling or skin) which will be profi∣able to prouoke vrine and sweatng.

Water of lymons* or the juice of them doth helpe verie profitably in the stone of 〈◊〉 reines.

The water of fennell:* Take the rootes and leaues and distill them, or else boyle hem in water, afterward put them all hot into a tin or copper platter, and couer the 〈◊〉 vvith another platter: the liquor vvhich shall be vpon the vppermost platter hall be kept in a viole, to put a drop or two thereof into the corner of the eye, for the iseases of the eye.

Water of parsley of the garden: Stampe in a morter the leaues of parsely,* then di∣till them: it cleanseth the stomacke, and comforteth the reines.

Page  454 After the same manner are distilled the waters of smallage,* basill, buglosse, mies, cammomile, marigolds, Carduus benedictus, clarie, succorie, capillus Venei, che∣uile, endue, aller, fumitorie, broome, Iuie, horse-taile, lauander, marierom, mehlo, mallowes, holihocke, vvater lillies, nigella, organie, pionie, poppie, pellitorie of the wall, burnet, plantaine, purcelaine, penniryall, rue, rosemarie, madder, sage, sauo∣rie, scabious, scolopendrium, nightshade, houseleeke, willow leaues, groundswell, thyme, white mulleine, tansey, valerian, veruaine, of the flowers and leaue of the stinging nettle, as well as of the dead nettle, and of many other plants, obseruing the generall precepts, which we haue set downe before.

This is the manner of distilling cinnamome: Take a pound of fine cinnamome,* breake it lightly, and infuse it a certaine time in the distilled water of Roses the quan∣ttie of foure pounds, and of verie good white wine halfe a pound, after put it all into a glasse-still to be distilled either vpon hot ashes, or else in Maries-bath: such water is forcible against all cold diseases,* especially of the stomacke, spleene, liuer, braine, matrix, sinews, faintings and swonings, to prouoke the termes of women, and retay∣ned vrine,* to stay vomits, to represse the malignitie of all sorts of cold venime, and for the deliuerie of woen that are in trauell of child.

Rose-water* is distilled either of new roses or of drie roses, and they are either white or carnation. The fashion and manner of distilling of it is diuers: for some∣times it is distilled by defluction tending downeward, vvhich is called in Latine Distillatio per descensum, according to the matter which we shall declare in the se∣uentie first Chapter hereafter following. Sometimes it is distilled by insolation, as we will likewise shew in the same place: sometimes, and that oftest, as also best, in Maries-bath, and before the distilling of it, if the roses be drie, it is good to moisten them vvith the vapour of some boyling water, or some Roses. The water which is distilled of red Roses, is more cordiall and corroboratiue, as that which is made of white roses is more cooling. Then to distill good rose-water, you must infuse roses in distilled Rose-water, or else in the juice drawne from them, and that by the space of two or three dayes, your vessell being well lured and stopt, and afterward put them in a glasse-still, couered with his head, and they both well luted and fitted one to another, and finally, set them thus conjoyned in your vessell of Maries-bath.

Water of Orange-flowers,* called water of Naffe, being distilled by a bell, is good to procure vomit, as also to make a good smell.

The water of vvild Apples,* and of Oke Apples vnripe, of chesnuts, and of ver∣iuice that is halfe ripe, is good against the red pimples, and hard knobbes in the face.

The vvaters of flowers (as of Rosemarie,* vvhich is good to rejoyce the 〈◊〉 of Elder-Tree, vvhich keepeth the face cleare from Sunne-burning: of Mari∣golds, vvhich comforteth the eyes: and such others) are distilled after the manner of Rose-water.

CHAP. LXVI.

Of the manner of distilling liquors.

WE haue heretofore declared that the singular and rare efficacie and 〈◊〉 of things distilled, haue in such sort rauished and carried away the spirits and studies of men, as that there is scarce any thing to be found vvhich hath any good propertie and speciall qualitie in it, but it 〈◊〉 beene brought vnder the yoke of distillation.* But in this place I call liquor all th•• which hath a liquid consistence, vvhether it be juice, humour, excrement, or any such like floting thing, as vvine, vinegar, honie, vrine, juice of hearbes of fruit••Page  455 and you cannot but thinke that the juice of hearbes or fruits being distilled doth af∣ford a farre better water, than that which is distilled of hearbes, yea or of fruits either. We will begin therefore with distilled vvine.

Aqua-vitae is thus distilled: (notwithstanding that all manner of Wine is fit to make Aqua-vitae of,* so that it be not sowre, spent, or otherwise tainted, yet indeede the strongest and noblest Claret vvine is the best, vvhether pallet and inclining to vvhite, or high coloured and inclining to red:) Take then of claret vvine a certayne quantitie, according to the bignese of the vessell wherein you distill it (which is cal∣led the bladder, as we haue declared before, namely, in that it is fashioned like vnto a streight gourd) euen so much as may fill it within one third part of the top,* that so the vapours may haue space to rise, then set the head vpon it, hauing a long 〈◊〉, and this must be well closed with the mortar of wisdome (being the same which we haue before described) to the end that no vapour may passe out there by: and thus cause it to distill with the heat of hot, but not boyling water: or else at a reasonable heate in ashes, or in small sand, increasing the fire continually by little and little, and yet ta∣king heed that the wine doe not boyle: and to the end that you may haue excellent good Aqua-vitae, you may distill it ouer foure or fiue times: for by how much the oter it is distilled,* by o much the better will it be, as we haue said alreadie. For the first distillation, it shall be ynough to draw the tenth part, that is to say, of ten pintes of vvine one pint of Aqua-vitae, more or lesse: for the second halfe of that which you shall haue put in, that is to say, halfe a pinte: for the third likewise, the halfe or a little lesse, vvhich should be a quarter of a pinte: in such sort as that the ofter it is distilled ou must haue lesse in quantitie, but more in value and worth; and therefore in the beginning you must either take a great quantitie of Wine, or else haue many ves∣sels. It is true, that if the distillation be well made, the fourth will yeeld the like quantitie of water to that it receiued, and there will be no losse in it: and herewith likewise it is to be wished, that euerie man would be contented without going ouer it any more: because so many repetitions and redistillations is a matter of great la∣bour and cost. In the meanetime this must be remembred, namely, to lessen the fire at euerie distillation halfe a degree, and afterward a whole degree, that so in fine you may come to the first degree called bl••d vvarme. And truely by mine aduise, the first distillation should be in the fire of ashes, and the other in Maries-bath. This repeating and going ouer with it by distillation after distillation shall be to take from it his flegme, that is to say, his grossest and most waterie humour, which resteth in the bottome, and is accustomed to come forth last, after that it is well digested by being oft distilled. Finally,* it may be gathered that the Aqua-vitae is sufficiently di∣stilled by these signes; If there come backe the like quantitie of water; if being set on fire, it consume and vvaste all away, not leauing any signe of moisture behind it in the bottome of the vessell: if a linnen cloth that hath beene dipt in the Aqua-vitae being set on fire doe not burne any jote at all; if a drop of oyle being put into it, go to the bottome; if a drop of Aqua-vitae being powred in the ball of your hand, doe wast away and vanish verie speedily; if yellow amber being set on fire doe burne in the Aqua-vitae; and likewise if ca••phire being put into Aqua-vitae be dissolued of it. You must also note, that Aqua-vitae is sometimes distilled of lees of verie good Wine,* being neither sower, nor spent, nor otherwise tainted; and such Aqua-vitae sometime is not inferiour but superiour in goodnesse vnto that which was distilled of the Wine it selfe: Againe, if it be often distilled ouer, it becommeth more hot and drie▪ then that which is made of the verie Wine: but yet indeed that which is made of Wine is more pleasant vnto the taste, and of a more delightsome smell: Aqua-vi∣tae is also sometimes distilled of beere, but that is not so good as the other of Wine. The vessells for the distilling of Aqua-vitae are diuers, that is to say a good still,* sit∣ting in ashes or sand, or a resort in Maries-bath, or the bladder: Aqua-vitae may also be distilled in a caldron or pot of Copper or Brasse, made in manner of a Beefe-pot, co∣uered with a couer, and hauing a straight nose comming out of it, and rising vp on high, and turned downeward againe with a direct angle, and so passing through a Page  456 bucket full of cold water. After that the Aqua-vitae is distilled, you must set it out into the Sunne a certaine time to make it yet more and more subtle. After this 〈◊〉 you may distill all iuices and liquors, as mans bloud, vrine, vineger, the deaw, milke, whites and yolkes of egges,* mans dung, or beasts dung. The vertues of Aqua-vitae are infinite: It keepeth off the fits of the Apoplexie and Falling sicknesse, in such sort, as that they which are subiect vnto that disease in the time of Winter, must euery morning take a spoonefull of Aqua-vitae sugred, and eat a little bit of white bread: it driueth away venime: keepeth Wines from spending themselues, from putrifying, and from growing thicke and troubled: it cureth speedily all the cold diseases of the sinewes, muscles, and starued members, if they be fomented therewithall: it killeth wormes, and assuageth the paine of the teeth, &c. See more in our Booke of secret remedies.

For the distilling of Vineger,* you must vnderstand, that there is some difference betwixt the distilling of Aqua vitae and Vineger: for seeing that Wine is of a vapo∣rous and fierie substance,* the chiefest and principallest parts in it doe runne at the first distillation, that is to say, with the water that first commeth forth: insomuch, as that that which remaineth and stayeth behind in the vessell, tasteth no better than common water, hauing in it no force or vertue. On the contrarie, the first that distil∣leth of Vineger tasteth nothing at all, saue onely that it sheweth it selfe somewhat more in his earthie parts by the alteration of his qualitie (for Vineger is no other thing but a corrupted Wine, made eager by putrifaction:) for indeed his true, na••∣rall, and proper qualitie of eagernesse and sowrenesse, as also the force and strength thereof, stayeth behind with that in the vessell, till after the first water be past. And by this it appeareth, that that which remaineth in the Wine after the first distillation of it, should be called flegme, as that should also which commeth out first in the di∣stillation of Vinegar, be called flegme of Vineger. Wherefore, to haue good distilled Vineger, after you haue put it in like quantitie (as we haue said of Wine for to make Aqua-vitae) into the Stillitorie, you must let the flegme (that is to say, the watrie hu∣mour) distill, and set it aside in some vessell by it selfe: afterward, when the Vineger shall be consumed vnto the third or fourth part, and that it shall rellish in tasting of the distilling drops, that the eager parts of the Vineger begin to come, it will be good to set that aside to serue for infusions: and then afterward to encrease the heat of your fire a little, and so continue your distillation, vntill such time as the water begin to looke red, and to haue the consistence of Honey or of Pitch, and then you may be bold to set it aside for your speciall vse, not in medicine, but otherwise in all things concerning mettals and corrosiues: for this water making the third alteration in di∣stillation,* tasteth of adstion, and is called the sanguine part of Vineger. Vineger would be distilled in the same vessell that Rose-water is distilled in, especially in ashes or hot sand, rather than in Maries bath. In like manner, and after the same sort, you shall distill Vineger of Roses, of Elders, of Cloues, and other things. Di∣stilled Vineger is good to dissolue hard and mettallous things,* as Pearles, Corall, Egge-shells, Crystall, and Emeralds: notwithstanding, Gold and Siluer cannot be dissolued by it. This is the cause, that when Alchymists would distill any mettall or stones, to draw out their oyle, they vse first to dissolue their matter in Vineger or Vrine distilled.

Salted water or sea water is made sweet by this meanes. Fill a pot of salt water,* let it boyle by the fire-side, and afterward distill with a stillitorie, as you doe ros-water, and the salt will stay in the bottome. And this is also the way to trie what mettalls are mixt with minerall vvaters.

The manner of distilling of honie is such. When the honie is once well purified,* put it in small quantitie into a stillitorie (for in a great quantitie it vvould swell o∣uer, after that it should once feele the heat) distill it in Maries-bath with a gentle and warme heat: the water that commeth first forth, is the flegme, which must be kept by it selfe for to colour and make long the beard and haire. Afterward increasing the heat a little,* there will come forth a water of a yellow, and as it were a golden colour, Page  457 which you may keepe in another vessell, seeing it is good to cleanse vvounds both shallow and deepe ones: your distillation continuing, there will come another vva∣ter high coloured and more red than the former, and then if you doe vvell, you shall change the heat of the vvater into the heat of the ashes or sand, that is to say, that you should remoue your Still, and set in ashes or sand euen almost vp to the verie mouth, and that there be not aboue three inches in bredth betwixt the fire and your Still, continuing to increase your fire, and to make it bigger than it was before, and by this meanes there will come forth a water more clamie than the former, and may be cal∣led the oyle of honie. After this manner you may distill turpentine,* and such other thicke and clammie liquors. Indeed to distill such thicke liquors, vvere better to be done by a reort, rather than in Maries-bath, as we will manifest when we come to speake of the distillation of oyles.

For to distill the bloud of a male Goat:* Take the bloud of a young male goat be∣ing vvell fed, but not that bloud vvhich shall come forth first, nor that which shall be last, but that which shall come forth in the middest: let it stand and settle for some time, and then cast out the vvater that shall swim aboue: after vvith a tenth or twelfth part of salt, stir it vvell a long time, and worke them together very throughly; this done, put it vp into a vessell well stopt and luted, and bury it in a dunghill of horse-dung for the space of fortie daies: afterward distill it oftentimes ouer, powring it still againe and againe vpon the drose or bottome of the distillation staying be∣hind. After you haue thus distilled it foure or fiue times, you shall haue a maruailous water, and yet it will be better if it be set in horse-dung fortie daies moe after that it is distilled. This water is singular for the breaking of the stone.*

The bloud of a young man is distilled* in the same sort, but the man must be of a good complexion, and sound bodie, of the age of twentie yeares or thereabouts, of a well fed and fleshie bodie: and it serueth in steed of restoratiues vnto those vvhich are in a consumption: it is good likewise against rheumes and distillations falling vpon the joynts, if the diseased places be fomented therewithall. Howbeit I do not greatly approue the distilling of mans bloud for any such end, seeing it is an vnwor∣thie and heynous thing, and not beseeming Christians, and a thing likewise which in the middest of so many other helpes may easily be spared. See more amongst our secret medicines.

The bloud of a Drake is in like maner distilled against poyson: and after the same sort may the bloud of a Calfe,* Badger, or Hare be distilled.

You may distill milke* also alter the same manner that Aqua-vitae is distilled. It is reported, that in Tartarie the water of distilled milke* maketh men drunke: such milk therefore must be good and fat, such as is the milke of a heyfer. Some physitians hold that distilled milke is good against the jaundise, as also against a quartaine ague, if it be distilled with the like quantitie of Wine.

The milke of the she goats is oft distilled,* to serue for the cleansing of the vlcers of thereines and bladder, whereunto the milke it selfe would serue a great deale better, if they be fed for the most part with burnet.

