Journal of Captain Cook's last voyage, to the Pacific Ocean: on Discovery: performed in the years 1776, 1777, 1778, 1779, and 1780. Illustrated with cuts, and a chart, ...
Rickman, John., Henry, David, 1710-1792.
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JOURNAL OF CAPTAIN COOK's LAST VOYAGE TO THE PACIFIC OCEAN.

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JOURNAL OF CAPTAIN COOK's LAST VOYAGE, TO THE PACIFIC OCEAN, ON DISCOVERY: PERFORMED IN THE YEARS 1776, 1777, 1778, 1779, AND 1780.

ILLUSTRATED WITH CUTS, AND A CHART, SHEWING THE TRACKS OF THE SHIPS EMPLOYED IN THIS EXPEDITION.

A NEW EDITION, COMPARED WITH, AND CORRECTED FROM, THE VOYAGE PUBLISHED BY AUTHORITY.

LONDON: PRINTED FOR E. NEWBERY, AT THE CORNER OF ST. PAUL'S CHURCH-YARD. MDCCLXXXV.

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PREFACE.

THE EDITOR of this Voyage, which has already past through Three Edi|tions, with the approbation of those who were companions in the expedition, and sharers in the dangers of it, has still the farther satisfaction, on comparing the origi|nal journal with that now published by authority, to find the facts and dates, the latitudes and longitudes (those essentials of a Voyage undertaken for Discovery) so exactly to correspond, as could hardly have been ex|pected from journals kept on board the same ship by different observers, who had no com|munication with each other.—No greater proof is therefore necessary to establish its authenticity.

Our Journalist appears to have been a man, who, to great professional skill, had added all the requisites of an instructive Voyager. At|tentive to every material transaction on board his own ship, he had been careful to inform himself of every thing that affected the Voy|age, on board the other.

When in harbour, the manners, the cus|toms, the virtues and the vices, the arts and manufactures of the inhabitants of the dif|ferent Page  [unnumbered] countries; their productions, animal and vegetable, seem to have been no less the objects of his enquiry.

Amidst other observations, even the errors committed in the progress of the Voyage, does not escape him; nor does he fail to express his admiration of those wonderful powers, that, amidst innumerable difficulties into which some casual mistakes had involved the fate of both ships, could surmount every obstacle that stood in the way of accomplish|ing the first object of the Voyage; insomuch, that before the last fatal miscarriage that de|prived the Commander in Chief of his life, the way was smoothed, and every thing put on such a footing, as to afford well-grounded hopes of a happy issue.

It must astonish the world, if any thing can astonish the navigating world, that one year being lost, in which a third of the pro|visions for a three years Voyage, was con|sumed, as it were, in waste, without the possibility of supplying the chief articles of an English seaman's subsistence at sea (namely, beef, bread, flour, spirits, and tobacco) the Voyage could, notwithstanding, be protract|ed for four years, without a man suffering by hunger; and but four men dying of any disease whatever.

Of the adventures of those who performed the Voyage, little is related in the work published by authority: and, if we except Page  [unnumbered] the desertion of the petty officer and mate from the ships at Ulitea, with the vain hope of aspiring at principalities in Otaheite, and the unexpected meeting with the Russians at Oonalaska, we meet with nothing calculated either to excite pleasure or move pain, till the unfortunate death of Capt. Cook.

Our Voyager, however, has not been un|mindful of what the public had a right to expect, from Voyagers who had visited and re-visited every corner of the earth, and who had not been insensible to the charms of the young females, with whom they must have had so many opportunities to converse; but, to all that has been related in the solid nar|rative of Capt. Cook, not a circumstance of which has been omitted, he has added others, which though a little partaking of the mar|vellous, have yet their foundation in incon|trovertible truth.

But in this Preface, as it is not our in|tention to anticipate the pleasure the Reader will undoubtedly receive in the perusal of this small volume, we shall only just pre|mise, that it is not an abridgement, or an abstract, from the work published by au|thority; but a distinct original work, au|thenticated by a comparison with that writ|ten by the Captains Cook and King, and agreeing with them in the essential points of discovery; and containing many particulars unnoticed in their narrative, without which Page  [unnumbered] the account of the Voyage must be incom|pleat.

If the Editor may claim any merit for the part he has taken in the performance, it is in collecting together in the introduction, a short, and, he hopes, not an unentertaining summary of all the Voyages undertaken for discovery only, in both the Southern and Northern Hemispheres, and in both the Pa|cific and Atlantic Oceans. It were needless to enumerate the many volumes consulted on this occasion. The intelligent Reader will bear testimony to not a few. But for the latter Voyages of Lieutenants Pickersgill and Young, he must acknowledge himself indebted to the Editor of the Voyage pub|lished by authority.

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INTRODUCTION.

TWO illustrious foreigners, Columbus and Magellan, rendered their names immortal, at an early period, by opening an immense field for discovery and the improvement of Navigation; but it has been reserved for a distinguished native of this country, and of this age, to fix the boun|daries of the globe, and to complete the great plan of nautical investigation. The two last fell in the prosecution of the important discoveries;—the first, survived only to experience the vicissitudes of fortune, and to feel the resentment of an un|grateful court.

Columbus, by a perseverance, of which there was then no precedent, very providentially sur|mounted every obstacle that opposed his progress, and astonished Europe with the discovery of an unknown Continent; while, much about the same time, Magellan, inspired by a like spirit of enter|prise, and animated by a magnanimity that de|spised danger while in the pursuit of glory, opened a passage to an Unknown Sea.

By a brief recapitulation of the attempts made to improve these discoveries, and by shewing what has already been effected, what remained still to be done will be more apparent; and will furnish an idea of the immensity of the undertaking—no less than to settle the extremes of the two conti|nents, Page  ii which, though separated to all human appear|ance, most certainly connect the globe.

It was on the 6th of November, in the year 1520, that Magellan entered the Straits, that have ever since borne his name; and the 27th of the same month, when, in a transport of joy, he be|held the wished-for object of his pursuit, the GREAT SOUTHERN SEA;—a passage so rapid, as has never since been equalled. Elated with suc|cess, he proceeded chearfully for several days, with a favouring gale; but the weather soon changing, and the sea growing boisterous, he al|tered his course from the high latitude in which he entered, and directed his views to a more moderate climate. For 113 days he continued steering to the north-west, without seeing land, or meeting with supplies of any kind, except what water the sailors could save in the awnings, when the storms of thunder, which were frequent and dreadful, burst the clouds and unloosed the rain. Having in that time crossed the line, he fell in with a range of islands, in the 12th degree of northern latitude, where with great difficulty he procured some refresh|ment for those of his followers who yet remained alive, most of them having perished by hunger and fatigue in that long run of lonesome navigation. Those who survived had fed on tough hides, the leather of their shoes, and even on that which sur|rounded the ropes. Add to this, that many of them being attacked by the scurvy, the flesh of their gums had so enveloped their teeth, that unable to eat, they died famished in all the agonies of horror and despair. The thievish disposition of the tropical islanders in this ocean, to which Magellan now gave the name of PACIFIC, being new to the Spaniards, they were not at first apprised, that while they were abroad enjoying the salutary effects of Page  iii the refreshing air, the natives were employed in stripping the ships of their iron, and whatever else they could carry away. It was in vain to punish the delinquents, for where all were culpable, those only could be made to suffer, who were taken in the fact; and such was their dexterity that few were detected.

From these islands, to which Magellan gave the name of Ladrones, he hastened his departure, and proceeding in search of the Moluccas, the chief object of his voyage, he found in his way many little islands, where he was hospitably received, and where a friendly correspondence was established, by which mutual civilities and mutual good offices were reciprocally interchanged.

These islands were situated between the Ladrones, and what are now known by the name of the Phi|lippines, in one of which, named Nathan, Ma|gellan, with 60 men having encountered a whole army, was first wounded with a poisoned arrow, and then pierced with a bearded lance. His little squadron, reduced by accumulated distress to two ships, with not more than 80 men to navigate them, departed hastily, and after many disasters, in which only one, the Victory, escaped, she singly returned by the Cape of Good Hope, and was the first ship that circumnavigated the globe. It may not be improper here to remark, that the death of our late gallant Commander Cook was not unsimilar to that of Magellan, both originating from an over confidence in their own consequence, which could avail them nothing when surrounded by exasperated savages, and overpowered by numbers.

Other adventures were not now wanting, to trace the steps of this intrepid Navigator; but they were not all actuated by the same passion for glory.

Page  ivAlvarez de Mendano, indeed, who in 1567, was sent from Lima on discovery, sailed 800 leagues westward from the coast of Peru, and fell in with certain islands in 11 degrees south, inhabited by people of a yellowish colour, whose weapons were bows and arrows and darts, and whose bodies were naked, but strangely punctuated. Here the Spa|niards, besides swine, found little dogs, and some domestic fowls like those in Europe; and here likewise they found cloves, ginger, cinnamon, and some gold; but it has yet been a question undecided, to what groupe of islands this discovery is to be referred, from whence the Spaniards,

"not seeking gold, brought home 40,000 pezoes."
Captain Cook inclines to think, that they were the cluster which comprizes what has since been known by the name of New Britain.

Mendano afterwards discovered the Archipelago of islands, called the Islands of Solomon, of which great and small he counted thirty-three. He also in 1575 discovered the island of St. Christoval, not far from the above Archipelago, in 7 deg. south, but having no settled plan to direct his pursuit, it is no wonder that he should leave his discoveries imperfect; and that, as they produced no imme|diate profit, they should long remain unnoticed by less curious adventurers. It was in those early times, considered as sound policy, to throw a veil of secrecy over new discoveries: it is to the honour of the present times, that the contrary practice al|most universally prevails.

Sir Francis Drake in 1577, was the first English|man that passed the Straits already noticed, and though his views were not the most honourable, nor founded upon principles that could be strictly justified, yet his discoveries were no less important than if patronised by his sovereign, and the expence Page  v defrayed by the legislature. He discovered the coast of California, which he judged to be an island, and named it New Albion; and having sailed to the 43d deg. of northern latitude, with a design to return by a north-east course, was stopt in his progress by the piercing cold. Some small islands he discovered in his route; but as his sole view was to return with his booty, he paid no re|gard to objects of less concern. He arrived in England by the Cape of Good Hope, in 1580.

To him succeeded Sir Thomas Cavendish, who likewise passed the Straits of Magellan in 1586, and returned nearly by the same tract, touching at the Landrones, and making some stay at the Philippine Isles, of which, on his return, he gave a full description.

In the mean time, namely, in 1595, the Spaniards, intent upon discovery more than plunder, fitted out four ships, and gave the command to Alvaro Mendana de Neyra. This voyage proved unfor|tunate. The design was to have compleated the discovery of the Solomon Islands, and to have made a settlement in one of the most plentiful. But most of those who embarked on this expedition either died of hunger and disease, or were ship|wrecked. His discoveries were the Marqueses, in lat. 10 south; Solitary Island, in 10° 40′ west, long. 178°; and lastly, Santa Cruz, on which one of the fleet was afterwards found with all her sails set, and the people rotten. Soon after this mis|carriage, it was resolved by the Spanish court not to settle those islands, lest the English, and other foreign adventurers who might pass the Straits, should in their passage home by the East-Indies, be relieved by them. This resolution, however, we find soon after revoked in favour of Quiros.

Page  viIn 1598, Oliver Van Noort passed the Straits; but his professed design being plunder, he made no discoveries. He touched, to refresh, at one of the Ladrone islands, in his way to the East-Indies, and afterwards refitted his ships at the Philippines. It may here be necessary to note, that in this year the Sebaldine islands, as they were formerly called, were discovered by Sebald de Weert, the same now known by the name of Falkland's Isles.

In 1605, Pedro Fernando de Quiros, conceived the design of discovering a southern continent. He is supposed, by Mr. Dalrymple and others, to have been the first man into whose mind the ex|istence of such a continent had ever entered. He sailed from Calloa December 21st, with two ships and a tender. Luis Paz de Torres was entrusted with the command, and Quiros, from zeal for the success of the undertaking, was contented to act in the inferior station of pilot. On the 26th of January following, they came in sight of a small flat island, about four leagues in circumference, with some trees, but to all appearance uninhabited. It was just 1000 leagues from Calloa, and said to lie in the 25th deg. of S. latitude. Finding it inac|cessible, they pursued their voyage, and in two days fell in with another island, which Capt. Cook supposes the same discovered by Capt. Car|teret, and by him called Pitcairn's Island.

On the 4th of February they discovered an island, thirty leagues in circumference, that pro|mised fair to supply their necessities, which now began to be very pressing: but this, like the for|mer, could not be approached. This island, situ|ated in lat. 28 S. seemed to determine their course to the south; for on the 9th of February, we find them in the 18th deg. south, and on the 12th in the 17th deg. in conference with the inhabitants Page  vii of a friendly island, from whom, with difficulty, they procured some refreshment, and on the 14th continued their course. On the 21st they disco|vered an island, where they found plenty of fish, but no water. It was uninhabited, and the birds so tame that they caught them with their hands. They named this island St. Bernardo, and is pro|bably the same which Capt. Carteret calls the Island of Danger, in lat. 10° 30′ S.

The next island discovered, they called Isla de la Gente Hermosa, or the Isle of handsome peo|ple. From thence they steered for Santa Cruz, already discovered, where they were kindly re|ceived; but did not leave it without murdering some of the inhabitants.

From this island they steered their course west|ward, passing swarms of little islands, till they ar|rived, on the 7th of April, at a lofty island, which, by its high and black appearance, they judged to be a Volcano. Here they found a friendly reception, and in return carried off four of their natives, three of whom afterwards made their escape by watching their opportunity, and jumping into the sea, the fourth accompanied them to New Spain. This island the Indians called Taumaco. Another island in 12 deg. S. na••…d Tucopia, they passed, after some friendly inter|course with the inhabitants; and on the 25th of April, came in sight of an island which they named Nostra Signora de la Luz, in 14 deg. S. and pre|sently after observed four others islands, one of which presented a most picturesque appearance, diversified with every beauty which Nature could display; rivers, pools of water, cascades, and foun|tains to decorate and dignify the prospect. Here the inhabitants were frank, as their country was abundant; but here the Spaniards could not help Page  viii discovering their natural jealousy. The first who approached their boat, was a youth of graceful stature; him they thought to have secured by slily throwing a chain about his leg; but this the Indian snapt, and instantly made his escape by jumping over-board; the next who came on board, they placed in the stocks by stratagem, lest he too should make his escape in the same manner. Could it be wondered, therefore, that the friends of these imprisoned youths should endeavour, by fair appearances, to ensnare their enemies, and seek revenge. Making signs of peace, the Spa|niards no sooner came within their reach, than they let fly a volley of poisoned arrows, by which se|veral of the crew were wounded. Interpreting this as an act of treachery, without attending to the cause that had produced it, they quitted the island in the night, and directing their course to the South-West, came in sight of an immense country, which had every appearance of the con|tinent of which they were in search. They per|ceived an open bay, and on the beach, men of a gigantic stature. To this land they made their ap|proaches with inexpressible joy, imagining that they had accomplished their wishes, and that their labours would soon be rewarded with honour to themselves, and advantage to their country.

On the 3d of May, they entered the harbour, having the day before given the name of St. PHI|LIP and St. JAMES to the bay, with the fair ap|pearance of which, they had been so highly de|lighted. To the port they gave the name of LA VERA CRUZ, and to the country AUSTRAL DEL ESPERITO SANTO. The harbour, situated between two rivers, to which they gave the names of Jur|dan and Salvador, was equally convenient and beautiful; the margin of the shores was most ro|mantically Page  ix interspersed with flowers and plants odoriferous and splendid; nor was the country less fruitful than it was pleasant. It abounded in all those delicious fruits which render the countries between the Tropics the happiest in the world; and there were besides great plenty of swine, dogs, fowls and birds of various kinds and colours. The inhabitants, indeed, were jealous of their ap|proach, and discovered great uneasiness at their attempting to land. The Spaniards, however, rather chusing to intimidate than conciliate the na|tives, made an excursion into the country, sur|prized the unsuspecting people of a little village, and brought off a supply of hogs; but not with|out imminent danger to the party employed on that service, who were pursued to the water's edge, and some of them wounded.

As Nature had dealt her bounty with a liberal hand to the inhabitants of this happy country, she had enriched her coasts with fish as well as the land with fruits. In pursuit of the former, the Spaniards met with no interruption, but their suc|cess, which was very great, was near proving fatal to them. They caught large quantities of a most beautiful fish, which, though of a delicate flavour, was of so poisonous a quality, that whoever eat of it was suddenly seized with sickness and pain, for which there appeared no remedy. Every soldier and every sailor was grievously affected: the whole ships companies were rendered incapable of their duty, and officers and people were alike alarmed with the apprehensions of approaching death, till by degrees, the violence of the disorder began to abate, and in six days all were restored. It is worthy of note, that some of the crew of the Re|solution, in Capt. Cook's former voyage, who had eaten of a fish caught in those seas, were seized Page  x in the same manner, and that the swine and dogs, that had eaten the entrails and the bones, actually died.

Quiros, for what reason does not appear, very soon quitted this promised land, and the two ships separated as soon as they had cleared the bay; Quiros, with the Capitana, his own ship, shaped his course to the N. E. and after suffering the greatest hardships, returned to New Spain; while de Torres, in the Almiranta and the Tender, steered to the West, and was, as Captain Cook observes, the first that sailed between New Holland and New Guinea.

Quiros, soon after his return, presented a Me|morial to Philip II. of Spain, in which he enu|merates twenty-three islands that he had disco|vered; and among them three parts of the coun|try called Australia del Espiritu Santo, in which land were found the Bay of St. Philip and St. Jago, and part of Vera Cruz, where he remained with his ships thirty-six days.

In this Memorial, Quiros supposes the above three parts to be one great country; and to strengthen his conjecture, relates the declaration of Pedro, the Indian, whom they seized at Tan|maco, and carried to New Spain. There Pedro declared, in the presence of the Marquis of Mon|tesclaros, that he was a native of the Island Chi|cayana, larger than that of Taumaco, where he was found; that from one to the other is four days sail of their vessels; that Chicayana is low land, very abundant in fruit; that the natives of it are of his good Indian colour, with long lank hair, and punctuate, as he was, a little in the face, arms, and breast; and that there were also white people in it, who have their hair red and very long; Page  xi with mulattoes, whose hair is not curled, nor quite strait.

"He further said, that from the island of Tau|maco, at three days sail, and at two from Chicay|ana, there is another island, larger than the two above-mentioned, which is called Guaytopo; and that all the three islands are friends, and of one language: that he was at Taumaco, when a ship arrived there with only seven men, who were very white, except one who was brown, and three wo|men, white and beautiful as Spanish, who had their hair red and very long; and that all three came covered from head to foot with a kind of veil, blue or black, and very fine, to which they gave the name of Foa-foa; and that these ten per|sons were all who remained alive of forty, the rest having died of hunger and thirst, He also had seen come to his Island Chicayana, another ship of two hulls full of people, white and beautiful, and with many very handsome girls; and counting on his fingers by ten and ten, he intimated they were in all 110 persons.

"He farther said, that from another island called Tucopia, at the distance of five days of their sailing, is that great country, inhabited by many people, dun-coloured and mulattoes, in large towns; that they were friendly, and did not eat human flesh; nor could their languages be un|derstood: that it was a country of very high moun|tains and large rivers; and that to go from the island of Tucopia, to that country when the sun rises, they keep it on the left hand, which must be from south towards south-east."

From the evidence of this man, and what him|self saw, Quiros concludes, that there were only two large portions of the earth severed from Eu|rope, Africa, and Asia. The first is America, Page  xii which CHRISTOPHER COLON (Columbus) disco|vered; the second and last is that which he had seen, and solicited to people, and completely to discover to the King.

Upon the authority of this Memorial, and others to the like purport, presented by Quiros to Phi|lip III. of Spain, future geographers grounded their opinion of the reality of a Southern Continent, to the discovery of which that vain Navigator boldly asserted an undoubted claim.

"The magnitude of the countries newly discovered,"
says he to his Sovereign,
"by what I saw, is as much as that of all Europe, Asia Minor, the Caspian Sea, and Persia, with all the Mediterranean included."
That an assertion like this should gain credit, at a time when nearly one quarter of the globe lay undiscovered, is not to be wondered; but that a man could be found, upon such slender ground as the discovery of a few insignificant islands, lying, as it has lately appeared, within the narrow limits of 8 or 10 degrees of latitude, and less of longitude; to impose upon an enlightened Prince, and engage the attention of men of science in every country throughout the globe, is matter of astonishment, which, like other mysteries when they come to be disclosed, surprise only by their insignificance.

But there are some who pretend, in justification of Quiros, that in his return to Spain, he had seen that vast portion of land which Tasman af|terwards discovered, and which is now known by the name of New Holland; and Capt. Cook ad|mits, that one of the islands which Quiros touched at might be New Britain: this conjecture does not seem destitute of probability. Be this as it may, to the object which Quiros had pointed, whether real or imaginary, every maritime power cast a jealous eye. No sooner was France apprised of Page  xiii the intentions of the British Court, to engage in earnest in the business of this discovery, than she sent a Navigator of her own to pursue the same track, who was soon after followed by another on the part of Spain. As the success which attended these first enterprises by no means answered the expectations of those by whom they were set on foot, the two latter courts, who had profit only for their object, relinquished the project when they found themselves engaged in a hopeless pur|suit. The perseverance of our amiable Sovereign, in the prosecution of his liberal designs, as it has enlightened, so it has inspired every lover of sci|ence at home and abroad, with a reverential regard for his princely virtues, in promoting and patro|nising useful arts. But to return from this digression.

In 1614, George Spitzbergen, with a strong squadron of Dutch ships, passed the Straits of Magellan, and after cruizing for some time with various success against the Spaniards, set sail from Port Nativity on the coast of Peru, on his return home. In his passage, in 19 deg. of north lat. and about 30 long. from the continent, he disco|vered a mighty rock, and three days after, a new island with five hills, neither of which have since been seen. The first land he made was the La|drones, already described.

In 1615, Schouten and Le Maire, in the Unity of 360 tons, and the Hoorn of 110, sailed from the Texel on the 14th of June, professedly for the discovery of a new passage to the South Seas. The subjects of the States of Holland being prohi|bited, by an exclusive charter granted to their East-India Company, from trading either to the eastward by the Cape of Good Hope, or to the westward by the Magellanic Straits, some pri|vate merchants, considering this prohibition as an Page  xiv encroachment on their liberty, determined, if pos|sible, to defeat the purpose of the charter, and to trade to the southern countries by a track never before attempted. With this view they fitted out the ships already mentioned, one of which, the Hoorn, was burnt in careening, at King's Island on the coast of Brazil, and the other left fingly to pursue her voyage. Having saved what stores they could rescue from the flames, they proceeded on their voyage, directing their course to the south-west, till in lat. 54° 46′, they came in sight of an opening, to which (having happily passed it) they gave the name of Strait le Maire, in compliment to the principal projector of the voyage, though that honour was certainly due to Schouten, who had the direction of the voyage. Having soon after weathered the southernmost point of the American continent, they called that promontory Cape Horne, or more properly Hoorn, after the town in Holland, where the enterprize was first secretly concerted; and two islands which they had passed, they named Barnevelt Isles. They had no sooner cleared the land, than they changed their course to the northward, with a view to make some stay at Juan Fernandes to refit; but finding both that and the island of Massafuera inaccessi|ble, by reason of the great swell, they were obliged to continue their voyage till a more favourable opportunity should offer to refresh the crew. The first land they made, was a small low island in lat. 15° 15′, long. 136° 30′ W. which afforded them no refreshment, except a scanty portion of scurvy|grass, but no water. They named this Dog Island, from a singular circumstance of finding in it dumb dogs, that could neither bark nor snarl. About seven degrees further west, they fell in with ano|ther island, which they called Sondre Ground, be|cause Page  xv they sounded, but found no bottom. Still continuing their course to the westward, they came to an island, to which they gave the name of Wa|terland, as it afforded them a fresh supply of wa|ter, of which they stood in much need. They likewise procured plenty of fresh herbs; but not being able to come to an anchor, they kept their course, and soon came in sight of a fourth island, in which they could perceive a stream of water, but, like the other islands which they had passed, it seemed difficult of access. They hoisted out their boat, and filled it with empty casks; but in|stead of water, their people returned covered with insects, which, though not so large as musketoes, were, by their numbers and their venom, more troublesome. Such swarms came from the shore as covered the ship as with a case, and it was more than three days before the crew could free them|selves and the vessel from these tormentors. This they named Fly Island.

In their course from this island an incident hap|pened that is a reproach to humanity; an Indian bark fell in their way, to which, instead of mak|ing signals of peace to conciliate the crew, they fired a gun to bring them to. The bark was full of people, male and female, who, frighted at the report, instead of guessing the intent, hastened to make their escape. Presently the pinnace was hoisted out, manned, and a pursuit commenced; the unhappy Indians, finding it in vain to contend, several being wounded by being fire at in their flight, rather chose to perish in the ocean, than trust to the mercy of their pursuers. Most of the men, just as the Dutchmen were about to board their vessel, jumped into the sea, and with them they took their provisions; those who remained, chiefly women and children, and such as were Page  xvi wounded, submitted, and were kindly used, had their wounds dressed, and restored to their bark; but surely nothing could excuse the brutal pro|ceedings at the first onset, nor compensate for the lives of the innocent sufferers.

Cocos and Traitors Islands were the next they fell in with in their run from Fly Island. These were adjoining islands, and seemed to be composed of one people, and by joining cordially together to revenge the death of their unfortunate friends, they appear to have been of one mind. The Voyagers now began to feel distress, and to repent of their rash adventure; they held a consultation in what manner to proceed, being in want of almost every necessary. Fortune, however, did more in their favour than their own prowess; for after hav|ing passed the Island of Hope, (so called to express their feelings) where they were very roughly re|ceived by the inhabitants, they arrived at a most delightful island, abounding with every blessing that nature could bestow; and inhabited by a peo|ple who seemed sensible of their own happy state, and ready to share it with those who were in want of the good things which they themselves possessed. These they generously bestowed even to profusion. Here the Voyagers refitted their ships, recovered their sick, recruited their almost exhausted stock of provisions, by a plentiful supply of hogs, and with as large quantities of the delicious fruits with which the island was stored, as they could con|veniently carry away. This proving a second home to them, they gave it the name of Hoorn Island, for the reason already assigned. It is situate in lat. 14° 56′ long. 179° 30′ east, and in every respect resembles the island of Otaheite, except in its naval strength, in which there is no com|petition.

Page  xviiBeing now plentifully supplied, and the crew in high health, and having no hope of discovering the Continent of which they came in search, they determined to return home by the nearest track: accordingly they altered their course to the north|west, till they approached the line, and passing many islands, to which they gave names, as ap|pearances or circumstances presented, as Green Island, St. John's Island, &c. they coasted the north side of New Britain, and arrived at Bantam, in the East-Indies, where their ship was seized, and their cargo confiscated, at the instance of the Dutch East-India Company, under pretence of being engaged in contraband trade. It is remark|able, that hitherto they had only lost four men, one of whom died on their landing.

In 1623, Prince Maurice and the States of Holland, fitted out a fleet to distress the Spaniards in the South Seas, and gave the command to Jaques Hermite: but as these returned by a direct course from Lima to the Ladrones, without mak|ing any discoveries in what is called the Pacific Sea, it would be foreign to the design of this In|troduction, to detain the reader by an unnecessary digression.