Mans dung is distilled in a glasse stillitorie in such manner as Aqua-vitae* is distil∣led: the vvater that it distilleth (especially if it be of the dung of a red or freckeled man) is soueraigne good to heale and cicatrize deepe,* hollow, old, and rebellious vl∣cers, and to take away the spots of the eyes. Taken also in manner of a drinke, it deli∣uereth from the Falling-sicknesse: and in like sort if the head be rubbed therewithall, it deliuereth also from the stone of the reines and bladder, and from the dropsie, and doth them verie much good that are bitten of a mad dogge, or of other venimous beasts.* Notwithstanding whereas such water simplie and without any manner of mixture distilled, doth retaine the smell of the said excrement, it will be good, to the end to giue it some good taste,* to clap to the end of the nose of the Still some nodule or little knot of linnen cloth contayning muske in it; or else to annoint the head vvithin vvith the said muske or some other such like thing that is of a good sauour. Page  458 And thus may the dung of kine or pigeons be distilled; the distilled water whereof is good to breake the stone.

CHAP. LXVII.

Of the manner of distilling of liuing creatures, or their parts.

TO distill the bodie of any beast,* you must first strangle it, that so it may not shed any bloud, and after take away all his fat (if he haue any) and the entrailes: then chop the flesh small, and cast vpon it the tenth o twelfth part of salt, and so distill it in Maries-bath, or vpon hot ashes after the manner of Roses. Thus the young and tender storke which did neuer flye is distilled; but he must first be bowelled and stuffed with an ounce of camphire,* and a dram of amber: the water that commeth thereof is excellent to make liniments and fomentations in palsies and con••lsions. After the same sort is the pie, frog, snailes, ants, liuers, and lungs of calues, of a Foxe, and other such like beasts distilled: how∣beit, vvithout any such long and teadious preparation they may be distilled by and by after the manner of other vvaters, as vve vvill forthwith declare in the distillatio of restoratiues.

The vvater of Swallowes: Take Swallowes the weight of sixe ounces,* and cast∣reum an ounce, let them infue a whole night in vvater, and put into a Limbecke, be distilled: This vvater is singular to preserue one from the Falling-sicknesse, if it be taken but once a moneth to the quantitie of two spoonefulls, and that in a morning fasting.

The flesh of beasts is distilled on this manner: Cut and chop the flesh small,* in∣corporate and stampe it vvith a tenth part of common salt: after put it in a 〈◊〉 (like vnto a gourd) vvell stopped, that so you may burie it in the earth, set and 〈◊〉 passed round about with vnquencht lime, and dung of horses halfe rotten, to be di∣gested in the same for the space of a moneth, or thereabout, during vvhich time you shall vvater the said vnquencht lime and dung often with vvarme vvater to stirre vp their heat, and you shall renew the lime and dung three or foure times euerie weeke for you must thinke that for vvant of heat, the flesh might putrifie in steed of dige∣sting. And after they haue beene sufficiently digested (vvhich you may know by seeing the grosser parts seperated from the more thinne and subtile) the vessell shall be taken out of the dunghill, and the head of a Still set thereupon, the nose or 〈◊〉 being vvell luted, and so it shall be distilled in Maries-bath diuers times ouer, pow∣ring the distilled vvater againe vpon the residence or drosse remayning in the bot∣tome, so oft as you redistill it. And after the fifth distillation, you shall set aside the water to keepe, if so be you had not rather circulate it, to giue it the nature as it vvere of a quintessence.

As well the vvhites as the yolkes of egges are distilled after the manner abo••∣sayd:* but they must not be digested in the dung aboue fiue or sixe dayes at the most.

The vvaters thus distilled are more than restoratiues, hauing the vertue to en∣crease the substance of the bodie and members, as naturall flesh and nourishment doth.

Page  459

CHAP. LXVIII.

Of the manner of distilling of restoratiues.

REstoratiues* are prepared after diuers sorts, notwithstanding the most v∣suall and best is thus: Take the flesh of a Veale, Kid, or Weather, cut and chopped as small as possibly may be: or else take musculous flesh, which is called the vvhites of capons, pullets, fat and well fleshed hens, after they haue beene well hunted and tired, cut likewise and chopped small: put vn∣to this flesh, calues feet, peeces of gold, or rather the thin beaten leaues of gold: put all in a glasse Still well luted with mortar made of flower, whites of egges, and a little masticke: into this Still, you shall cast (for the giuing of some grace vnto the distil∣lation, and somewhat to mitigate the heat which it might get by the fire) halfe a handfull of cleane barley, a handfull of drie or new red Roses, which haue beene in∣fused in the juice of pomegranates or rose-water, and a little cinnamome: place them all in the Still, as it were after the manner of little beds, and strew thereupon the pow∣der of the electuarie of cold Diamargariton, or of precious stones, and a little corian∣der prepared and finely powdred to discusse and waste all windie matter. If you would make your restoratiues medicinable, you may adde thereunto things concer∣ning the disease that presseth, as rootes and hearbes respecting the head, in the dis∣eases of the head, as betonie, penniryall, staechados, organie, sage, and others such like: for the diseases of the reines, the rootes and plants that are good to breake the stone: for the Falling-sicknesse, the seed of pionie, and misletoe of the oake: for the quartaine ague, polopody, scolopendrum, and the rootes of Tamariske: for the French disease, the rootes of gentian, enula campana, and the wood guajacum, and so of other things: yet it seemeth vnto me that it were better that the cordial powders 〈◊〉 not be mingled among the rest, for feare that their force, which is thin, sub∣tile, and verie fragrant, should euaporate through the heat of the fire, and that it would be farre better to straine the distillation through a linnen cloth that is verie cleane, and which should haue the cordiall powders in the bottome of it: there may likewise be added a quantitie of Treacle, with some conserues, as occasion shall be ministred: the matter thus disposed of, it shall be distilled in a stillitorie of glasse well luted (as we haue said) and in Maries-bath; or else in ashes, grauel, or hot sand: for by this meanes the distillation vvill taste least of the fire. It will be good before the flesh be put into the still to be distilled, that they should haue boyled a boyle or two in a new earthen pot, to take from it the grosse excrements hanging about the same. Againe, it must be remembred, that if there be any gold put into the distilla∣tion, that it will be better to put in such as is wrought into leaues than grosse peeces: because that grosse peeces in respect of their solidenesse consume but a verie little, and with much adoe. This is called a diuine restoratiue,* and must be giuen vnto the sicke partie prettie and warme.

Another manner of restoratiue after the Italians fashion: Take a Capon,* or a good Henne, which yet neuer laid egges, let her or him be pulled aliue, that so the bloud may be stirred and dispersed throughout the bodie: after you haue pulled them, ••ke out the guts, and afterward stampe bones and all together in a Mortar, putting there∣to as much rummes of new bread as there is stamped flesh, pound all together with a handfull of Seabious, either greene or drie, and the weight of a French crowne of the leaues of gold, let it all settle a whole night, after distill it, adding thereto three pound of verie good Wine, such as is of a ripe Grape.

Another manner of restoratiue: Boile a Capon,* or some such other flying fowle, whole and entire, with Borage, Buglosse, Scariole, Endiue, Lettuces, or other such like hearbes, as shall be necessarie in respect of the disease: and when it hath boiled till it seeme as rotten with boiling, take the broth or supping, and put it into the stillitorie, Page  460 afterward put thereinto also the flesh of partridge, hen, or other such flying fowle cut and chopt small, and adde vnto these such other matter, as you shall know to be ne∣cessarie for the present disease, as conserues of roses and buglosse, damaske raisins, the powders of the electuaries of precious stones, aromaticum rosatum, and such like things: and finally, distill them after the manner aboue specified.

Some there are vvhich vvill not make any restoratiues but of capons-flesh,* the ol∣dest they can get, such they strangle and plucke by feather and feather, not vsing the helpe of any hot vvater, then they take out the entrailes and chop them small: ad∣ding thereto flowers or conserues of buglosse, burrage, damaske raisins, mundified barley whole, coriander-seed, pearles, powder of the electuarie diarrhodon, or some other like vnto it, and the leaues of gold, they distill all together, and cause it to be gi∣uen to sicke persons, women in child-bed, and old folke.

To make a restoratiue in shorter time,* and that vpon the sudden, with lesse cost, charges, as also paine and labour: chop your flesh small after the manner alreadie de∣liuered, put it into a glasse viole or bottle of a sufficient bignesse, and in such sort as that all your peeces of flesh be strung or put vpon a double threed and hold one by another, and the double threed vvhereupon they hang be vvithout the bottle, which must be well stopt aboue with a linnen or cotten cloth, wet in a mixture made vvith whites of egges and barley lower: set this bottle in a caldron full of water, boyling at a small fire, and there let it stand foure houres more or lesse, vntill such time as a good part of the flesh bee conuerted into moisture: See that the bottle stand in the vvater vp to the necke, and that it touch not the bottome of the caldron, and vvithall vvell stayed vp on euerie side, that so it may not slip or bend more one vvay than another. When the foure houres are spent, rebate the fire gently, that so the bottle also may coole by little and little, vvhich if so bee that you should take all hote out of the water, it vvould breake presently. Afterward, vn∣stop the bottle vvith vvarme vvater, if you cannot vvell otherwise, and then draw forth the string and the flesh softly, that so the liquor may remaine alone: straine the vvater after the manner of Hypocras, and aromatize it vvith Sugar and Ci•••∣mome, that so it may be giuen to the sicke that are vvasted. You may after this man∣ner make restoratiues such like as you shall thinke good, either cheaper or dearer, more or lesse pleasant and delicate, and more or lesse medicinable, as occasion may require.

CHAP. LXIX.

The manner of distilling compound waters.

WAters are not onely distilled of one onely or simple plant, liquor, or o∣ther matter: but also of many mixt together; and such vvaters are cal∣led compounded vvaters,* by reason of the mixture of many things. These compound vvaters are of three sorts: some are for physick,* other∣some for sweetnesse, and the other for ukes and painting, as ornaments to the bodie: vve vvill first and before the rest speake of those which serue for medicine and phy∣sicke.

Sage water compounded:* Take equall parts of sage and penniryall, stampe them in a mortar, and distill them. This water taketh away the paine of the bellie, and stayeth cold rheumes if it be drunke with a little quantitie of castoreum.

Water of turneps compounded.* Take turneps either garden or wild ones, or both together, the roots of smallage and parsley, and anise-seed, infuse them all in white wine or vinegar, and distill the vvater as good against grauell.

Angelica water: Take equall parts of Angelica,* as well the rootes as the leaues, (but especially the rootes) and the flowers of lauander, infuse them in Wine, & there Page  461 will distill from them a singular water against the Falling-sicknesse,* if it be taken in the quantitie of two or three spoonefulls.

Water of Celandine:* Gather in the beginning of the moneth of May the leaues of celandine, veruaine, rue, and fennell, pound them, and draw from euerie one of them three ounces of juice, vvhich you shall mix together: put vnto them some buds of roses, of sugar-candie three ounces, of verie good Tutia foure ounces, and as much of dragons bloud: distill them all in a stillitorie: This vvater taketh away the red∣nesse and spots in the eyes.

Water of the Vine:* Take the vvater that distilleth from the vine-stockes at such time as they are cut, vvhich is in the Spring-time, distill it with like quantitie of ho∣nie: this vvater healeth itchings, heat, and rednesse of the eyes: the verie vvater of of the vine alone vndistilled doth the like.

Rose-water: Take roses three parts,* fennell, and rue, of each one part, shred them small, and mingle them verie well together afterward distill them, and let the distil∣ling vvater fall into a vessell wherein is a handfull of the foresaid hearbes,* this vvater preserueth the sight, if the eyes be vvashed therewith in Sommer.

Water of Eye-bright: Take Celandine,* Fennell, Rue, Eye-bright, Veruaine, red Roses, of each halfe a pound, Cloues and Long-pepper, of each two ounces: bruise them all, and distill them in a glasse stillitorie. This vvater is singular good for a vveake sight.

Water of Rosemarie: Take Aqua-vitae distilled of white Wine,* the distilled vva∣ter of rosemarie and sage, of each fiue pound, of sugar two pound: in these infuse of the flowers of sage and rosemarie for the space of eight daies,* of each two ounces, straine them, and keepe the water to heale the fistulaes of the eyes.

Water of Treacle:* Distill in a glasse stillitorie Treacle, with a like quantitie of A∣qua-vitae and Vinegar: This vvater is good to touch the vlcers and rawnesse of the mouth vvithall,* especially if there be added vnto it a little bole-armoniacke.

Another Treacle water:* Take old Treacle a pound, of the rootes of Enula cam∣pana, Gentian, Cypers, Tormentill, of each an ounce, of blessed Thistle halfe an ounce, of conserues of Borage, Buglosse, and Rosemarie, of each an ounce, infuse them all together in three pints of white Wine, a pint and a halfe of Cesterne water, and two pints of Rose-water: distill them.

Water of Cloues:* Take equall parts of Cloues, Ginger, and flowers of Rosema∣rie, infuse them in verie good Wine the space of eight daies: distill the whole: This vvater comforteth the stomacke,* assuageth the paines and vvringings of the bellie, killeth vvormes, and maketh fat folke to become leane, or maketh fat the leane, if they drinke it mixt with sugar.

Water of Saxifrage:* Take of the juice of Saxifrage two pound, of the juice of Pearlewort,* Parsley, Anise, and Clotburre, of each halfe a pound, of vvhite Vine∣gar eight ounces, distill them all: This vvater drunke in the morning, breaketh the stone.

Water of Swallowes:* Take Swallowes and drie them in an ouen, make them into powder: mixe it vvith a little Castoreum, and a little Vinegar, distill it all: this wa∣ter cureth the Falling-sicknesse if it be drunke foure mornings.

Water of horse-taile:* Take horse-taile, plantaine, red roses, Winter-cherrie-ber∣ries, rootes of holihockes, and scraped licorice, of each an ounce, of bole-armoniacke halfe an ounce, of the seed of gourds and cucumbers, of each three drams, of the seede of white poppie, six drams, of the seed of quinces halfe an ounce: Infuse them all in vvhay made of goats milke the space of two daies, afterward distill the vvater: which will serue for the vlcers of the reines and bladder,* if there be foure ounces of ••taken vvarme in the morning.

Water of corneflag:* Take equall parts of corneflag, hyssope, and southernewood, stampe them throughly, and leaue them so a certaine time, afterward distill them: this vvater prouoketh womens termes, and killeth wormes in young children.

Burnet-water:* Take the seed of burnet, parsley, smallage, the leaues and rootes of Page  462 clotburre and smallage, of euerie one equally: stampe all together, after put thereto of draggons bloud an ounce, and a little good vinegar: et all to infuse together a cer∣taine time, afterward distill it: this vvater hath a meruailous vertue against the stone and grauell.

A singular vvater for the grauell,* vvhich the deceased Monsieur de Tillet had great vse of vvith happie succese:* Take the rootes of parsley and fennell made ve∣rie cleane, and the vvooddie part taken out, of each oure handfulls, boyle them in twelue pintes of riuer water: vvhen they are halfe boyled, put thereto of the tender buds of Mallows, holihockes, violets, and sea-weed, of each foure handfulls, boyle all together to the consumption of the halfe, after straine them through a white nap∣kin: distill them, putting thereunto two pound of Venice turpentine.