In 1642, Abel Tasman sailed from Batavia in the Heemskirk, accompanied by the Zee Haan pink, with a professed design of discovering the southern continent. He directed his course to the Mauritius, and from thence, steering to the southward, the first land he made was the eastern point of New Holland, since known by the name of Van Dieman's Land, in lat. 42° 25′ long. 163° 50′ E. In this high latitude he proceeded to the eastward, till he fell in with the westernmost coast of New Zealand, where the greatest part of the boat's crew of the Zee Haan were murdered by Page  xviii the savages in a bay, to which he gave the name of Murderer's Bay, now better known by that of Charlotte's Sound, so called by our late Naviga|tors. From Murderer's Bay, he steered W. N. W. till he arrived at Three Kings Island, between which and the main land he passed, and run to the eastward, as far as the 220th degree of east longitude; then turning to the northward, till he came into the 17th degree of southern latitude, he veered again to the westward, with a design to reach Hoorn Island, discovered by Schouten, in order to refit his ship, and refresh his men. But in his passage he fell in with the isles of Pylstaert, Amsterdam, Middleburg, and Rotterdam, at the latter of which islands he found every accommo|dation which he expected to meet with at Hoorn Island, and embraced the opportunity that then presented of supplying his wants. This necessary end accomplished, he relinquished his design of visiting Traitor's and Hoorn Islands, and directing his course to the N. W. discovered 18 or 20 small islands, in lat 17° 19′, and long. 201° 35′ to which he gave the name of Prince William's Islands, and Hemskirk's Banks. From thence he pursued his course to New Guinea, without either discovering the continent he sought, or visiting the Solomon Isles, which at that time were judged the key to the grand discovery. Thus leaving the whole in the same state of uncertainty as before, Tasman returned to Batavia on the 15th of June 1643.

In 1681, Dampier passed the Magellanic Straits; but in his return sailed 5975 miles, in lat. 13° N. without seeing fish, fowl, or any living creature but what they had on board.

Next to him succeeded, in 1683, Capt. Cow|ley, who sailed from Virginia to the South Sea, but made no discoveries after he left the western Page  xix coasts of America; returning by the old track to the East-Indies.

In 1699, Dampier made a voyage professedly on discovery, which was chiefly confined to New Holland, New Guinea, New Britain, to which he gave name, and the islands adjacent. His disco|veries were of infinite importance, but as New Hol|land was the chief object of enquiry, they do not properly come within the limits of our review.

In 1703, Dampier made a third voyage to the South Seas, but without making any new disco|veries. He was accompanied in this voyage by Mr. Funnel, to whom the circumnavigation of the globe is ascribed.

In 1708, the Duke and Duchess sailed from Bristol to the South Seas; but returned, as all the Freebooters did, by the common track.

In 1719, Capt. Clipperton passed the Straits, with a view to enrich his owners by the spoils of the Spaniards. He returned likewise through the Ladrone Islands, consequently could make no dis|coveries in the Pacific Seas.

In 1721, the Dutch East-India Company, at the instance of Capt. Roggewein, fitted out a re|spectable fleet for the diseovery of that continent, which lay hitherto undiscovered, though univer|sally believed to exist. Three stout ships were ap|pointed, and well provided with every thing ne|cessary for this service; the Eagle of 36 guns and 111 men, on board of which embarked Rogge|wein as Commodore, having under him Capt. Coster, an experienced navigator; the Tienhoven of 28 guns and 100 men, of which Capt. Bowman was commander; and the African Galley, com|manded by Capt. Rosenthall. From this voyage every thing was hoped. The equipment of the ships, the appointment of the commanders, and, Page  xx above all, the hereditary zeal of the Commodore, which he inherited from his father for the service; all contributed to raise the expectations of Europe to the highest pitch. Before they arrived at the Straits of Magellan, they had encountered the most boisterous seas, and endured the most into|lerable hardships that ever ships resisted. They had no sooner entered the Straits, than they were again attacked by tempestuous weather. This storm was scarce abated, when they were alarmed by the sight of a vessel, which they took either for a pirate or a Spanish ship of war, and as she seemed to approach very fast, they were preparing for an engagement, when, to their agreeable surprize, they discovered it to be the Tienhoven's shallop, on board of which was Capt. Bowman, who had been separated three months before, and it was concluded had been engulphed in the hurricane that happened when the Tienhoven lost her main-top and mizen-masts, and the Eagle her mainsail-yard. They mutually rejoiced at each other's es|cape. Capt. Bowman thought his associates had perished in the storm, and they had given him over for lost. But their joy was of short continuance; they had other dangers to encounter, and other hardships to undergo; they found the Magellanic Straits impracticable, and entered the Southern Ocean with difficulty, by Strait le Maire. After recruiting their water at the Isles of Fernandez, their first attempt was in search of Davis's Land; which, it was imagined, from the description given by the discoverer, would prove an Index to the continent of which they were in search. They missed it where they expected to find it, but ac|cident threw it in their way. It proved a small island which they thought a new discovery, and be|cause they fell in with it on Easter-day, they called Page  xxi it Pasch, or Easter-Island. We have just to remark of this island, that as it was then full of people, and but few seen when last explored, and among them only FIFTEEN women, it is more than pro|bable that in less than another century, this remote and barren island will be wholly depopulated. From this island Roggewein pursued nearly the same track with that which Schouten had pointed out, till veering more to the north, he fell in with the islands at which Commodore Byron first landed, and where some of the wreck of the African Gal|ley was actually found. Here five of the crew deserted, and were left behind; and it would have been an object of curious enquiry for the Natura|lists who accompanied the Commodore in his voyage, to have endeavoured to trace a similitude of European features among the inhabitants of George's Island, as there is reason to believe that to be the island on which the five Dutchmen chose to fix their residence. This island, which they place in the 15th degree of southern latitude, they named Mischievous Island, owing to their late disaster, of which a particular account is given in the third volume of this collection.

Eight leagues to the west of this island, they discovered another, to which they gave the name of Aurora, from its splendid appearance, gilded by the rays of the rising sun. Another island, dis|covered in the evening of the same day, they called Vesper. Pursuing their course to the westward, they discovered a cluster of islands, undoubtedly the same now called the Great Cyclades, to which they gave the name of the Labyrinth, because it was with difficulty they could clear them.

In a very few days sail after passing the Laby|rinth, they came in sight of a pleasant island, to which, from its fair appearance, they gave the Page  xxii name of the Island of Recreation. They were at first hospitably received; but in the end the na|tives endeavoured to surprize them by stratagem, and to cut them off. They had supplied the strangers with provisions, water, and wood, and had assisted them in collecting greens, and in convey|ing them to the ships; but one day seeing a party of them unarmed, and walking carelesly in the fields, charmed with the delights of the country, in a moment some thousands of the natives rushed suddenly upon them, and with showers of stones, began an assault. The Dutch, from the ships ob|serving a tumult, and suspecting the worst, came hastily to the assistance of their comrades, when a general engagement ensued, in which many na|tives were shot dead, some of the Dutchmen killed, and not a few wounded. This proved baneful to the voyage. Few of the crews of either ship, after this, could be prevailed on to venture on shore for provisions; most of them became discontented, and some mutinous. It was therefore concluded, at a general council of officers, to continue their course towards New Britain and New Guinea; and thence by the way of the Moluccas to the East Indies, which was accordingly carried into execu|tion: and thus ended, like all the former, a voy|age which was expected at least to have solved the question concerning the existence or non-existence of a new continent; but in fact it determined no|thing. They who argued from the harmony that is observable in the works of Nature, insisted, that something was wanting to give one side of the globe an equipoise to the other; while those who reasoned from experience, pronounced this ideal system the mere creature of fanciful speculation.

In 1738, Lozier Bouvet was sent by the French East-India Company, upon discovery in the South Page  xxiii Atlantic Ocean. He sailed from Port L'Orient on the 19th of July, on board the Eagle, accom|panied by the Mary, and on the 1st of January following, he discovered, or thought he discovered, land in lat. 54° S. Long. from Paris 11′ East. But this land being diligently sought for by Capt. Cook, in his voyage for the discovery of the Southern Continent in 1777, without effect, there is reason to doubt if any such land exists; or, if it does, it is too remote from any known track to be of use to trade or navigation.

This discovery has, however, been much in|sisted on by M. Le Mercier, in a paper published by that celebrated Geographer in the Memoirs of the French Academy for 1776, which has given rise to a very able defence of Capt. Cook's Journal, by Mr. Wales, who accompanied Capt. Cook in his research for the land in question; but as the discovery itself can be no manner of use either to geography or navigation, we shall pass it over, with only noticing that the observations made by Mr. Wales, independent of the discovery, are such as every navigator should be master of. This de|fence is printed in the introduction to Capt. Cook's Journal, now published by authority, and is well worth preserving. But to return from this digression.

Bouvet pursued his course to the eastward, in a high latitude, about 29° of longitude farther, when in lat. 51° south, the two ships parted, one going to the island of Mauritius, the other return|ing to France.

In 1742, Commodore Anson traversed the Great Pacific Ocean; but his business being war, he made no discoveries within the limits of our re|view; and his story is too well known to need re|capitulation.

Page  xxivCome we now to the aera when his Majesty formed the design of making discoveries, and ex|ploring the Southern Hemisphere; and when, in the year 1764, he directed it to be carried into execution.

"Accordingly Commodore Byron having un|der his command the Dolphin and Tamar, sailed from the Downs on the 21st of June the same year, and having visited the Falkland Islands, passed through the Straits of Magellan into the Pacific Ocean, where he discovered the Islands of Diappointment, George's, Prince of Wales's, the Isles of Danger, York and Byron's Islands. He returned to England the 9th of May 1766.

"And in the month of August following, the Dolphin was again sent out under the command of Capt. Wallis, with the Swallow, commanded by Capt. Carteret.

"They proceeded together, till they came to the west end of the Straits of Magellan, and in sight of the Great South Sea, where they were se|parated.

"Capt. Wallis directed his course more wes|terly than any Navigator had done before him in so high a latitude, but met with no land till he got within the Tropic, where he discovered the islands Whitsunday, Queen Charlotte, Egmont, Duke of Gloucester, Duke of Cumberland, Mai|tea, Otaheite, Eimeo, Tapamanou, Howe, Scilly, Boscawen, Keppel, and Wallis; and returned to England May 1768.

"His companion, Capt. Carteret, kept a dif|ferent route, in which he discovered the islands Osnaburgh, Gloucester, Queen Charlotte's Isles, Carteret's, Gower's, and the Strait between New Britain and New Ireland, which, though undoubt|edly Page  xxv discovered by Dampier before, has been ce|lebrated as a new discovery of vast importance to navigation. He returned to England in 1769.

[We are told, in the introduction to the voyage just published, that the voyages of the above Navigators

"were principally confined to a fa|vourite object of discovery in the South Atlantic Ocean,"
for which we can find no other ground than that of Commodore Byron's return from the Straits of Magellan, in search of Pepys, now called Falkland's Island.]

"In November 1767, Commodore Bougain|ville sailed from France, in the frigate La Bou|deuse, with the store-ship l'Etoile. After spend|ing some time on the coast of Brazil, and at Falk|land's Islands, he got into the Pacific Sea by the Straits of Magellan, January 1768.

"In this Ocean he discovered the four Facar|dines, the Isle of Lanciers, and Harpe Island, (the same afterwards named by Cook Lagoon Island) Thrum Cap, and Bow Island. About twenty leagues farther to the west, he discovered four other islands; afterwards fell in with Maitea, Otaheite, Isles of Navigators, and Forlorn Hope, which to him were new discoveries. He then passed through between the Hebrides, which he calls the Great Cyclades, first discovered by Rogge|wein, discovered the Shoal of Diana, and some others; the land of Cape Deliverance, several islands more to the north; passed to the north of New Ireland, (which by the way he could not have done by any other course than thro' what is now called the Endeavour's Straits) touched at Batavia, and arrived in France in March 1769.

"In 1769, the Spaniards sent a ship to trace the discoveries of the English and French. This ship touched at Easter Island, and arrived at Ota|heite Page  xxvi in 1771. In her return, she discovered some islands, in lat. 32 S. and long. 130 W. but whe|ther she bent her course to New or Old Spain, remains undecided.

"In 1769, the French fitted out another ship from the Mauritius, under the command of Capt. Kergulen, who, having discovered some barren islands between the Cape of Good Hope and Van Dieman's Land, contented himself with leaving some Memorials there, which were found by Capt. Cook in the voyage of which we are now about to give an account.

"This year was rendered remarkable by the Transit of the Planet Venus over the Sun's Disk, a phaenomenon of great importance to Astronomy, and which every where engaged the attention of the learned in that Science.

"In the beginning of the year 1768, the Royal Society presented a Memorial to his Majesty, set|ting forth the advantages to be derived from ac|curate observations of this Transit in different parts of the world, particularly from a set of such observations made in a southern latitude, between the 140th and 180th degrees of longitude west from the Royal Observatory at Greenwich; at the same time representing, that vessels, properly equipped, would be necessary to convey the ob|servers to their destined stations; but that the So|ciety were in no condition to defray the expence."

In consequence of this Memorial, the Admi|ralty were directed by his Majesty to provide pro|per vessels for that purpose; and the Endeavour bark was accordingly purchased, fitted out, and the command given to Capt. Cook, who had al|ready signalized himself as an experienced Navi|gator; and Mr. Charles Green the Astronomer Page  xxvii was, jointly with the Captain, appointed to make the observations.

Otaheite being the island preferred for the per|formance of that important service, Capt. Cook received orders to proceed directly; and his in|structions were, as soon as the astronomical obser|vations were completed, to prosecute the design of making discoveries in the South Pacific Ocean, as far as the 40th degree of south latitude; and then, if no land should be discovered, to shape his course between lat. 40 and 35, till he should fall in with New Zealand, which he was to ex|plore; and thence to return.

In the prosecution of these instructions he sailed from Plymouth on the 26th of August, 1768, and on the 13th of April following, arrived at Ota|heite, having in his way discovered Lagoon Island, Two Groups, Bird Island, and Chain Island.

At Otaheite he remained three months, and, (besides the Astronomer Mr. Green) being accom|panied by Mr. Banks, a gentleman of fortune, and Dr. Solander, one of the Librarians of the British Museum, eminent both for his knowledge in Natural History, and in Botany; we have only to remark, that all Europe has already been bene|fited by the employment of their time.

The observations on the Transit being com|pleated with the wisht for success, Capt. Cook proceeded on discovery; he visited the Society-Isles, and discovered Oheteroa, fell in with the eastern coast of New Zealand, and examined it; thence proceeding to New Holland, he surveyed the eastern side of that vast continent, which had never before bene explored; discovered the Strait between its northern extremity and New Guinea; and returning home by Savu, Batavia, the Cape of Page  xxviii Good Hope, and St. Helena, he arrived in Eng|land the 12th of July 1771.

In 1769, Captain Surville made a trading voy|age from some port in the East Indies by a new course. He passed near New Britain, and fell in with some land in lat. 10° south, long. 158° East, to which he gave his own name; then shaping his course to the south-eastward, narrowly missed New Caledonia, put into Doubtful Bay in New Zealand; and from thence steered to the east, be|tween the latitudes of 35 and 41° south, till he arrived on the coast of America, a course never before navigated; and with that pursued by Capt. Furneaux, between 48 and 52°, and that after|wards by Capt. Cook, in a still higher latitude, confirms, to demonstration, the non-existence of a southern continent.

No sooner was Capt. Cook's voyage compleat|ed, and his Journals examined, than another voy|age was projected, the chief object of which was to compleat the discovery of the Southern He|misphere. Very extraordinary preparations were made for the equipment of the ships for this voy|age, which required those of a particular con|struction to perform it—such therefore were pur|chased. Some alterations likewise were necessary in the species of provisions usual in the navy, and these were made. Add to this, that many extra articles were provided, such as malt, sour krout, salted cabbage, portable soup, saloup, mustard, marmalade, and several others, as well for food for convalescents, as physick for the sick.

The ships judged most proper for the voyage were built for colliers, two of which were fitted up, and the command given to Capt. Cook; the largest of 562 tons, called the Resolution, had 112 Page  xxix men, officers included; the other, the Adventure, of 336 tons, given to Capt. Furneaux, 2d in com|mand, had only 81. To these were added, per|sons well skilled in Natural History, Astronomy, Mathematics, and the liberal Arts of Painting, Drawing, &c. &c.

On the 13th of July the two ships sailed from Plymouth, after having settled the latitude and longitude of that port by observation. This they did in order to regulate the time-pieces, of which they had four on board; three made by Mr. Ar|nold, and one by Mr. Kendal, on Mr. Harrison's principles.

The great object of the voyage was to deter|mine, to a certainty, the existence or non-existence of a southern continent, which, till then, (as has already been related) had engaged the attention of most of the maritime powers, and about the rea|lity of which Geographers of late seemed to have had but one belief.

Let it suffice, that this question is at length de|cided: but before we enter upon the proofs ne|cessary to decide that other question, concerning the existence or non-existence of a N. W. or N. E. passage, it will be expected, that we should not only lay before the reader the facts that have appeared in the course of the voyages made in the Pacific Ocean, which we are now about to relate, but those also that are to be gathered from the voyage made in the Atlantic Ocean for the like purpose.

Not only Navigators the most celebrated in their time, but even philosophers and cosmogra|phers of the first eminence, have contended, from analogy, that a communication between the At|lantic and Great Pacific Ocean must exist some|where in the Northern Hemisphere, in like man|ner Page  xxx as the same exists by the Straits of Magellan in the Southern Hemisphere; this appeared so certain to the Cabbots, the most renowned Navi|gators of the 15th century, that the younger Se|bastian, at the risque of life, proposed the disco|very of that passage to Henry the VIIth; and though he failed by the mutiny of his crew, after he had sailed as high as the 68th degree of northern latitude, yet that prince was so well pleased with his endeavours, that he created a new office in his favour, and appointed him grand pilot of Eng|land, with a salary of 1661. a year during life.

He returned by the way of Newfoundland, bringing home with him two Esquimaux.

It was long, however, before a second attempt was made with the professed design of discovering a north-west passage. The attention of the nation was too much fixed on projects towards the south, to attend to any thing that had reference to en|terprizes in the north.

Some there were, however, who held the object in view: and in 1576 Sir Martin Forbisher, with two small ships, attempted the discovery; and hav|ing found a Strait on the southernmost point of Groenland, through which he sailed about fifty leagues, with high land on both sides, he persuaded himself that he had succeeded in his enterprize; but after repeated trials, finding his error, he gave over the search.

In a few years after Sir Martin, Sir Humphrey Gilbert renewed the hopes of the discovery, by a voyage to the north, which, though it failed in the main point, it proved of infinite advantage to the nation in another. He coasted along the Ame|rican Continent from the 60th degree of northern latitude, till he fell in with the Gulph of St. Law|rence, which he continued to navigate till he per|ceived Page  xxxi the water to freshen; he then took posses|sion of that vast continent, since called Canada by the French, in the name of his Sovereign; and was the first who projected the fishery in Newfound|land, and who promoted the establishment of it.

In proportion as the commerce to the east in|ceased and became lucrative, the desire of en|grossing the trade by shortening the passage thither increased also; thence arose an emulation among the merchants for discovering the passage of which we are speaking. Those in London had concerted a plan for that purpose, and those in the West Country had a similar plan in contemplation; but neither the one nor the other had managed their designs with so much secrecy, but that each got acquainted with the other's intentions. This pro|duced a coalition; both agreed to join in the ex|pence; and both agreed in the appointment of Capt. John Davis, to conduct the voyage.

In 1585 he embarked on board the Sun-shire, a bark of about 60 tons and 23 men, attended by a vessel of 35 tons with 19 men, to which he gave the name of the Moon-shine. He sailed from Dart|mouth on the 7th of May. The first land he made was an island near the southernmost point of Groenland, which, from its horrid appearance, he named the Island of Desolation. In this progress he passed the Strait that still bears his name, and advanced as high as the latitude of 66 in an open sea, the coasts of which he examined till the ap|proach of winter obliged him to return, with every hope, however, of succeeding another year. On his arrival, his employers were so well pleased with the relation he gave, and the progress he had made, that they next year augmented his force, and sent him out with four vessels, one of which, the Mermaid, of 120 tons burthen, he commanded Page  xxxii himself, and the other three (the Sun-shine, Moon|shine, and the North-star, a pinance of 13 tons only) were furnished with masters of his own re|commendation.

On the 7th of May he set sail from Dartmouth, and steered a strait course till he arrived in the 60th degree of latitude, when he divided his fleet, ordering the Sun-shine and North-star to di|rect their search to the north-eastward as far as the 80th degree N. while he, with the Mermaid and Moon-shine, should continue their former search to the N. W. where he had already contracted an acquaintance with the inhabitants in his former voyage, which he vainly hoped would facilitate his views. At first they expressed great joy at his return, but they soon discovered the cloven foot. They were fond of iron, and he gave them knives; knives did not content them, they wanted hatchets; when they got hatchets, they cut his cables, and stole one of his coasting anchors, which he never recovered. He took one of the ring-leaders pri|soner, who after some time proved a useful hand; but they in return surprized five of his men, of whom they killed two, grievously wounded two more, and the fifth made his escape by swimming to the ship with an arrow sticking in his arm. In this voyage he coasted the land, which he found to be an island, from the 67th to the 57th degree N. and at length anchored in a fair harbour, eight leagues to the northward of which he conceived the passage to lie, as a mighty sea was seen rushing between two headlands from the west: into this sea he ardently wished to have sailed; but the wind and current both opposing his design, he was ob|liged, by the remonstrances of his people, to relin|quish that savage coast, and, as the season was far advanced, to return home. When he arrived he Page  xxxiii met with the Sun-shine, but the North-star was never more seen.

His misfortunes did not abate his zeal. He was prepossessed with the certainty of a N. W. passage, and he prevailed upon other adventurers, in conjunction with some of his former friends, to enable him to make a third trial, which proved no less unfortunate than those he had attempted before; notwithstanding which, could he have raised friends to have defrayed the expence, he would have continued his researches till death had put an end to his labours.

These repeated disappointments threw a damp for a while on this favourite pursuit; and it was not till the year 1610, that the former spirit of dis|covery began to revive.

In that year, Mr. Henry Hudson projected a new course towards the N. W. which brought him to the mouth of the Strait that now bears his name. This he traced till he came into an open sea; but the season being past for making any farther pro|gress at that time, he prevailed upon his crew, by flattering their avarice with the certainty of gain, to winter on that inhospitable coast, though desti|tute of provisions for a single month. While their provisions lasted they were contented; and the tale of riches and glory that had been told them, cherished their hopes; but when famine and cold began to pinch, the ideal prospect va|nished, and nothing but murmuring and mutiny succeeded, which ended in the tragical death of the Captain, and seven of his sick followers, who, unable to make resistance, were set adrift in the boat, while those who were in better health seized the ship, and made the best of their way home; and on their return gave such an account of the Page  xxxiv certainty of the passage, as left no room to doubt of the discovery.

Accordingly, the very next year Sir Henry Button undertook the task, and steered directly to the new-discovered sea, in which he sailed more than 200 leagues farther to the S. W. than his predecessors, wintered at Port Nelson, where he lost near half his men, and returned the next year, roundly asserting the existence of the pas|sage, though he had not been so happy as to find it.

Sir Henry was scarce returned before James Hall and William Baffin set sail, with a view to share the honour of compleating the discovery.

In this attempt Hall fell by the hands of a sa|vage, and Baffin soon returned, but with a full de|sign to renew his pursuit, whenever he could find an opportunity so to do. This did not happen till the year 1615, when he examined the sea that communicates with Davis's Straits, which he found to be no other than a great bay, with an inlet from the north, to which he gave the name of Smith's Sound, in lat. 78.

About this time the Hudson's Bay Company was established, who by charter were obliged to prosecute this discovery, as were likewise those masters of vessels that were employed in the whale fishery; but neither the one nor the other paid much attention to the chief object of their esta|blishment.

In the year 1631, Luke Fox, commissioned by King Charles the First, made a voyage in search of the same passage, but to as little purpose as the rest.

He was followed by Capt. James, who after the most elaborate search from one extremity to Page  xxxv the other of the bay, changed his opinion, and declared that no such passage existed; and it was not till a hundred years after, that Capt. Middle|ton undertook, upon the most plausible grounds, and at the instance and by the recommendation of Arthur Dobbs, Esq to make another attempt; which, though it was performed with equal zeal and fidelity, and though it might have carried conviction home to the mind of every unpreju|diced person, yet, as it was unsuccessful, it proved unsatisfactory. Mr. Dobbs, who had persuaded himself that such a passage must exist somewhere, from a friend became a most implacable enemy, charging Capt. Middleton not only with want of will, but with want of honesty, and with a prede|termined design of defeating the purpose of the voyage, being influenced thereto by the Hudson's Bay Company, from whom, he insinuated, the Captain had received a pecuniary reward.

Though this was equally injurious to the cha|racter of Capt. Middleton, and to the honour of the Company, yet Mr. Dobbs was in such high estimation with the public, who are ever prone to favour that side on which their interest is depending, that he not only procured an Act of Parliament, so framed as to facilitate his views, but had interest enough with a society of private adventurers to fit out two ships, the Dobbs and California, to re|examine the coasts which Capt. Middleton had vi|sited, and to make farther researches, till they should discover the passage, which, it was most confidently asserted, must necessarily exist, and which, when discovered, would enrich the disco|verers, and immensely increase the wealth and commerce of the nation.

As the act, which was obtained for the purpose of this voyage, was almost universally condemned Page  xxxvi as illiberal, partial, and inadequate, the reward of twenty thousand pounds held forth by it, being confined to ships belonging to his Mejesty's sub|jects solely, by which not only those of all other nations were excluded, but even those belonging to his Majesty's navy placed in the same predica|ment; and what was thought still more reprehen|sible, it was soon discovered that this act, which openly professed to give encouragement of ALL his Majesty's subjects, to make search for the passage in question, was yet confined to such ships solely as should discover it through Hudson's Bay.

With all this reward to enliven and invigorate the pursuit, which, at the same time that it threw a damp on other adventurers, could not but re|animate the hopes of those who were immediately engaged in the enterprize, the two ships set sail; and having examined every inlet, every gulph, and every opening which had the least appearance of a navigable Strait, they returned, as all that had gone before them had done, with a lamentable story of the distresses they had suffered, and the dangers they had surmounted; but not yet fully convinced that the passage which they went in search of did not exist.

Mr. Dobbs, though less sanguine, but not less dissatisfied with those entrusted with the conduct of this voyage, than with that of their predeces|sors, was still so immoveably attached to his own conceit, that he died in the firm belief that every miscarriage that had happened, had originated through the management of the Hudson's Bay Company. But the Hudson's Bay Company very prudentially kept proofs in their own hands, that had they been called upon by Parliament to ac|count for their conduct, would have convinced the world how unjustly they had been aspersed, and Page  xxxvii how fully they had complied, in every respect, with the terms of their institution.

The clamour, however, which Mr. Dobbs, and the gentlemen interested in the success of the voy|age, had found means to raise against the Com|pany, was such, as no longer to be disregarded. Though they were convinced themselves that no such passage existed within the limits of their char|ter, yet they found it necessary to convince the nation likewise. They, therefore, about the year 1761, ordered a sloop to be built, for the sole pur|pose of re-exploring every inlet that had been left doubtful, but more particularly that called Ches|terfield's Inlet, which Mr. Ellis, who wrote the history of the voyage, had spoken of as NOT WHOLLY DESTITUTE OF PROBABILITY. The com|mand of this sloop, named the Churchill, was entrusted to Capt. Christopher, who executed his commission to the satisfaction of his employers; but not having compleated his examination, so as to leave no possibility of any such Strait existing, the Company, the year following, added to the sloop which Capt. Christopher commanded, a Cut|ter, of which Mr. Norton was appointed master; and both set sail for Chesterfield's Inlet, the extent of which the Captain, in his former voyage, and not been able wholly to ascertain.