A singular water for the eyes:* Take celandine, veruaine, betonie, eye-bright, rue, and fennell all new and fresh, of each two handfulls, stampe them together, sprink∣ling them with halfe a pound of white Wine, presse out the juice, and afterward in∣fuse in the same pepper and ginger made in powder, of each halfe an ounce, of saffron three drams; of myrrhe, aloes, and sarcocol, of each one ounce; of verie good honie a pound: distill them all in a glasse stillitorie at a small fire, and keepe the water for the spots of the eyes.

Take foure ounces of the pills of Oranges dried in the shadow of the Sunne sixe dayes:* nutmegs, and cloues, made into powder either of them by themselues, of each foure ounces, infuse the said aromaticall powders in a glasse viole with rosewater the space of seuenteene dayes in the Sunne: after cast vpon the said powders, the rindes of oranges, vvhich you shall let steepe there a certaine space of time. Afterward, take of new red roses gathered two daies before a pound, of the roote of cypeus halfe a pound, of the leaues of rosemarie, hysop, balme, roses of the bush, of each two hand∣fulls, of bay-leaues a handfull, lay them all to drie in the Sunne for two houres, after infuse them in rose-water the space of three houres: this done, put them all into a Still after this manner. In the bottome of the Still make a bed of one pound of new red roses, then next a bed of aromaticall powders and the rindes of oranges, in the third place a bed of Violet flowers, and in the fourth place the last and fourth bed of the afore named hearbes: distill them all in Maries-bath with a gentle fire. Adde vnto the distilled water two pound of rose-water or thereabout, so that it may be in proportion equall to the third or fourth part of the water drawne out by distillation. This vvater taken in the morning the weight of a dramme, keepeth the bodie sound, lustie, and reneweth youth. It is singular for the paine of the head, tteeth, bellie, gri∣pings, palsie, conulsions, apoplexie, faintings, and other such cold diseases. This is the vvater that is so much esteemed in the courts of kings and princes, and amongst the great and renowned ladies.

An Allome-water:* Take Verjuice, the juice of Plantaine and Purslaine, of each a pound, seuen whites of egges, ten ounces of Roch-allome, mingle them toge∣ther, and distill them. Otherwise, take plantaine, purslaine, sorrell, gourds, night∣shade, and verjuice, of each a handfull, poune them grosly, mixe therewith ten or twelue whites of egges, put them all in a glasse stillitorie to distill, mingling amongst them halfe a pound of Allome, as you lay bed vpon bed: this water is good for ca∣kers, for the rednesse of the face, and for vlcers, applying linnen clothes thereunto, that haue beene wet therein.

You may likewise distill purging waters,* in infusing purgatiue medicines both simple and compound, seeing that they be as new as may be, and that in Aqua-vitae, wine, milke, whay, distilled waters, or conuenient decoctions, and such waters vvill haue the like vertues as the purging medicines haue; thus you may distill Catholi∣cum,* Diaphoenicon, confectio Hamech, and Electuarium de ucco rosarm: Thus you may distill rhubarbe, agaricke, hellebor, scammonie, and such other purgatiues that are sound and new.

The maner of distilling rhubarbe may be this:* take a quantitie of new and greene Rhubarbe, vvhether it be a pound, or halfe a pound, more or lesse, make it ••to small Page  463 pieces, or make it into grosse powder, and vpon it cast of the iuice of Borage and Buglosse, of each two pound, for one of Rubarbe, infuse them all together for the space of foure and twentie houres vpon hot ashes, then distill them in a Stillitorie in Maries bath.

This distilling of purgatiue Medicines, is for such kind of people as are verie delicate, and cannot abide the smell of the purging medicine to be ministred other∣wise vnto them.

CHAP. LXX.

Of sweet Waters particularly described.

SWeet Waters serue to wash the hands,* face, haire of the head, and beard: as also to make Linnens, Garments, Gloues, and such other things, to smell sweet.

Water of Lauander:* Take the flowers of Lauander new or drie, be∣prinkle or infuse them in Rose-water, Wine, or Aqua-vitae, afterward distill them. The water will be sweeter, if you drie the flowers in the Sunne in a Glasse-violl close stopped, and cast vpon them afterward some white Wine. And if in the time of want and lacke of distilled water, you would haue a water presently made which should resemble the smell of the water of Lauander; cast a drop or two of the Oyle of Spike into a good sufficient quantitie of pure water, and swill them well together in a bottle or Glasse-violl with a narrow necke: This water, though it be not di∣stilled, yet it ceaseth not to haue the sweet smelling sent and sauour that the distil∣led hath.

Water of Cloues: Take halfe an ounce of Cloues well bruised,* set them to infuse in a pound and a halfe of Rose-water the space of foure and twentie houres, after di∣still them in Maries bath.

The water of sweet Smells: Take Basill,* Mints, Marierome, rootes of Corne∣flag, Hyssope, Sauorie, Sage, Balme, Lauander, and Rosemarie, of each a hand∣full: of Cloues, Cinnamome, and Ntmegs, of each halfe an ounce: then take three or foure Citrons, and cut them in sufficient thicke slices: which done, infuse all this in a sufficient quantitie of Rose-water for the space of three daies, distilling it all af∣terward in Maries bath at a small fire: the distillation done, put thereto a scruple of Muske.

Water of Roses musked: Take the buds of Roses,* and cutting out the white, put them into the Stillitorie, and in the middest thereof, vpon your Roses, put a little knot of Muske, and so distill them.

Water of Spike: Take Spike before the flower be altogether blowne,* and ta∣king away all the wood from it, lay it on a bed within the Stillitorie: afterward, lay vpon that bed a bed of Roses almost blowne, and thereupon some dozen of Cloues: but and if you haue not Spike, then you may put Lauander in his place: distill it at a moderate fire, and with as little ayre as possibly you can giue it: And when the distillation shall be as good as finished, beprinkle the matter with a little verie good white Wine, and so finishing your distillation, keepe your water in viols well stopped.

Damaske water: Take two handfuls and a halfe of red Roses,* Rosemarie flowers, Lauander and Spike flowers, of each a Pugill: of the sprigges of Thyme, flowers of Cammomile, flowers of small Sage, of Penyryall, and Marierome, of each a handfull: infuse them all in white Wine the space of foure and twentie houres: then put them into the Stillitorie, sprinkling it with verie good white Wine, and scatter thereupon this powder following: take an ounce and a halfe of well chosen Cloues, an ounce of Nutmegs, of Beniouin and Styrax calamia, of each two drammes, make Page  464 them in powder: The water that shall be distilled, must be kept in a vessell verie well stopped.

There is also made a verie sweet water of cleare Myrrhe,* if it be new, gumie, and diuided into small gobbets, and set to steepe in the iuice of Roses six times as much in quantitie as the Myrrhe: It must be distilled vpon hot ashes at a small fire; for and if you should encrease it, there would come forth oyle with the water. Such water being dropped but onely one drop of it into an hundred of well or fo••∣taine water, maketh it all to smell most sweetly.

Rose-water sweetened with Muske:* Take a Glasse-vessell of the fashion of an Vrinall, that is to say, wide below, and straight aboue; therein put twelue graines of Muske, or more, and stop it close with good Parchment, setting it in the Sunne for foure or fiue daies: then take another vessell of the fashion of the first, which you shall fill with Roses dried a verie little, and stamped: then stop that vessell also with a verie thinne Linnen cloth, or with a Strainer: afterward put the mouth of the vessell wherein the Roses be, into the mouth of the other wherein the Muske is, lue them well together, and set them in the Sunne, in such sort, as that the vessell with the Roses may stand aboue that wherein the Muske is, and that in some window or such other place, where the Sunne shineth verie hot: and by this meanes there will water distill downe vpon the Muske, which will be good either to be vsed aboue, or mingled with some other. Otherwise: Take twentie graines of Muske, 〈◊〉, Cloues, Galingall, Schaenanthum, graines of Paradise, Mace, and Cinnamome, of each an ounce, bray them all together, and put them into a Stillitorie with a 〈◊〉 and a halfe of Rose-water, then let them stand so foure or fiue daies, and afterward distill them.

Water of Oranges:* Take the pilles of Oranges and Citrons when they are greene, of each halfe an ounce, of Cloues fiue or sixe, of the flowers of Spike or La∣uander newly gathered, six ounces, infuse all together in six pound of Rose-water the space of foure or fiue daies, afterward distill them.

Water of Orange flowers: Take flowers of Oranges,* and distill them in a Glasse-Stillitorie, or in an earthen one verie well baked and glased, hauing but a small fire: you may also put vnto them the flowers of Citrons, if you thinke good. The water must be kept in Glasse-bottles couered with fie Mats, and well stopped.

The counterfeit water of Orange flowers: Take the buds of red Roses,* the most double that can be found, but take their yellow from them, make a bed thereof in the Stillitorie, and aboue it another bed of the flowers of Lillies: afterward againe another of Roses, and then another of the flowers of Lauander, and then another bed of Roses againe: and betwixt euerie one of these beds cast and sow some bruised Cloues, and in the middest of all make a little pit, in which you shall put certaine graines of Muske, or Ciuet, or Ambergreece, or some sort of perfume: afterward distill them all at a little fire: Reserue the water in little bottles, couered with fine Mats, and well stopped.

A sweet smelling water: Take Marierome,* Thyme, Lauander, Rosemarie, small Penyryall, red Roses, flowers of Violets, Gilloflowers, Sauorie, and pilles of Oran∣ges, steepe them all in white Wine, so much as will swimme aboue the said hearbe•• afterward distill them in a Stillitorie twice or thrice: keepe the water in bottles well stopped, and the drosse or residence to make perfumes.

Page  465

CHAP. LXXI.

The fashion of distilling water for Fukes.

NOw,* albeit that a good Farmers wife must not be too bufie with Fukes and such things as are for the decking and painting of the bodie, be∣cause her care must wholly be imployed in the keeping and encrease of her household-stuffe; notwithstanding, I would not haue her ignorant of the manner of distilling of waters for Fukes: not that shee should make vse of them for her selfe, but that shee may make some profit and benefit by the sale thereof vnto great Lords and Ladies, and other persons, that may attend to be curious, and paint vp themselues.* Now all such waters in generall serue for three purposes: The one is to smooth and keepe neat the skinne, as well of the face as of the other parts of the bodie: The other is to colour the haire of the head and beard: and the third, to make white the teeth. Some of these are simple, as the water of the flowers of Beanes, of Strawberries, the water of the Vine, of Goats milke, of Asses milke, of whites of egges, of the flowers of Lillies, of Dragons, and of Calues feet: others are compoun∣ded of maine ingredients, as you shall know by the briefe collection that wee shall make of them.

Water of Strawberries:* Take ripe Strawberries, set them to putrifie some cer∣taine time in an earthen vessell, putting thereto a little salt or sugar, and afterward di∣still them: This water will clease away the spots of the face and the spots of the eies, caused either of hot or cold humours: it will be more effectuall, if you infuse the Strawberries in Aqua-vitae before that you doe distill them.

Water of Beane-flowers:* Take the flowers of Beanes, infuse them a day or two in white Wine in a Glasse-violl in the Sunne, afterward distill them: This water taketh away the spots of the face, if it be washed therewith morning and euening.

The rootes of great Dragons distilled,* maketh a singular water to take away the prints and marks which the pocks haue left behind them: so doth likewise the distil∣led water of the root of wild Vine, of Corneflag, Sowbread, Costmarie, Angelica, E∣licampane, Tutneps, wild Cucumbers, white Onions, Gentian, Capers, Lillies, Mad∣der, Alkanet, Cinquefoile, Crowfoot, Tasell, and manie other hearbes.

Water of Guaiacum:* Take Guaiacum, and cut it in small pieces, infuse them a cer∣taine time in the decoction of other Guaiacum, and a third part of white Wine, after∣ward distill them in a Glasse-Stillitorie: The water that shall distill thereof is singular for the taking away of all spots out of the face, especially if you ioyne with it, in the distilling of it, some Lillie rootes.

The water that is distilled in equall quantitie of the leaues of Peaches and Wil∣lowes,* taketh away the red spots and rubies of the face.

The water that is distilled in equall quantitie of the whites of egges and iuice of Limons,* scoureth the face, and maketh it faire. In stead of this water, if you haue not the fit meanes to distill it, you shall take seuen or eight Limons, or Citrons, which you shall cut into quarters, and after infuse them in white Wine in the Sunne.

Another water: Take six ounces of the crummes of white bread,* infuse them in two pound of Goats or Asses milke, mingle them diligently together, and afterward distill them.

Water of Snailes:* Take white Snailes about thirtie, of Goats milke two pound, of the fat of a Pigge or Kid three ounces, of the powder of Camphire a dramme, distill them in a Glasse-Stillitorie.

Water of the whites of egges:* Take the whites of new egges, about twelue, fine Cinnamome an ounce, and Asses milke twelue ounces, distill all in a Glasse-Stillito∣rie: This water maketh a woman looke gay and fresh, as if shee were but fifteene yeares old.

Page  466 Water of Calues feet:* Take the feet of a Calfe, and (taking away their skinne and hooues of their hoofes) cut the rest in pieces, that is to say, the bones, sinewes, and marrow, and so distill them: This water maketh the face Vermillion like, and taketh away the blemishes of the small Pocks.

A singular water to make one white:* Take the dung of small Lizards, or of the Cuttle fish, the Tartar of white Wine, the shauing of Harts-horne, white Corall, the flower of Rice, as much of one as of another, beat them a long time in a Mortar, to make them into fine powder, afterward infuse them a night in an equall portion of the distilled water of sweet Almonds, Snailes of the Vine, and white Mulleine, and put thereunto likewise the like weight of white Honey: distill all together in a Stillitorie.

Water of bread crummes compounded:* Take the crummie part of Barly bread, indifferent betwixt white and blacke, two pounds, of Goats milke three pounds, of white Wine halfe a pound, of the foure great cold seeds of each two ounces, of the flowers of Beanes, or dried Beanes and Cich Pease, of each two pound, of Rice halfe a pound, of the flowers of water Lillies and white Roses of each two pugill, the whites and yolkes of twentie egges: distill them all in Maries bath, and the water will be a great deale more excellent, if you put vnto the distillation some Venice Turpentine.

Water of the broth of a Capon:* Take of the broth of a Capon, Henne, or Pullet, three pound, of the iuice of Limons one pound, of white vineger halfe a pound, of the flowers of Beanes and water Lillies of each three pugills, the whites of two or three egges, the weight of two French crownes of Camphire, distill them all: This water is of a maruellous vertue to take away the spots and staines of the face, and other parts of the bodie.

The water of Branne:* Take Branne the best that you can find, sift it diligently, and afterward temper it with strong vineger, put them into a Still, and cast vpon them tenne or twelue yolkes of egges: distill them all: This water maketh the face cleane, glistening, and verie faire.

Another water:* Take the flower of Beanes and water Lillies of each a pound, of bread crummes, Rice flower, flowers of Corneflags, of each six ounces, of Honey a pound, of white Wine and water of the fountaine of each three pound, let all be well mingled together, and afterward distill them in Maries bath.

Take the rootes of Corneflag and wild Cucumbers of each three pound,* of the rootes of Holihockes and Lillies of each two pound, of ripe Grapes halfe a pound, of Beane flowers and leaues of wall Pellitorie of each a pugill, of water Lillies and Mallowes of each a handfull, of the crummes of Barly bread a pound, infuse it all in white Wine or in the household store of Goats milke, putting to the infusion halfe an ounce of the rootes of Turneps, and of the foure great cold seedes another halfe ounce, of the vrine of a little girle halfe a pound, let all be distilled together: This water is singular good to take away freckles, scarres, the prints of the small pockes, and all other spots of the skinne.

A water vsed amongst the Ladies of the Court,* to keepe a faire white and fresh in their faces: Take a white Pigeon, a pint of Goats milke, foure ounces of fresh Butter, foure pugills of Plantaine, and as much of the roots and leaues of Salomons seale, 〈◊〉 ounce of Camphire, halfe an ounce of Sugar candie, and two drammes of Alloe, let all settle together, and afterward, distill it.

Another wter: Take of the crummes of white bread two pound, of the flowers of Beanes one pound, of white Roses, the flowers of water and land Lillies, of euerie one two pound, of Goats milke six ounces, and of the flowers of Cornflag anounce, distill all: this water is good to keepe the hands cleane and white.

Take Cowes milke in the moneth of May (in other moneths it is not worth ani thing) two pounds,* foure Oranges, and fiue Citrons, Roch Allome and fine Sugar of each an ounce, cut the Oranges and Citrons into small quarters, and infuse them in milke, afterward distill them all: this water is good to keepe the colour neat & fresh.

Page  467 Take a certaine number of egges,* the newest you can get, and lay them to steepe in verie strong Vineger three whole dayes and nights: afterward pierce them with a pinne, in such sort, as that you may cause all the water that is within them to come forth: and then distilling this water, you shall find it excellent to beautifie the face.

Likewise to wash the face with the water of Almonds, or Sheepes or Goats milke,* or else to lay vpon the face, when one goeth to sleepe, a white Linnen cloth dipped in these liquors, is auaileable for the beautifying of the face.

Another water: Take two Calues, feet, boyle them in Riuer water to the con∣sumption of the one halfe of the water, put thereunto a pound of Rice, of the crum∣mie part of one white loafe, kneaded with Goats milke, two pound of fresh But∣ter, the whites of tenne new layd egges, with their shells and skinnes, distill it all, and in the distilled water put a little Camphire and Roch Allome: this water maketh the face verie faire.

Water of Lard:* Take such quantitie of Lard as you shall thinke good, and scrape it as cleane as possibly you can: afterward stampe it in a Marble Mortar, so long, as that it become like paste, and then distill it in a Glasse-Sillitorie: The water will be white, and it is singular to make the haire of a Straw-colour, and glistening.

Water of Honey distilled,* as were haue said before, maketh the haire beautifull and long.

Water of Capers:* Take greene Capers, and distill them: This water dyeth haire greene, if after they haue beene washed with this water, they be dried in the Sunne.

Another water:* Take a pound of verie good Honey, and of the leaues of male Sothernewood two handfuls, mingle them, and distill them: This water is good to 〈◊〉 the haire of the head and beard faire and beautifull.

A water to cleanse the teeth:* Take Sage, Organie, wild Marierome, Rosemarie, and Pennyryall, of each a handfull, of Pellitorie, Ginger, Cloues, and Nutmegs, of each the weight of two French crownes, put all together, and water them with white Wine, afterward distill them.

Another water for the same effect: Take long Pepper the weight of two French crownes, of Pellitorie and Stauesacre the weight of one French crowne, sprinkle them all ouer with halfe and ounce of Aqua-vitae, after put an ounce and a halfe of white Honey thereunto, and so distill them.

CHAP. LXXII.

The manner of distilling per ascensum and per descensum.

ALl manner of distillation which is made by vertue and force of fire,* and such like heat, is of two sorts: the one is made by raising vp of vapours vp on high, which the Alchymists call per ascensum: and there is another which is after the manner of falling of sweat, or defluxion of humors des∣cending downeward, and this is commonly called per descensum. Waters are for the most part distilled by the way called per ascensum; as Oyles are for the most part di∣stilled per descensum: I say for the most part, because that certaine Waters are some∣times distilled per descensum, as also some Oyles per ascensum, such as are the Oyles drawne of leaues, flowers, fruits, seeds, and other such like matter.

The waters that are distilled per descensum,* are chiefely sweet waters, such as are made of flowers and leaues of a good smell, which being so distilled, doe not euapo∣rate or spend their best vapour so quickly by distillation, and thereupon they retaine in better sort, and for a longer time, their naturall smell.

Page  468 The way is this: Take new Roses, or other such flowers, and put them in a Linnen cloth,* spread and stretcht ouer a bason of Brasse, or earth, well glased: aboue this ba∣son set another vessell of Brasse, or of earth, in manner of a round Frying-panne, ha∣uing the bottome couered with hot coales; but therewithall you must looke, that you let not the fire remaine anie long time vpon the vessell, for feare it should grow too hot, and that the water should smell of burning. Thus way is better than anie other, to make a great deale of water in a short time, and without great charges, of flower and all sweet smelling, cooling, and astringent matter.

After such sort is the Sea-Onion distilled:* Cut in slices the Sea-Onion, put it into an earthen vessell which shall haue manie small holes in the bottome, let the bottome of this vessell goe into the mouth of another vessell made of earth, and lute them both together verie well, and let the earthen vessell be set in the earth vp vnto the throat, and then lay it round about with coales of fire, thus giue fire vnto the vpper vessell for the space of tenne or twelue houres: it will distill his water downeward, which if you mixe with flower or bread, you shall make Pastils, which will be good to kill Rats or Mice,* and that quickly, if you mixe therewith a small quantitie of Litarge.

You may make your distillation of flowers per descensum otherwise,* without the heat of anie fire: Take two vessels of Glasse one like vnto another, both of them be∣ing made large in the bottome, and narrow at the top (after the manner of an Vrinall) and see that the mouth of the one will fit and goe into the mouth of the other, and then lute them well and close together, hauing put betwixt them a fine thinne Linnen cloth: the vppermost must be full of Roses, or other flowers, somewhat bruised▪ the other must be emptie: set them in the South Sunne where it is very hot, and so it will distill a water that is very pleasant and sweet.

Thus is Rose-water (sweetened with Muske) distilled,* whereof wee haue spoke▪ before in the Chapter of sweet waters: And thus are the yellow parts of Viol•••• stilled; and the water thereof is verie singular for the rednesse of the eyes: And 〈◊〉 are the tender buds and shoots of Fennell distilled, being gathered before the Fen∣nell doe put forth his flowers; the water wthereof is very soueraigne for to cleanse away the filth of the eyes, and to comfort and amend the sight.

CHAP. LXXIII.

Of the manner of distilling by the Filtre.

THe causes of distilling by the Filtre we haue before declared,* as namely, that they are either the separation of liquors in generall, or else the se∣paration of liquors, of such or such qualities, as the separating of mud∣die and earthie from the finer and subtle parts; which is the proper and ordinarie way to distill iuices which haue a thicke consistence presently vpon their cooling after their first pressing out; as namely, the iuices of Citrons, Limons, and Oranges: againe, the prudent and expert Apothe carie, when he maketh sy••ups of the iuices of Citrons, or Limons, doth first distill and straine the iuices by a Fittre, before the goe about to dispense the syrrups.

But the manner to distill by a Filtre, is to haue three dishes, bowles, or basons, or other vessels, of such fashion as the matter or liquor that you would distill doth re∣quire, and so placed and seated, as that they may either stand higher and higher, or lower and lower, euerie one aboue or vnder another, and the highest to containe that which is to be distilled, and the lower that which is distilled. In the vppermost shall be one or moe pieces of Cloth, or of a Felt of sufficient length, and dipt into the ii∣ces, and these must be broad at the one end, and sharpe at the other: the broad end shall lye in the iuice, and the narrow-pointed end shall hang without, by the which Page  469 the thinner part of the liquor shall rise and ascend, running downe drop after drop into the vessell below, in such sort, as that the muddiest and impurest part shall stay behind in the other vessell: and sometimes you must wring out this piece of cloth; when it beginneth to become blacke, or that the drops distill but slowly, because of the thicke matter that is carried into it along with the thinne: and hauing washed them, to put them afterward againe into the vessell. If a man be disposed to distill one liquor manie times, he may place manie vessels after the manner of stayres▪ and in euerie one of them, except the lowest, put a Filtre, in the same sort as we haue said: for the last and lowest must serue onely to receiue from all the rest.

In stead of a piece of Felt, the Apothecaries vse oftentimes sleeues of Woollen cloth, otherwise called sharpe-pointed Hose; through which, they purifie and make cleare their Sirrups, Apzemes, and Iuleps: These manners of distillations may supply the place of that long, tedious, and painefull circular distillation; which fitteth the Alchymists better, than either Countrey people, Physitians, or Apo∣thecaries.

Virgins milke is thus made with a Filtre:* Take Litarge of Gold made into pow∣der three ounces, infuse them in six ounces of white vineger, either raw, or distilled, or else in Squils vineger the space of three houres, in a vessell by it selfe: in another vessell set likewise to insuse Sal nitrum, or common salt in common water, or in wa∣ter of Plantaine, Nightshade, or some other fit for the purpose: distill them by Filtre each of them apart, and after that they be distilled, mingle them together. This vir∣gins milke is good to heale Ringwornes, and sawcie and red faces.

A briefe Discourse of the distilling of Oyles and Quintessences.

CHAP. LXXIIII.

Of the profit of distilled Oyles and Quintessences: and what manner of Quintessences shall be here entreated of.

NOw, after our short discourse of the distilling of waters, limitted by the matter which Farmers store will affoord, it shall not seeme strange, or wandering from our scope and platforme layd downe alreadie, to make some slight and briefe description of the distilling of Oyles, to 〈◊〉 as a patterne and guide to the Mistresse or good wife of our Countrey Farme, seeing wee are desirous to haue her qualified with all those good parts and vertues which Xenophon the Greeke Author doth so highly esteeme of and commend in a good Huswife: and namely, that of readinesse and charitable prouision to relieue her folke and familie, as also her neighbours, when the case of necessitie, through sicknesse, requireth, by such remedies as her Gardens or Orchards may minister vnto her, with the helpe of a little ordering of them, which shee by her skill and knowledge may bestow vpon them. And seeing that distilled Oyles, amongst o∣ther remedies, are found by experience to be the most forcible and effectuall, the pleasantest, and of most speedie operation, in the ouercomming of all sorts of rebel∣lious diseases, but chiefely, wounds, vlcers, aches, swellings, and other outward ac∣cidents; it shall be verie commendable and beseeming for the Farmers wife, or Mstrese of our Countrey Farme, to haue some insight into this kind of Distil∣lation: not that I would haue her to busie her braine about the matter much, or otherwise frequent and accustome it, but euen as a pleasure and recreation, Page  470 and so farre forth, as the matter of her Gardens and Orchards onely, o not much more, doe minister vnto her. For as for the distilling of Mettals, Minrals, Sones, and other such things, which are not gouerned and husbanded with 〈◊〉 handie∣worke, labour, or skill, they belong rather vnto the Alchymist and 〈◊〉 of Quintessences, or other idle or rich persons, than vnto a good Husbandman, Now the things that shee may extract and distill, after the manner of Quintessences, are these.

Of Hearbes:* Rosemarie, wild Thyme, Rue, Calamint, Organie, L•••nder, C∣momile, Sage, Hyssope, Basill, Smallage, Mints, Stochados, Sauorie, Wo••wood, Louage, Thyme, Penyryall of the mountaine, Iua Arthritica, Sauine, and g••••ally all hearbes which are of a hot and drie temperature, and which haue a good and strong smell.

Of Seedes:* Fennell, Annise, Cummin, Pesley of the mountaine, Dill, Zno∣nicum, or Wormeseed, blacke and white Nigella, Sauine, blacke Poppie, wild Carret, and manie other sorts of Seedes, which are of good or strong 〈◊〉 and smell.

Of Flowers:* Lauander, white Mulleine, Hypericon, flowers of Oranges, da∣maske Roses, Iesamin flowers, and Rosemarie flowers, &c.

Of Fruits:* Iuniper, Bay, and Iui berries, Pine-kernels, Capers, Abrico••, and Peaches, &c.

Of Spices:* Cinnamome, blacke Pepper, Cloues, Mace, sweet Costus, Ange∣lica, Imperatoria, Galanga, graines of Paradise, Nutmegs, Ginger, Cube••, Cy∣presse, rindes of Oranges and Citrons, pillings of Walnuts and of Capers, and manie other.

Woods,* and barkes of Woods: Rosemarie, Sauine bush, Iuniper, Ash, G••i∣cum, Elder, the loppings and slisfts of Trees.

Gummes and thicke liquors:* Masticke, Frankincense, Myrrhe, 〈◊〉, Lab∣danum, Turpentine, Storax Calamite, Pitch, Tarre, &c.

Beasts,* or the parts, or excrements of Beasts: Serpents, Frogges, Scorpion, 〈◊〉, Mans bloud, Mans dung, Goose-grease, Egges, Honey, and Wax. To be briefe, all things that are of a hot and drie temperature.

It is true, that of cold things, such as are the hearbes and seedes of Poppie, He∣bane, and other such: or of moist things, such as those are which haue a fat juice; one may, in some manner, draw an oylie Quintessence, but not without great pain••-taking, and in a long time, and such also, which in the end will not haue the na•••all and true force of the hearbe whereof it was made: for it will be either lesse cold or lesse moist than his simple, by reason of the impression of the heat and drinesse, such as it is, which the fire hath left in it at the time of the distillation: as also for that the Oyle which is gathered of cold or moist simples, is rather a waterie, ager, 〈◊〉▪ Peter-like, or salt liquor, than an oylie substance: Wherefore it is better to distill cold or moist simples by putrifaction,* than by resolution made by the worke of the fire.

To make an end therefore in a word, the Oyles drawne of things by Quin••ssence, or resolution made by force of fire, are an vnctuositie or radicall humour, which is, as it were, the life and forme that giueth being vnto the simple whereunto it bel••∣geth, and that no otherwise than the naturall forme giueth being vnto all parti••∣lar things whatsoeuer; and wherein also lyeth the principall force and 〈◊〉 o the simple: so as that if it be once separated by distillation, there remaineth no o∣ther thing of the substance of the simple that is distilled, but onely his 〈…〉, and impurities.

Page  471

CHAP. LXXV.

What manner of Furnaces must be made for the extracting of Chymicall Oyles.

THe Furnaces which serue to distill Chymicall Oyles, are of diuers fashions, according vnto the diuersitie as well of the matter which is to be distilled, as of the vessels which are to serue to distill them withall: and yet the most common and commodious or profitable fashion of all is this.