Early in the summer of 1763, these two vessels set sail from Churchill River, and arrived at the mouth of Chesterfield's Inlet in the proper season; and notwithstanding the opposition they met with, from the difficulty of the navigation, and from the obstructions of the shoals of ice they had to com|bat, they reached the extremity of the gulph, and found it to terminate in a vast lake, more than sixty miles in extent, into which a river of ordi|nary Page  xxxviii size, which took its rise among the moun|tains, after several falls, emptied itself.

Thus having traced to their source this and every opening as far as the 67th degree of northern latitude, beyond which no communication between the Atlantic and Pacific Seas could be of any use for the purposes of commerce; the Company re|linquished, upon the most solid grounds, all farther search for it be sea; but that no imputation should remain upon the Company for not fulfilling their engagements with the public in the amplest man|ner, Mr. Dobbs having laid great stress on what the Indians, who came from far to trade with the Company, had said of a river, which from the abundance of copper being found near it, had ob|tained the name of the Copper Mine River, wrote to the Governor of Fort Prince of Wales, to send a proper person, under the convoy of some trusty Indians, to make an accurate survey of that fa|mous river, and to trace it from its source to the sea.

Mr. Hearne, a young gentleman of known cou|rage, and equally well qualified in every other respect, was made choice of for this enterprise. Accordingly, he set out with his Indian convoy from Fort Prince of Wales, on Churchill's River, in lat. 58° 50′, on the 7th of December 1770, and directing his course to the N. W. over one of the most dreary and desolate portions of the earth that any European ever crossed, he arrived, the June following, at a place called Conge-catha-wha-chaga, where he had two good observations, by which he was enabled to determine the latitude of the place to be 68° 46′ N. and, by computation, in longi|tude 24° 2′ west of Churchill River.

On the 13th of July, still continuing his course to the W. of the N. he reached the head of the Page  xxxix Copper Mine River; which, instead of being na|vigable for shipping, was at this place scarcely practicable for an Indian canoe.

Here, however, Mr. Hearne began his survey, previous to which three of his convoy were dis|patched as scouts, to gain intelligence if there were any Esquimaux about the river. These scouts in a few days returned, with an account that there were five huts of Esquimaux on the opposite side, and, as they judged, at about twelve miles dis|tance. On this news, the Indian convoy paid no more attention to Mr. Hearne's survey, their whole thoughts being occupied in what manner to steal upon the Esquimaux in the night, and to murder them while they were asleep. The better to effect their bloody purpose, it was necessary to cross the river; but, before they made the least advance, they cleaned their arms, loaded their guns, and new painted their targets; some with the image of the sun; others with that of the moon; others with different kinds of birds and beasts of prey; but most with the figures of furies, monsters, dae|mons, and other visionary inhabitants of the dif|ferent elements of earth, air, and sea. Upon en|quiry into the reason of this superstition, Mr. Hearne was told, that each man painted on his target the figure of that being on which he most relied for success or protection.

This ceremony over, they began their march to the huts of the Esquimaux, always keeping the low grounds, and carefully avoiding the eminences. The number of the party that accompanied Mr. Hearne, being superior to that of the Esquimaux, and much better equipped, could scarcely have failed of rendering victory certain, had the attack been made in fair combat; but on that they did not wholly rely. Being arrived within 200 yards Page  xl of the huts undiscovered, they then halted, and endeavoured to persuade Mr. Hearne to remain stationary till the fight was over; but that gentle|man, apprehending more danger from being left alone, than by accompanying his convoy, resolved to share with them the fortune of the day. They seemed highly pleased with this instance of his courage, and presently put into his hands a spear and a poniard, but he had no target. By the time that all things were agreed upon and adjusted, it was one in the morning, and all the unsuspecting Esquimaux were fast asleep; it was then they rushed sorth upon them, and with dreadful yells began the horrors of the massacre. Being in a situation incapable of resistance, men, women, and children, fell victims to savage fury. The shrieks and groans of the poor expiring multitude were truly horrible to a feeling heart; and this was much increased in that of Mr. Hearne, by the sight of a young girl, who being pierced with a spear, fell down at his feet, and twisted round his legs in such a manner, as hardly to be disengaged from her dying grasps. Her Mr. Hearne solicited to save; but the two ruffians who pursued her made no reply, till their spears had transfixed her to the earth, and then looking sternly at him, they asked him, with a tone that denoted fury, if he was in want of an Esquimaux wife! He at that instant had fears for his own life for begging her's; and while she was wreathing round their spears in all the agonies of torture—horrible to tell!—Here Mr. Hearne, in his journal, throws a veil over the inhuman, and more than brutal scene, as too shock|ing for description.

When they had compleated their dreadful car|nage, they discovered, on the opposite side of the river, seven other huts, which the projecting cliffs Page  xli had hitherto concealed from their sight. These they reconnoitred, and seeing the Esquimaux in|habitants packing up their baggage, and preparing for action, but seemingly not very apprehensive from any attack; to intimidate them, they began to fire upon them across the river, which was here about eighty yards wide. The Esquimaux, who had never before heard the report of a gun, were seen eagerly gathering up the bullets which the rocks had flattened, till one man was wounded in the leg; they then took the alarm, fled to their canoes, and made good their retreat to the shoals above. The Indians, who had now nothing to fear, began to plunder the huts, the inhabitants of which they had just murdered; and having made themselves masters of as much copper as they could carry away, they ascended a hill, and forming a circle with their spears erect, gave shouts of victory, crying Tama! Tama! words of derision and defiance to the fugitives below.

This ceremony over, they returned to their baggage, and re-crossing the river to assist in the survey, they observed the Esquimaux, thinking they were gone, busy again about their huts. They rushed forward with astonishing impetuosity, but the canoes of the Esquimaux being ready, they had embarked and fled, one man only re|maining, whom the Indians immediately slew. They plundered the huts of what baggage was left, destroyed them, and then returned to Mr. Hearne in joyful triumph.

It was about five in the morning, of the 17th of July 1771, when Mr. Hearne proceeded again to survey the river, which he found, all the way into the sea, encumbered with shoals and falls imprac|ticable to navigation. Being low water when he reached its mouth, he could determine the rise of Page  xlii the tide to be about 12 or 14 feet. This rise, on account of the falls, could carry a vessel of bur|then but a very little way: nor did it slow far, the water at eight miles distance having not the least brackish taste.

By the time Mr. Hearne had compleated his survey of the river, it was about one in the morn|ing, of the 18th of August, when the sun in those high latitudes is always a good height above the horizon. It then came on a very thick fog, with a drizzling rain; and as he had found the river and sea in every respect unfit for commercial pur|poses, he thought it unnecessary to wait for fair weather, to determine the latitude to greater ex|actness than he was already enabled to do by the observations he had made at Conge-catha-wha|chaga, by which he could calculate to 20 minutes, with certainty, the latitude of the mouth of the Copper Mine River, which he fixed at 72° north, and long. 25 W. from Churchill River; that is, about 119 W. of Greenwich.

In Mr. Hearne's journey back from the Copper Mine River, those who attended him met with an adventure, that, were it not reported on unques|tionable authority, could hardly be believed. While they were out on a hunting party, they very unexpectedly crossed a snow-shoe track, and tracing it till they came to a little hut, they there found a young woman sitting alone, whom they brought to the tents. Being questioned as to her compa|nions, she positively declared that she was the only inhabitant within her knowledge. Being ques|tioned farther, as to her history, she gave the fol|lowing account: That she was one of the Western Dog-ribbed Indians, who live afar off towards the setting sun; that the tribe to which she belonged were surprized in the night by the Arathapescow Page  xliii Indians, and all murdered except herself and three other young women, who were made prisoners; that while the Arathapescow's were a hunting, she found means to elope, and had concealed herself in the hut in which she was found, for many months; that when she was first made prisoner she had a child, whom the women took from her, and killed it on the spot; that she had lived in that solitude for more than nine moons, without seeing a human face, and that she had subsisted all the while by snaring hares, squirrels, and other wild animals, which frequented the woods, so that she was at no loss for food; that she once had a mind to return to her own country, but was deterred from attempting it by the distance, it be|ing many days journey to the westward, and she had no conception left of the way. She had no|thing to make snares of, but the sinews of rabbits legs and feet, which she had found means to strip, and had twisted them together for that purpose; and of their skins she had made a neat and warm winter's clothing. She had not been long at the tents, before half a score Indians wrestled to see who should have her for wife. Her country, she said, was so far off, that she had never seen iron, or other metal, till taken prisoner, those of her tribe making their hatchets and chissels of deers horns, and their knives of stone and bone; their arrows were shod with deers horns, and their instru|ments to make their wood work were nothing but beavers teeth; they frequently heard of the useful materials the nations to the east are supplied with from the English; but instead of drawing nearer, to be in the way of trading for iron-work, were obliged to retreat farther back, to avoid the Ara|thapescow Indians, who make surprizing slaughter among them every year. Her story, though very Page  xliv affecting, having lost father, mother, brothers, and relations, all murdered in one night, served the savages only for matter of mirth.

But while the Hudson's Bay Company were thus employed, there was yet another expedition re|commended to his Majesty about the beginning of 1773, by the Royal Society, the chief object of which was to try how far navigation was practica|ble under the Poles. It was imagined, that the sun being there 33 degrees high about the middle of summer, and having little or no depression to|wards the horizon, might invigorate that part of the hemisphere with more heat than in our cli|mate, where in the winter he is only 15 deg. high, and 16 hours in every 24 below the horizon, in which space the earth has time to cool, and to lose in the night the influence of heat it receives in the day. This consideration, added to the credit due to several well-authenticated relations, parti|cularly about the year 1670, when it was asserted and believed, that several Dutch ships had actu|ally sailed under the Pole, and the merchants in Holland being required to verify this fact, hav|ing grounded a petition for an exclusive charter to trade to China and Japan by a northern passage, upon it; they produced the Journals of the Green|land squadron of 1655, in several of which there was notice taken of a ship which that year had sailed as high as the latitude of 89; and three Journals of that ship being examined, they all agreed as to one observation, taken by the master, August 1, 1655, in 88° 56′ north, where the sea was open, and the weather warm.

There were, however, several other important reasons which induced the Royal Society to re|commend this northern voyage to his Majesty, who having been graciously pleased to counte|nance Page  xlv and encourage it, Capt. Phipps, now Lord Mulgrave, no sooner heard of the design, than he tendered his service to carry it into execution. The board of longitude, at the same time, agreed with Mr. Israel Lyons, a gentleman eminent in the science of Astronomy, and an honour to the insti|tution where he first received the rudiments of his education, [Christ's Hospital] to accompany Mr. Phipps, in order to fix the true places of several northern promontories, and for other nautical pur|poses; and Dr. Irving likewise embraced that op|portunity to give the invention, for which he had received a parliamentary reward, a full trial.

In this voyage too, the Board of Longitude sent two time-pieces for trial; one constructed by Mr. Kendall on Mr. Harrison's principles; the other by Mr. Arnold on principles of his own: and Capt. Phipps had himself a pocket watch made by Mr. Arnold, by which he kept longitude with much greater exactness than was done by either of the other two, having varied only 2 min. 40 sec. during the whole voyage.

On the 19th of April, Capt. Phipps, in the Race Horse, received his commission; and on the 30th of May was joined by Capt. Lutwidge in the Carcase Bomb-Ketch at the Nore, where Mr. Lyons landed, and found Sheerness fort to lie in lat. 51° 31′ 30″ long, 30′ E.

On the 9th of June Capt. Phipps delivered Mr. Lutwidge his instructions, weighed, and pro|ceeded on his voyage.

On the 15th determined the position of Hang Cliff, a remarkable point in the Shetland Isles, lat. 60° 9′ long. 56′ 30″ west of Greenwich.

On the 29th of the same month, he found him|self close in with the land of Spitsbergen in 77 degrees North.

Page  xlviOn the 2d of July measured the altitude of se|veral mountains. One was 1503 yards high.

On the 5th steered directly for Hackluyt's Headland.

On the 10th, being entangled in the ice, and forced to haul up to weather a point, set the fore|sails, which, with the breeze freshening, gave the ship so much way, that she pressed thro' it with a violent stroke.

On the 13th, the symptoms of an approaching storm obliged him to take shelter in Vogel Sang, a small island, the north-eastermost point of which is known by the name of Cloven Cliff, lat. 79° 53′ long. 9° 59′ 30″ E. Hackluyt's Headland, 79° 47′ long. 9° 11′ 30″ E.

On the 30th, being in lat. 80° 31′, and long. 18° 48′ E. the ice came all round the ships, and pressed so close that the ships could no longer make sail; yet the weather was fine, and the crews full of play.

But on the 5th of August the apprehensions of wintering in that situation began to increase, and the sea being open to the westward, the carpenters were set to work to enlarge the boats, and to make them commodious to transport the crews. As the ships drove, and the water shoaled hourly, the danger increased. In the situation they were in, had either the ice or the ships grounded, inevitable destruction must have ensued.

On the 7th, the people were employed in haul|ing the boats over the ice. At that critical mo|ment, the ice about the ships was observed to open.

On the 10th, those who were left on board pressed the ships, as it were by main force, through much heavy ice, and about noon got out to sea.

Page  xlviiAnd on the 11th anchored in Smeerenburg harbour, on the island of Spitsbergen; where they found four Dutchmen at anchor, on whom they had depended for a passage home, had the ships been locked up.—Thus ended this important voyage, for far as related to discovery.

Capt. Phipps concludes the account of his voy|age with observing, that by setting out just at the proper season, they not only reached the 80th de|gree of latitude, without meeting any obstruction from the ice, but they had likewise time sufficient to examine a track of icey coast between the lati|tudes of 80 and 81, extending more than 20 de|grees from W. to E. in which there did not exist the least opening to the North, the whole being one continued wall of ice, impassable by human art.

All this being known to the Lords of the Ad|miralty, it might seem an unnecessary expence to order any more ships to be fitted out, to attempt so hopeless a discovery from the Atlantic Ocean; yet, to leave nothing untried, other ships were fitted out, and the command of the first (the Lyon armed brig) was given to Lieut. Pickersgill, with orders "to proceed to Davis's Straits (first), for the protection of the British whale fisheries; and then, that object secured, to explore the coasts of Baffin's Bay, as far as in his judgment the same could be done without apparent risk; taking care to leave the said Bay so timely, as to secure his re|turn to England in the fall; and it was further enjoined him, to make such nautical remarks as would be useful to Geography and Navigation. Pickersgill obeyed his instructions in these last in|stances. He did make some useful observations, and he did return the same year; but the command of the next expedition into Baffin's Bay, was con|ferred Page  xlviii on Lieut. Young, with orders to endeavour to find a passage on that side from the Atlantic to the Pacific Sea; and, if he succeeded in the at|tempt, to make the best of his way to Spithead or the Nore, there to remain till farther orders; but neither Lieut. Pickersgill nor Lieut. Young hav|ing succeeded; as, in truth, there could be no reasonable foundation for supposing they would succeed, both these gentlemen suffered in their nautical characters; the one, for improper beha|viour while he was commander; the other, as better adapted to contribute to the glory of a vic|tory, than to add to geographical discoveries.

Such then has been the unfortunate issue of all the voyages which have been undertaken for the discovery of a passage from the Atlantic to the Pacific Ocean; but it was not yet rendered cer|tain, that a passage, nearly approaching to the extremities of the Gulphs that had already been discovered on the eastern side of the American Continent, might not be found on its western side, as there is a remarkable note in Campbell's Voyages, on which that writer, who was a great advocate for the passage in question, lays great stress, viz. that Capt. Lancaster, of the Dragon (afterwards Sir James), who commanded the first fleet to the East Indies, having heard a report while there, of another passage to that country, and being on his return home overtaken by a storm, in which the Dragon lost her rudder, and was otherwise in danger of perishing, being determined not to desert her, wrote a letter, and sent it on board the Hector, to which was added the follow|ing P. S.

"The passage to the East Indies lies in 62° 30′ by the N. W. on the American side."

It was therefore to determine this question, with certainty, that our great Navigator relinquished Page  xlix his honourable post of Governor of Greenwich Hospital, to engage in the conduct of an expedi|tion which necessarily exposed him to innumerable hardships, and to dangers which, unfortunately for his country, it was not his lot to escape.

The instructions under which he sailed, if any credit may be given to public report, were planned by himself, and drawn up under his own imme|diate inspection. And indeed, whoever considers the vast objects they comprize, the judicious ar|rangements of the course that was to be pursued, and the various operations that were to be carried into effect, will not hesitate a moment to pronounce that such a masterly composition could not be the work of an ifficial clerk, let his talents and expe|rience in nautical affairs be ever so extensive.

That the intelligent reader may enjoy the plea|sure of perusing them, they are here inserted at full length.

By the Commissioners for executing the office of Lord High Admiral of Great Britain and Ire|land, &c.

Secret Instructions for Capt. James Cook, Com|mander of his Majesty's sloop the Resolution.

WHEREAS the Earl of Sandwich has signified to us his Majesty's pleasure, that an attempt should be made to find out a northern passage by sea from the Pacific to the Atlantic Ocean; and whereas, we have, in pursuance thereof, caused his Majesty's sloops Resolution and Discovery to be fitted in all respects proper to proceed upon a voyage for the purpose above-mentioned; and from the experi|ence we have had of your abilities and good con|duct in your voyages, have thought fit to entrust you with the conduct of the present intended voy|age, and, with that view, appointed you to com|mand Page  l the first-mentioned sloop, and directed Capt. Clerke, who commands the other, to follow your orders for his further proceedings: You are hereby required and directed to proceed with the said two sloops directly to the Cape of Good Hope, unless you shall judge it necessary to stop at Madeira, the Cape de Verd, or Canary Islands, to take in wine for the use of their companies; in which case you are at liberty to do so, taking care to remain there no longer than may be necessary for that purpose.

On your arrival at the Cape of Good Hope you are to refresh the sloops companies, and to cause the sloops to be supplied with as much provisions and water as they can conveniently stow.

You are, if possible, to leave the Cape of Good Hope by the end of October or the beginning of November next, and proceed to the southward in search of some islands said to have been lately seen by the French in the latitude of 48° south, and about the meridian of Mauritius. In case you find those islands, you are to examine them tho|roughly for a good harbour; and upon discovering one, make the necessary observations to facilitate the finding it again, as a good port in that situation may hereafter prove very useful, although it should afford little or nothing more than shelter, wood and water. You are not, however, to spend too much time in looking out for those islands, or in the examination of them, if found, but to proceed to Otaheite, or the Society's Isles (touching at New Zealand in your way thither, if you should judge it necessary and convenient) and taking care to arrive there time enough to admit of your giving the sloops companies the refreshment they may stand in need of, before you prosecute the farther object of these instructions.

Page  liUpon your arrival at Otaheite or the Society Isles, you are to land Omiah at such of them as he may choose, and to leave him there.

You are to destribute among the Chiefs of those islands such parts of the presents with which you have been supplied as you shall judge proper, reserving the remainder to distribute among the natives of the countries you may discover in the Northern Hemisphere; and having refreshed the people belonging to the sloops under your com|mand, and taken on board such wood and water as they may respectively stand in need of, you are to leave those islands in the beginning of Febru|ary, or sooner, if you shall judge it necessary, and then proceed in as direct a course as you can to the coast of New Albion, endeavouring to fall in with it in the latitude of 45° N. and taking care in your way thither not to lose any time in search of new lands, or to stop at any you may fall in with, unless you may find it necessary to recruit your wood and water.

You are also in your way thither strictly en|joined not to touch upon any part of the Spanish dominions on the western continent of America, unless driven thither by some unavoidable acci|dent; in which case you are to stay no longer there than shall be absolutely necessary, and to be very careful not to give any umbrage or offence to any of the inhabitants or subjects of his Catholic Ma|jesty: And if in your further progress to the northward, as hereafter directed, you find any subjects of any European prince or state upon any part of the coast you may think proper to visit, you are not to disturb them, or give them any just cause of offence, but, on the contrary, to treat them with civility and friendship.

Page  liiUpon your arrival on the coast of New Albion, you are to put into the first convenient port, to recruit your wood and water and procure refresh|ments, and then to proceed northward along the coast as far as the latitude of 65°, or farther, if you are not obstructed by lands or ice, taking care not to lose any time in exploring rivers or inlets, or upon any other account, until you get into the before-mentioned latitude of 65°, where we could wish you to arrive in the month of June next. When you get that length, you are very carefully to search for and to explore such rivers or inlets as may appear to be of a considerable extent, and pointing towards Hudson's or Baffin's Bay; and if, from you own observations, or from any in|formation you may receive from the natives (who, there is reason to believe, are the same race of people, and speak the same language of which you are furnished with a vocabulary, as the Esqui|maux) there shall appear to be a certainty or even a probability of a water passage into the afore|mentioned bays, or either of them, you are in such case to use your utmost endeavours to pass through with one or both of the sloops, unless you shall be of opinion that the passage may be effected with more certainty, or with greater probability, by smaller vessels; in which case you are to set up the frames of one or both the small vessels with which you are provided; and when they are put together, and are properly fitted, stored, and victu|alled, you are to dispatch one or both of them, under the care of proper officers, with a sufficient number of petty officers, men, and boats, in order to attempt the said passage; with such instructions for their rejoining you, if they should fail, or for their further proceedings if they should succeed in the attempt, as you shall judge most proper. Page  liii But, nevertheless, if you shall find it more eligible to pursue any other measures than those above pointed out, in order to make a discovery of the before-mentioned passage (if any such there be) you are at liberty, and we leave it to your discre|tion to pursue such measures accordingly.

In case you shall be satisfied that there is no passage through to the above-mentioned bays, suf|ficient for the purposes of navigation, you are, at the proper season of the year, to repair to the port of St. Peter and St. Paul, in Kamtschatka, or wherever else you shall judge more proper, in order to refresh your people, and pass the winter; and in the spring of the ensuing year 1778, to pro|ceed from thence to the northward, as far as in your prudence you may think proper, in further search of a north-east or a north-west passage from the Pacific Ocean or the North Sea: And if, from your own obsevation, or any information you may receive, there shall appear to be a probability of such passage, you are to proceed as above di|rected: and having discovered such passage, or failed in the attempt, make the best of your way back to England by such route as you may think best for the improvement of geography and navigation, repairing to Spithead with both ships, where they are to remain till further order.

At whatever places you may touch in the course of your voyage, where accurate observations of the nature hereafter mentioned have not already been made, you are, as far as your time will al|low, very carefully to observe the true situation of such places, both in latitude and longitude; the variation of the needle; bearings of head-lands; height, direction, and course of the tides and currents; depths and soundings of the sea; shoals, rocks, &c. and also to survey, make charts, and Page  liv take views of such bays, harbours, and different parts of the coast. And to make such notations thereon as may be useful either to navigation or commerce. You are also carefully to observe the nature of the soil and the produce thereof; the animals and fowls that inhabit or frequent it; the fishes that are to be found in the rivers or upon the coast, and in what plenty; and in case there are any peculiar to such places, to describe them as minutely, and to make as accurate drawings of them as you can; and if you find any metals, minerals, or valuable stones, or any extraneous fossils, you are to bring home specimens of each; as also of the seeds of such trees, shrubs, plants, fruits and grains, peculiar to those places, as you may be able to collect, and to transmit them to our Secretary, that proper examination and expe|riments may be made of them. You are likewise to observe the genius, temper, disposition, and number of the natives and inhabitants, where you find any, and to endeavour, by all proper means, to cultivate a friendship with them; making them presents of such trinkets as you may have on board, and they may like best; inviting them to traffic; and shewing them every kind of civility and regard, but taking care nevertheless not to suffer yourself to be surprized by them, but to be always on your guard against any accidents.

You are also, with the consent of the natives, to take possession, in the name of the King of Great Britain, of convenient situations in such countries as you may discover, that have not al|ready been discovered or visited by any other European power; and to distribute among the inhabitants such things as will remain as traces and testimonies of your having been there; but if you find the countries so discovered are unin|habited, Page  lv you are to take possession of them for his Majesty, by setting up proper marks and in|scriptions as first discoverers and possessors.

But forasmuch as in undertakings of this na|ture, several emergencies may arise, not to be soreseen, and therefore not particularly to be pro|vided for by instructions before-hand, you are, in all such cases, to proceed as you shall judge most advantageous to the service on which you are em|ployed. You are, by all opportunities, to send to our Secretary, for our information, accounts of your proceedings, and copies of the surveys and drawings you shall have made; and upon your arrival in England, you are immediately to repair to this office, in order to lay before us a full ac|count of your proceedings in the whole course of your voyage; taking care before you leave the sloop to demand from the officers and petty officers the log-books and journals they may have kept, and to seal them up for our inspection; and en|joining them and the whole crew, not to divulge where they have been, until they shall have per|mission so to do; and you are to direct Capt. Clerke to do the same with respect to the officers, petty officers, and crew of the Discovery.

If any accident should happen to the Resolution in the course of the voyage, so as to disable her from proceeding any farther, you are, in such case, to remove yourself and her crew into the Discovery, and to prosecute your voyage in her; her Commander being hereby strictly required to receive you on board, and to obey your orders the same in every respect as when you were actually on board the Resolution: And in case of your inability, by sickness or otherwise, to carry these instructions into execution, you are to be careful Page  lvi to leave them with the next officer in command, who is hereby required to execute them in the best manner he can.

Given under our hands, the 6th day of July 1776, By command of their Lordships,

  • SANDWICH.
  • C. SPENCER.
  • H. PALLISER.
P. H. STEPHENS.

It remains now only briefly to enumerate the stores and provisions that were ordered by his Majesty, under the direction of the Lords of the Admiralty, to be prepared for the compleat equip|ment of the expedition. Particular care was or|dered to be taken that the rigging of both ships should be of the best quality, and that the quan|tities required of each sort should be fully sup|plied; that every thing that had been found by the experience of former voyagers to be of use in preserving the health of the seamen, should be furnished in abundance; that not only those things that were immediately conducive to the subsistence and accommodation of the respective crews on board, but also what might be of permanent ad|vantage to the inhabitants of those islands and countries where they might chance to be driven for relief or refreshment. With this view, a bull, two cows with their calves, and some sheep, were put on board, intending to add to these other useful animals when they arrived at the Cape. From the same benevolent motive, great quanti|ties of European garden seeds and roots were put on board, and both ships were provided with store of iron tools, the most useful, and those best cal|culated for traffic, and to cultivate a friendly inter|course with the inhabitants of such new countries as they should be so fortunate as to discover. Add Page  lvii to these, trinkets, toys, beads, looking-glasses, and nails without number.

But this was not all; the naval board had ob|jects of a more extensive nature in view; the im|provement of astronomy and navigation; the cul|tivation of science, and the important acquisitions to natural history: these were all provided for, and proper instruments and proper masters were allotted for each. And for the more striking de|lineation of those memorable scenes, and rare pro|ductions in nature that might present themselves in the course of so ample a range as the circumna|vigation of the globe, painters and artists were engaged to supply the imperfections of written accounts, and to illustrate what otherwise could not be fully described.

Having now given a brief retrospective view of all the voyages that have been undertaken with a view to discovery in the great Pacific Ocean; and having likewise recounted the many unsuccessful attempts that have been made by the most cele|brated navigators of our own nation for the dis|covery of a passage between the two Great Seas in the Northern Hemisphere, we shall conclude this long introduction with only observing, that the journal of the voyage that follows is not in reality the voyage of the Resolution, but of the Discovery that accompanied the Resolution, without which the history of the voyage would be obvi|ously incompleat.

Page  [unnumbered]

THE COMPLEMENT OF OFFICERS and MEN, ON BOARD EACH SHIP, WAS AS FOLLOWS, VIZ.