Build vp a Furnace of Bricke, or of Tyle, and fat Earth, or Mortar, or of Play∣ster alone, and make the same of a round shape (or at the least let it be so within) to the end, that the fire being carried vp on high, may disperse it selfe all ouer in a more equall measure: and withall, make it of a reasonable length and thicke∣nesse, and not more than three foot high; and bearing a foot round of compass and euerie way within at the least. There shall bee also three seuerall spaces or roomes in the whole height: the first, of one foot; the second, of a foot and a halfe; and in the third, all the rest of the Furnace. In the first roome there shall be a grate of yron to lay the coales vpon for the making of the fire: in the se∣cond roome, or loft, there shall be two roddes of yron, which shall be distant the one from the other about foure fingers, whereupon shall rest an earthen vessell of the fashion of an earthen pot or panne, and after such forme and manner as wee will declare by and by. Vnderneath the first distance, and also aboue the grate is the second distance, you must make two opening places, square, and hauing their couers to shut them, after the manner of the mouth of an Ouen: by the lower of those two mouthes you shall emptie and take out the ashes which are made therein, and at the higher of them you shall put in coales, and kindle the fire also. Furthermore, in the highest part of the Furnace, and likewise in such place there as may be most commodious, there must be left certaine other holes for the smoake to passe out by. See the picture and draught of such a Furnace before in the distillation of Waters. Sometimes, for a need, the Furnace is omit∣ted and let passe, and a brandrith made to serue, setting vpon it the vessell for to distill in, and that in a pot, bowle, or panne of earth or yron, and making a fire vnderneath the same.

CHAP. LXXVI.

What manner of Vessels must be vsed for the distilling of Oyles.

CErtaine it is, that manie doe vse diuerse sorts of Vessels for the distil∣ling of Oyles: but leauing the examination of this varietie for such as propound vnto themselues to entreat exactly of Chymicall mat∣ters, as intending my selfe onely to giue some instructions vnto the good Huswife, being Commaundresse of this our Countrey House; I will here set downe but two sorts o Vessels for the distilling o Oyles:* The one being fit and verie conuenient to distill Hearbes, Flowers, Seedes, Fruits, Rootes, and Beasts, or parts and excrements of Beasts: And the other, for Woods, Gummes, gummie droppes, and other thicke and vnctuous Liquors. And now for to speake of the first.

Page  472

[illustration]
Let there be made a vessell of verie choice earth, such as is verie cleane and verie well kneaden, made vp with like paine and industrie as the Potters make vp theirs; let it be of the thicknesse of a finger, or thereabout, fashioned like an egge, and yet not like an egge when it is whole, but when it is cut round away, almost to the one halfe: it must be great, and contaning much, after the greatnesse and widenesse of the Copper ves∣sell: and yet notwithstanding so great onely (especi∣ally in respect of his height) as that it may agree with the third and last loft of the furnace, and the wide∣nesse euen and iumpe with the mouth of the furnace wherein it must stand: and in like manner the bottome must beare such breadth, as that it may be a little flatter than the space which is betwixt the two rods of yron, made fast and set ouerthwart at the end of the second distance of the funace, to the end that it may rest vpon them the more firmely. And therefore to doe well herein, the furnace would be builded before that the vessell be made. When there is need of a great fire to distill withall, then it is prouided, that the pot, in this place, be not of earth, but of yron: as I my selfe haue seene at the Apothe∣caries.

This second vessell shall be of Copper, or of Laten, and shaped also like vno an egge, or a gourd, hauing a wide mouth, whereunto there must be fitted a long or stretched-out necke, being at the least a foot in length, comming downe from the head, by the which necke the vapours in the gourd shall rise vp into the said head. This vessell shall hold twelue or fifteene pits, or otherwise shall be made of greatnesse answerable vnto the quantitie of the matter which you meane to distill, which generally is (as wee will declare by and by) that for euerie pound of matter, as of hearbes or seedes, &c. there be put into this vessell nine or tenne pound of wa∣ter. Besides this, there must be such an agreement betwixt the greatnesse of this Copper vessell and capacitie of the earthen vessell which standeth within the fur∣nace, as that they may be free one of another some two or three fingers, for the fil∣ling in of sand, as we will hereafter declare: And as concerning the height there∣of; it, together with his head, must stand aboue that of earth a foot and a halfe at the least.

The third vessell shall be the head,* which shall be round aboue, and not sharp-pointed, to the end that the vapour arising out of it may not fall downe againe: and it must be set about (as it were) with a little Stand, or Tub, wherein must be put coole water, for the easier thickening and fixing of the vapours: at the one side of this little Tub there shall be a spout, or pipe, which shall come out of the head, and by this the Oyle shall drop downe into the vessell receiuing; on the other side of this little Stand must be a tappe with a spiggot, and it must come from the ca∣pacitie of the same, that so it may emptie it of the water which it holdeth when it is become too hot. This head shall be ioyned with the orifice and throat of the last afore-named vessell, by the meanes of a large and wide pipe, which shall come dowe from the head, and set it selfe in the mouth and throat of the said Copper vessell verie closely, to the end that no vapours in rising may passe ou thereby anie way: and for the better perfecting of this inarticulation, there are two edges or brimmes, that so they may the better ioyne together. This sh••ke may be called the necke of the bladder, by which the vapours shall rise vp into the head.

The fourth vessell shall be the receiuing vessell, which shall receiue the Oyl distilled, and it must be of Glasse, because of the clearenesse and cle••enesse of the same.

This is the proportion and shape of the first sort of the vessels, and it is to distill Oyles of hearbes, seedes, flowers, and so forth.

Page  473

[illustration]
A Doth represent the bladder, containing the matter from which you meane to draw your Oyle.
B The mouth or throat of the bladder, which is articulated or close ioined with the shanke that commeth downe from the head.
C Is the shanke, which must be a foot long at the least, and is otherwise called the neck of the Stillitorie, which setteth it selfe as into a ioint vpon the mouth and throat of the bladder.
D The round head not sharpe pointed aboue.
E The little Stand or Tub which compaseth the head, and containeth cold water for the cooling of the head.
F The vessell which receiueth the Oyle, and is made somewhat long.
G The spout or pipe by which the oilie liquor droppeth downe into the receiuing vessell.
H The tap, which with his spiggot emptieth the water out of the little tub when it is too hot, that so there may fresh and cold be put in his place.

The two distilling vessels, that is to say, the Gourd and the Head,* for as much as they are of Copper or Latten, must be tinned within, to the end that the Oyle may not get anie strange qualitie by these mettals, seeing especially that the Copper being 〈◊〉, and not tinned, may cause the Oyle to smell of the Brasse, or of some other 〈◊〉 qualitie. It is true, that besides the helpe comming by this tinning of the vessels, the veie action of the fire, which worketh and dispatcheth speedily and violently whee as there is great quantitie of water, doth keepe the Oyle from being ainted with anie euill smell, or other accident that is not naturall, and therefore there needs no feare to be taken for the vsing of Copper vessels in the distilling of Oyles for the occasions aforesaid, although that earthen or glasse-vessels would be farre better and more naturall (seeing in them there resteth no iot of mettall-like matter) than either those that are of Copper, or molten, or of anie other mettall, saue onely there is some danger of breaking or cracking of them, being the things whereunto earthen and glasse-vessell are verie subiect when they are hot, yea, though they were armed with motar, fat earth, cement, or anie other matter of defence; and then such breach or cracke proueth a matter of no small dammage or consequence in the distillation of Oyles, especially those which are precious. Notwithstanding, it is free for euery man o vse vessels of earth or glasse, vpon paine that they be carefull to keepe them that they neither cracke not breake: and the rather, seeing that in the extracting of some Oyles there must needs be vsed glasse-vessels, or earthen ones, vernished and leaded, and not Copper or Latten; as which will verie hardly let runne anie Oyles from things that consist of an eager taste, whether it be that the Copper hath the like it selfe, or of some secret vertue and facultie which is in it. And this thing wee see suffi∣ciently tried in the seedes of Grapes, whose Oyle conuerteth and turneth rather into a greene rust in such vessels, than into anie airie or thinne exhalation, doe a man what he can either about the fire, or anie other way whatsoeuer: but in the distillation of fragrant and aromaticall things, as also those which are sweet in taste, or haue a diuers qualitie from the Copper, it might seeme that a molten vessell might be more con∣uenient.

Page  474

CHAP. LXXVII.

At what time Oyles would be distilled: and how the matter and things whereof they are made must be prepared.

THe matter of euerie Oyle is to be distilled at such time, as when it is best disposed: that is to say, seedes and aromaticall things, when they are fresh and new gathered; for the fresher and newer that they ae, so much the more excellent Oyle will they yeeld, especially the thing that are of a sweet smell and aromaticall. And as for hearbes, they must be gathered when they are come to their full force, that is to say, when they are in flower: for and if they be deferred longer, the Oyle that commeth of them, for the most part, will be more full of scumme and ranke, as also there will not so much be gathered of them. Being gathered at such time, they must be dried in the shadow for the space of a moneth or two, to the end, that some portion of their moistnesse and feeding humo may be diminished and taken away, and that the oylie and radicall humor may be extracted more pure and sincere: and thirdly, that the hearbes themselues may be the more easily crushed and bruised. But on the contrarie side, if the hearbes be 〈◊〉 and fresh gathered when they are distilled, they will yeeld sufficient store of Oyle, in as much as their naturall moisture will abound: but the Oyle will not be of such ffi∣cacie, nor yet so odoriferous, as when the merrie and good meane betwixt both is kept.

But as concerning the preparing 〈◊〉 such matter as you meane to make your Oyles of,* there is not anie need to vse infusion, or putrifaction, as is done in the distilling of waters, as we haue said before. For if one should bestow an infusion vpon them, ei∣ther in water, wine, or Aqua-vitae, it would but breed a confusion and mixure of the naturall sauor and smell of the Oyle with that of the liquor: and againe, i would make them more moist than need would require, in respect of the pure and sincee extracting of the Oyle. Againe, if you should take the way to putrifie them in Horse-dung, earth, hot ashes, or boyling water, the better to distill and draw out your Oyle afterward, and following the way that we will speake of by and by, yet there∣by you shall giue occasion of infecting your Oyle with some ill vice. For the matter being putrified, it is not possible, but that the Oyles should haue a smatch of it, seeing it is one part of the matter. That it so falleth out with Oyles that are so distilled of matter aforehand so putrified, although it doe not by and by corrupt, appe••eth suf∣ficiently: for in some space of time it is without all doubt corrupted, and that in a great deale shorter time, without comparison, than other Oyles which are drawn without putrifaction of their matter going before: by which it may appe••e, what my aduice and counsaile would be to euerie man; namely, that the matter 〈◊〉 you would extract your Oyle be not infused or putrified, but onely crushed, b••ised, brayed▪ and brought into small pieces, so as that afterward they may be sited through some wide sieue: which course shall doe as well, yea, rather better, than your infusing or putrifying of them without stamping, braying, and bruising of them; besides that, the businesse is sooner dispatched: yea, and if you would infuse and putrific the •••∣ter, you should not thereby gaine three drops of Oyle more, than you should 〈◊〉 by onely beating and stamping of them.

Page  475

CHAP. LXXVIII.

Of the manner and order that must be kept in distilling of Oyles.

WHen you haue prepared the matter whereof you meane to make your oyle, that is to say, bruised it, and brought it into small cornes, then passe it grosly through a scarce, casting it into the vessell of copper with cer∣taine measures of fountaine water, that is to say, to match two pound vveight of matter, with eighteene pound of vvater, and for that cause it is meet that the vessell should containe betwixt twelue and fifteene pintes, and yet the third part remaine void and emptie, vvhen the water and matter are both in. This vvater standeth in steed of a coach or waggon vnto the matter to be distilled, for the carry∣ing vp of his vapors, and to seperate the humours by the decoction and boyling that it there maketh. You may adde or diminish of the quantitie of vvater, according to the matter his quantitie vvhich you are about to distill, vpon paine notwithstan∣ding that you put in nine or ten times as much water as you doe matter, and that your vessell of copper, glasse, earth, or any such matter as shall seeme best, be of bignesse, proportionable, and agreeing with the quantitie of matter which you would distill, for being too great or too little, it would proue but cost cast away. It is true, that the two pound of matter, and eighteene of water here mentioned, is the most certaine rate that we can sticke to, for the most easie and plentifull maner of drawing of oyle: for if you put in more, the longnesse of time will become teadious: and if you put in lesse, you shall hardly draw ten drops of oyle. And yet in this point Ladie experi∣ence must be more than quarter master, in as much as there is some matter which yeeldeth not any oyle, except it be put in a great quantitie, such as is Anise-seed and others, as vve vvill declare hereafter more particularly. Againe, you must obserue and marke this one poynt, that hearbes require a farre larger vessell and quantitie of vvater than seeds and spices when their oyle is to be extracted: because that weight for weight they take more roome than the seeds and spices doe: for hearbes lye not so close and round together, and therefore they require also in proportion a greater quantitie of vvater, for feare that they should become parched and dried away with∣in the copper vessell.

After that you haue put the vvater and matter together into the vessell of copper, let them infuse fiue or sixe houres, more or lesse, according to the nature and sub∣stance of the matter: or without infusing of them at this time (forasmuch as their boi∣ling within the bellie of the vessell, vvill serue in steed of an infusion vnto the mat∣ter) couer the vessell, and fit the head vnto it, lute them verie well stogether with whites of egges and meale kneaded together, and spread vpon a cloth in the place of their joyning and articulation. This done, set your earthen vessell in the furnace vp∣on the two yron barres, and make it fast to the furnace with potters-clay or cement well beaten and wrought about the edges and brims: after set the vessell of copper well stopt into the earthen one, and yet in such sort, as that the bottome of the one stand from the other ome two or three fingers: and this void space must be filled vp with pure and cleare sand, euen so high as there is any space and distance betwixt ves∣sell and vessell, yea, and further if one be so disposed euen to the necke of the copper vessell: prouided, that the nose of the head by which the oyle descendeth doe stand either to the right hand or to the left of the furnace: and yet this one thing commeth heere to be marked, that in distilling of aromaticall seeds onely there is vse and need of the said sand betwixt the said two vessells, and not in distilling of hearbes: for seeds and spices are of a more subtile and delicate substance (as their great heat do te∣stifie) and the matter they yeeld is more delicate also and firme: For which causes it might fall out that the force of the fire might somewhat trouble their distillation, Page  476 that is to say, might cause their distillation to come forth a little troubled, and that euen in the verie beginning, if the fire be not moderately kept, and brideled by the sand put in the void place betwixt the said two vessels: but in the distilling of herbes you must si the vessell of copper and the furnace together without the earthen ves∣sell and the sand in the emptie space: for as much as the hearbes in respect of their solidenesse and harder substance doe craue a greater force of fire:* vvhereof you may gather, that no oyles can be extracted by distillation in Maries-bath, that is to say, in setting of boyling vvater about the copper vessell in a caldron: or so the distilla∣tion would be longer than it were meet it should, and yet neuer a whit the more com∣mendable: for Maries-bath, that is to say, boyling water, doth not affrd a well proportioned and sufficient tempered heat, but is long in doing, and the oyle doh still draw vnto it some corruption if the vvorke be too long in doing, especially if the matter be not moist of it selfe: for thereupon and by that meanes can the oyle hard∣ly rise so high as that it may find the way into the vessell that should receiue it, and because also that it wanteth force and might, in as much as the boyling water cannot lift it vp so high of it selfe alone, as the cleare fire, arthen vessell, and sand, all vvor∣king together.

The copper vessell being thus fitted in the furnace,* make fast vnto the nose or pipe thereof, the receiuing vessell, rested vpon some pettie toole, in such sort as you see aboue in the figure: stop and close vp the joynt of the said pipe and receiuing ves∣sell vvith paste, and bole armoniacke, or the white of an egge and flowre spread vp∣on a cloth. Then kindle your coales that you haue layed vpon the grae, and make a soft and gentle fire for the beginning, to the end that the matter may grow ho by little and little, and that so long as till the matter within the copper and the fountaine water doe boyle, but yet so gently as that it boyle not vp, to sticke and hit against the head with the vvalmes thereof, as vve see it sometimes to happen in some seedes, as anise seeds, vvhich by reason of their thin substance, as also of their viscositie, do cast vp their vvalmes and billowes with great might and force, and in such case the fire must be rebated: or and if that yet the rebating of the fire cannot stay the frie of the billowes or boyling, then you must take off the head, and with a staffe stirre about the matter, for so the scum will vanish away in vapours, and after that it may be go∣uerned, stayed, and dried vp by a reasonable fire, putting the head vpon it againe af∣terward, and luting it as before. Feed and continue the fire in an equall degree, vn∣till you peceiue by feeling, that the head of the Still is growne hot: then, or sooner if you please, you may fill the little tub at the top, which standeth round about the head vvith cold vvater; for it cooling the head, will make thicke and fixe the va∣pours and spirites of the oyle, vvhich are verie subtile and hot, and turne them into oyle: vvhen this cold water thus powred in shall become hot, it must by and by be let out at the top of the cooler, and fresh put into his place. It is true, that some doe not allow of cooling the head with cold vvater, because the vapours by this cooling of the head doe congeale too soone, as being before that they come into the pipe, and thereupon fall backe againe into the vessell, from vvhence they breathing the second time, and congealed, and falling backe againe as before, doe in fine by these mani∣fold risings and fallings, spend and vvaste vnto nothing; or at he least by continu∣all boyling, it falleth out that but a few vapours doe come into the vessell of receit, and againe, those same vapours so congealed doe not easily and presently come foth, and so there is lesse oyle gathered of the matter than would be, and that which is drawne, is somewhat tainted with burning. And therefore in steed of this cooling of the head for to congeale and fixe the vapours raised vp thereinto, they set veri neere vnto the furnace a vessell vvith one bottome, hauing a pipe of tin pa••ing o∣uerthwart the said bottome through holes bored sloping in the same vessell: and this pipe is shut vp into the pipe comming downe from the head, and both these being well luted together, then the foresaid pipe crossing through the vessell afore∣said, is fastened to the vessell that is to receiue the distilled oyle: this foresaid vessell hauing this pipe passing through the sides thereof, and close fastened therein, must Page  477 be filled vvith coole vvater, by the cooling whereof the vapours sent or carried from the head in this pipe of tin are congealed, fixed, turned into oyle, and so drop downe easily into the receiuing vessell with greater profit, and in greater quantitie, and bet∣ter, than and if they had beene turned into oyle in the head by the cooling thereof with cold vvater. Who so is minded to vse this meanes of cooling the vapours, may doe it, but notwithstanding that former of ours is no lesse beneficiall, commodious, and profitable, neither doth it worke that discommoditie afore charged vpon it, as experience teacheth; and put case that it did so, yet the inconuenience is taken away, i, in steed of cold water you put in that vvhich is vvarme, or else by onely couering the round of the head with cloathes dipt in cold vvater, vsing to renew them often∣times.

Continue in this sort your distillation without ceasing, and keepe your fire in the 〈◊〉 degree, or if need be, augment and make it greater, vntill such time as all the va∣pors be congealed one after another, and that all the liquor vvhich carrieth them, and whch is within the copper vessell be runned into the receiuer:* the signe and marke whereof is, vvhen ha••ng put in eighteene pound of water or thereabout, you haue receiued backe about ten, as also, when as the drops distilling shall not any longer rlish any thing of the matter: then you must giue ouer your distillation, for feare the matter within your copper vessell should either be inflamed, or else set fast to the botome of your vessell, ceasing to flote aboue. It shall be judged to distill in good sort and order, and in reasonable temper, if betwixt the drops distilling, there be not as it were any space from the falling of one drop to the following of another, in so much as that a man shall hardly be able to account the number of one or two, and from hence (as before) is gathered the quantiie and force of the fire. By this meanes the whole copper vessell is emptied in a short time, for verie seldome is it longer in doing than sixe or seuen houres, if so be the matter agree in heauinesse and vveight vvith the vvater of the vessell, as from two pound of matter to eighteene pound of water.

You must note in this place, that the oyle commeth forth now and then with the water; and that the water which distilleth with the oyle, commeth not onely of the simple, but also of the water which was put in for the vse of the distillation: which, by the force of the boyling which it hath had with the said simple, during the time of the distillation, is become mixt by the force of the fire vvith the brayed matter, and so hath brought along with it the whole strength of the same, as may be judged by the smell and taste thereof,* being no other than that of the simple. Wherefore this wa∣ter which distilleth oyle therewith, is not lesse effectuall, yea rather more forcible, powerfull, and of better effect, than that which is distilled of simples by a stillito∣rie, because it tasteth more strongly of the simple, than the others which were drawn by a stillitorie: betwixt which there is no other difference, but that the water distil∣led by a limbecke or stillitorie is that which the Sunne (heating the earth) hath brough in for the growth, nourishment, and nature of the simple: and the other which is mixed with the simple, from which the oyle is drawne, is so deepely in∣gaged, incorporated and mingled in and with the brayed matter by the force of the fire, as that it carrieth away, obtayneth and holdeth all his vertue, as the taste and smell doe shew which is in it, for both the smell and taste doe draw verie neere vnto that which the oyle hath in it selfe, howsoeuer it may seeme that the oyle should con∣taine and keepe all the sauour and smell vnto it selfe, seeing the oyle is as it were the soule and forme which giueth being to the said simple: but in the vehement boyling of the said simple and water, there is such a great dissolution and relaxation of the dissimilar pars of the said simple, as that the smell and taste thereof is communica∣ted with both, so that as well the water as the oyle doth retaine (though yet not equal∣ly) the taste and smell of the simple.* Furthermore, you shall be assured how this vvater hath sesed vpon the vertue of the simple, vvherewith it hath beene mixt in the distilling of his oyle, by this, that if you vvould distill it once againe, or many tmes, you shall find collected and gathered together in it the whole smell and taste Page  478 of his simple, as it falleth out in Aqua-vitae, which hath in it the force of a great quan∣titie of Wine. For the doing of this, make cleane the copper vessell, powre in there∣to all the vvater which was distilled with the oyle, dispose and see in order all thing necessary, in such ort as is wont to be done in the distillation of oyles of herbs: whe you see that of seuenteene pound you haue receiued one, that is to say, the first run∣ning, that you must keepe: for into it will be gathered all the vertue of the whole matter, and so as that the vertue of it will be little lesse than that of the oyle.

CHAP. LXXIX.

Of the meanes how to seperate the oyle which is runned with the water in distilling.

IT is verie certaine that the oyle vvhich shall haue beene distilled, i a li∣quor vvhich by the meanes and orce of the boyling water wherewith it is mingled, hath beene seperated and forcibly drawne from his •••∣ter, and held off the same, and with it also conueyed along into the 〈◊〉. And for this cause the oyle vvill be alwaies vvith the water, bu notwithstanding not alwaies swimming vpon the water: for sometimes it vvill be in the 〈…〉, and sometimes mingled all amongst the water: if the oyle be more heauie measur for measure than the vvater, it vvill be in the bottome: but if it fall out that the oyle by coldnesse be congealed as it were into cloudes and small tufts of vvooll, then it vvill be mingled amongst the vvater. Againe, the oyle will goe to the bottome, if it be made of a thicke substance and wll compact, as is that of cinnamome, cloues, and o∣ther such like. The oyles which confusedly (for the time that they are congealing through the cold) goe crosse the water, are the oyles of anise and fennell-seed, and that by reason of a certaine proportion which they haue with the weight of the vva∣ter. Therefore for the seperating of the oyle vvhich the water hath carried along vvith it, it were good, first that the receiuer should haue his bottome somewhat sharpe pointed, and that in the said bottome therewithall there should be a small hole, which hauing beene stopped during the time of the distillation with Waxe o cement, should now after the distillation (the water and oyle being growne cold by the operation of the ayre) be vnstopped, if so be that after attentiue beholding of the receiuer, it appeare that the oyle is gathered into the bottome of it: for so, the ceme•• or vvaxe taken away, the oyle vvill come out, and the vvater stay behind in the ves∣sell, if by stopping the hole in time it be your mind to keepe it there. If the oyle 〈◊〉 aloft vpon the vvater, if you vnstop the foresaid hole in the bottome, the vvater will run out below, and the oyle vvill stay behind in the receiuer, if by mishap it doe not fall downe into the bottome of the receiuer first, before it come into the viole prepa∣red for it, but this you must take heed vnto: but and if the oyle be mingled amongst the vvater in manner of a cloud, strayne the water through a fine linnen cloth, vvhich afterward vvill be easily gathered together vvith a knife, in such sort at that you may put it vp in a viole, wherein afterward if need be, you may turne it into a thin liquor by a small heat set in the Sunne, or vpon hot ashes: if the oyle swim vpon the vpper face of the vvater, you shall seperate it in a furnace of digestion vvith a siluer spoone: you may also vse other meanes to seperate your oyle from his fellow vvater, as for example, by a funnell of glasse, putting your finger toward the poynt of it and vnder∣neath, and doing the like oftentimes vnto t••t, vvhich hath been done by the receiuer, that is to say, by powring of liquor into the said funnell. You may likewise do the same by the sucking of the vvater out of the recei∣uer; for so you may sucke out all the water and lea•• the

[illustration]
Page  479 oile in the bottome, vvhich sucking may be performed by pipes of plae made after the fashion of those vvhich you see pictured here: vvhich vvill draw all the vvater in a short time out of the receiuer, as you see them vsed in France, to cause vvater to runne in manner of a fountaine, out of any bucket or other vessell wherein water is conayned.

CHAP. LXXX.

Of the faculties or properties, continuance, and vse of di∣stilled Oyles.

SEeing that distilled oyles, as vve haue before declared, are the radicall humour of euerie matter: and that such radicall humour, is as it were the soule and forme which giueth being vnto all matter, and vvhereupon depend the vertues, powers, faculties, and actions of the said matter: you need not doubt, but that the vvhole and intire vertues of simples distilled is im∣parted vnto the Oyles drawne from them, and that in a purer and most subtile man∣••r, in as much as by such chymicall resolution, the most subtile substances are se∣perated from the groser, by being mingled vvherewith, they vvere greatly weake∣ed and hindered from doing their effects: and so it also commeth to passe, that ooke vvhat vertue vvas in a pound of the simple, is contayned in a dram more or 〈◊〉 of the oyle: besides this, such oyles haue this propertie amongst others, that by a meruailous subtilenesse of substance vvhich they haue gotten by the fire, they doe 〈◊〉 pierce into the most profound and deepe parts, and quickly vvorke their ffects.

As concerning their lasting and continuance,* they vvill keepe long, especially 〈◊〉 (after they haue beene rectified, that is to say, yet once more distilled vpon ashes vvith a sall fire in a retort) you stop them vp in bottles of double glasse, and such 〈◊〉 are armed and close stopt vvith Cement or Masticke, or Waxe and Masticke 〈◊〉 tegether, without giuing them any ayre, except at such times as you vvould se them, and whch then you cannot doe vvithout damage done vnto them: for •••ing they be all ayrie and firie, they cannot chuse but easily euaporate and spend, nd that in such sort as that it may be euidently seene and discerned, as amongst the 〈◊〉 will easily be found true in oyle of camphire.

As for the vse;* that is in drops, if you take them simplie and alone by themselues, ••hether it be into the bodie or vvithout, as you shall vnderstand hereafter. But to vse them to the most profit inwardly, you must dissolue sugar in violet, rose, cinna∣ome or other such like waters, and into it cast one or two drops of the oyle which you would vse, and so make vp lozenges thereof.

CHAP. LXXXI.

A particular description of certaine Oyles that are distilled ac∣cording to the former methode.

BVt the oyles of Seeds, as of Anise, Fennell, Elder-tree, Cummine, and o∣thers are distilled after this manner: Take such quantitie of Seeds as you please, as fiue or sixe pound at the least, and for the better bruise them grosy, seeing carefully to it, that not so much as one seed coninuvhole, put them into the vessell of copper: poure in vpon them of cleare fountainPage  480 vvater iue and twentie or thirtie pound, mingle them diligently together, couer th vessell vvith his head, and doe in manner as hath beene said before.

The oyle vvhich distilleth first, is of greater efficai than any one for vvhich cause, the receiuer may be twice or thrice changed.

This thing is vvorthie obseruation, that oyle of anise-eeds in the time of So••er cannot well be distilled, because that the spirits thereof are too subtile, and much more subtile indeed than those of Fennell: vvhereupon it followeth, that at the 〈◊〉 of the fire they doe easily spend by euaporation, though it be guided and kept verie low and soft: But the fittest time to distill them s Winter; for how much the colder that Winter is, so much the more it becommeth coagulate and resembling the caf∣phire vvhen it runneth downe into the receiuer. After that you haue srayned it through a cleane linnen cloth, all the vvater passeth away, and the oyle 〈◊〉 be∣hind in the linnen cloth, and vvhich you must dissolue shortly after in a great glasse by the heat of a ire-pan, and so the legme is easily seperated. This is a singular oile, whether it be taken alone by drops with wine, or broth, or sugar Lozenges, for to comfort the stomacke, helpe digestion, and discusse winds; for the 〈◊〉 also, and diseases of the lungs; as also for the mother; whereupon it commeth, that it say••h the whites of women.

Fruits,* as of Iuniper berries, &c. by reason that they are somewhat more oylie than hearbes and seedes, doe not require such quantitie of water as hearbes and seedes: so that for a pound of fruits, fiue or six pound of water will be 〈◊〉 They must bee brayed sufficiently small, put into the gourd, and dealt with as seedes and hearbes are dealt withall: The Oyle commeth forth first, and afterward the water.

Spices and aromaticall things are distilled after the same manner that seedes are▪* but in their distillation mingle not Wine or Aqua-vitae, as some doe, but onely pure fountaine water: for Wine and Aqua-vitae rise vp presently, without carrying wi•• them the vertues of the aromaticall things; whereas the water riseth no vp, without taking with it the aromaticall things. The Oyle of Nutmegs swimmeth alot, and so doth that of Mace.

For to distill Oyle of Cinnamome in excellent manner:* Bray a pound of Cinna∣mome in such sor as that it may goe through a sieue, but beat it not all to powder; put it in a gourd, and powre vpon it water of Buglosse, Borage, Endiue, and Balme, of euerie one halfe a pound, let them stand together foure or fiue daies in the vessell well stopt: then out of this gourd powre them into another gourd, and set this gourd in an earthen pot, with sand betwixt the pot and it, and so set them both in the fur∣nace: first make a soft fire, but after make it greater by little and little: after that there is a measure distilled out after this manner, take it away as the best, for that which 〈◊〉 loweth is of a great deale lesse vertue than the first, but yet may be kept to 〈◊〉 new Cinnamome in. After the same fashion you shall distill Cloues, Pepper, Angelica, Galanga, &c. See in our secret remedies.