  RESOLUTION. DISCOVERY.
Captain 1 James Cook 1 Charles Clerke
Lieutenants 3 John Gore 2 James Burney
    James King   John Rickman
    John Williamson    
Master 1 Wm. Bligh 1 Thomas Edgar
Boatswain 1 Wm. Ewin 1 Aeneas Atkins
Carpenter 1 James Clevely 1 Peter Reynolds
Gunner 1 Robt. Anderson 1 Wm. Peckover
Surgeon 1 Wm. Anderson 1 John Law
Master's Mates 3   2  
Midshipmen 6   4  
Surgeon's Mates 2   2  
Captain's Clerk 1   1  
Master at Arms 1   1  
Corporal 1    
Armourer 1   1  
Ditto Mate 1   1  
Sail-maker 1   1  
Ditto Mate 1   1  
Boatswain's Mates 3   2  
Carpenter's Ditto 3   2  
Gunner's Ditto 2   1  
Carpenter's Crew 4   4  
Cook 1   1  
Ditto Mate 1    
Quarter Masters 6   4  
Able Seamen 45   33  
     
  92   69  
     

Lieutenant of Marines, Molesworth Philips; 2 Serjeants, 3 Corporals, 2 Drummers, and 23 Privates.

Page  [unnumbered] A VOYAGE, ON DISCOVERY, CAPT. COOK, COMMANDER.

PART I.

Containing an Account of what happened in the Prosecution of the Voyage, from the Departure of the Ships with Omai, from England, in August 1776, till their leaving the Society Islands, in the South Seas, Dec. 9th, 1777, to begin their Discoveries to the North.

HAVING taken in our guns at the Galleons, and what stores were wanting,

On the 14th of June 1776, both ships came to an anchor at the Nore; but our fresh pro|visions being nearly exhausted, we weighed next day, and left the Resolution waiting for her Commander,

On the 16th, came too off Deal, and received on board a great quantity of beef and mutton Page  2 for the ship's company, and a boat for the Captain's use. It blew hard in the night and all the next day.

On the 18th we weighed anchor and sailed; but we had no sooner entered the channel than a storm arose, by which we were driven into Port|land Roads, where we received considerable da|mage. We had blowing weather till

The 26th, when we arrived at Plymouth. There we found a large fleet of men of war and transports with troops on board for America, and saluted the Admiral with 11 guns. They had been driven in there by stress of weather, several of them much damaged. About 12 at noon we came to moorings in the Sound.

On the 30th the Resolution arrived, saluted the Admiral, and came too and moored close by us.

It was now found necessary before we pro|ceeded, to go into harbour to repair the da|mages our ship had received in the storm of the 18th, and the Resolution proposed to wait till we were in readiness; but it was with difficulty that an order was obtained for the carpenters to begin, and when it was obtained, it was some time before it could be carried into execution. The repairs of the fleet for America being judged of greater consequence than the repairs of a ship commissioned for discovery.

The Resolution, tired with delay, when the day came that she set sail on her former voyage, which was

On the 12th of July, the impatience of the ship's company, and the notion they had enter|tained of its being a lucky day, induced Capt. Cook to comply with their importunities, and he accordingly set sail, leaving orders with Capt. Page  3 Clerke to follow him to St. Jago, and if he should there miss of him, to pursue his course directly for the Cape of Good Hope.

This was unwelcome news to the ship's com|pany of the Discovery, who were equally impa|tient to set sail, and equally possessed of notions of lucky days with those of their brethren in the Discovery.

During this tedious interval of unavoidable delay, a succinct account of Omai, the native of Ulietea, who embarked with Capt. Cook on board the Resolution on his return home, will give those who never had an opportunity of seeing him while in England, some idea of his person, his genius, his character and acquirements.

This the Editor thought it his province to supply; and has taken no small pains to collect from the writings of the gentlemen, who had the best opportunities of knowing and conversing with Omai while in England, their sentiments respecting him, which, though not entirely cor|responding with the ideas of the Journalist (as will be seen in the sequel) yet to do Omai am|ple justice, the Editor thinks of it incumbent on him to conceal nothing that has appeared in his favour.

This man it appears, by the testimony of Capt. Cook, had once some property in his own coun|try, of which he was dispossessed by the people of Bolabola. Capt. Cook at first wondered that Capt. Furneaux would encumber himself with so ordinary a person, who was not, in his opinion, a proper representative of the inhabitants of those happy islands; and Mr. Forster says, it is doing him no injustice to assert, that among all the inha|bitants of Otaheite and the Society Isles, he had seen few individuals so ill-favoured as Omai; nei|ther Page  4 did he seem of eminence in rank or parts, more than in shape, figure, or complexion, to attract the notice of an enlightened nation, but seemed, adds Mr. Forster, to be one of the com|mon people; and the rather, as he did not aspire to the Captain's company, but preferred that of the armourer and common seamen to those of su|perior rank; yet, notwithstanding the contempti|ble opinion, which both these gentlemen seems to have entertained of him at first, as soon as he reached the Cape of Good Hope, and Capt. Cook had dressed him in his own clothes, and introduced him to the best company, he then declared he was not a towtow, or one of the common class, but a hoa, or attendant on the King; and Capt. Cook acknowledges, that since he arrived in England, he had his doubts whether any of the natives would have given more general satisfaction. It will not, we presume, be thought tedious if we add his cha|racter, as drawn by Capt. Cook and Mr. Forster, in their respective histories of the Voyage under|taken to determine the existence or non-existence of a Southern Continent, in 1772.

"Omai," says Capt. Cook, "has most cer|tainly a good understanding, quick parts, and honest principles; he has a natural good behavi|our, which rendered him acceptable to the best company, and a proper degree of pride, which taught him to avoid the society of persons of in|ferior rank. He has passions of the same kind as other young men, but has judgment enough not to indulge them in any improper excess. I do not imagine (adds the Captain) that he has any dislike to liquor, and if he had fallen into com|pany, where the person who drank the most met with the most approbation, I have no doubt but that he would have endeavoured to gain the ap|plause Page  5 of those with whom he associated; but for|tunately for him, he perceived that drinking was very little in use but among inferior people; and as he was very watchful into the manners and con|duct of the persons of rank who honoured him with their protection, he was sober and modest; and I never heard, that during the whole time of his staying in England, which was two years, he ever once was disguised with wine, or ever shewed an inclination to go beyond the strictest rules of moderation.

"Soon after his arrival in London, the Earl of Sandwich introduced him to his Majesty at Kew, where he met with a most gracious reception, and imbibed the strongest impressions of duty and gra|titude to that great and amiable Prince, which I am persuaded he will preserve to the latest mo|ment of his life. During his stay he was caressed by many of the chief Nobility; but his principal patrons were the Earl of Sandwich, Mr. Banks, and Dr. Solander."

Capt. Cook adds,

"that though Omai lived in the midst of amusements during his residence in England, his return to his own country was always in his thoughts; and though he was not impatient to go, he expressed a satisfaction as the time of his return approached."

Thus far Capt. Cook, in his own account of his Voyage for the Discovery of a Southern Continent; and though there are some traits of this character to be discerned in that drawn by Mr. Forster, yet his good qualities are there so blended with child|ishness and folly, that one can hardly think it ap|plicable to the same identical person.

"Omai," says Mr. Forster, "has been con|sidered either as remarkably stupid or very intelli|gent, according to the different allowances which Page  6 were made by those who judged of his abilities. His language, which is destitute of every harsh consonant, and where every word ends with a vowel, had so little exercised his organs of speech, that they were wholly unfit to pronounce the more complicated English sounds; and this physical or rather habitual defect, has too often been mis|construed. Upon his arrival in England, he was immediately introduced into general company, led to the most splendid entertainments, and pre|sented at court amidst a brilliant circle of the first nobility. He naturally imitated that easy and elegant politeness which is so prevalent in all those places; he adopted the manners, the occu|pations, and amusements of his companions, and gave many proofs of a quick perception and lively fancy. Among the instances of his intelligence, I need only mention his knowledge of the game of Chess, in which he had made an amazing pro|ficiency. The multiplicity of objects which crowded upon him, prevented his paying due attention to those particulars which would have been beneficial to himself and his countrymen at his return. He was not able to form a general comprehensive view of our whole civilized system, and to abstract from thence what appeared most strikingly useful and applicable to the improve|ment of his country. His senses were charmed by beauty, symmetry, harmony, and magnifi|cence; they called aloud for gratification, and he was accustomed to obey their voice. The continued round of enjoyments left him no time to think of his future life; and being destitute of the genius of a Tupaïa, whose superior abili|ties would have enabled him to form a plan for his own conduct, his understanding remained un|improved. After having spent near two years Page  7 in England, Mr. Forster adds, that his judgment was in its infant state, and therefore (when he was preparing to return) he coveted almost every thing he saw, and particularly that which amused him by some unexpected effect: to gratify his childish inclinations, as it should seem, rather than from any other motives, he was indulged with a portable organ, an electrical machine, a coat of mail, and a suit of armour."

Such is the account, and such the character of this child of curiosity, who left his country and his connections, to roam he did not know where, nor for what, having no idea of improving the arts, manufactures, or commerce of his country, or introducing one useful art or science among them. He carried with him, besides the articles above enumerated, a profusion of almost every thing that can be named, axes, saws, chissels, and carpenters tools of every kind; all sorts of Bir|mingham and Sheffield wares; guns, pistols, cut|lasses, powder and ammunition; needles, pins, fish-hooks, and various implements for sport; nets of all sorts; with hand engines, and a lathe for turning. He had likewise clothes of different colours and different fabrics, laced and plain; some made in the style of his country, and several after our manner: some of these last he bartered with the petty officers (after he had passed the Friendly Islands) for red feathers. He was like|wise plentifully supplied with glass and china wares, with beads and baubles, some of great value; medals of various metals; a watch was presented to him by a person of distinction: in short, nothing was with held from him that he re|quired, either for trade in his own country, or to gratify his humour.

Page  8When he came on board the Resolution, he discovered uncommon ecstasy; but when he parted with the gentlemen who accompanied him, the tears, as Mr. Forster observes, flowed plenti|fully; but they were childish tears; and the mo|ment his old friends had left the ship, he was as lively and brisk as ever. He shewed no concern about leaving this country, but rather rejoiced at his going.

"Omai," Capt. Cook says, "left London with a mixture of regret and satisfaction. When he talked about England, and about those who during his stay had honoured him with their protection or friendship, I could observe, that his spirits were sensibly affected, and that it was with diffi|culty he could refrain from tears; but the instant the conversation turned to his own island, his eyes began to sparkle with joy."

We shall see in the sequel how he behaved on board, and in what manner he was received on his return to his own island. Come we now to the departure of the ship.

On the 1st of August we weighed, and pro|ceeded, with all sails set, to join the Resolution. While our ship was repairing, it was observable, that those who had never been employed on dis|covery before, were more impatient to depart, than those who had already experienced the seve|rities of a Southern Navigation near and within the polar circle; and it was diverting enough to listen to the ludicrous remarks of these last, on their fresh-water brethren as they called them, whom they ventured to foretel, would, like the Jews in the wilderness, be the first to murmur and cry out for the leeks and the onions of Egypt; in|timating, that when these raw sailors came among the islands of ice in the frozen regions, to feel the Page  9 effects of scanty fare and hard duty, they would then be the first to repent their impetuosity, and to sigh for the roast beef and porter of the land they were now so desirous to leave.

We proceeded with a brisk gale till the 7th, when in sight of Cape Finisterre, the clouds began to darken, and the waves to swell, and to threaten, by every appearance, an approaching tempest. Several ships were then in fight, and we could clearly discern that they were preparing, as well as ourselves, to meet the storm. For twenty-four hours it blowed and rained incessantly; but on the 9th, a calm succeeded, which however was not of long continuance; for in the evening of the same day it thundered, lightned, and the rain poured down in torrents. The drops were such as no man on board had seen the like. To prevent the effects of the lightning, it was thought necessary to let fall the chain from the mast-head: a precaution which Capt. Clerke never omitted, when there was danger from lightning to be apprehended.

On the 10th seeing a ship to windward bearing down very fast, and suspecting her to be an Ame|rican privateer, all hands were ordered to quar|ters, to be in readiness to engage. She proved to be a Lisbon trader, who by the violence of the gale the day before, had been driven many leagues to the Eastward of her course, and was in some distress. We spared her those things of which she stood most in need, and pursued our voyage.

Nothing remarkable till the 18th, when the ship's company were put to short allowance of water, and the machine adjusted to distil sea|water. This was occasionally made use of during the Voyage, and answered very well for particular purposes, but was seldom or ever used for Page  10 boiling of meat. These precautions were taken, lest the Resolution should have left St. Jago, and the Discovery been obliged to proceed to the Cape, without being able to procure a fresh supply.

On the 19th we crossed the Tropic of Cancer for the first time, and,

On the 28th came in fight of St. Jago, bearing N. W. distant about six or seven leagues. We bore away instantly for the Bay, and at eight in the morning made land. An officer was then sent ashore to make enquiry, who brought word that the Resolution had not touched at that port; probably because the rainy season was approach|ing, when it is unsafe to remain there during its continuance. The same reasons that had induced the Resolution to proceed, were doubly pressing upon us. It was now about the time when the rainy season begins, though as yet we had ob|served none of its approaches. It is generally preceded by a strong southerly wind, and a great swell. The sea comes rolling on, and dashing furiously against the rocky shore, causes a fright|ful surf. Sometimes tornadoes or violent whirl|winds arise near the coast, and greatly increase the danger. For this reason, from the middle of August till the month of November, Port Praya, the principal harbour in the island, is but little frequented.

The officer was no sooner returned, and the boat hoisted on board, than we made sail with a gentle breeze, which continued till

Sept. 1st, when a dreadful tempest arose, in which we every moment expected to perish. The thunder and lightning were not more alarming, than the sheets of rain, which fell so heavy as to endanger the sinking of the ship, and at the same time, though in the open day, involved us in a Page  11 cloud of darkness, than which nothing could be more horrible; providentially the continuance of this tempest was but short; it began about nine in the morning, and before noon, the whole at|mosphere was perfectly serene, and not a spot nor a shade to be seen to mark the place of this elemental conflict. However, in this short pe|riod, our sufferings nearly kept pace with our apprehensions, having our main-top-gallant yard carried away in the slings, and the fail frittered to a thousand pieces; the jib and middle stay-sails torn clear off, and the ship so strained as to make all hands to the pump necessary. The afternoon was employed in repairing the damages, and dis|charging the water which had been shipped, as well from the heavens as from the sea.

Sept. 2, 3, 4, the weather continued squally, with rain; but as we approached the line, a calm succeeded, and the sky became serene; but with a haziness and languor, as if the current of the air, like water upon an equipoise, moved only by its own impulse. Nothing could be more tedious and disagreeable than this calm; but fortunately its duration was but short.

Sept. 5th, at eight in the morning, saw a sail, the second we had seen since we passed Cape Fi|nisterre on the coast of Spain. We were at this time intent on fishing; and having hooked a shark of an enormous size, both officers and men were engaged in getting him on board. When he was cut up, there were six young ones found in his belly, about two feet long each. These were divided among the officers, and one was dressed for the great cabin. The old shark was eaten by the ship's crew, to whom fresh food of any kind was now become a dainty.

Page  12The weather continuing fine, the Captain or|dered the great guns and small arms to be exer|cised, the ship to be smoaked, and the bedding to be aired. These last articles, it may be once for all necessary to observe, were never omitted during the Voyage, when the weather would per|mit; but were more particularly necessary in crossing the Line, as it has been observed that the wood-work between decks, in this low lati|tude, is more apt to become mouldy, and the iron to rust, than in higher latitudes, probably owing to that sluggishness in the air that has been already noticed, and for which Nature seems to have provided a remedy by the frequent tem|pests and tornadoes, to which this part of the ocean is remarkably subject.

Nothing worthy notice till the 17th, when we crossed the Line. The weather being squally, the usual ceremony of keel-hawling the sailors who had never crossed it before, was omitted. This ceremony is so well known, that it were needless to describe it.

On the 19th, the weather became moderate, when upon examination, the starboard main trus|sel-tree was found to be sprung.

On the 24th, George Harrison, Corporal of Marines, sitting carelesly on the bowsprit, divert|ing himself with the sporting of the dolphins, fell over-board. He was seen to fall, and the ship was instantly hove to, and the boats got out with all possible expedition; but he was never again seen to rise. His Dutch cap was taken up at the ship's stern; and as it was known that he was an excellent swimmer, the boats made a large circuit round the ship, in hopes to recover him, but in vain. It is remarkable, that in Capt. Cook's former Voyage, one Henry Smock, one of the Page  [unnumbered]

[illustration] [map of Captain Cook's voyages in the Pacific]
A CHART, Shewing the Tracks and Discoveries in the PACIFIC OCEAN. (MADE BY) Capt. Cook and Capt. Clerke in His Majesty's Ships RESOLUTION and DISCOVERY in the Years 1777. 1778. 1779. 1780.
Page  13 Carpenter's mates, siting on the skuttle, fell over|board much in the same manner, and shared the same fate. Both these were young men, sober, and of good characters. Their loss was regretted by the officers, but more particularly so by their comrades among the crew. It is more than pro|bable, that both were instantly swallowed up by sharks that constantly attend the ships. Nothing remarkable till

Oct. 1, when we caught a large shark, 10 feet long, with several young dolphins in her belly: part of the entrails, when cleansed and dressed, were eaten in the great cabin, and the body given to those by whom it was caught. When fried, it is tolerable meat; but the fat is very loathsome.

On the 22d, a storm arose, accompanied with thunder, lightning, and rain. As it was not so violent as those we had before experienced, it proved more acceptable than alarming, as it sup|plied the ship's company with a good quantity of fresh water, which they caught in blankets, or by other contrivances, every one as he could. What was caught in the awnings was saved for the officers use.

On the 24th it blew a hurricane—banded the sails, and lay to all night under bare poles.

On the 25th, the storm abated, and the sky became clear; we observed a ship to the South|ward, which by her course we took for the Reso|lution. We crouded sail, stood after her, and soon came up with her. She proved to be a Dutch advice-boat bound to the Cape.

On the 28th, our people began to look for land; and the appearance of some birds which are know never to go far from shore, confirmed them that the extremity of the African coast was at no great distance. Our Astronomer, however, was Page  14 of a different opinion, and the event proved that he was right.

Nov. 1, having now been at sea just three months, without once setting foot on land, those who were unaccustomed to such long voyages, began to put on a very different aspect to that they were at first setting out. They were, indeed, somewhat comforted by the chearfulness and vi|vacity which they observed to prevail in almost every countenance except their own; from whence they concluded, that many days could not elapse, before the painful sensations of a soli|tary sea life would be recompensed by the plea|surable enjoyments they would find when they came on shore. Such, perhaps, were the feelings at that time of the writer of this Journal.

On the 3d, we still observed a great variety of fish and fowl to accompany the ship, some of which we had never noticed before; and we could not but remark the difference in this respect, be|tween the Western coasts of the Old Continent, and the Western coasts of the New, in the same latitudes. No sooner had we crossed the Tropic of Cancer, than we were amused by the sporting of the joyous inhabitants of the deep, or more properly, perhaps, by their unremitting labour in pursuit of their daily food. Flying fish are generally the first to attract the notice of those who never have been in these seas before; and it is curious to attend to their numberless windings and shiftings to elude the attacks of the Dolphins and Bonitos, their declared enemies. Whatever may be the design of Providence in the formation of these unhappy beings, one cannot help con|sidering their existence as a state of perpetual pu|nishment. While they remain in the water their enemies are there, and though Nature has given Page  15 them the power to quit that element, and to fly for refuge to the open air, yet other persecutors are there also, no less cruel than those they have escaped. Boobies, Man of War birds, and other sea fowls, are continually watching to make the Flying-fish their prey, while the ravenous Sharks are no less vigilant in making reprisals on the Dolphins and Bonitos. Thus, a passage through the tropical latitudes, in this sea, exhibits one continued scene of warfare; while in the Southern Ocean, in the same latitudes, all is peace and uniform tranquillity. These reflections naturally occur, when the mind, unoccupied by variety, is disposed for contemplation.

We too, who had contributed to play a part in this tragic scene, by catching several enormous Sharks, left some few tyrants the less to vex the ocean.

On the 7th, at six in the morning, a man at the mast-head, called out land; and at eight we could all see it involved in a misty cloud. It proved to be Table Land, bearing S. W. at the distance of about ten leagues, which induced us to change our course from E. S. E. to S. S. W.

On the 10th we entered Table Bay, and

On the 11th, came to and anchored in six sa|thom water, where, to our great joy, we found the Resolution.

We saluted the garrison with 13 guns, and were answered by the same number: Capt. Cook, with the principal officers and gentlemen belong|ing to that ship, came on board to bid us welcome. By them we learnt, that they had been at the Cape near three weeks; that in their course they had touched at Tenerisse for hay and corn for their live stock; that they were there hospitably received; that the water was good, but, at that Page  16 time, scarce: that they found Teneriffe a much more eligible place than Madeira to recruit their stores; and that though the wine of the latter is most certainly preferable to that of the former, it is sold in proportion, that of Madeira not being to be purchased for less than 24l. a pipe, while that of Teneriffe cost only 12l. They found the people in general civil and obliging; the air healthy, but the soil barren. Santa Cruz, where they anchored, is well built; the churches decent, but not magnificent. They stayed there only three days, and then continued their voyage to the Cape, without meeting with any thing worth remarking, except that in passing Bonavista, they had but just time to weather the breakers, conse|quently their situation for a few minutes was cri|tical and alarming. They just looked into Port Praya, in the island of St. Jago; and, not seeing us, they pursued their course; and on the 17th of October anchored in Table Bay, where they found two French East-India ships, and one just wrecked, and the cargo plundered by the inhabitants.

Before our arrival, a storm had arisen at the Cape, which lasted three days, during which there was no communication between the ships and the shore, and the Resolution was the only ship in the bay that rode out the gale without dragging her anchors. On the 3d of November the storm ceased; and Capt. Cook having landed his cattle, a bull and two cows, and 16 sheep, the dogs in the night got among the sheep, killed four, and dispersed the rest. Six of them, how|ever, were recovered the next day; but the two rams, and two of the finest ewes were among the missing; the two last were never recovered.

On our landing, our Captain was met by the officers of the garrison, and the gentlemen be|longing to the Dutch East-India Company, who Page  17 received him very politely, and gave him a general invitation to share with them the entertainments of the place.

The subordinate officers on board, were met by another class of inferior gentry, belonging to the same Company, with a like invitation, but on different terms. Almost every officer in the pay of the Dutch East-India Company, furnish stran|gers with lodging and board, on moderate terms, from two shillings a day to five.

Nothing in nature can make a more horrid ap|pearance than the rugged mountains that form the Bay. One would be tempted almost to think that the Dutch had made choice of the barrenest spot upon earth, to shew what may be effected by slow industry and continued perseverance; for, besides the craggy cliffs that render the open coun|try almost inaccessible, the soil is so sandy and poor, that, except some vineyards, there is scarce a shrub or a tree to be seen within any walking distance from the place.

In an excursion that Mr. Anderson, Surgeon of the Resolution, made in search of plants, he was shewn a solid stone, half a mile in circumfer|ence at the bottom, and rounding to a point, like the dome of St. Paul's. Other writers say, this stone is above a mile in circumference at the base.

The town is situated below the mountains, and when seen from their summits, appears, with the gardens and plantations that run along the shore, exceedingly picturesque: in short, nothing can be more romantic, nor any prospect more pleasing to the eye.

Our ship was no sooner moored, than all hands were employed to strip off the rigging, and to unload the stores; places proper for repairing the one, and for airing and examining the other, be|ing Page  18 prepared before-hand by Capt. Cook; and the utmost dispatch was made to shorten our stay, as the time for navigating the high latitudes through which we were to pass, was advancing apace, and the Resolution was already in a state fit to under|take the voyage.

What remained for Capt. Cook to do when we arrived, was chiefly to purchase live cattle for presents to Erees in the South Sea; likewise live stock for the ship's use; these are always the last things provided, because it is found necessary to shorten, as much as possible, their continuance on board. He had already laid in sufficient store of beef, mutton, poultry, and greens for present use, and had contracted for a good quantity of salted beef and bread, to save what we had brought from England, as those articles are found to keep better than the beef and bread prepared at the Cape.

Among the cattle purchased, were 2 young bulls, 2 heifers, 2 young stone-horses, 2 mares, 2 rams, several ewes and goats, and some rabbits and poultry; all of them intended for New Zea|land, Otaheite, and the neighbouring islands, or other places where there was a prospect of their being suffered to breed. Some dogs, too, were purchased; cats we had in plenty.

Stored with these, the Resolution resembled the Ark, in which all the animals that were to stock the little world to which he was bound were collected; and, with their provender, they occu|pied no small part of the ship's stowage.

While we remained at the Cape, two Dutch ships arrived full of sick soldiers, who had been enlisted in Holland, and who were in a miserable condition both as to health and want of common necessaries. They had been near five months on Page  19 their voyage from Amsterdam, and had lost on the passage more men than the complements of both our ships amounted to, owing to nastiness and close confinement. It is remarkable, that no ships have the appearance of being neater kept than those of the Dutch; nor any more slovenly, where they are not exposed to open view.

A very uncommon incident happened while we were at the Cape, which might have embroiled us with the government there, had not the delinquent been discovered and punished. It was observed that a number of counterfeit schellings and double keys had been circulated, and several of our people had taken them in exchange for gold. Complaint was made by us against the inhabitants, for taking the advantage of the ignorance of strangers to im|pose counterfeit money upon them, as it was not to be supposed that they could be judges of the good|ness of their country coin. On the other hand, the inhabitants charged the bad money as proceeding from us. Each were warm in their representa|tions, and each were positive in their opinions. It was not thought possible that any of our people could be prepared to counterfeit Dutch money, and yet there had been no instance of counterfeit money having ever been seen at the Cape before the arrival of our ships at that port. Thus the matter rested for a-while, till one of the ship's armourers having obtained leave to go a-shore, made himself drunk, and offered base money in payment for his liquor. Being detained, and no|tice given his officer, he caused him to be searched, when several other pieces of a base coin were found upon him. But it does not appear that this was so serious a business as our Journalist has represented it, who says, that to accommodate the matter with the Dutch, the delinquent was Page  20 sent home in the Hampshire Indiamen. It was the Cook that was sent home in the Hampshire, because he was a troublesome fellow.

[Capt. Cook says only, that he sent home in the Hampshire an invalid, and was sorry he had not sent two or three more.]

On the 27th of November, orders were given to prepare for sailing. And,

On the 28th of the same month, the Governor and principal Officers belonging to the Company, were entertained on board the Resolution, where they came to take leave of our Captains before their departure, as we were expected to sail in a few days, the repairs of the ships being fully com|pleated. The stores had all been ordered on board some days before, and a large quantity of beer purchased for the ship's company at the only brewery that is publicly tolerated within the ju|risdiction of the town. In short, there is not one necessary article relating to the repairing, pro|viding, and victualling of shipping, that is not to be purchased at the Cape of Good Hope, and that too at very reasonable prices. The wine at the Cape has been thought dear; because that of the choicest vintage is scarce, and, like the styre in England, confined to a very small spot. Or the real Constantia, which is the wine so much prized in Europe, the whole plantation does not perhaps produce more than forty pipes annually, though there may be two or three hundred dis|posed of under that name. The wine commonly taken on board the shipping for the officers use, is of a kind not unlike Madeira, but of an inferior sort, the vines here being rather impoverished by reason of the dryness of the soil.