CHAP. LXXXII.

Of the manner of extracting Oyles out of Wood.

FOr as much as the oylie substance of wood is more enacious and clam∣mie, by reason of the slyminesse thereof; therefore the extrcing of the ame is diuers from that of hearbes and seedes, and is not 〈…〉 but 〈◊〉 greater cost, and drawne and gathered with greater 〈…〉 and industrie, than those of seeds and plants, which we haue entreaed of before. know well, that some doe accustome to draw Oyles per des••nsum as they vse 〈◊〉 call Page  481 it, in two vessels of earth set one vpon another, and a plate of yron with a hole in it, betwixt them both: but such Oyle is nothing worth, and tasteth, for the most part, of I cannot tell of what adustion: but the best is to draw it per ascensum, that so you may haue that which is excellent good, faire, and penetratiue; the manner is such: Make your furnace of matter and forme as aboue, sauing that in the vppermost part of it you must haue a cleft or open place, for the more easie placing and disposing of the necke of your vessell. The vessell shall be fashioned like a Bladder, Corner, or bagge of a Shepheards Pipe, called of the Chymists a reort: it must be of glasse, or else of earth, and varnished and leaded within, and of such bignesse, as that it may containe a dozen pound of water, hauing a necke of a foot and a halfe long, or a foot long at the least, and bending downeward: It is to consist of two parts; the one of them stretching from the belle of the said bladder forward, some six fingers long, and for thicknesse so made, as that ones hand may goe into the orifice of it, to make cleane the said vessell within: and the other growing euer lesse and lesse, euen vnto the end, must be made to ioyne with the former part by the meaes and helpe of some fastening matter, as glue or cement of Bole-armoniacke; and yet in such sort, as that they may be set together, and taken asunder, when need shall require. This is the figure and shape.

[illustration]
A The Retort of glasse, or earth, ver∣nished within, and leaded.
B The orifice of the Retort, for the ta∣king in of matter into the bellie and bodie, and for to giue way al∣so for the making cleane of the said bellie, and which for that purpose must be made larger than it is pi∣ctured here, for else the hand can∣not enter into it.
C The other part of the Retort, into which must be inserted the nether part of the Retort, which must haue a ring about, in the place where the two parts shall be cemented and luted together.
D The Pipe, which must be narrow and sharpe-pointed, to the end it may be in∣serted and put into anie sort of glasse-violl, or bottle.

If you haue not the benefit of a furnace, you shall place the Retort in fit and con∣uenient sort within an earthen panne: or in stead thereof, in a vessell or pot of yron good and wide, and filled with sand or ashes, or without anie thing in it, and that vp∣on a brandrith, if there be need of vsing a verie great fire, as we see it daily practised amongst the Apothecaries.

Wherefore,* to draw oyle out of oylie wood, you must first make it small, and bring it into pieces, in such sort as Turners doe, with turning of wood, and not with anie Saw, or anie other edge-toole: neither yet must you make it like powder, for in boiling it would too lightly and easily rise and swell, as also those gobbes and lumps which are cut by edge-tooles, or other instruments, doe hardly and with great diffi∣cultie yeeld anie oyle: put into the Retort two pound of this wood, diuided into pie∣ces after the manner of the Turners, and as much Aqua-vitae, for the steeping and in∣fusing of it, let them infuse together certaine daies. This Aqua-vitae, by reason of his subtlenesse, pierceth more easily than any other liquor, and likewise without any diffi∣cultie separateth and forcibly draweth the oyle from his proper subiect, and yet in the meane time in neither changeth nor corrupteth, any manner of way, the nature of the said oyle, because it draweth neere vnto the temperature of oyles; which is the cause why we mingle with the wood Aqua-vitae rather than common water: howsoeuer, I do not any thing doubt of the maner before described about the distillation of oyles, hearbs, & seeds, in which is vsed the vessell of Copper with a head, powring thereinto Page  482 some cleare fountaine vvater, as though it could not be verie certaine and profitable for the extracting of oyles of vvood: vvere it not that vve doe eare more than any thing else, the ouer great and vehement boyling thereof, proceeding of the disagree∣ment of the drinesse of the matter, and moisture of the vvater vvhich might hinder the course of our distillation. Adde hereunto also that such kinds of oiles can hardly rise to the inner top of the head, if we see this fashioned copper vessell.

When as the vvood hath beene sufficiently infused,* place the earthen pan in the vppermost part of the furnace vpon the barres of yron, set the retort within this ear∣then pan with sand in the emptie spaces betwixt, as also couered ouer vvith sand, cause the necke to passe through the cleft made in the vppermost part of the furnace, and to turne downeward towards the receiuer, into the mouth vvhereof it must be close joyned, and as carefully and firmely luted vvith cement as may be: afterward by little and little put the kindled coles vpon the grate, and sometimes it will not be amisse to lay them vpon the retort vvherein the matter to be distilled is inclosed: if it like you not better to set an earthen pan ouer it in forme of an head, and that to re∣uerberate and beat backe the heat againe vpon the said retort. These things accom∣plished, you must see to the ordering and continuing of your fire, increasing it by little and little as reason shall require, euermore carefully looking vnto the sequence and successe of the vvorke, vntill such time as the Aqua-vitae before infused be all of it distilled, for this is it vvhich commeth orth first in the distillation, and is gathe∣red into the receiuer: then after this commeth the oyle pure and all alone, vvithout any thing mixt with it, and that in such store, as a man could not looke for the like of any manner of putrifying of the matter vvhatsoeuer: keepe vvell this Aqua-vitae to serue you againe for the sme vse, because it still is getting some part of the facultie of the matter wherewith it is mixed, and there is nothing to let vvhy it may not serue twice yea thrice. When the receiuer is taken away, you must put another in his place halfe full of cleare water that the oyle may distill into it: this vvater vve allow in the receiuer, in respect of the impressions vvhich the fire may haue made by too veh∣ment a boyling in the oyle, that by the meanes of this vvatr the same may be cone∣cted and taken away, and the oyle also kept the better from euaporation, vvhich thing is yet the more f••ly atchieued, if you set your receiuer in a bason or other vessel full of cold vvater, changing and renewing the same from houre to houre, till the di∣stillation be finished. You may also change your receiuer if you thinke good, once or twice, the better to know the differences of your oyles. The distillation accom∣plished, vvhich you shall gather by the markes before set downe, you shall seprate the oyle from the vvater by the meanes also aboue set downe, and at the same time or before any of these things done, take your retort from the fire, and take off his necke, emptying the bellie of the drosse and excrements setled and staying behind: vvhich afterward you shall temper with vvater so oft, as that hauing strayned them and boy∣led them againe, they come foth thicke and small like pap-meat, which is also good for the same diseases,* that the oyles are good for. After this order is the wood Guaja∣cum distilled, vvhich is singular good for the vlcers and paines happening in the French-pockes. The oyle of the Ash-tree: and this is good to be vsed in cold distil∣lations, and to the helping of the morphew and palsie: taken also inwardly, it is sin∣gular good for the diseased of the spleene: the oyle of Iuniper-wood is a special good thing in the comforting of the reines and matrix.

Page  483

CHAP. LXXXIII.

Of the manner of drawing Oyles of Gums, and first of those that are liquid.

FOr the distilling of Oyles of Gummes, you must vse the same furnace and retort wherein you distilled your oylie vvoods: but to tell you the truth, they are not distilled without much paine, by reason of their glu∣tinous clamminesse, giuen to hold fast their radicall humour and moi∣sture. And vvhich is more, there are as many wayes of drawing oyles of Gummes, as there are differences of Gummes. For some are liquid, that is to say, in substance like birdlime, vvhich vvill hardly be kept within his bounds, such is Turpentine, li∣quid Storax, and such other like, vvhich participate more of an oylie qualitie than of an earthie, and so are easily resolued with a small fire. The others are hard, as is incense, benjouine, and masticke, vvhich require a reasonable heat to be mollified vvith. Some againe are resolued with a vvaterie humour, as Myrrhe, and Gum ara∣bicke.

Therefore to distill liquid gums,* and to draw out their oyles, there may two waies be taken: the one is such as hath beene vsed of a long time, and the other is new; af∣ter the first way, you may distill oyle of Turpentine thus: Take cleare Turpentine as much as you please, and for uerie pound take of the ashes of some hard and strong vvood two ounces, or small sand, vvashed grauell, or the powder of brickes, to keepe the Turpentine for rising high and swelling,* put all these in the retort, vvhich you shall set within the earthen pan in the furnace, as you did in oylie woods: in the beginning you shall haue but a gentle fire to draw out the vvater vvhich vvill first come forth,* and after make it bigger for the distilling of the Oyle. It is like∣wise distilled another and that a new vvay. Take two pound of Turpentine, and eight pound of fountaine vvater that is verie cleare, put both into the retort together, and distill them at a reasonable fire, following the order set downe for oylie vvoods. The Oyle vvhich you shall gather, vvill be most pure and fine, of a verie cleare and bright colour, of a sweet smell and pleasant tast, vvhich properties are not to be found in the oyle which is drawne after the common and ordinarie fashion: and this com∣meth to passe by reason of the vvater tempering the qualities conceiued and bgot∣ten in the matter distilled by the force of the fire and heat of the vessell, vvhich other∣wise would haue begotten some fierie impressions, therein had not the resisting qua∣litie of the vvater vvithstood the same by his moisture, and that so much the more, for being likewise receiued into a receiuer halfe full of faire and fresh vvater, vvhich affordeth another good helpe likewise vnto the same: of all which helpes, the com∣mon manner of distilling this oyle vvith sand and ashes hath not one, as is too appa∣rant in the vnpleasant taste and blackish or sad yellowish colour, and that it is not fit to be vsed about the bodie outwardly, so farre is it off from being worthie to be ta∣ken inwardly, vvithout the endangering of the sicke partie; beside the vnpleasant∣nesse of the tast: but this vvhich is distilled vvith vvater is singular good for all man∣ner of diseases, for which it is so highly commended of all men, as namely for the shortnesse of breath, stone, colicke, and diseases of the lungs being taken inwardly in the quantitie of two drams: as also, to take away scarres remaining, freckles, staines, and other spots of the skin, being applied outwardly.

But and if you desire to know vvhen your Oyle is all distilled,* then you must marke and see vvhen it ceaseth to runne out of the retort into the receiuer, for then the distillation of the best and most excellent Oyle is finished. And in case you yet desire to draw some more oyle out of the rest of the matter remaining within the re∣tort, you may doe it verie easilie, if you cast into the said retort some little lump of lead to the quantitie of an ounce, and that by the orifice of the first part of the retort, Page  484 which must be verie well fitted and luted againe with the other part as it was before; for the lead being molten, doth resolue the gum remaining, in such sort, as that what∣soeuer is oylie, will distill as oyle, and you shall gather it in another receiuer. All vvhich inished, you shall take the retort handsomely out of the furnace, reseruing the same to serue you againe in like time of need.

CHAP. LXXXIIII.

Of the manner of extracting Oyles out of hard gums.

YOur hard gums, such as is frankincense, benjouin, masticke, and waxe, seeing they are of a more earthie substance, haue a faster and 〈◊〉 con∣sistence, and are resolued more hardly than the liquid ones, and so aske not onely more labour to haue their oyles drawne from them, but stand in need also to haue some sort of oyle, and a reasonable fire to ollifie and soften them, to the end that afterward they may the more freely yeeld their owne Oyle. It is true, that euen of these there are some of them more tedious and si••yer resisting to be dissolued, as Frankincense, and Benjouin: and othersome more easie to be molten, as Wax: and there are others that are indifferent betwixt both, as masticke. So as that all these gums, according as they are more or lesse hard to be resolued, must be more or lesse mollified and melted before hand, by the meanes a∣forenamed in the distilling of liquid gums: the vvater only excepted, which must ne∣uer be put into the retort with any thing to be distilled. It is also to be considered and vveighed, how that hard gums doe verie hardly indure and abide any vvater, vvhiles (inclosed vvithin the retort) they sustaine the violence of the fire, but in steed of fire, one may put thereto of oyle of Turpentine, to the quantitie of three oun∣ces, as well because this oyle is most pure and distilled with a reasonable heat (as we haue said before) as because it hath a property drawing neere vnto the nature of these gums, whereupon it seemeth the more fit to be vsed in the distilling of these gums, as seruing notably to correct their hardnesse: againe, this vvay more oyle will be drawne, than by vsing of vvashed sand and grauell cast vpon the matter: and accor∣ding as vve see commonly practised of Oyles of all sorts of gums. And in case you haue not oyle of Turpentine in readinesse, you may vse some other sort of oyle; pro∣uided, as much as possibly may be, that it incline not notably either vnto any colour of smell: notwithstanding by this meanes you shall not doe more good than by the former. For there is some kind of gum so troublesome to be resolued, as frankincense, as that you must be faine to draw the oyle thereof after the same manner that you v∣sed in the extracting of oyles from the drosse and residence of Turpentine, that is to say, by casting into the retort amongst it small morsells or lumps of lead, and vvith raising of the necke of the retort a little higher than is vsuall in the distilling of Tur∣pentine and oylie vvoods. By this meanes vvithout all doubt you shall see some oun∣ces of oyle swimming on the top of the water within the receiuer, after that the mat∣ter hath growne hot: vvhich (for as much as they would be tainted with some ill smell and vnpleasant taste, because of such qualitie as they haue gotten through the vehementnesse of the fire, then inclosed with the retort) must be corrected by the changing of the water in the receiuer, that so you may keepe them for the vses which shall hereafter be declared.

These things aforesaid well vnderstood, when you desire greater quantitie of oile, and that more cleare and excellent; you shall take two pound of the said mater and gums, vvhereof your reseued oyles were made: you shall put them in a cleane re∣tort, vvhich you shall set ouer the fire, hauing the necke hanging downe somewhat more low, and in a short time (and that vvithout any great force of fire) there vvill be wrought a certaine kind of butter, vvhich will run out in great plenti, being as it Page  485 were of a middle consistence betwixt the gum and the oyle before distilled. Againe, you shall take this butter-like matter and put it into the retort, hauing first made it ve∣rie cleane, and then set it vpon the furnace the second time, with certaine ounces of purged oyle vvhich you shall haue drawne before from the same kind of gum. By these meanes, and the helpe of a reasonable fire giuen vnto it, you shall draw as much oyle (and that most exquisite) as Art and Nature could joyntly giue together. And thus much for the sure and certaine way of extracting of oyles of hard gums, which though it be costly, ought notwithstanding for the excellencie thereof be rather practised than the other common way which is by grauell, ashes, or washed sand, cast into the retort with the matter. By such meanes you shall make oyle of amber, jet, brimstone, and other such kind of things, being first made into powder, and put∣ting thereunto common oyle, which hath beene first cleansed and purged in a lea∣den vessel or warme water.