On the 29th, our live stock were all got on board, and properly provided for and secured; Page  21 and having dispatched our letters to our friends, and left nothing to do but to weigh and sail,

On the 30th, having quitted our moorings, we next day came to an anchor in 18 fathom wa|ter, Penguin island bearing N. by W. five or six miles.

On the 1st of December, at three in the morn|ing, we took our departure, after saluting the Fort with 11 guns, which they returned with the same number. At this time we observed that luminous appearance about our ships, which dif|ferent Voyagers have attributed to different causes. Dr. Franklin has endeavoured to account for it on the principles of electricity, but late voyagers have exploded that conceit. [On some of the water being taken up, it was found to abound with in|numerable swarms of a luminous animal, which the microscope discovered to be like cray-fish.]

About five in the afternoon, we met with one of those terrible gusts so frequently experienced by Voyagers in doubling the Cape of Good Hope, in which our main-sail was split, but fortunately we received no other damage.

On the 5th in the morning it blew a hurricane, and split the jib. About two in the afternoon, unbent and bent another.

On the 7th, the weather that had been cloudy and boisterous ever since leaving the Cape, be|came clear and moderate. In latitude 39° 57′ S. the Resolution's boat, with Mr. King, the second Mate, and Omai on board, came to compare the time-pieces, and found no material variation.

On the 10th, in lat. 43° 56′ a dreadful storm came on, which obliged both ships to lay to that and the following night, under bare poles.

On the 12th, in lat. 46° 18′ it began to show and hail, and the weather became intolerably Page  22 cold; insomuch, that from a scorching heat which we felt at the Cape, the change was so great in the space of thirteen days, that we were obliged to line the hatchways with canvas, to de|fend the men below as much as possible from the effects of the frost. Here the Albatrosses and other sea fowl, began to make their appearance; and here seals and porpoises were seen to sport about the ship, certain indications of approaching land.

On the 13th, at six in the morning, in lat. 46° 53′, and long. 37° 46′ E. we came in sight of land, having the appearance of two islands, the Easternmost bearing S. S. E. ½ E. the Westernmost S. by W. ½ W. To these Capt. Cook gave the name of Prince Edward's Isles. At ten in the forenoon, passed between the islands through a very narrow channel. Piercing cold, with sleet and snow, with which the islands were lightly co|vered, but neither tree nor shrub was to be seen, nor any living thing, except penguins and shags, the former so numerous, that the rocks seemed covered with them as with a crust. These were the Marion Isles, already discovered.

M. de Marion, when he discovered these islands, had two ships under his command, one the Mas|carin, Capt. Crozet, the other the Castrie, Capt. du Clesmure. They proceeded to the Southern extremity of New Holland, and from thence to the Bay of Islands in New Zealand, where M. de Marion was killed, with twenty-eight of his men, by the natives. He was obliged, having lost his masts, to search for new ones in the woods of that country; but when he found trees fit for his pur|pose, he found himself under the necessity of cutting a road three miles in length through the thickets, to bring them to the water-side. While Page  23 one party of his people were employed in this service, another party was placed on an island in the bay, to clean the casks, and fill them with water; and a third was occasionally sent on shore to cut wood for the ship's use. Thus employed, they had been there thirty-three days upon the best terms with the natives, who freely offered their women to the sailors, when M. de Marion, not suspecting any treachery, went one morning, as his custom was, to visit the different parties that were at work. Having called to see the wa|terers, he went next to the Hippah, a fortification of the natives, where he commonly used to stop in his way to the carpenters. Here he was sud|denly set upon; and, with his few attendants, barbarously butchered; as were the boats crew that carried him on shore. Next morning, the Lieutenant who commanded on board, not know|ing what had happened, sent a party to cut grass, and when every one was at work, the natives watched the opportunity to fall upon them like|wise, and murdered the whole party, except a single sailor, who ran for his life, and threw him|self, wounded, into the sea. Being seen from the ships, he was speedily taken on board, and gave the general alarm. M. Crozet's situation, who commanded the Carpenters in the woods, was now become most critical. A corporal and four marines were immediately dispatched to acquaint him of his danger, while several boats attended to receive his people. He disposed every thing as well as the time would admit, and effected his retreat to the sea-side. Here he found multitudes of the natives assembled, with a daring Chief at their head. M. Crozet ordered the marines who attended him, to direct their fire, if he gave the word, against such persons as he should point out. Page  24 He then ordered the carpenters and convalescents to strike the tents, and the sick to be embarked, while he, with the soldiers, should talk with the leader. This man told them, that M. Marion was killed by a warrior, upon which M. Crozet seized a stake, and forcing it into the ground, made signs that he should advance no farther. The countenance with which this action was at|tended, startled the savage, whose courage failing him, M. Crozet insisted on his ordering the crowd to sit down, which was accordingly complied with. He now paraded in front of the enemy, till all his people were embarked; his soldiers were then ordered to follow, and himself was the last who entered the boat. He had scarce put off, when the whole body of the natives began their song of de|fiance, and discharged their vollies of stones; however, a shot from the ship soon dispersed them, and the company got all safe on board. From this time the natives became troublesome, and made several attempts to attack his people by surprize. They formed an attack against the wa|tering party in the night, which, but for the vi|gilance of the guard, would have been fatal to them; they afterwards openly attacked the ships in more than a hundred large canoes, full of men, who had cause sorely to repent their audacity, and severely felt the effect of European arms. At length, M. Crozet, finding it impossible to sup|ply the ships with masts, unless he could drive the natives from his neighbourhood, made an at|tack upon their Hippah, which they vainly boasted was beyond his power to approach. He placed the carpenters in the front, who in an instant le|velled their palisadoes; then cut a breach through the mound, and levelled the ditch, behind which Page  25 their warriors stood in great numbers on their fighting stages.

Into his breach a Chief instantly threw himself, with his spear in his hand. He was shot dead by M. Crozet's marksmen, and presently another oc|cupied his place, stepping on the dead body. He likewise fell a victim to his intrepid courage, and in the same manner eight Chiefs successively de|fended it, and bravely fell in this post of honour. The rest, seeing their leaders dead, took flight, and the French pursued and killed them with a heavy slaughter. M. Crozet offered fifty dollars to any person who should take a New Zealander alive, but this was found impracticable. A sol|dier seized an old man, and began to drag him towards his Captain, but the savage, being dis|armed, bit into the fleshy part of his enemy's hand, the exquisite pain of which so enraged the soldier, that he ran the fellow through the body with his bayonet. M. Crozet found great quan|tities of arms, tools, and clothing in this Hippah, together with store of dried fish and roots, which seemed to be intended for winter provision. He now compleated the repairs of his ships without interruption, and prosecuted his voyage, after a stay of sixty-four days in this Bay of Islands. From whence, after passing through the Western part of the South Sea, he returned by the Phi|lippines, to the Isle of France. But to proceed.

On the 14th, the weather began to clear up, and these islands, six in number, promising no refreshment, both ships pursued their course to the S. E. wind W. S. W. a brisk gale, but piercing cold. The other four islands retain their former name. Our Captain ordered the jackets and trowsers to be delivered out, which, with the blankets and other warm clothing, provided by Page  26 the Lords of the Admiralty, against the severity of the frozen climates, were found of infinite use.

On the 17th, in lat. 48° 27′, the fogs came on so thick that we could but just discern the largest objects at the distance of the ship's length. This being foreseen, fog-signals were appointed, and repeated every half hour.

Nothing remarkable till

The 20th, when we lost sight of the Resolu|tion. Signal guns were fired, false fires lighted, and lights hung at the mast-head; but no answer received.

On the 21st, in the morning, the fog still con|tinuing, a very heavy storm came on, attended with sleet, and frequent gusts with hail. All this day we continued firing signal guns, and at night burning false fires, and carrying lights at the mast-head; but all to no purpose.

On the 22d, the gale still increasing, we car|ried away our jib sheer, and split the jib; but in the evening it cleared up, and fortunately for both ships, the Resolution came in sight, which re|vived the drooping spirits of the crews.

We were now accompanied with a great variety of sea fowl, among which were, pintadoes. sheerwerers, fulmers, and grey peterels, which last seldom appear at any considerable distance from land.

On the 23d, (answering to the middle of June in the Northern Hemisphere) the weather cleared up, and we were proceeding at a great rate, all reefs out, when on a sudden the weather coming on hazy, increased to a fog, and we again lost sight of the Resolution; but on ringing the fog bell, and firing a gun, we were answered by our consort, to our inexpressible joy.

Page  27About twelve at noon the fog began to disperse, a clear sun-shine brightened the horizon, and shewed that we were at no great distance from land. This, indeed, was not unexpected by our Commander. The man at the mast-head announced it; but as it seemed at a great distance, very lofty, with the summits of its hills involved in mist, some of our officers who had accompanied Capt. Cook in his former voyages, and had experienced many disappointments from the fallacious resemblance of ice islands to those of land, expressed their doubts. However, the nearer we approached it, the more convinced we were of its reality. But what seemed to us very singular, the sea began to change its complexion, and from a dark green colour, to look white like milk; we had indeed observed the like phaenomenon before, on cros|sing the Tropic in the Northern Hemisphere; but do not recollect any such appearance no|ticed by former Voyagers in these high South|ern latitudes.

On the 24th, we observed great quantities of sea-weed floating on the surface, and the sea-birds to increase; and before noon were so near the land as to discover rocks towering one upon ano|ther, as we imagined, to an immense height; but could discern no plantations or other indications of its being inhabited. As the coast appeared bold and rocky, it was judged proper to proceed with caution. When we first discovered land, it bore South; but on advancing slowly, we came in sight of a separate island, bearing S. E. by S. which, in the direction we first beheld it, seemed to be part of one and the same island.

On the 25th, at six in the morning, wore ship, and stood in for the land; we passed the tremen|dous rock, which first came in view, and which Page  28 rose to an astonishing height in form of a sugar|loaf, and bore away to the Lee Island, where we found a bay with good anchorage in 24 fathom water, cozy bottom; but the surf rather rough, and inconvenient for landing and watering.

On the 25th, at four in the morning, the boats were sent out to reconnoitre the coast, and, if possible, to discover a more convenient harbour for taking in water. About seven they returned, having found a bottle with a letter inclosed, im|porting, that in January 1772, this island was discovered by M. de Kerguelen; that it con|tained plenty of water, but no wood; that it was barren and without inhabitants; but that the shores abounded with fish, and the land with seals, sea lions, and penguins. The harbour where this bottle was deposited, being more com|modious than that in which the ships were anchor'd, and Capt. Cook intending to keep Christmas here, and refresh his men, gave orders to weigh, and the ships to change their station; which orders were instantly obeyed.

The contents of the letter inclosed in the bottle were these:

"Ludovico XV. Galliorum Rege, & de Boynes Rege à Secretis ad res Maritimas, annis 1772 & 1773."
But though the above in|scription was all that the bottle contained, the history of M. De Kerguelen's voyage was well known, and is therefore necessary to render our account of the discoveries in the South Seas compleat.

This Navigator was only a Lieutenant in the French service, but had the command of two ships given him, the La Fortune and Le Gros Ventre, or the purpose of Discovery. He sailed from the Mauritius about the latter end of 1771, and on the 13th of January following, discovered Page  29 the isles of which we are now speaking, and to which he gave the names of the Isles of Fortune. Soon after he had made land, other land of a considerable extent and height came in sight, which he supposed to be Continent, upon which he sent one of the officers of his own ship a-head in the cutter to sound. But the wind blowing fresh, the Captain of the other ship (M. de St. Allouarn) in the Gros Ventre, shot a-head, and finding a bay to which he gave his ship's name, ordered HIS yawl to take possession. In the mean time, M. de Kerguelen being driven to leeward, and unable again to recover his station, both boats returned on board the Gros Ventre, and the cutter was cut a-drift on account of the bad weather. M. Kerguelen returned to the Mauritius, and M. de St. Allouarn continued for three days to take the bearings of this land, and doubled its North|ern extremity, beyond which it trended to the South-eastward. He coasted it for the space of twenty leagues; but finding it high and inaccessi|ble, and destitute of trees, he shaped his course to New Holland, and from thence returned by way of Timor and Batavia, to the Isle of France, where he died; but previous to that event, he was promoted to the command of a sixty-four gun ship, called the Rolland, with the frigate l'Oiseau, in order to perfect the discovery of this pretended Continent; but returned with disgrace, pretend|ing again to have made the discovery.

That the islands we now fell in with are the same discovered by Kerguelen, there cannot re|main a doubt; but that M. de Kerguelen ever saw a great country, such as he pretends, in or near those islands, is very problematical. There are, indeed, numberless islands thinly scattered in this almost boundless ocean, as every day's ex|perience Page  30 demonstrates; but that there is not one so superior to those already discovered, in riches and cultivation, as to be worth the search, will scarcely admit of a question.

We now, moored in a safe harbour, were bu|sied on board in repairing our rigging, which had suffered much in the frequent squalls to which we had been subject ever since our departure from the Cape; at the same time, those who were on shore, were no less usefully employed in supplying the ships with water, and the crews with fresh provisions; which last, though not of the most delicate kind, yet, to stomachs cloyed almost to loathing, with salt provisions, even seals, pen|guins, and sea-fowl, were not unsavoury meat.

On the 27th, our repairs being nearly com|pleated, and a great part of our water shipped on board, Christmas was proclaimed, and the har|bour where the ships lay, named Christmas Har|bour: On this occasion, a double quantity of grog was served out to each common man, and a certain proportion of wine and spirits to every petty officer. Leave was likewise given to such as were ailing, to go a-shore for the benefit of the land air; and the officers of both ships reci|procally met in compliment to each other; past dangers were forgotten, and the day was spent by the common sailors with as much mirth and unconcern as if safely moored in Portsmouth harbour.

On the 28th, parties were sent out to procure what vegetables the island produced by way of refreshment; but none were found for culinary purposes, except a kind of wild cabbage, and that in small quantities, and gathered with much labour among the cliffs of the rocks. Mr. Nelson, a gentleman whom Mr. Banks sent out to collect Page  31 such varieties as he should find indigenous to the islands and climates through which he should pass, found growing among those cliffs, a kind of yellow moss of a silky softness, which he had not yet discovered in any of his former researches.

On the 29th, the Resolution weighed, having first left a memorial written on the other side of the parchment found in the bottle, in the follow|ing words:

"Naves Resolution & Discovery de Rege Magnae Britanniae, Decembris, 1776,"
with a view to surround the island, and to explore the opposite side, which, however, upon examina|tion, was found equally barren, craggy, steep, and desolate, with that we had just left. Pen|guins and sea-lions were its chief inhabitants, among which our people made great havock; of the former for the sake of provisions, penguins having been found tolerable eating when fresh, or just salted; and of the latter, for blubber, which was afterwards boiled, and converted into oil, on our arrival at New Zealand.

On the same day, at nine in the morning, we weighed, and took leave of Christmas Harbour, which we found by observation to lie in lat. 48° 41′ S. and in long. 69° 4′ E. and Capt. Cook, in obedience to his instructions, proceeded to com|pleat the Discovery which had been left imperfect by French Voyagers. During this and the fol|lowing day, we endeavoured to circumnavigate the whole cluster of islands, and anchored in a harbour, to which Capt. Cook gave the name of Port Palliser, in honour of the Admiral of that name, situated in lat. 49° 3′ S. and long. 69° 37′ E. Here we compleated our water, and recon|noitered the coast, which we found barren beyond description. No quadrupeds, but seals were seen on these islands.

Page  32On the 1st of January, 1777, we observed great quantities of sea-weed passing to leeward, in a direction contrary to that we had seen in ap|proaching the island, which gave reason to sup|pose there were other lands at no great distance; and in fact other lands presented, but not more fertile than those we had passed. The navigation here we found most dangerous. The sea-weed, which grows to an astonishing length, not less than 60 fathom, covers sunken rocks, which we might be said miraculously to have escaped. But having escaped, we now pursued our course for Van Dieman's Land, and having no discoveries in view, took every advantage of the weather to carry sail. While we were exploring this desolate coast, two young bulls, one heifer, two rams, and several of the goats, died. Nothing more re|markable presented till

The 14th, when a hurricane arose, accompa|nied with so thick a fog, that our ships were every moment in danger of falling foul one of the other. We kept the fog bell constantly ringing, and guns firing, which were answered by the Resolution. The wind blew with such violence, that we were obliged to take in all our sails, to strike our top-gallant-masts, and to scud under our bare poles. This storm continued with more or less violence till the 19th, during which time the Resolution had carried away her fore-top-mast, and fore-top-gallant mast and yard; and the Discovery had lost her top-gallant-sails, split her middle stay-sails, and had scarce half a yard remaining of her jib.

On the 20th, in the morning, we lay by to repair our rigging; and the weather brightening up with a brisk but moderate gale in the afternoon, we set all the sails we could, unreefed our top-sails, Page  33 and run at the rate of seven and eight miles an hour by the log, both ships in company.

On the 22d, the weather continuing clear and moderate, Mr. King, the second Mate of the Re|solution, come on board, to compare the time-pieces. He brought word that the ship's crew were in perfect health, those only excepted who had been hurt by their misses at the Cape, and even those were fit to do duty; and that the damage the Resolution had received during the blowing weather, was not so considerable as might have been expected.

On the 24th, in the morning, the man at the mast-head called out, Land, distant about five leagues, the Mewstone, so called by Capt. Fur|neaux, in 1773, bearing N. E. ½ E. Made the signal for seeing it, which was answered by the Resolution.

On the 25th, sounded and found ground at 55 fathom, sandy and shelly bottom.

On the 26th, stood off and on to find the bay, called by Tasman, Frederic Henry's Bay.

On the 27th came to, and moored in 14 fathom water, in Adventure Bay, of which Cape Frederic Henry forms the North Point, and was presently joined by the Resolution. No sooner were the ships properly secured, than the pinnace was or|dered to be launched, the boats to be manned, and all hands set to work in wooding, watering, cutting grass for the cattle, over-hauling the rig|ging, and getting every thing in readiness to con|tinue our voyage.

The officers, astronomers, and gentlemen on board both ships eagerly embraced the opportunity of going a-shore to take a view of this delightful country, with the appearance of which all on board were charmed. The first thing that at|tracted Page  34 our notice, were the trees, that by their magnitude and loftiness exceeded every thing we had ever seen of the kind: but, what was re|markable, we found many of them burnt near the ground, and not a few lying in a horizontal posi|tion, which, being much scorched, had been thrown down by the violence of the wind.

On the 28th, Capt. Cook, accompanied by officers and gentlemen from both ships, and guarded by a party of marines, made a second excursion into the country, in order to make dis|coveries, and to procure, if possible, an inter|view with some of the inhabitants; they pene|trated several miles through paths that seemed to have been frequented, before they could get sight of any human being.

On our part (meaning the Journalist and his party) we happened to be more successful; for by passing by the edge of an almost im|penetrable thicket, we heard a rustling, which at first we mistook for the rouzing of some wild beast; but, searching closely, we found it to be a girl, quite naked and alone. At first she seemed much frightened; but, being kindly treated, and her apprehensions of death removed, she became docile, and ready to answer every thing we could render intelligible to her under|standing. We questioned her concerning her re|sidence, which we did by pointing to every beaten path, walking a little way in it, and then return|ing and taking another, making motions to her at the same time to lead us along, and we would follow her. To make her quite easy, one of our company pulled off his handkerchief and put it about her neck, by way of ornament, and another covered her head with his cap, and then dismissed her. She ran among the bushes, and in less than Page  35 an hour nine men of the middle stature made their appearance, naked but armed, according to the fashion of their country; these were intro|duced to the officers, and kindly treated; one gen|tleman giving to one a part of his clothing, ano|ther putting something upon a second, and so on, till each had received some trifling ornament for his person, and all took their flight at once, and vanished in an instant.

[These they received with stoical indifference; and Capt. Cook, observing a stick in one of their hands, was curious to know how he used it, and having made himself understood, one of them set up a piece of wood at the distance of 20 yards, and threw at it, but with no great dexterity; on which Omai, to shew how much superior our weapons were to theirs, fired his musket at it.]

It was not long, however, before the girl we had first seen returned, and with her several wo|men, some with children on their backs, tied by a kind of hempen strings, and some without chil|dren. These were likewise kindly received, and led to the place where the wooders were at work, with whom it was not long before they became acquainted. They were, however, most miser|able looking objects; and Omai, though led by natural impulse to an inordinate desire for women, was so disgusted with them, that he fired his piece in the air to frighten them from his sight, which, for that time, had the desired effect.

Capt. Cook's reason for Omai's firing his piece, as above, was, no doubt, the true one, tho' it was very natural for our Journalist, who heard the re|port and saw the effect, to assign the reason he did, not knowing any other.

On the 28th, we extended our excursions still farther into the country, and found it beautifully Page  36 diversified with hills and vallies, stately groves of trees, rivers, meadows and lawns of vast extent, with thickets full of birds of the most beautiful plumage, parrots and paroquets, and birds of various notes, whose melody was truly enchant|ing; besides these, we found some lagoons full of ducks, teal, and other wild fowl; of which we got great numbers, while our Naturalists were loading themselves with the spontaneous produc|tions of the soil; a soil, we may venture to say, the richest and most fertile of any in the habitable globe, the trees growing to an astonishing height and size, and not more beautiful to the eye than they are grateful to the smell. We found some that rose ninety feet high without a knot, and of a girt that, were we to report it, would render the credit of the report doubtful. It was now the time when Nature pours forth her luxuriant ex|uberance to clothe this country with every va|riety; but, what appeared strange to us, the few natives we saw were wholly insensible of those blessings, and seemed to live like the beasts of the forest, in roving parties, without arts of any kind, sleeping in summer, like dogs, under the hollow sides of the trees, or in wattled huts made with the low branches of ever-green shrubs, stuck in the ground at small distances from each other, and meeting in a point. Mr. Anderson observes, that what the antient poets tell of fawns and sa|tyrs living in hollow trees, is here realized.

Our fishermen were no less successful in fishing during our stay, than our sportsmen in shooting wild fowl; so that nothing was wanting to make our living here desirable.

On the 30th, the poor wretches of natives be|ing now divested of their fears, issued from the thickets like herds of deer from a forest, and Page  37 drew themselves up in ranks on the beech, making signs for our people to come on shore, probably with a view to partake of our bounty, certainly not with any design to do us any harm. They were indeed armed with lances about twelve feet long, terminated by a shark's tooth, or piece of bone sharpened to a point, which they threw to a great distance, but to no great nicety. These lances were the whole of their armour.

There were among them, as among all the in|habitants of the countries of the Southern Ocean, some to whom the multitude seemed to pay obe|dience, though even these were here without any marks of distinction, other than what Nature had bestowed upon their persons. This indelible dig|nity, through all the classes of animal nature, has marked some to rule, while others, destitute of that advantage, willingly submit, and are con|tented to obey. To these Chiefs, as no quadru|peds, except a creature of the opossum kind, about twice the bigness of a cat, were seen in the country, Capt. Cook offered a boar and a sow; [but on their seizing them eagerly, he found the crea|tures would have no chance of life; he therefore resumed them, and afterwards left them, loose, in the closest thicket he could find] where it is pos|sible they might have a better chance to breed than among the ferocious inhabitants of New Zealand, where several of them formerly had been turned loose, but very soon destroyed. He also offered them nails, knives, beads, and other trifles, to which they paid little or no attention, but were greedy after shreds of red cloth.

It does not appear that the natives here are canibals, or indeed that they feed much upon flesh, as no appearance of any such food could be traced among them, fowls only excepted. Fish, Page  38 fruit, and the natural productions of the earth, were the only articles of food that were observable about their fire-places; but, what was still more strange, there was neither canoe nor boat to be seen, though the country abounded so much in timber. It may therefore be reasonably con|cluded, that these natives are a sort of fugitives, who have been driven out from some more pow|erful community, and subsist here in a state of banishment; as it is hardly possible otherwise to conceive so fine a country possessed by a people, wholly destitute of all the arts of civil life.

It is true, very different descriptions have been given of the persons of those poor wretches; Capt. Cook had formerly reported that their hair was strait, and only clotted up with grease and nasti|ness; while others insisted on their being woolly-headed, tho' not quite so deeply coloured as the African blacks, yet their skins are generally made so by a kind of paint. The women are remark|ably ugly.

On the 30th, having been here and on the coast near seven days, and having got plenty of wood and water on board, and whatever else the country afforded, the signal was made for un|mooring. By ten in the morning the ships were under sail, and at twelve Cape Frederic Henry bore N. by W. We set out with an easy gale; but, before night, squalls came on, which made it necessary to double reef our top-sails, and so to continue till break of day. [This gale was indi|cated by the barometer; for the wind no sooner began to blow, than the mercury in the tube be|gan to fall.]

On the 1st of February we set our top-gallant sails, both ships in company, steering a direct course for New Zealand, and in nine days came Page  [unnumbered]

[illustration] [depiction of the people of Van Diemen's Land]
A Man and Woman of Van Diemen's Land.

p. 38.
Page  39 in sight of Adventurer's Island, distant about nine or ten leagues from Charlotte Sound.

On the 10th we were off Charlotte's Bay, our destined place of rendezvous.

On the 12th, in standing for the Sound, the Discovery had the misfortune to strike upon a rock; but, by the assistance of the Resolution, was warped off without receiving any considerable da|mage; and about two in the afternoon, both ships moored in nine fathom water.

Not a man on board who did not now think himself at home, so much like Great Britain is the island of New Zealand. It is between six and seven hundred miles in length, but varying in breadth, being broadest towards the middle, and narrowing at the extremities. In this it seems to differ from the regular course of nature in the formation of islands, and even of continents, where, like insects, they seem to be divided in the middle, and only connected together by an inconsiderable space. Almost every island of any extent in the Southern Ocean is divided in this manner. The continent of Europe, Asia, and Africa, is held together by a thread, in compari|son, at the isthmus of Suez; and North and South America, in like manner, at that of Darien.

We were no sooner securely moored in Char|lotte Sound, together with the Resolution, than the natives came in droves to welcome our arrival; to bring us fish, and to offer to trade; but every hand being then employed, little or no notice was taken of their overtures; some of our people were busy in carrying out the tents, others in erecting them on shore; some in forming in|trenchments for the security of the stores, and some in unshipping stores; in short, not an idle person being to be found to attend them, the sa|vages, Page  40 thinking themselves neglected, departed, seemingly very much disappointed.

[For this behaviour Capt. Cook assigns ano|ther cause: This shyness, he says, was to be accounted for only upon this supposition, that they were apprehensive we had revisited their country, in order to revenge the death of Capt. Furneaux's people.]

On the 13th, we had hard squalls, with heavy rain. During the intervals of sun-shine, we ob|served several water-spouts, but none near us. Mr. Forster, who accompanied Capt. Cook in his former voyage, in his passage from Dusky Bay to this Sound, had frequent opportunities of observing these phaenomena, and has given the following description of them. Their base, he says, where the water of the sea was violently agi|tated, and rose in a spiral form in vapours, was a broad spot, which looked bright and yellowish, when illuminated by the sun. Directly over this spot, a cloud gradually tapered into a long slen|der tube, which seemed to descend to meet the rising spiral, and soon united with it into a strait column of a cylindrical form. We could dis|tinctly observe the water hurled upwards with the greatest violence, and it appeared that it left a hollow place in the centre. He adds, that these water-spouts made the oldest mariners uneasy; all, without exception, had heard dreadful accounts of their pernicious effects, when they happen to break over a ship; but none had ever been so be|set with them before.

On the 14th, at seven in the morning, the pin|naces of both ships were ordered to be manned, and both Captains went on shore, with other gen|tlemen, to reconnoitre the country, without ven|turing too far at first, for fear of a surprize. Be|fore Page  41 they landed, they were observed by an old man, who approached the shore, holding a green bough in his hand, and waving it in sign of peace, which was instantly answered by hoisting a white flag. Friendship being thus established, we all landed, and the old man began an oration, accompanied by very significant gestures, and a theatrical display of the passions by various mo|dulations of his voice, till at length he concluded in a plaintive tone, which we interpreted to mean submission. This done, he saluted the company, according to the custom of the southern islanders, by joining noses; a mode, though not the most agreeable, yet necessary to be complied with for the sake of peace. Capt. Cook, more earnest to examine the state of the plantations which he had caused to be laid out, and sowed with garden seeds in his former voyage, than to pursue the sports of fishing and fowling, which chiefly en|gaged the attention of other gentlemen while on shore, went with Capt. Clerke to visit the inclo|sures on Long Island, and found many of the plants and roots in a flourishing condition, though it did not appear that any care had been taken to dress, or even to weed them, by the natives. In|deed it should seem that this part of the country, like that of Dusky Bay, is but thinly inhabited, and probably occasionally only, as none of their towns were found within any reasonable distance of the shore. Some straggling huts, in|deed, in which single families were found to re|side, were now and then discovered in the recesses of the woods, but no regular plantations, the ef|fects of industry, were observable in any part of this sound. Their canoes, and their clothing, were works of great labour; but where the for|mer was performed could only be guessed at, Page  42 though it appeared that the latter was the sole employment of their women.

During our residence here, though nothing was to to be found but vegetables and fish, such was the plenty of both, that loads of the former were to be procured for the labour of cutting and carrying away; and of the latter, as much as was sufficient for the sustenance of one person a whole day for a single nail.

It had been observed by former Voyagers, that the women in this island were chaster, when first visited by our people, than those in the warmer climates, probably owing to the physical effects of their colder constitutions; not to the restriction of any law, or the force of custom, nor to that de|licacy of sentiment that naturally excites those sympathetic sensations that in a more advanced state of refinement serve to bind the sexes in the indelible bonds of mutual fidelity. But, to what|ever cause it might be owing, before the looser passions, by their commerce with the European sailors, took root among them, those passions have been found to thrive so well, that they now exceed all others in indulging them. Even the men are now become so abandoned, as to prosti|tute their very wives for a nail, and to lay no re|straint on their daughters, of whom the men make little account.

It was no sooner known that our ships were moored in Charlotte Sound, than the natives flocked from the remotest corners of the island to traffic for nails, broken glass, beads, or other European trumpery, for which they would sell their arms, clothes, and whatever else they were possessed of, not even reserving their working implements, which they could not replace with|out infinite labour.

Page  43The women, who accompanied these com|mercial emigrants, were no less saleable than the wares they brought; and the favours of many were purchased by the seamen, who, though the first price was trifling, cost them dear in the end. This traffic was carried to a shameful height, and Omai, who, from natural inclination and the li|centious habits of his country, felt no restraint, indulged his almost insatiable appetite with more than savage indecorum.

Before our present arrival, it had been ques|tioned, even by Capt. Cook, whether these islanders would sell their children to strangers; but experience has now taught us, that there is nothing they will not sell for iron, so great is their desire for that metal. The love of gold is not more prevalent in Europe, than the love of iron in New Zealand. The story which Capt. Cook relates, in proof of the irresistible force of Nature in the retentive care of their children, only shews, that he himself had erred in the conclusions he had drawn from it; for the Captain lived to see that the favourable opinion he had conceived, of the natural affection of these savages for their children, was not well founded.

On the 16th, in the morning, several natives came along side the Resolution, to trade, as usual. Then it was that Omai, who was plentifully fur|nished with every kind of iron ware, displayed his merchandize to the greatest advantage. The savages, inflamed with the richness of the exhibi|tion, perfectly trembled as they stood, and were ready to board the ship, at the peril of their lives, to make themselves masters of what appeared to them so vast a treasure. This, to an European, to whom nails, broken glass, and shreds of red Page  44 cloth, are of little or no value, may seem exagge|rated; but to those who have traversed the globe, and marked the impetuosity of the passions of savages, when excited to a certain pitch, will ra|ther wonder how they could be restrained, than that they should be ready to commit any desperate action to possess themselves of those things which appeared of so much value in their eyes. Omai, though but one degree above the savage whom he despised, yet had cunning enough to take advan|tage of the desires he had excited, and after pur|chasing from them every article that suited him, be artfully asked one party of them if they would sell their boat? to which they readily consented. Observing two promising youths on board with another party, he asked the father if he would not part with his boys. The youths looked with eagerness at their father, as if they wished to fol|low the man that was so rich, and the father, seemingly as willing to part with the lads as they were to go, replied in the affirmative, and the bargain was instantly struck. Thus, for two hatchets and a few nails, he purchased two fine boys, the eldest named Tibura [Taweiharooa], about 15 years old, and the youngest called Gowah [Kokoa], about ten.

On the 17th [Capt. Cook says the 16th] the Captains of both ships, with other officers and gentlemen, embarked on board the Pinnace, at|tended by a party of marines, well armed, and directed their course to the North-West, round Cannibal-bay for Long Island and Grass Cove; there they visited the spot where the boat's crew belonging to the Adventure, was murdered four years before; but did not find any trace of that horrid massacre remaining, nor any native from whom they might learn the cause.

Page  45Here our Journalist appears to be ill informed. Capt. Cook here found Pedro, an old friend, who in his former voyages was almost always with him; who received him on the beech, and shewed him the very spot where the bloody scene was acted. What they could learn from him was, that while our people were sitting at dinner, sur|rounded by natives, some of the latter snatched from them some bread and fish, for which they were beat. This being resented, a quarrel en|sued, and two New Zealanders were shot dead with the only two muskets that were fired; for before they could be loaded again, the natives rushed upon them, overpowered them by num|bers, and put them all to death. Pedro also shewed them where the boat lay, about 200 yards from the place where the massacre was committed, the care of which had been entrusted to a black, servant to Capt. Furneaux. The Captain was af|terwards told, that the negro was the cause of the quarrel, which happened thus: One of the na|tives attempting to steal something out of the boat, the black gave him a severe blow with a stick, and the cries of the fellow being heard by his countrymen, they immediately began the at|tack on our people, who before they could reco|ver their arms from the boat, fell sacrifices to the fury of their savage assailants. Both these ac|counts, Capt. Cook thinks, might be true, as they perfectly coincide; and he seems clear, that there was no premeditated design of murder till the quarrel began; though upon his first arrival he was shewn the Chief, who headed the party that cut our people to pieces, and who himself killed Mr. Rowe, the officer who commanded. This fellow's name was Kahoora, whom Capt. Cook was often solicited to kill.

Page  46Omai, who could scarce make himself under|stood, nor indeed could he understand the natives so well as many of the common men who had been frequently here before, yet being a favourite of Capt. Cook, was always preferred when in company, to confer with the natives, and was desired by him, when he met any of them alone, to question them concerning the fray that had happened some years before, and from what cause it had taken its rise; and he was the more desirous to come at the truth, as the natives in general were friendly, and ready to furnish the ships with whatever their country afforded. But from what Omai was able to learn, Capt. Cook received no satisfaction. It should seem, that in Otaheita there are two dialects spoken, as in almost every other part of the world; one by the priests and chiefs, and another by the common people. This was apparent here; for Tupia, who accompanied Mr. Banks to this place, in Capt. Cook's second voyage round the world, could converse with the natives fluently, and was in such esteem with them, that his memory is held in veneration from one end of the island to the other at this day; Obedee likewise, who was of the class of Areoes, or gen|tlemen, and who accompanied Capt. Cook in his last voyage from Otaheite to the Thrum Isles, the Hebrides, New Zealand, Easter Island, and the Marquisses, could converse with the New Zealanders, though Omai could not; a proof that he was of the inferior class in his own country.

While he continued here, he found frequent opportunities to discover his real character, when from under the watchful eye of his protector and friend. He had grog always at his command, and was sometimes entrusted to give it out, espe|cially Page  47 when any extra quantity was to be delivered by the Captain's orders, for hard service, or on days of festivity. At those times he was closely watched, and was never known to exceed; but now, when the Captain was abroad for whole days and nights, and he left in charge of liquors, he set no bounds to his excess, and would drink till he wallowed like a swine in his own filth. At those times he out-acted the savage in every kind of sensuality; and when he could no longer act the brute, he would often act the drunken man; storming, roaring, brandishing his arms, and, by the contorsions of his mouth and face, setting at defiance, after the manner of his country, the whole host of his enemies, who were represented by the common sailors, with whom, upon these occasions, he was generally surrounded; and who knew how to practise upon him, as he endeavoured to do upon the poor Zealanders. He was indeed far from being ill-natured, vindictive, or morose; but he was sometimes sulky. He was naturally humble, but had grown proud by habit; and it so ill became him, that he was always glad when he could put it off, and could appear among the petty officers with his natural ease. This was the true character of Omai, who might be said, per|haps, by accident, to have been raised to the highest pitch of human happiness, only to suffer the opposite extreme, by being again reduced to the lowest order of rational beings.

In the excursion of the two Captains among the isles, plentiful provision was made for the live stock on board, and the long boats of both ships came heavily laden home with grass for the cattle, and vegetables for the ship's companies, from the gardens of Motuara and Long Island, which were found to remain in a flourishing, though Page  48 slovenly condition. To the quadrupeds, which the Captains Cook and Furneaux had left to breed in the island in their former voyages, our Captains added two goats, a male and female with kid; and two pigs, a boar and a sow, those that had been left before of this species having died almost as soon as sent on shore.

Wooding, watering, airing the stores, drying and new packing the powder, examining and new baking the damaged bread, forging bolts and new pintles for the rudders, with other necessary busi|ness for repairs of the ship, were continued with|out intermission on shore. By the absence of so many useful hands, smiths, armourers, gunners, carpenters, rope and sail-makers, with their atten|dants, very few people were left on board to take charge of the ships, nothing being apprehended from the attempts of the natives, who had hitherto behaved with unexampled honesty, hardly any complaints having been preferred against any of them for misbehaviour of any kind.

In this situation, with scarce men enough on board to hand the sails, a storm arose in the morn|ing of the 19th, which before ten o'clock drove the Discovery from her moorings; and it was owing to Providence, that having run foul of the Resolution, she did not perish, the surge carrying her off instantaneously with little damage to either ship. All hands on board were thrown into the utmost consternation. No sooner was she clear than we dropped the best bower anchor, got down the top-gallant yards, struck the top-gallant masts, and lowered the yards, got in the cables, and moored with best bower and sheet anchors; and thus fortunately rode out the storm. Mr. Blythe, master of the Resolution, and Mr. Bent|ham our Captain's clerk, seeing the danger the Page  49 ships were in, and at the hazard of their lives at|tempting to get on board in a canoe, were overset, but providentially recovered by the boats from the ships. The gale continuing the whole day, no Indians came to trade.

It should have been remembered, that, from the time of landing, our brewers began brewing; and the woods affording plenty of spruce, the crews of both ships were supplied with this wholesome beverage during our continuance at New Zealand, and for several weeks after we were at sea. This liquor was found so salutary, that it seemed to strike at the very root of the scurvy, and left not the least symptom of it remaining about any man in the ships.

Indeed, great care was taken to supply the crews daily with plenty of scurvy-grass and wild celery, to boil with their portable soup; and salt-meat was withheld, and fish substituted in its room. This last the Indians abundantly provided at a trifling expence, and, what is not a little surpris|ing, when our fishers could catch the least, they generally caught the most; tho' their implements shewed infinitely less ingenuity in the construction, than those with which our people were furnished. It is not easy to say by what arts they allured the fish; but certainly some means were used by them to which we were strangers, nor could they ever be prevailed upon to discover their secret.

During our stay in Charlotte Sound, an adven|ture happened, which, though the parties were not of the highest class, may, notwithstanding, be worth relating.

Belonging to the Discovery, there was a youth, with whom a young Zealander girl, about fourteen years of age, fell desperately in love, nor was she wholly indifferent to our adventurer. What time Page  50 he could spare, he generally retired with her, and they spent the day, but oftener the night, in a kind of silent conversation, in which, tho' words were wanting, their meaning was perfectly under|stood. Moments fly rapidly on that are spent in mutual endeavours to please. She, on her part, had no will but his; and he, in return, was no less attentive to her's. Minds so disposed, natu|rally incline to render themselves agreeable. A conformity in manners and dress become signifi|cant signs between lovers. Though he appeared amiable in her eyes in the dress of a stranger, yet he wished to render himself still more so, by or|namenting his person after the fashion of her country; accordingly he submitted to be tat|towed from head to foot; nor was she less soli|citous to set herself off to the best advantage. She had fine hair, and her chief pride was in the dress of her head. The pains she took, and the deco|rations she used, would have done honour to an European beauty, had not one thing been want|ing to render it still more pleasing. Ghowannahe (that was her name) though young, was not so delicate, but that the traits of her country might be traced in her locks. To remedy this misfor|tune, and to render it less offensive, she was fur|nished with combs, and taught by her lover how to use them. After being properly prepared, he would by the hour amuse himself with forming her hair into ringlets, which flowing carelessly round her neck, with a kind of coronet rising from her temples, gave her an air of dignity that added fresh charms to the brilliancy of her eyes. The distaste arising from colour gradually wore off, and the ardent desire of rendering their sentiments more and more intelligible to each other, gave rise to a new language, consisting of words, looks, Page  51 gestures, and inarticulate tones, by which pleasure and pain were more forcibly expressed than by the most refined speech. Having at first acquired the art of imparting their passions, they very soon im|proved it to the story of their lives. Love and jealousy directed her enquiries concerning the women of the world from whence he came, wish|ing at the same time that he would stay with her, and be a Kakikoo, or Chief. He made her to understand, that the women in his world were all tatoo (man-killers) and if he stayed with her she would kill him. She answered, no; she would eh-na row, love him. He said, her people would kill him. She replied, no; if he did not shoot them. He made her to understand, that nine or ten of the men of his world, had been killed and eaten by her people, tho' they did not shoot them. Her answer was, that was a great while ago, and the people came from the hills roä roä, meaning a great way off. This excited his curiosity to know if any of her relations were among the murderers: she sighed, and appeared much af|fected when he asked her that question. He asked her if she was at the feast when they broiled and eat the men? she wept, and looking wishfully at him, hung down her head. He became still more pressing as she grew more reserved. He tried every winning way that love and curiosity suggested, to learn from her what he found she knew, and what she seemed so determined to con|ceal. But she artfully evaded all his questions. He asked her, why she was so reserved? She pre|tended not to understand him. He repeated the same question, and why she kept him in the dark, at the same time closing his eyes and keeping them shut. She continued to weep, but made him no answer. Finding all his persuasions inef|fectual, Page  52 he turned from her, seemingly in anger, and threatened to leave her. She caught him round the neck in violent agitation. He asked her what she meant, and why she wept? She said, they would kill her if she told. He said, they should not know it. Then He would hate her, she said. He answered, no; but love her more and more, pressing her to his bosom at the same time. She grew more composed, and said she would tell him all she knew. She then made him understand, that one Gooboa [Kahoora, ac|cording to Capt. Cook] a bad man, who had been often at the ship, and had stolen many things; when he came to know that it was preparing to depart, went up into the hill country, to the hip|pah, and invited the warriors to come down and kill the strangers. They at first refused, saying, the strangers were stronger than they, and would kill them with their pow pow, or fire-arms; he told them, they need not fear; for he knew where they must come before they departed, in order to get grass for their goury, or cattle, and that on such occasions they left their pow pow behind them in the ship, or carelessly about the ground, while they were at work. They said, they were no enemies, but friends, and they must not kill men with whom they were in friendship. Kahoora said, they were vile enemies and wicked men, and complained of their chaining him and beating him, and shewed them the marks and bruises he had received at the ship; and told them besides how they might silence their pow pow, by only throwing water over them, and then they could not hurt them. Kahoora undertook to conduct them in safety to the place where the strangers were to come, and shewed them where they might conceal themselves till he should come Page  53 and gave them notice, which he did. And when the men were busy about getting grass, and not thinking any harm, the warriors rushed out upon them, and killed them with their patapatows, and then divided their bodies among them.

[This Kahoora was so bad a man, that Capt. Cook was often solicited to kill him by the natives; and Omai, having introduced him into the Cap|tain's cabin for that purpose, saying, There is Kahoora, kill him! as soon as he had said this, retired. He had often asked the Captain's per|mission to kill him himself; but when it was in his power so to do, he instantly got out of the way. A short time after, says Capt. Cook, he returned, and seeing the Chief unhurt, he expos|tulated with me very earnestly, saying,

"You tell me, if a man kills another in England, he is hanged for it: This man has killed ten, and yet you would not kill him, tho' many of his country|men desire it, and it would be very good."
The Captain desired Omai to ask the Chief, why he killed Capt. Furneaux's people. At this question he hung down his head, and looked like one caught in a trap, and expected instant death; but he was no sooner assured of his safety, than he became chearful. He did not, however, seem willing to answer the question, till he was again and again assured that he should not be hurt, and then he said, that one of his countrymen having brought a stone hatchet to barter, the man to whom it was offered, took it, and would neither pay for it, nor give it him back; on which the owner snatched up the bread as an equivalent, and then the quarrel began. These stories are by no means so probable as that told by the girl, who makes the massacre the premeditated design of Kahoora. Else why such a number of the savages together Page  54 in an unfrequented place, and all arm'd too, had they not come with an ill design.] But to proceed with our narrative.

Ghowannahe added, that there were women as well as men concerned, and that the women made the fires, while the warriors cut the dead men in pieces; that they did not eat them all at once, but only their hearts and livers; that the warriors had the heads, which were esteemed the best, and the rest of the flesh was distributed among the crowd. Having by various questions in the course of se|veral days extorted this relation, of which, he said, he had no reason to doubt the truth, he forbore to ask her what part her relations and herself bore in this tragedy, as there was reason to believe they were all equally concerned. He was, however, very solicitous to learn, if any such plot was now in agitation against the people that might be sent upon the same service, to Grass Cove, or any other convenient place. Her answer was, no; the warriors were afraid, at first, that the ships were come to revenge the death of their friends, and that was the reason why she was for|bidden to speak of killing the strangers, or to own any knowledge of it, if she were asked about any such thing. She said she was but a child, not 9 years old; but she remembered the talk of it, as a gallant action or great atchievement, and that they made songs in praise of it.

In the course of his conversation with this girl, who seemed rather of the better sort, he learned many things concerning the natural temper of the natives, that had escaped the penetration of for|mer Voyagers, and likewise with respect to their domestic policy. She said, the people of T'Avi-Poenammoo, or the Southern division of the island, were a fierce bloody people, and had a Page  55 natural hatred to the people of Ea-hei-no-mauwe, and killed them when he found them at any time in their country; but that the people of Ea-hei-no-mauwe were a good people, and were friendly to one another, but never suffered any of the people of T'Avi-Poenammoo to settle among them, because they were enemies; that they sometimes employed them to work for them; but that the two nations, the people on the North part of the Sound, and those on the South, were ever at war, and eat one another. She added, that the people of either country, when they fought, never eat one another; (so that it should seem, that habitual antipathy has a great share in the tendency of these savages to become men-eaters.) With respect to their domestic policy, she said, the fathers had the sole care of the boys as soon as they could walk, and that the girls were left wholly at the mother's disposal. She said, it was a crime for a mother to correct her son, after he was once taken under the protection of the father; and that it was always resented by the mother, if the father interfered in the management of the daughters. She said, the boys from their in|fancy were trained to war, and both boys and girls were taught the art of fishing, to weave their nets, and make their hooks and lines; that their canoes came from a far country, and that they got them in exchange for cloth, which was chiefly manufactured by the women; that their arms and working tools descended from father to son, and that those that were taken in battle supplied the rising generation; that they had no Kings among them, but that they had men who conversed with the dead, who were held in great veneration, and consulted before the people went to the wars; that they were the men who addressed strangers that Page  56 a me upon the coast, first in the language of peace, at the first time denouncing vengeance against them, if they came with any hostile de|sign; that the persons of these men were held sacred, and never killed in the wars, which ever side prevailed; that when the warriors of either nation made prisoners, they were never of the meaner sort, but of some Chief, whom they af|terwards killed and eat; but that to the common sort they never gave quarter; that they sometimes tortured an enemy, if they found him singly lurk|ing in the woods, looking upon him as one who came upon no good design; but never otherwise; that they lived chiefly upon fish, which were caught in the Sound in abundance, during the summer, and were dried and preserved for the winter; but that in very severe weather they re|tired to the North.

The account given by Mr. Anderson, Surgeon and Naturalist to the Resolution, corresponds in every respect with the information which our Journalist received from his favourite girl. The children, says Mr. Anderson, are initiated at an early age, into all the practices, good or bad, of their fathers; so that you find a boy or girl nine or ten years old, able to perform all the motions, and to imitate the frightful gestures which the more aged use to inspire their enemies with terror, keeping the strictest time in their song. They likewise sing with some degree of melody the tra|ditions of their forefathers, their actions in war, and other indifferent subjects, of all which they are immoderately fond, and spend much of their time in these amusements, and playing on a sort of flute.

No people can have a quicker sense of injury, nor any more ready to resent it; but this, Mr. Page  57 Anderson thinks, may be looked upon as the ef|fect rather of a savage disposition, than of genuine bravery. Their public contentions are frequent, or rather perpetual; and it appears, from their number of weapons and their dexterity in using them, that war is their principal profession. Be|fore they begin the onset, they join in a war song, to which they all keep the exactest time, and soon raise their passion to a degree of fury, attended with the most horrid distortions of their eyes, mouth, and tongues, to strike terror into their enemies, which, to those who have not been ac|customed to such a practice, makes them appear more like daemons than men, and would almost chill the boldest with fear. To this succeeds a circumstance almost foretold in their fierce de|meanour, horrid, cruel, and disgraceful to human nature, which is, cutting in pieces, even before being perfectly dead, the bodies of their enemies, and, after dressing them on a fire, devouring the flesh, not only without reluctance, but with pe|culiar satisfaction.

Being asked, if they ever eat the bodies of their friends, they seemed surprised at the question, and expressed some abhorrence at the idea. No people on earth appear to lament the loss of friends with more tender concern than the New Zealanders; they bewail them with the most dole|ful cries, tearing their hair, and cutting their faces, till they mingle their blood with their tears.

They chiefly live by fishing; and the only furniture of their houses are buckets, and bags, wherein they keep their fishing-hooks; they are seldom stationary, but remove from place to place; and it is astonishing with what facility they build their houses. Capt. Cook was present while they Page  58 built a village. The moment the canoes reached the shore, the men leapt out, and at once took possession of a piece of ground by tearing up the plants and shrubs, and sticking up some part of the framing of a hut. They then returned to their canoes, and secured their weapons, by placing them so as they could reach them in an instant. They then began to arrange the mate|rials, some of which they brought with them, the rest they got upon the spot, and, while the men were thus employed, the women were not idle; some were placed to watch the canoes, others to secure the provisions, and others to find fuel to dress their food. Thus, in a few hours, they had houses to sleep in, and fire to dress their suppers.

They generally chose to be near the tents, and took up their abode close to them. The seamen, Capt. Cook says, had in general taken a dislike to those people, and seldom would associate with them; and indeed there was good reason. They were both loathsome in their persons and diet: Train oil was a most delicious feast to them; the scourings of the lamps, and even the remnants of the wicks, were voraciously devoured by them. When the sailors were melting their seal blubber, the skimmings of the pots, and the dregs of the casks, were frequently fought for by the bye-standers.

Though they are in an eternal state of warfare among themselves, yet if a stranger comes among them, of whom they have no suspicion, they are received and kindly entertained, as long as they have any business to transact, but no longer. Thus it is that a trade is carried on among them, by way of exchange of one thing for another. The most precious material is green talc, of the Page  59 origin of which they have many superstitious sto|ries; one that it was originally a fish, and the good spirit, when he is pleased, forms it into a stone. It is only to be found in one isle. They have certainly a notion of rewards and punish|ments, and a future state; they believe that the soul of the Chief who is killed in war, and is eaten by the enemy, is doomed to everlasting fire; while the soul of the Chief who conquers in bat|tle, and dies a natural death, ascends among the good spirits, who have the power of bestowing victory as the reward of valour. It does not ap|pear, however, that they have any settled system of religion; they have no morai's, nor any cere|monies at the interment of their departed friends; but they frequently carve miniature figures in stone, which they ornament with eyes of pearl, and hang about their necks, as memorials of those who were dearest to them while they lived. They have, too, their days of abstinence, and their modes of supplicating the good spirit, and deprecating the evil one, but they could not be comprehended. Madan's system of marriage was discoverable among them; whoever first took a virgin, kept to her for life, and there were many who ap|peared to have more women than one dependent on them: parental affection was characteristic among them; and there appeared no other sub|ordination except that which originated from filial duty. Their Chiefs seemed all descendants from the same stock, branched out like the ramifications of a tree from one root, which, united, constituted one tribe.

Mr. Anderson in the natural history of this country is very copious. The soil, he says, is best indicated by the luxuriant growth of its produc|tions. The hills, with some exceptions near the Page  58〈1 page duplicate〉Page  59〈1 page duplicate〉Page  60 shores, are one continued forest of lofty trees, flourishing beyond conception. The happy tem|perature of the climate contributes not a little to this uncommon strength of vegetation. There are no marks of devastation by hurricanes, nor of torrents rushing from the mountains by excessive rains. The country is in general mountainous, and the vallies watered by brooks and rivulets; and as it is by nature ill adapted for improve|ment by the plough, there does not appear the least trace of cultivation.

The large trees that cover the hills are chiefly of two sorts; one not unlike in growth to the Northern firs; the other like our maple; both sorts were cut for fuel, being found too heavy for masts and yards. There were likewise a species of Philadelphus, the leaves of which were drank for tea, and was an excellent substitute for the Orien|tal sort.

Among the plants, wild celery, and a sort of scurvy-grass were found the most salutary; a fedge-like plant, of which the natives make their garments, was likewise noticed by Mr. Anderson, and much commended: of all these and many more, we brought home the seeds.

Of the birds, there was a tolerable stock, but rather shy; among them he mentions a musical bird, when by itself, was sufficient to fill the woods with melody: though small, it was enchanting. Another curious bird, Mr. Anderson mentions, with a long tail, which on approaching it, spreads it like a fan.

Among other birds they killed were two or three rails, as large as common fowls, but no other game, one single snipe excepted.

The fish in the Sound were of various kinds, many of them excellent, and furnished by the Page  61 natives in great abundance; a fish called by the natives magge, and by the seamen sea-breams; small salmons and cole-fish were superior to the rest.

Shell-fish about the rocks were in such plenty, that the natives seem in a great measure to live upon them when the weather is such that they cannot get out to sea. They have muscles a foot long, cray-fish, cockles, small oysters, and a va|riety of other rock-fish, periwincles and crabs.

Insects are not numerous, but some there are that were very troublesome, as scorpion-flies and sand-flies, as venomous as musquitoes.

Among the reptiles a kind of lizard is men|tioned, eight feet in length, and as big round as a man's body; they burrow in the ground, and, as one of the Zealand youths that embarked with Omai affirmed, sometimes seize and devour men.

There were no traces of any four-footed animal to be seen, rats and a kind of fox-dogs excepted, on which the priests and the chiefs sometimes, but seldom, feasted. It is not a little remark|able, that neither metal nor mineral were dis|coverable on the island, the green jasper only excepted.