Oyle of Waxe is thus prepared after the common manner:* Take a pound of new Waxe, you shall wash it thus: melting it at the fire you shall cast it by and by into a vessell full of vvhite Wine, worke it well with your hand after the manner of pase, sometimes drawing it out at length, sometimes breaking of it, and sometimes doub∣ling of it: melt it once againe, and cast it into the same Wine, then also worke it with your hands as before, and thus you shall doe three or foure times, till you see the wax to haue spent about the quantitie of a pint of vvine; this done, put it thus pre∣pared into a retort, and cast vpon it grauell, washed sand, or powder of brickes, not∣withstanding that it may be distilled without grauell, sand, or brickes, as is tried by experence: lute the retort all about, euen vnto the middest of the necke, and set in an earthen pan full of small ashes vpon the fire, which must be but soft and gentle at the beginning, but augmented and made greater afterward from degree to degree, the oyle will distill and come forth verie cleare.

Others prepare it after this manner:* They set an earthen vessell full of white or red wine vpon the fire, whereinto after that the Wine is become hote, they cast the Wax diuided into many morsells: after they cause the vessell to boyle being close couered, and when the wine is spent, they powre in other, vntill that euerie pound of waxe haue wasted ten pound of Wine: and when they see that there is yet a little wine with the Waxe, they take away the Wax from the fire, that so it may not burn, and presently cast the Waxe into another vessell wherein there is a little white wine: after that it is cold, and the moisture thereof taken away, they distill it in a retort. In any case there must heed be taken that it boyle not in distilling, as in Turpentine and honie, for such liquors being heated, doe easiie swell and rise vp. Wherefore there must be made but a soft and gentle fire at the first, and then afterward increased, and the stillitorie cooled: againe, to hinder the boyling vp of it, you may cast in some small lumps of lead wrapt vp in paper, or the leaues of Iuie or small grauell, &c.

This oyle is singular good for to suppurate and ripen impostumes,* aswage paine, comfort the hard and strayned sinews, and for the palsie. The water distilled before the oyle doth meruailously heale all sorts of wounds, if they be washed therewith, and a linnen cloth wet therein, laid vpon them.

You may distill after this manner, benjouin, ben, ladanum, and other such like gums: you must also note here in this place, that hard gums may be distilled with water, as the oyles of hearbes, and seeds before specified.

Page  486

CHAP. LXXXV.

Of the manner of extracting Oyles out of Myrrhe, S••∣rax Calamite, Gum arabicke, and suh other like.

MOst certaine it is, that the liquor which is extracted and drawne from Myrrhe, Storax calamite, and Gum arabicke, is not an oyle, but a grosse, slymie, and glewie matter: vvhich is perceiued and knowne, because they take not fire, yea and if you meet vvith any of them at any time that vvill burne, then know that it commeth by the mingling of some other oyle there∣with, and Aqua-vitae.

Take therefore verie new egges, and make them verie hard in hote vvater, after∣ward cleaue them in the middest, and take out the yolkes: and in their place put∣ting as much Gummes, and that before they be cold, joyne the two parts of euerie one of them together againe, and making a hole through the peeces of the smaller end, hang them in a caue, to the end that the moisture of the place may cause the Gumme (whether it be Myrtle or Storax calamite) therein inclosed to resolue the more easilie: set vnder euerie egge a vile, and there will drop downe into it a ma∣ter much like vnto honie, or thinner. This done, gather that which is distilled into a viole, and set the same verie vvell stopped, depe in the horse-dung, to the end that by his heat (being good to alter and putrifie the slymie qualitie of this matter) it may be corrected, and made more moist and like vnto oyle.

Fiorouanto, an Italian Empericke, in the seuen and fiftieth Chapter of his second Booke, and the thirteenth Chapter of the fourth Booke of his Vexations, prepa∣reth the oyle of Myrrhe six this manner: Take of elected and true Myrrhe 〈◊〉 ounces, of Aqua-vitae without any flegme twelue ounces, mingle them together in a retort of glasse, vvhich you shall set vnder horse-dung verie hote the space of 〈◊〉 dayes, afterward distill them in Maries-bath till all the water be risen and wholly gone: then you shall see in the bottome of the retort, oyle, vvhich you shall straine through a linnen cloth, and keepe it to preserue the face a long time, and continue it in his young and youthfull brightnesse and freshnesse. This oyle is a veriebalme to conglutinate and heale wounds speedily, as also to cure all other inwarddisease in taking two drammes thereof inward: it is good also for the deafenesse of the eares. Looke for the larger handling of the distillation of oyles, in our Booke of secret me∣dicines.

The Silke-worme.

CHAP. LXXXVI.

Of the profit comming of the Wormes that spin silke.

THe good Huswife, vvhich hath the ouersight, gouernement, and d∣sposing of the cattell, must not make lesse account of the Silke-worm than of the Honie-bee. For, besides the pleasure which she may con∣ceiue of the meruailous industriousnesse of this little beast in making and spinning of Silke, she may also reape an incredible profit of so excellent a Page  487 worke, which honoureth and maketh men glorious, being attyred with the pompe of this workmanship and piece of cunning skill: insomuch, as wee see, that Kings, Princes, Gentlemen, Prelates, Iustices, and other great and notable personages are vsually decked and apparrelled with the trauaile of these prettie creatures. And which is more; the silke serueth not onely for the apparrelling of men, but also for a singular remedie to comfort the heart that is sicke, and to reioyce and recreate all the heauie and troubled spirits of anie one: as wee may well vnderstand by that fa∣mous conection, called of the Physitions Alkermes; which being compounded, for the most part, of the decoction and infusion of Silke in the iuice of Kermes, and being taken inwardly, it is a verie soueraigne remedie against faintings and swownings. Wherefore the good wise or Mistrese of our Countrey Fame shall make great account of the keeping of Silke-wormes, to the end that shee may reape the profit of the sale of the Silke which shee shall gather from them yeare∣ly: which profitable practise is verie well knowne amongst the wiues of Tourraine here in France.

CHAP. LXXXVII.

Of the situating of a place to keepe Silke-wormes in.

IT is necessarie also, that the carefull Huswife, for the vndertaking of the gouernment of Silke-wormes, and for the making of her best commo∣ditie thereof, doe chuse out some conuenient place about the Farme for the better ordering and keeping of them: and it must be rather high than low, hauing a good ayre, and without moistnesse, being so prouided of Win∣dowes, as that the Sunne may come in at them both morning and euening, if it seeme good vnto such as haue the charge to gouerne them. These Windowes must be such as will shut close, or else are glased, or paper Windowes, or of fine Linnen Cloth, to the end, that when it raineth or bloweth, in cold weather, or in moist, they may be kept verie close and fast shut: for who so faileth to gouerne and pro∣uide for them in this sort, it commeth to passe without doubt, that these prettie creatures being tender at all times, cannot escape, but die, when anie hard weather commeth. He must likewise haue Nets and Cords before the Windowes, to the end, that the paper-Windowes being opened, the Sparrowes, Swallowes, and such hutfull birds, may not gt in, to feed vpon these Wormes. Neither Cocke nor Henne must come in heere: for they would so rauenously feed vpon this little Worme, as that they would be readie to burst. The loore must be kept verie cleane; and the walls without holes or cruises, by which neither Crickets, Lizards, Rats, or other like vermine, may enter and get in, to kill and spoyle these little things, either night or day. In it there must be ouerthwart partitions with pillars, and vpon them shall be fastened manie boords or hurdles, made of the stalkes of Roe-trees, for to pleasure this small wretch withall: and these, before you set anie Wormes vpon them, must be sprinkled with a little vineger, and rubbed with sweet hearbes, because they loue sweet smels.

Page  488

CHAP. LXXXVIII.

Of the gouerning of Silke-wormes.

THe arefull Huswife, so soone as the Spring draweth neere, and that she shall see that the Mulberrie-tree beginneth to bud, shall make in rea∣dinesse egges of Wormes, which shee hath kept all the Winter before, to be brooded and sit vpon. And if shee see that the Mulberrie-tree is ••ow to bud, shee shall lay fresh dung vnto the rootes thereof during the new Moone of March, thereby to bring it forward: for otherwise, for lack of theleaves of the Mulberrie-tree, if it should come to passe that her Wormes should be hat∣ched or bred, she should be constrained, for their food, to haue recourse to the heart of the Thorne, Elme leaues, the tender branches of Nettles, and others. And as concerning making of choice of such Wormes as are to be breeders; you must take the seed which is but a yeare old, and which being bathed in Wine, falleth to the bottome, and floteth not aboue, and withall, hath the markes which shall be spo∣ken of hereafter: The time of brooding them, is the fifteenth or twentieth of A∣prill, from the fourth vnto the tenth day of the Moone, but neuer in the decrease: for wrapping their silke round about it, they wll bring it forth the fourth ay, at such time as they are strong, in such sort, as that their ends and huskes will bee greater, harder, and more finely haired, than anie other that are bred at another time: for those which are bred in the decrease of the Moone, are always feeble, and yeeld no profit. The meanes to make them breed, is, after that you haue wa∣tered and bathed them with white Wine, rather than warme water, to lay them neere the fire, vntill they be a little warmed: then to lay them betwixt two pil∣lowes stuffed with feathers, and made likewise somewhat warme, or betwixt the breasts of women (prouided that they haue not their termes at that time) and so, a the Wormes doe breed, to take them away with Mulberrie-tree leaues, making choice of those which are most tender: and then to lay them vpon boords, or pa∣pers, that haue beene rubbed ouer with Wormewood or Sothernewood, or some such like hearbe. When they are once bred, they shall haue the leaues o Mul∣berrie-trees giuen them euening and morning, encreasing them euerie day, as the Wormes shall grow greater and greater, vnto the fourth change: for th•• also they will stand in need to be fed at noone, because they eate more at that time than they were wont: but you must bee admonished, that when they 〈◊〉, or change, you must giue them somewhat sparingly, because as then they are weake and feeble: And in anie case let not the leaues be rotten, moist, or wet: but if it should fall out, that they should be moist, then you must wipe th•• throughly with cleane Linnens,* and drie them at the fire. They must also be gathered of Mulber∣rie-trees planted vpon the toppes of hills, and standing open vpon the Sunne, and of old trees, rather than of young ones, and such as beare a fruit somewhat red and blacke, and not to gather the said leaues in the morning, so long as they are wet with the daw, or other thing, vntill the Sunne haue gone ouer them: and fur∣ther, to picke the bad from the good, before you giue them vnto the Wormes to ate. These little beasts may not be touched with your hands but as little as may be: for the more they are handled, the more they are hindered thereby, because they are verie exceeding tender and daintie, especially at such time as they doe cast, or change. And yet notwithstanding, they must bee kept verie cleane and neat, and all their little dung taken from them euerie three daies. The place must likewise be perfumed with Frankincense, Garlicke, Onions, Larde, or broyled Sawsages, that you may minister matter of pleasure vnto these little creatures▪ and againe, if they be weake and sicke, these smells refresh and recouer them againe. Page  489 They must also be marked whether they sleepe, or no: for seeing they are wont to sleepe foure times, especially when the cast and change; if it happen, that anie of them be still eating, and sleepe not, they must be put apart, without hauing anie meat to eat, that so they may fall to sleeping, for else they would all burst: and it is as true, that if they be breeding of young, they must be soberly dieted. After that they haue cast and changed the fourth time, within three daies after they will eat better than euer they did,* vntill such time as their bodies begin to shine, and that they make manifold shew of the silke thread that is in their bellies: which if it be to come white from them, their head is as if it were siluer: if that it be to come yel∣low from them, their heads beare the colour of gold: if greene or Orange colour,* their heads fore-tell the same. Thus they feeling themselues well filled and fedde, they seeke out some resting place for the purpose to fasten themselues vnto, and there orderly to auoid their silke, euerie one shuting vp himselfe in his scale or huske, which they make and build vp in two daies, or a little more. Then you must be carefull to haue in readinesse for them, round about the Tables, good store of Broome, Brakes, branches of Vines, Oake-tree boughes, Chesnut-tree boughes, and other things: and withall, let them be verie drie; for moisture is their enemie: and then not to giue them ouer, vntill they be all fastened and hanged vpon these branches, there to make their worke: whereof they be so eager, as that they grow madde ••till they be packed vp in their little clewes and bottomes, and that in such sort, as that a man would thinke that they would be stieled: then they must haue some helpe, and order must be taken, that they may not fall downe vpon the earth: and if they doe fall, to put them vp againe into some place for the purpose. They haue finished their worke in two or three dayes, more or lesse, and as the weather groweth hot or cold at that time: And as it is easie to perceiue when they are all 〈◊〉 worke, so they make it to be heard verie well when they cease and make an end of their labour. They dwell thus, and abide altogether, for the most part, in their huskes twentie dayes, more or lesse, according vnto the tendernesse, softnesse, or hardnesse of their bottomes of silke.* As concerning the choice of their huskes, or ods, the Orange coloured are best, and not the yellow, and least of all, the white, or greene: and as concerning the taking of the single, or of the double, the single ••e more worth, because that the male and the female are within the double: which emale layeth her egges no sooner in the morning than shee coupleth with the male againe.* The scales or huskes being thus chosen, those which are good for encreas, must be put into a place where no dust is, and well couered: the double also must be separated from the single, to the end, that they may make the fairer silke: and es∣pecially there must choice be made of such people as are the best workefolkes, both or to know the silke, as also to draw it out with such discretion, as that there may come the most profit of it. When the Wormes shall be out of their huskes, then you must make choice of the best for encrease and breeding: those which are the grossest and blackest, are the strongest, and affoord better egges than anie of the o∣her. You must likewise take more females than males: and for the knowing of he one from the other,* the eyes of these creatures doe sufficiently testifie thereof; or the females haue thinner eyes, and not altogether so blacke, as the males: They must also be put asunder, and white Linnen clothes spread, or rather leaues of Pa∣per, vpon little Tables, for to receiue their egges: The Paper is more naturall nd commodious than the Linnen, because it may be the better raked ouer with 〈◊〉 knife, to draw together the egges thereupon, without making of anie spoyle 〈◊〉 all.

As concerning the diseases whereunto these little creatures be subiect: When they haue not beene so carefully looked vnto as they should,* to be kept cleane; when the ••old Northerne wind, or the hot Southerne Sunne hath molested them, as also when hey haue eaten too much; then they become sicke: wherefore you must keepe hem cleanely: stop the windowes and holes by which the cold windes doe enter Page  490 and get in, and carrie coales of fire that doe not smoake, into their lodging, setting thereupon Frankincense or Sawsages cut in slices (for they so loue this smell, as tha it presently cureth them) as also besprinkle them with a little Malmesey or Aqua-vitae. If they haue beene troubled with too great heat of the South Sunne, there must be sprinkled vpon them Rose-water: If they haue ouer-eaten themselues, the contrarie diet will cure them; as the keeping of them three or foure daies without eating anie thing: If there be anie of them that are spotted with anie duskish, blew∣ish, or yellowish colour, and that there appeare withall vpon their bellies a certain humour that doth wet them, they must be speedily taken from out of the compa∣nie of the rest, and carried out: and in the morning, before the Sunne rise, set the whole and sound in the ayre for some small time, and afterward put them in their places againe: and then it will be good to sprinkle them with good and strong vineger, and to annoint them with Wormewood or Sothernewood, and also to giue them ayre, making them likewise to feele the force of the Sunne, prouided, that the beames thereof doe not ouch them: and you must looke also, that the windowes bee so placed, as tha the morning ayre may season and send his breath throughout the whole house.

The end of the third Booke.
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