The Zealanders, in general, do not exceed the common stature of Europeans; some, indeed, are remarkable for their large bones and muscular strength, but of these few were seen; their faces are round, their eyes full, their lips plump, and their noses, as the phrase is, bottled. Mr. An|derson does not remember to have seen the true aqualine nose among them; though, if we re|member right, Mr. Parkinson's chief is an ex|ception. Their teeth were commonly large, white, and well set; their hair black and lank, and their persons, altogether, tolerably proportioned, but Page  62 few graceful or strikingly well-made. The wo|men, in general, are ordinary and forbidding. The dress of both sexes is the same, consisting of a kind of cloth made of silky flax, which nature has provided for them; and which they have im|proved by bleaching, dying, and knotting. They bring two corners of this cloth over their shoul|ders, and fasten it on the breast and round their waist with a girdle: some ornament these with the fur of dog-skin, and others with the fea|thers of birds wrought into the cloth as it is made. For cloaks they use a kind of matting, which they throw loosely over them, so as to co|ver them when they sit, from head to foot; and when so covered, it is not easy to distinguish them from grey stones; by which means they form ambushes in war, and fall upon the enemy by surprize. Their colour is naturally a very dark-brown, but they rather affect to make it appear black; their beards grow long: but they shave to make way for punctuating their faces, which, whether a mark of distinction, or only intended for ornament, must be a painful and tedious ope|ration.

As mechanics they certainly excel; their ca|noes are master-pieces of mechanical labour, and their cordage is equal to that of Europe; their lines, their nets, their fishing-tackle, and, in short, every thing useful in common life is fa|bricated and finished to admiration; their carv|ing, considering their tools, they have to work with, is beyond conception elegant."

On the 23d, in the morning, the old Indian who had harangued the ship, when we ap|proached the shore, came on board the Discovery, and presented the Captain with a compleat stand of their arms, and some very fine fish, which were Page  63 kindly received; and, in return, the Captain gave him a brass pata-patow, made exactly in their manner, on which were engraven his Ma|jesty's name and arms, the names of the ships, the date of their departure from England, and the business they were sent upon; he gave him like|wise a hatchet, a few nails, a knife, and some glass ornaments, which he highly prized, tho' of small value. This day the wood-cutters lost a wood-ax, which one of the natives dexterously carried off, without being discovered. In the evening they brought a man bound, whom they offered to sell; but their offer being rejected, they carried him back, and in the night, a most horrid yelling was heard in the woods, which excited the cu|riosity of the gentlemen on board our ship, to examine into the cause. The cutter was ordered to be manned, a party of marines were armed to be put on board, and the Captain, with proper attendants, directed their course to the west side of the bay, where they saw several fires just light|ed, and where they hoped to have surprized the natives, before they had put their poor captive to death; but, in this hope they were disap|pointed, perhaps he was reserved for a better fate. The savages in an instant disappeared, and left no trace behind them of any slaughter having been committed.

About four in the morning, the tents were struck, and orders delivered out for sailing.

Next day, Feb. 24th, the Indians flocked in great numbers about the ship, bringing with them a plentiful supply of fish, and whatever else they thought marketable among the sailors.

Though the natives appeared friendly during our stay, it was judged proper to keep the time of our departure secret till all things were on Page  64 board, and we were in readiness to sail. This precaution Capt. Cook thought the more neces|sary, from what he had just heard of the treach|ery of the savages. By not allowing them to concert any new plot, he effectually secured our foraging parties from the danger of a surprize; and by thus suddenly giving orders to sail, he prevented our own men from rambling after the women when their business was done, which, tho' not over-fond of Zealanders, they never failed to do when in their power. The foraging parties here meant are those who were sent to the coves, at the distance, perhaps, of six or seven leagues from the ships, to cut grass for the live stock, and to gather herbs to boil with the portable soup for the men; and those also who were stationed in the woods to get spruce to brew into beer for their preser|vation from the scurvy, against which that li|quor, as has already been observed, was found a most powerful antidote. [The tree, the leaves and berries of which they made their spruce, was as large, according to Mr. Anderson, as our largest firs; but their tops more like the yew]. Of grass and herbs an immense quantity was brought on board, and of spruce as much as served the crews for drink near thirty days, during which time no grog was delivered out. The parties or|dered upon these services went always well arm|ed and guarded by marines, though Capt. Cook himself entertained very high notions of the ho|nour as well as bravery of the New Zealanders.

It was about seven in the morning when the ships cleared the bay, and about eleven, when they entered the mouth of Cook's Streights, where they cast anchor; and Capt. Clerke, and Mr. Burney, his first Lieutenant, went on board the Resolution, to dine with Capt. Cook. Here Page  65 the friends of the two Zealander youths, whom Omai had purchased, came to take their last leave of them, and expressed, very affectingly, their grief at parting, though the boys were as yet in pretty good spirits. Some presents were made by Omai to the parents, and they departed, seemingly with great reluctance.

[On the 25th, Kahoora with his whole family came on board the Resolution, without the least apprehensions of danger, or fear for his life; such confidence had Capt. Cook's behaviour inspired among the New Zealanders, that they look|ed upon his word as sacred, he now answered all the questions that were put to him without reserve. Mr. Burney, who, the next day after the massacre, was sent with an armed party to Grass Cove, fired several vollies among the crowds of cannibals assembled about the detestable ban|quet, and it was natural to suppose, that many of them had felt the effects of his just resentment; but Kahoora declared, that not a single person was hurt.]

On the 27th, both ships came to sail, and on the 28th, cleared the land; lat. 41.36. long. 175. E.

On the 1st of March, a storm came on, but as the wind was fair, we got down the top gal|lant-yards, close-reefed the top-sails, and pur|sued our course E. by N. About four in the afternoon it cleared up, we spoke with the Re|solution, and all well, except the two New Zealanders, who, notwithstanding their constant residence on the margin of the main ocean, and their employment of fishing near the shores from their infancy, yet, when they came to leave the land, and seeing nothing but foaming billows all Page  66 round them, their hearts failed them; they now began to pine, and refused to eat.

On the 3d, the wind continuing fair, and the breeze moderate, Capt. Clerke, with Mr. Burney, went on board the Resolution, to dine with Capt. Cook. When the New Zealanders were told there was a boat come on board, whatever their apprehensions then were, it was not easy to dis|cover; but they ran and hid themselves, and seemed to be in a great panic. It did not appear that their fear took its rise from the thoughts of being carried back, because when the gentle|men were coming away, they wanted to come with them. It should rather seem, therefore, that they were apprehensive of some design upon their lives, as in their country a consultation among the chiefs always precedes a determined murder. This was in part confirmed by their behaviour afterwards. This day we were in lat. 42.31. S. long. 182.30. E. Nothing remark|able till

The 7th, when a great swell from the South|ward gave notice of an approaching storm. Al|batrosses, men of war birds, flying fish, dol|phins and sharks had played about the ships for several days, and some of our gentlemen had shot albatrosses that measured eleven feet from tip to tip; and this day a large shark was caught, most of which was eaten by the ship's company; though they had not yet lost the relish of the New Zealand fish, nor were their stores quite exhausted, most of the sailors having purchased quantities to salt, which were esteemed excel|lent. Lat. obs. 39.16. S. long. 190.26. E. course E. by N.

On the 8th, the storm that was foreseen came on, accompanied with thunder, lightning and Page  67 rain. The sea rose mountains high, and the wind increased to such a degree, as made it ne|cessary to take in almost all our sails with the utmost expedition, and to scud it under double reefed top-tails. We still kept our course, steer|ing N. E. by E. The gale continued all night and part of next day, when about four in the af|ternoon the wind abated, and fine weather suc|ceeded; lat. 39.21. long. 192.17.

On the 10th, a New Zealand dog was dressed for the great cabin, when the Zealand boys were, with difficulty, with-held from eating it raw; lat. 39.22. long. 194.47. course N. E. by E.

On the 11th, it began to blow very hard in the morning, and before we could hand the top-gal|lant sails, it carried away the main top-gallant yard; about two in the afternoon it became fine, but attended with a great swell from the South|ward. Lat. obs. 39.26. long. 195.35.

On the 14th, a fine breeze, course N. E. by N. We were now advancing briskly at the rate of 7 and 8 knots an hour, when all on a sudden the wind shifted to the South-east.

On the 15th it blew a hurricane, attended with rain and a high sea, which breaking over our bows, cleared the decks of every thing that was not firmly secured. It carried away our main top-gallant-yard in the slings, and split our fore-top-mast-stay-sail in a thousand shreds. At night we shifted our course, and stood N. by E. ½ E. There were some on board who disapproved of the course we had steered from the beginning, foreseeing, that by going so fast to the North|ward, we should fall too suddenly into the trade|winds, especially if we should be met by an Easterly wind before we approached the Tropic. Among the seamen on board a king's ship, there Page  68 are always some expert navigators, whose judg|ment, ripened by experience, is much to be de|pended upon; but the misfortune is, that these men are never consulted, nor do they even dare so much as to whisper their opinion to their su|perior officer. Like gamesters standing by, they can see the errors of the game, but must not point them out till the game is over. This was the real case on board the Discovery, some of whose people did not scruple to foretel what would happen the moment we left the 39th de|gree of Southern latitude, while we were yet only in the 109th degree of Eastern longitude. They did not scruple to say among themselves, that instead of 22 degrees short of the longitude of Otaheite, (which lies in 212° E. nearly) be|fore we altered our latitude to the North, we ought to have stretched at least 12 degrees far|ther Eastward, being then certain, that how far soever we might be to the Eastward of our in|tended port, when we came to cross the Tropic we should be sure of a fair wind to carry us to it. Lat. this day obs. 34.6. long. 198.28.

[This remark now appears in its full force, Capt. Cook's words are,

"the hopes of the wind coming more Southerly, or of meeting with it from the Westward, a little without the Tropics, encouraged me to continue this course. Indeed it was necessary that I should run all risks,"
&c.]

On the 18th, having continued our course N. N. E. for the last twenty-four hours, we found ourselves in lat. 33 deg. 8 min. by observation, and in long. 200.36. E. that is more than 12 degrees to the Westward of Otaheite. Here we saw sea-weed in abundance, and by a large tree floating by us, we judged we could not be far Page  69 from land, but found none. The tree appeared to be about thirty feet long, and of a considerable girt, and by its freshness, seemed not to have been long in the water.

The 21st, when, in the latitude of 28 degrees South, we saw a large whale at a little distance; a sight seldom seen in so low a latitude in the northern hemisphere. This day our beer, which had been periodically brewed from the spruce brought from New Zealand, was all exhausted, and grog served out in its stead. Hitherto not a man was ill on board the Discovery, nor any other alteration made in their allowance. It was the number of live stock on board the Resolu|tion, that occasioned the distress for water, from which the Discovery was in a manner exempt, having but few on board, more than were ne|cessary for the ship's use.

On the 22d, the heaviest rain began to pour down, that any man on board had ever known. It fell in sheets, and as the wind increased, the men in handling the sails, were in the utmost danger of being washed off the yards. It continued for six hours incessantly. It came, however, most seasonable for the Resolution, where the number of live stock, horses, cows, goats, and sheep had exhausted a large proportion of their fresh wa|ter, and we were yet at a great distance from our destined port. Here the wind began to veer to the East, as we approached the Tropic. This was apprehended by many, who finding our longitude not to increase in proportion as our latitude de|creased, began to suspect that we should not be able to make Otaheite this run. Course N. by E. wind S. E. by S. Lat. 26.51. long. 201.59.

On the 23d, the weather continuing, we be|gan to be accompanied by our tropical compa|nions, Page  70 many of which surrounded the ship, and one man of war bird had the audacity to settle on the mast-head.

On the 24th, course N. by E. the wind E. by S.

On the 25th our latitude was decreased to 24 deg. 24 min. without our longitude being in|creased one single degree. The wind E. S. E. and our course N. E. by N. we made but little way to the Eastward. But the weather continu|ing fair, Capt. Clerke and Mr. Burney went on board the Resolution, to dine with Capt. Cook, and when they returned, brought the sorrowful news of the alarming situation of the Resolution for want of provisions and water for the live stock; that they were obliged to kill a great part of their sheep, hogs and goats for the use of the crew, not having a sufficient quantity of food and wa|ter to keep them alive; that the horses and cows were mere skeletons, being reduced to the scanty portion of four pounds of hay, and six quarts of water for twenty-four hours; and the men put to the allowance of two quarts of water, for the same space of time: that the wind still continuing foul, all thoughts of reaching Otaheite were laid aside, and that the isles of Amsterdam and Rot|terdam were now our only resource. [The above facts and important observations are omitted by Capt. Cook; which, notwithstanding, are ill im|plied, and shews not only the accuracy of our journalist, but the superiority of his judgment in foreseeing and foretelling what would be the issue of such a desperate course.] Nothing remark|able till

The 27th, when the weather, which for two or three days had been squally, attended with thunder and lightning, increased to a storm, so Page  [unnumbered]

[illustration] [depiction of the people of Mangea]
A Man of Mangea.

p. 71.
[illustration] [depiction of the people of Eaoo]
A Woman of Eaoo.

p. 116.
Page  71 that it became necessary for us to hand our sails, one after another, till our double-reefed top-sails were all that were abroad. We now saw sea-weed in abundance, and some land-fowl began to make their appearance, which were indications of land at no great distance. Course N. E. by N. to N. N. E. Lat. obs. 23.15. long. 201.53.

On the 28th, the tempestuous weather still con|tinuing, we altered our course to the North. The wind for the last twenty-four hours, blowing most|ly from the S. E. We, this day, crossed the Southern Tropic: [on the 27th, according to Capt. Cook,] when the weather cleared up, and we were saluted with a fine breeze, and attended by numerous shoals of flying fish, bonitos, dol|phins, sharks, and whole flocks of Tropical sea-fowl, which abound near the islands in the low latitudes, but are seldom seen in the deep Pacific Sea.

On the 29th, about ten in the morning, the sky being clear, and the weather moderate, the man at the mast-head called out, Land, bearing N. E. distant about seven or eight leagues. We made the signal, which was soon answered by the Resolution. About 12, the weather began to alter, and to blow in gusts from the land. At four in the afternoon tacked ship, and stood in for the land. Saw no sign of inhabitants while day-light remained, but in the night ob|served several fires. Lat. 22.17. long. 201.25.

On the 30th, saw several canoes approaching the ships, and many inhabitants on the beach, seemingly in arms to oppose our landing. About ten, the boats were hoisted out and manned, in order to reconnoitre the shore, and sound for an|chorage, who, to our great disappointment, re|turned, without having succeeded.

Page  72Two of the canoes came within call, having three persons in each canoe; but none of them could be prevailed upon to come on board. Our Captain shewed many articles of European manufacture to excite their curiosity, but they seemed to set little value on any thing, except New Zealand cloth; of which he threw a piece over-board, and they came and dived for it; but they had no sooner recovered it, than they paddled off as fast as they could, without offering any thing in return. In the mean time the boats were surrounded by multitudes from the shore, who came, some in canoes, and some swimming; they even attempted to board the boats by force, and several fastened round them with their teeth. Thus circumstanced, and in danger of being sunk, they chose rather to re|turn to the ships, than hazard their own safety; or, to secure themselves, deprive any of the innocent people of life; an injunction that was frequently repeated by Capt. Cook, during the voyage, and which was the more necessary, as the common sailors were very apt to forget, that the life of an Indian was of any account. About noon, the Resolution, being in much distress for water, though somewhat relieved by the rains which had fallen, Capt. Cook ordered the cutter to be manned, and went in it himself, to talk with the natives, and to examine the coast; but, after a fruitless search, was forced to return, the surf being such as rendered the watering of the ships from the shore an absolute impossibility. While he lay too, he had some friendly conver|sation with the natives, and some presents passed between them; but nothing that answered the purposes of supplying the ships, or refreshing the crews. One of the natives to whom a Page  73 knife was given, instantly run it through his ear, and swam to shore though the surf rose to an asto|nishing height. [This person, Capt. Cook says, had two polished pearl-shells, and a bunch of hu|man hair loosely twisted, hanging about his neck.] Great numbers came round to the beech, over-against which the Captain lay, waving green branches in token of peace.

This island, which the natives called Mangya, or Mangeea, and the name of their chief Orooaeeka, we supposed to be in length, from S. S. W. to N. N. E. about eight leagues, and in breadth about four leagues, and to lie in latitude 21.54. long. 201.42. made a most delightful appearance, and, as Capt. Cook was made to un|derstand, abounded in every thing of which the ships were in want; it may therefore easily be conceived, with what reluctance we left it. Some peculiarities were observed by those who attended Capt. Cook, particularly in the dress both of the men and women, who wore a kind of sandals, made of bark, upon their feet; on their heads caps, probably of their own manufacture, richly ornamented, and encircled with party-coloured plumage. They were above the middle stature, most of them seemingly from five feet ten inches, to six feet six inches; well-made, tattowed, and like those of the Friendly Isles, were without clothes, except a kind of apron which encircled their waists, reaching little more than half way down their thighs. Both men and women were armed with spears thirteen or fourteen feet long; and the men had massy clubs besides, about three feet long, of a hard wood and very heavy. Armed with these weapons, 5 or 600 people were drawn up upon the beach, who eagerly gazed at the ships, having probably never seen an European vessel Page  74 before, though this, with the islands adjoining, were discovered in Captain Cook's former voyage, at the distance of seven or eight leagues. Their canoes were of curious workmanship, seemingly cut out of the solid wood, polished and decorated with carvings that indicated both taste and design. Their very paddles were polished and inlaid with shells, as were most of their weapons of war. [Capt. Cook's relation differs nothing in substance from the above.]

On the 31st, before ten in the morning, the man at the mast-head called out, land a-head, distance seven or eight leagues, lying N. by E.

[Next morning, April 1st, we had got a-breast of its North end. At the same time another island was in view, but much smaller; we preferred the former, as most likely to furnish a supply of food for the cattle, of which we began to be in great want.]

[At eleven we hauled in for the land, but as there was but little wind, and that unfavourable, at eight next morning (April 2d) we were full two leagues to leeward.]

Observing several canoes hastening towards us, waving green branches, which we under|stood were ensigns of peace; these we an|swered, and one, who appeared to be a chief, came on board the Discovery, with a large bough in his hand, and another was seen to ascend the side of the Resolution. After the usual ceremonies, and some presents of little va|lue had passed, while Capt. Clerke was endea|vouring to make his wants known to the Indian, Omai came on board by Capt. Cook's direction, who here could make himself perfectly under|stood. The chief addressed him in a solemn speech, which, though Omai pretended to inter|pret, Page  75 very little of it could be understood by any one else. He then was introduced by Omai to the Captain, to whom he presented his green bough, at the same time inviting him ashore, and promising to furnish him with whatever re|freshments the island produced. This invitation was accepted, the boats were ordered out, and the Captain, with Omai, and suitable attendants, were instantly landed. But what was Omai's surprize, when among the crowd of spectators on the beach, he saw, or thought he saw, some of his country|men striving to come forward.

At the distance of more than 200 leagues, with an immense ocean intervening, by what miracle could men be brought so far who had no other vehicle of conveyance than wretched open boats, that seldom can be trusted out of sight of land! Omai could hardly believe his eyes, and was eager to be convinced. The strangers were three in number, who were all equally surprized, and equally impatient to hear Omai's adven|tures, and Omai to know theirs. Omai took them aside, and entertained them with a pleasing relation of all that had happened to himself; and they in return acquainted Omai with what had befallen them. Their story was truly pitiable; they said, that of 30 Uliteans, they were the only survivors; that about twelve years ago, they with their families and friends going from Ulitea to settle at Otaheite, were overtaken in a dreadful tempest, by which they were driven into the main ocean; that the storm continuing to increase, and the sea to run mountains high, the women and children were washed over board, and perished before they experienced any further distress; that after three days, when the storm abated, those who remained, found themselves in an unknown Page  76 ocean, with little more provisions than was just sufficient to serve them another day; that having no pilot to direct their course, nor any sign by which to steer, they continued to go be|fore the wind day after day, till famine had re|duced their number to less than fifteen; that those who survived, had nothing but the sea-weed which they found floating in the sea, and the wa|ter which they saved when it rained, to keep them alive; that, ten days having elapsed, and no land in prospect, despair took place of hope, and se|veral unable to support the pangs of hunger, jump|ed over board in their phrenzy, and perished by an easy death; the groans and lamentations of the dying, and the terrible agonies with which some were affected before death came to their relief, exceeded all description. In this melancholy situation they had existed for thirteen days, and how much longer they could have no recollection, for they were taken up insensible of pain, and hardly to be distinguished from the emaciated bodies of the dead among whom they were found, seemingly without life or motion, till by the friendly care of their deliverers they were re|stored. When they recovered, they said, it was like waking from a dream: they knew not where they were, nor how they came upon land; but being told that they were taken up at sea, and in what condition, as their senses gradually re|turned, they by degrees recollected all the cir|cumstances already related; they added, that ever since they were brought to life, they had remained with their deliverers, and were now quite reconciled to their condition, and happy in the situation in which the Eatooa or good spirit had placed them. Omai, after hearing their relation, with which he was apparently much affected, told them, they Page  77 might now take the opportunity of returning home with him; that he would intercede for them; and that he was sure if they chose it, the chiefs of the expedition would grant his request. They thanked Omai for his kindness; nor had they any reason to suppose, that such an offer would ever be made them again: but they were now determined to end their days with the peo|ple who had restored them to second life; and as their dearest relations and friends were of the num|ber of those who perished, the return to their own country would now only renew their grief, and instead of offording them pleasure, would but increase their melancholy. This interview over, Omai joined his associates, and proceeded with Capt. Clerke, as his interpreter. After hearing their story, Omai returned to his company; and Capt. Clerke, who had been joined by Lieutenant Gore from the Resolution, held some conversation with the natives, who received them in the most friendly manner; and, before their return to the ships, a double canoe, in which were twelve men, was seen along-side the Resolution. One of these men as they approached the ship, stood up and repeated some words by way of recitatives, and was soon joined by the rest in full chorus. Their song was no sooner ended, than they all went on board, and one, who appeared to be the chief, presented Capt. Cook with a pig, a few cocoa-nuts, and a piece of matting. They were all ad|mitted into the great cabin: some objects seemed to strike them, but none fixed their attention, till they came to the sheep and goats. The horses and cows evidently struck them with fear; but the sheep and the goats came nearer to the level of their comprehension. They knew, they said, they were birds. They were dismissed with presents; but Page  78 the chief went away seemingly dissatisfied. He had set his heart upon a dog; and accordingly, early next morning a canoe was observed making towards the ship, in which was a large hog, some plantains, and cocoa-nuts, for Capt. Cook, for which the people in the canoe were to accept of nothing but a dog in exchange. On board the Resolution one of the gentlemen had a dog and the dog's mate, which had long been nuisances, and which might now have been disposed of for a laudable purpose of propagating a race of useful animals among a friendly people; however, he thought otherwise; but Omai spared them a dog, and they returned highly gratified.

Mr. Gore on his return, had reported to Capt. Cook, Omai's adventure with his three friends, and had reported the state of the island to be such, as to afford no supply of food for the cattle which were ready to starve, unless they could be pre|vailed upon to bring across the reef the stems and leaves of plaintain-trees, with which the island seemed to abound; and this he believed they might be prevailed upon to furnish, as they had it now in their power to make their wants fully explained by means of Omai and his country|men. Capt. Cook, though he had but little hopes that the natives, friendly as they appeared to be, would yet be so ungenerous as to destroy the young stock that supplied them with food, to accommo|date them, immediately consented to make trial of their bounty.

Accordingly, about ten in the morning of the 3d, Mr. Gore, with two of the Resolution's boats, and one from the Discovery were sent as far as the reef, with orders to wait there till the return of the gentlemen who were to make the experiment, among whom was Mr. Gore, Mr. Anderson, and Page  79 Omai from the Resolution, and Mr. Burney from the Discovery. As soon as they were seen mak|ing for the shore, they were met by several of the natives with cocoa-nuts, and being told by Omai, that they wished to land, two canoes came from the shore, in one of which Mr. Burney and Mr. Anderson entered unarmed, and were landed safe|ly on the reef, over which they were conducted by two of the natives, one supporting the arm of Mr. Burney, and the other the arm of Mr. Anderson, till they had both crossed the rugged stones, and had reached the beach. They were then conducted by their friendly guides through a crowd, who having just gratified their curiosity by viewing the dog, diverted their attention to admire the men, and pressed upon them so close|ly, as prevented their proceeding, till some of them, who seemed to be persons in authority, dealt their blows pretty severely about them to beat them off. The two gentlemen were then led up an avenue of cocoa-palms, till they came to a number of men drawn up in ranks, with their clubs shouldered, through which they were march|ed, till they came to a chief sitting on the ground fanning himself, without any other ornament to distinguish him than a large bunch of beautiful red feathers in his ears, projecting forwards. This chief they were desired to salute as he sat, accord|ing to the custom of the country. From him they were led to another, a person, for a young man, of unusual corpulence, and having repeated their salutations as before; they were then led to a third chief, who, after being saluted, desired them to sit down, which they were very ready to do, being sufficiently fatigued in going through the ceremony.—Almost instantly the crowd were separated, and at the distance of about thirty Page  78〈1 page duplicate〉Page  79〈1 page duplicate〉Page  80 yards, twenty fine girls neatly dressed and orna|mented with red feathers, came forward dancing to their own song, which they continued without the least embarrassment till their dance was ended. Thus agreeably entertained, both the officer and the philosopher forgot for a moment, that they were without their associates, and in want of their interpreter; when hastily rising to look about for them, they at length found them coming up in form to the three chiefs, whose names were Otte|roo, Taroa, and Fatoweera; and being all now met, they took the opportunity to make known their commission; for great pains had been taken to keep them apart, for when the third chief was told by Mr. Anderson that he would be glad to speak with Omai, the chief peremptorily refused his request. In the mean time they found the na|tives began to make free with their pockets; which the chief, instead of repressing, seemed to encou|rage. They now began to apprehend a concert|ed design of detaining them, and to blame their own indiscretion in putting themselves so wholly in their power, for in their situation they were as effectually cut off from the ships as if half the ocean had lain between them. This they inti|mated to each other; and Omai, who was valiant only when no danger was near, caught the panic, and, seeing a hole dug for an oven, could hardly be persuaded but that it was to roast and eat him. However, to put their suspicions to the proof, Mr. Anderson and Mr. Burney attempted to reach the beach; but were stopt about half way, and told they must return to the place they had left. In this manner they were kept in sus|pence the greatest part of the day; sometimes gazing at them; sometimes talking to Omai, and sometimes pushing back their clothes to admire Page  81 their skin; and when the chiefs were pressed on the business they were sent upon, they were told they must stay and eat with them before their re|quest could be granted. While Omai was en|tertaining the chiefs with the story of his travels, Mr. Anderson and Mr. Burney made a second at|tempt; and Mr. Anderson had actually reached the beach, and was beginning to wade in upon the reef, when he was rudely pulled back, and told he must return.

Finding all their efforts in vain to release them|selves, they made a virtue of necessity, and did as they were bid. But the islanders observing some|thing like fear in them, brought some green boughs, and sticking them in the ground, desired them to hold them in their hands as they sat, probably to preserve them from being incom|moded by the crowd. And soon after the second chief, having first formed a ring, ordered dinner. First, a pretty considerable number of cocoa-nuts were brought, and shortly after a long green bas|ket with a quantity of baked plantains, sufficient to have served half the ship's company; and lastly, part of a young hog nicely dressed; and Omai was treated with kava, the drink he had been used to in his own country. As soon as dinner was over, they were told they might depart; and being conducted to the beach, they found canoes ready to carry them to their boats, in which were a few plantain-trees already embarked, but not enough to serve the cattle a single week.

Though the people seemed not ill-disposed, it was not in fact, in their power, without distres|sing themselves, to afford any effectual supply; and indeed they were so vain of their hospitality to strangers, that, as Omai said, they dignified their island with the name of Wenooa no te Ea|tooa, Page  82 the Land of Gods. Lat. 201.1. long. 201.45. E.

On the 4th, in the morning, the ships made sail, and with an easy breeze came up with the small island, already mentioned, which, tho' sur|rounded with a reef like that we had just left, yet there being no inhabitants to oppose them, our boats made good their landing, and brought off about 100 cocoa-nuts for each ship, some grass for the cattle, and as much as they could load of leaves and branches of the young cocoa-trees, and of the tree called Wharra, which being cut small, was eaten by the cattle with great greediness. The boats no sooner returned, and were hoisted on board, than we set sail to the Northward.

And on the 6th, in the morning, the man at the mast-head called out, Land, which was soon answered by the Resolution. About three in the afternoon we fell in with Hervey's Isle, seen by Capt. Cook in his first voyage, in lat. 19.15. long. 201.6. E. The boats were instantly got out to search for soundings, but found none; stood off and on all night.

Next morning, the 7th, several canoes came off, brandishing their spears, and threatening us, apparently, in a hostile manner. The boats, however, were again sent in search of anchorage, and in passing the canoes, an officer sitting care|lessly in one of the boats, was near being pulled over-board by a native, who made a spring to snatch something he had in his hand; but missing his aim, plunged instantly into the sea. They then became very troublesome, till a great gun was fired from our ship, which in a moment dis|persed them. In the evening the boats returned, with no better success than before. In the mean time, Capt. Cook having displayed a white flag Page  83 in token of peace, they did the same, and then came on board friendly. But though water was here equally unattainable as in the other islands of this group, the night was spent in standing on and off.

On the 6th, in the morning, we set sail; and on the 7th came in sight of another island, lat. 19.15. long. 201.35.

On the 7th tacked and stood in for land. For the last 24 hours the storms of thunder, lightning, and rain, were almost incessant, insomuch, that it was found necessary to cover the scuttles of the magazine to secure the powder. The people in both ships were now employed in catching water, which though none of the best, because of its tarry taste, was yet richly prized; and he who could save but a gallon a-day when the rains be|gan, thought his labour amply rewarded; but this proving the rainy season, we in a few days filled all our empty casks, and every man had li|berty to use what he pleased. Before these heavy rains fell and furnished them with a supply, the people on board the Resolution had been greatly distressed for water, as we have already remarked; but now it was determined to direct our course to Anomocoa, or Rotterdam Island, and accordingly that island was appointed a place of rendezvous, in case of separation. The weather continued variable, and though plenty of rain fell almost every day, yet it was found adviseable to make use of the machine on board the Resolution, and to use water obtained by distillation for every purpose for which it was fit. It was apt to dis|colour the meat that was boiled with it, and to tincture every thing with a disagreeable blackness: but it was rather preferred to rain water, because of the tarry taste communicated by the latter. Page  84 Course in the evening, S. W. lat. 19.30. long. 200.51. Nothing remarkable till

The 12th, when we came in sight of land, bearing W. S. W. distance about eight or nine leagues. It appeared like four islands. We made sail, and stood for the land; but a heavy tempest coming on, involved us in darkness. In the evening we hove to, and so continued during the night.

In the morning of the 14th, the boats were or|dered out, and about noon returned, having found good anchorage in 12 and 15 fathom water, fine sandy bottom near the shore. The boats came back laden with the fruits of the island, which they made free with, having seen no inhabitants. We no sooner cast anchor, than parties from both ships were sent out to reconnoitre.

The islet where we landed was little more than a mile in circumference, and not more than 3 feet above the surface of the sea; notwithstanding which, it is so covered with trees and bushes, and among them sometimes cocoa-palms.

[Men-of-war birds, tropic birds, and two sorts of boobies, were here found so tame, that being on their nests, they suffered the people to take them off with their hands. Of each sort great numbers were killed, which, however, would hardly have been thought eatable in better circumstances. They likewise met with crabs creeping on the trees.]

At one part of the reef, which bounds the lake within, there was a large bed of coral, almost even with the surface, which afforded, perhaps, one of the most enchanting prospects that Nature has any where produced. Its base was fixed to the shore, but so deep that it could not be seen: so that the upper surface seemed to be suspended Page  85 in the water, which deepened so suddenly, that at the distance of a few yards there might be seven or eight fathoms. The sea was at this time quite unruffled, and the sun shining bright, exposed the various sorts of coral in the most beautiful order; some parts branching into the water with great luxuriance; others lying collected in round balls, and in various other figures; all which were greatly heightened by spangles of the richest colours, that glowed from a number of large clams, every where interspersed. But the appear|ance of these was still inferior to that of the mul|titude of fishes that glided gently along, seemingly with the most perfect security. The colours of the different sorts were the most beautiful that can be imagined; yellow, blue, red, black, &c. far exceeding any thing that art can produce. Their various forms also contributed not a little to in|crease the richness of this sub-marine grotto, which could not be surveyed without a pleasing transport, mixed, however, with regret, that a work so superlatively elegant, should be concealed in a place where mankind could seldom have an opportunity of rendering the praises so justly due to so enchanting a scene.

Here, and in the adjoining islets, the ships continued till the 17th, during which they did not spend their time unprofitably; for having taken on board a plentiful supply of food for the cattle, which otherwise must have perished, they had also procured more than 1200 cocoa-nuts, which were equally divided between the crews.]

It must doubtless surprise the greatest part of our readers, and perhaps stagger their belief, when they are told of so many islands abounding with inhabitants, who subsist with little or no fresh wa|ter. Yet true it is, that few or none of the little Page  86 low islands between the tropics, have any water on the surface of the ground, except perhaps in a lagoon, the water of which is generally brackish; nor is it easy to find water by digging. The fact is, the fruits of the earth are the chief food of the inhabitants, and the milk of the cocoa-nut serves them for drink. They want no water to boil any part of their food, for they knew not the art of boiling till the Europeans taught them, nor had they a vessel fitted for the purpose; neither have they any occasion for washing their clothes, because the materials of which they are made being of the paper kind, will not bear washing. Salt water, therefore, answers their purpose with very little fresh, and adds a relish to their meat, which, when it is dressed, they dip into sea-water every mouthful that they eat. This in a great measure accounts for their subsisting without fresh water, tho' in the climate of England it would not be easy to subsist without it a single week. And now, having supplied the ships with the produce of this island, and not being able to find anchor|age near any of those adjoining, we prepared to depart.

On the 17th, orders were given to sail; but in the evening, when the gentlemen returned, three muskets, three cartouch boxes, and three hangers were missing. These were the arms of three marines, who had accompanied the gentle|men in an excursion up the country, and who had committed their arms to the care of their com|rades; these, on their return, had forgotten them. They were, however, recovered by sending the marines on shore, who soon found them, and brought them off. On the return of the boat, we instantly put to sea, steering N. W. The islands Page  87 we had just left were the Palmerston Isles, in lat. 18.11. and long. 98.14. E.

On the 20th, we varied our course, steering W. N. W. all night.

On the 22d, clear weather, but a great swell from the South, a sure presage of an approaching storm. This day we altered our course to S. S. W. with the wind variable.

On the 25th, the expected storm came on, which increased to such an alarming height be|fore-night, attended with thunder, lightning, and rain, with a tremendous sea, that with all our sails handed, and our top-gallant yards struck, we were obliged to lie to under bare poles till morning appeared.

On the 26th, the storm being somewhat abated, the Resolution, of which we had lost sight, bore down to us; and at five in the afternoon we made sail under close reefed top-sails. About eleven at night we narrowly escaped running on shore on Savage Island, the man at the mast-head calling out, Land; when, dark as it was, we soon got sight of it close on our lee-bow, steering directly for it. We instantly put about and fired a gun as a signal for the Resolution (then to windward about half a mile) to do the same. So narrow an escape made a strong impression on the ship's company, who, thoughtless as they are, could not help looking up to heaven with thankful hearts for so signal a deliverance. As soon as it was light next morning, we saw this execrated island, at the dis|tance of about four leagues. Lat. obs. 19.44. long. 188.3.

On the 27th, heavy thunder and rain. Course S. ½ W. lat. 20.37. long. 186.57.

On the 29th, our carpenter's mate had the misfortune to fall down upon deck and break his Page  88 leg. Happy that no other misfortune had be|fallen us during a series of tempestuous weather, which few ships would have been able to resist. About nine in the morning, the storm still conti|nuing, but the sky in part clear, the man at the mast-head called out, Land, which was presently known to be Anomocoa, or Rotterdam Island, so called by the Dutch who first discovered it, bear|ing S. W. distance about four or five leagues. At ten saw two mountains, bearing S. S. W. distance about nine or ten leagues, and soon after a great smoak was seen to ascend from the lowermost. The weather still continuing squally, we ap|proached Anomocoa with great caution. About five in the afternoon, the signal was made from the Resolution, to come to, which we obeyed, and about six cast anchor.

On the 30th, we weighed again, and in the evening, worked into Anomocoa road. About six we moored, and was soon after joined by the Re|solution. We had now been just sixty days in a passage, which, in a direct course, could not have exceeded ten, and had been exposed to the se|verest trials, owing to some fatality in pursuing a course which there was not a seaman on board that did not disapprove. It seemed to have no object of discovery in view, as we fell nearly into the same track which our Commodore had formerly navigated; nor did we meet with a single island, which one or other of our late Voyagers had not seen or visited in their different courses. How it happened is not easy to be accounted for, as it was next to a miracle that any creature on board the Resolution remained alive to reach our present harbour. Had not the copious rains that fell almost incessantly from the time we passed the Tropic till our arrival here, supplied the daily Page  89 consumption of water on board our ships, not only the animals, but the men must have perished. Happy, however, that we now found ourselves in safety on a friendly coast. We forgot the dan|gers we had escaped, and thought only of enjoy|ing with double pleasure the sweets of these happy islands, whose spontaneous productions perfume the air to a considerable distance with a fragrance inconceivably reviving; and whose plantations exhibit a richness of prospect as we approached them, owing to the beautiful intermixture of the various blossoms, with the vivid green leaves of the trees, of which the most animated description can communicate but a faint idea. Add to these, the tufted clumps that naturally adorn the little rising hills, that appear every where delightfully interspersed among verdant lawns and rich mea|dows, bordered by rivulets of water, which among the islands in the tropical climates, are as rare as they are refreshing; and nothing in nature can be more pleasing to the eye, or more grateful to the senses.

May 1. We were no sooner moored in the harbour, than we were surrounded with innumer|able little boats, or canoes, most curiously con|structed and ornamented; the sides with a polish that surpassed the blackest ebony, and the decks inlaid with mother of pearl and tortoise-shell, equal to the best cabinets of European manufac|ture. In this kind of workmanship those islanders seem to excel. Their weapons of war, their clubs, the handles of their working tools, the paddles of their boats, and even their fish-hooks, are po|lished and inlaid with variegated shells; with an infinite accumulation of which their shores are margined; and among them our Naturalists found some of superlative beauty. These boats Page  90 held generally three persons, and under their decks, which take up two-thirds of their length, they brought the fruits of their plantations and the maunufactures of their country; these last consisting, besides cloth of different fabrics, of a great variety of things useful, and others orna|mental. Of the first sort were combs, fish-hooks, lines, nets made after the European fashion, nee|dles made of bone, with thread of different fineness, purses, calibashes made of reeds so closely wrought as to be water-tight; with a variety of other uten|sils. Among the latter were bracelets, breast-plates ornamented with feathers of a vivid glow; masks, mantelets composed of feathers so artfully and beautifully arranged, as even our English ladies would not have disdained to wear. These were of immense value in the Society Isles, where Omai said a fine red feather would purchase a hog; and of these, and red feathers, Omai laid in a store.

The people of these islands have already been so well described by Capt. Cook and Mr. Forster, that what we have now to add is rather to confirm their accounts than to advance any thing new. We found them of a friendly disposition, generous, hospitable, and ready to oblige. Some there were among them most villainously given to thieving; but that propensity did not appear to them so much a vice in the light we are apt to consider it, as a craft synonymous to cunning, ac|cording to our acceptation of the word. He who was detected and punished, was neither pitied nor despised by his neighbours. Even the Arees, or great men among them, thought it no crime to practise that craft upon our Commanders whenever they found an opportunity, and would only laugh when they were detected; just as a cunning fellow in England would laugh, when he had found an Page  91 opportunity of out-witting an honester man than himself.

As soon as the usual ceremonies had passed, and peace was established, the Commanders of both ships gave orders, that no person, of whatever rank, on board, should purchase any thing of the natives, till the ships were supplied with pro|visions. This order was issued for two purposes; one to regulate the prices, the other to oblige the natives to bring their provisions to market, when they found that nothing else was saleable; and it produced the desired effect. The number of hogs and fruit that were brought, were greater than the daily consumption, though the ordinary ship-allowance was entirely stopt, and the produce of the islands served out in its stead. We even salted for several days, from four to six hogs a-day.

The civility of the Chiefs was not confined to their readiness to supply the ships with provisions. They complimented the Commanding Officers with the use of a magnificent house, [a large boat-house] conveniently situated upon the beach, during their stay; and at the same time presented them with breast-plates most beautifully decorated with feathers, being the richest presents they had to make. In return, the Commanders were not wanting in generosity, loading them with hatchets, knives, linen cloth, glass, and beads; with which they thought themselves amply repaid.

May 2. The tents were this day carried on shore; the Astronomer's observatory erected; wooders and waterers appointed; and all the ar|tificers on board employed in the reparations of the ships; not a few being wanting, after a voy|age of two months, through a tempestuous sea, Page  92 during which the elements of fire, air, and water, might be said to have been in perpetual conflict.

While these things were about, the Command|ers and Chiefs were every day contriving to vary the pleasures of their respective guests, and to entertain them with new diversions. They were mutually engaged on board and on shore, to sur|prise each other with novelty. On board, the Chiefs were entertained with music, dancing, and feasting, after the 〈◊〉 manner; and with what seemed much more 〈◊〉 to them, as they paid more attention to it, with the various operations of the artificers, who were at work on their respective employments. The facility with which the boat-builders performed their work, particularly attracted their notice; when they be|held the labour of a year with them, performed in a week by the same number of hands on board, their astonishment was beyond conception; nor were they less in amazement to see large timber cut through the middle and sawed into planks, while they were spectators, which they had no means of effecting in their island in many days. On shore, the Chiefs, in return, endeavoured to entertain the Commanders; they feasted them like tropical kings, with barbicued hogs, fowls, and with the most delicious fruits; and, for wine, they offered them a liquor made before their faces, in a manner not to be mentioned without disgust; but as the Chiefs had refused to drink wine on board, our Commanders, and those who attended them, needed no other apology for refusing to partake of this liquor with them. They likewise, after dinner, introduced their music and dancers, who were chiefly women of the theatrical cast, and excelled in agility and varied attitudes, many of the best performers in Europe; a kind of pan|tomime Page  93 succeeded, in which some prize-fighters displayed their feats of arms; and this part of the drama concluded with a humourous representation of some laughable story, which produced among the Chief and their attendants the most immoderate mirth. The songsters came last, the melody of whose voices was heightened by a kind of accom|panyment not unusual in the earliest ages, among the politest nations, as may be learnt from ancient paintings, where the singers and dancers are repre|sented with flat clams or shells in their hands, clapping them together, quickly or slowly, to re|gulate their movements, and harmonize their tunes.

[Though this farcical exhibition was otherwise insipid to us, it was not wholly without its use, in marking a similarity of manners among man|kind, at the distance of half the globe, and at a period when the arts of civil life were in their in|fancy. Who knows but that the seeds of the liberal arts, that have now been sown by European navigators in these happy climes, may, a thousand years hence, be ripened into maturity; and that the people who are how emerging from ignorance into science, may, when the memory of these Voyages are forgotten, be found in the zenith of their improvements by other Adventurers; who may pride themselves as the first discoverers of new countries, and an unknown people, infinitely superior to those who, at that time, may inhabit these regions, and who may have lost their boasted arts, as we at this day see among the wretched inhabitants of Greece, and the still more miserable slaves of Egyptian bondage. Such are the vicissi|tudes to which the inhabitants of this little orb are subject; and such, perhaps, are the vicissi|tudes which the globe itself must undergo before its final dissolution. To a contemplative mind, Page  94 these islands present a mortifying spectacle of the ruins of a broken and desolated portion of the earth; for it is impossible to survey so many frag|ments of rocks, some with inhabitants and some without, and not conclude with the learned and ingenious Dr. Burnet, that they are the effects of some early convulsion of the earth, of which no history gives any account. But to return.

During our stay here, we were nightly enter|tained with the fiery eruptions of the neighbour|ing volcanos, of which notice has been taken by former Voyagers. There are two mountains that occasionally emit fire and smoke; but that called Kollifeau is the most constant.

May 4. Being the 5th day of our residence at Anomocoa, our wooders returned, almost blinded by the rains that fell from the manchionello-trees, [faitanoo-trees, says Capt. Cook, a species of pep|per which yields a corrosive sap, of a milky colour] and with blotches all over those parts of their bodies to which the rains happened to have access. The poisonous quality of these trees has been noticed by other Voyagers, but was more severely felt upon this occasion, than by any of our people in the like situation in the former Voyages. Many capital thefts were committed during our stay, and some articles of considerable value were car|ried off.

This day, Capt. Clerke's steel-yards were stolen out of his cabin, while he, with other gentlemen, were entertained by the Chiefs with a Heiva, or dramatic farce on shore, but was afterwards reco|vered. On the same day, as he was mingled with the crowd, his scissars was taken out of his pocket three different times, and as often replaced, when missed.

Page  95On the 7th, we unmoored, and shifted our station; but in so doing we parted our small bower anchor, with about 27 fathom of cable, the anchor remaining among the rocks. In the evening we moored again. From this day till

The 12th, we were employed in recovering the anchor we had lost, which, after losing the buoy|rope and grappling, was brought on board and secured. One of the natives stole an axe from the ship, but was discovered, and fired at. He escaped by diving. A party of them had un|lashed the stream anchor, and was lowering it down into the canoe; but being discovered in the act, paddled to shore, and got clear off.

On the 13th, the live stock, which had been landed the day after our arrival, on a small island, about half a mile from the shore to graze, were brought on board amazingly recovered; from perfect skeletons, the horses and cows were grown plump, and as playful as young colts. This day orders were issued for sailing; the tents were struck, and Mr. Phillipson, Lieutenant of Ma|rines, lost all his bedding, by the carelessness of the centinel, who received 12 lashes for neglect of duty. In the morning, the long-boat was found swamped, and all the stern sheets, and several other articles belonging to her missing, and never recovered, for which the marine who had the care of the watch, was severely punished.

On the 14th, we made sail W. by S. by the advice and direction of a Chief, named Tiooney, [Feenou, so called by Capt. Cook, and said to be king of the Friendly Isles] to an island [Appee] about 40 leagues distant, which abounded, he said, in every thing we wanted; wood, water, hogs, fowls, fruits, and grass for our cattle. We sailed with a fine breeze, wind N. E. course W. Page  96 S. W. and about eleven at night, passed the burning mountains, bearing N. N. W. distant about half a mile. The flames rising from the lowermost with a bellowing noise, louder than thunder, but hoarser and more terrifying, illu|minated the air in the night, and enabled us to work through the most dangerous passage that could possibly be navigated. We had more than 60 islands within sight, all of them surrounded with reefs of rocks, with so many windings and turnings as truly might be said to constitute a labyrinth; but by the assistance of our India pi|lot, we passed them all in safety, and

On the 17th, moored in a fine bay, on the west side of Appee Island, in 22 fathom water, shelly bottom. We had scarce moored, before we were surrounded with natives from all quarters, who had been apprized of our coming, and who had loaded their canoes with hogs, fowls, bread-fruit, yams, plantains, and every kind of fruit the island pro|duced, which they exchanged for broken glass, red and blue beads, shreds of scarlet cloth, or indeed any thing we offered them.

On the 18th, the live stock were landed, and a proper guard appointed to look after them.

Here our friend Tiooney, (whom we shall now call Feenou) assumed the same consequence as a Ammocoa, He came on board with his canoe laden with four large hogs, bread-fruit, and chaddocks, a fine odoriferous fruir, in smell and taste not unlike a lemon, but larger and more round. He brought likewise yams of an enor|mous size, weighing from fifty to sixty pounds each.

He was followed by the Araké and Chiefs of the island, who came laden in the same manner, with hogs, fowls, and every species of provisions Page  97 the island afforded; these he introduced in form to the Commanders and Officers according to their rank. This ceremony over, the tents were landed, and all hands set to work to finish the repairs of the ships. The Chiefs were feasted on board, and the Commanders and Officers hospitably en|tertained on shore. On our part fire-works were exhibited, the marines were drawn up, and went through their military manoeuvres, surrounded by thousands of natives, who were frightened at first, and fled; but finding they did no harm, took courage, and rallied at a distance, but no persua|sions could prevail upon them to come near. On the part of the natives, they were equally inclined to please; they gave Heivas every day; and drew their warriors together, who went likewise through their military exercises, and beat one another severely in their mock fights, which, in that respect, differed but little from our wrest|lers, boxers, and cudgel-players in England. In this manner, and in ranging the island, botaniz|ing, examining the curiosities, natural and arti|ficial, the Commanders, Gentlemen, and Offi|cers, employed their time, while the live stock were gathering strength, and recruiting their flesh, and the several artificers were compleating the repairs of the ships. It is not easy for people, who are totally unacquainted with the language of a country, to make themselves masters of the civil policy of the inhabitants. Indeed it is next to impossible in a short residence among them. As we observed no such medium as money, by which the value of property is ascertained, it was not easy to discover what else they had substi|tuted in its room, to facilitate the modes of traffic among themselves. That each had a property in the plantation he possessed, we could plainly dis|cern; Page  98 and the Araké and Chiefs among them were ready enough to point out their possessions, the extent of which gave them consequence, as among other civilized nations; but no such thing as circulating property being discoverable, by the hoarding up of which, and laying it out oc|casionally to advantage, one might purchase ano|ther's landed or substantial property. We could not inform ourselves sufficiently, by what means the fisherman purchased his canoe, or the boat-builder his materials; yet there cannot remain a doubt, but that the boat-builder had an interest in his boat, after it was built, as well as the chief in his plantation, after it was inclosed and cul|tivated. With us, all was carried on by barter, and an imaginary value fixed on every article. A hog was rated at a hatchet, and so many bread|fruit, cocoa-nuts and plantains at a string of beads: and so, in like manner throughout; but among themselves, we saw no such value by way of barter. We did not observe so much fruit given for so many fish; nor so many combs, needles, or useful materials, for a certain propor|tion of cloth; but doubtless, some mode of ex|change there must be among them; for it is cer|tain there was no such thing as money, at least none that we could discern: neither could we dis|cover any modes of gaming among them, which was the more remarkable, as their great men seemed to have nothing to do except transporting themselves from one place to another, or taking the diversion of fishing. Neither could we ob|serve any laws by which their civil policy was re|gulated, notwithstanding which we saw no disor|ders among them, but every thing conducted with the greatest decorum.—Salt, which is so ne|cessary Page  99 an article in European house-keeping, was wholly unknown to the tropical islanders.

On the 19th, an Araké came on board, and presented Capt. Clerke with a large and elegant head-dress, ornamented with pearls, shells, and red feathers, wreathed with flowers of the most resplendent colours. The Captain, in return, loaded him with many useful articles of European manufacture, knives, scissars, saws, and some showy strings of beads, which were highly prized by this chief, who thought it no disgrace, to pad|dle himself on shore with his rich acquisitions.

On the 20th, an affair happened on board the Discovery, that had nearly cancelled all former obligations, and put an end to that friendship, which mutual acts of civility and generosity had apparently contributed to cement. One of the chiefs, who had been frequently on board, and who had been of the parties cordially entertain|ed, invited, perhaps, by the familiarity of a young cat, and delighted by its playfulness, watched his oppportunity to carry it off; but unluckily for him, was detected before he could effect his pur|pose. He was immediately seized and clapt in irons, and an express sent on shore, to acquaint the Araké, or king, with the greatness of his crime, and the nature of his punishment. On this news, the Araké himself, and several of his chiefs has|tened on board, when to their grief and astonish|ment, they found the prisoner to be the king's brother. This news soon circulated, and the whole island was in commotion. [Feenou] sea|sonably interposed. He applied to Omai, to know what was to be done, and upon what terms his release might be procured. Omai told him, his offence was of such a nature, as not to be remitted without punishment; he must Page  100 submit to be tied up, and receive 100 lashes that the higher he was in rank, the more necessary it was to punish him, by way of example, to de|ter others from practices of the like nature; and that therefore it was in vain to plead for his deli|verance, upon any other terms than submission. Feenou acquainted the Araké with all that had passed, and presently a number of chiefs entered into consultation upon the measures that were to be pursued; some by their gestures were for re|senting the insult, and others were for submit|ting. Some, in great wrath, were for instantly returning to shore, and assembling the warriors in order to make reprizals, and no less than se|ven attempted to leave the ship, but found the way stopt, to prevent their escape. Two or three jumped over-board, but were instantly fol|lowed, taken up, and brought back. Thus, finding themselves beset on all sides, and the king himself, as well, as the chiefs in the power of our commanders, they again entered into consulta|tion; and after half an hour's deliberation, the result was, to make a formal surrender of the prisoner to the Araké of the ship; to beseech him to mitigate the rigour of his punishment; and at the same time to put him in mind of the regard that had been shewn to him and his people, not only by the chiefs of the island in general, but more particularly by the friends and relations of the offender, who had it still in their power to render them farther service. This was what was chiefly intended by the whole process. The prisoner was no sooner surrendered in form, than he was tied to the shrouds, and received one lash, and dismissed. The joy of the mul|titude, who were assembled on the shore, wait|ing with anxious suspense to learn what was to Page  101 become of their unfortunate chief, is hardly to be conceived when they saw him at large; they received him on his landing with open arms, and instead of resenting the indignity that had been offered to the second person of the state, was rea|dy to load his persecutors with gifts, and to pros|trate themselves in gratitude. Nothing can be more characteristic of the pacific disposition of these Friendly Islanders, than their behaviour on this occasion. They seem to be the only people upon earth who, in principle and practice, are true Christians. They may be truly said to love their enemies, though they never heard the pre|cepts that enjoins it.

Early on the 21st, the king came on board, with four large hogs, and as much bread-fruit, yams, and shaddocks as his boat would hold, as a present to the Captain, for which he would take no return; but a hatchet and some beads were put into his boat, with which he returned much gratified.

On the 22d, [20th Cook] their warriors were all drawn up in battle array, and performed a mock-fight; but lest any stratagem should be in|tended, the marines were ordered to attend the engagement: nothing, however, that indicated treachery appeared. The battle was followed by a heiva, which was acknowledged by Capt. Cook, and all on board both ships, to be performed with a dexterity and exactness, that far surpassed the specimen we had given of our military ma|noeuvres.

On the 23d, orders were given to prepare for sailing. The live stock, that had been grazing, possibly, on the lands of him who received the lash, were got on board, wood and water were brought in plenty, the former of the best qua|lity, Page  102 and the latter excellent. In short, nothing could exceed the accommodations of every kind, with which we were furnished in this delightful island.

On the 25th, we unmoored and

On the 27th, made sail in company with the Resolution; but in the night, heavy squalls, with thunder, lightning, and rain, to which these islands are much exposed. Many of the natives accompanied us as passengers to Anamocoa.

On the 30th, we were employed beating to windward, and about twelve at night the Reso|lution fired a gun, as a signal of distress. She had run a-ground on a reef, but before we could come to her assistance, she rolled off.

On the 1st of June, we came in fight of the burning mountains, distance about four leagues. And, about eleven in the forenoon, moored in a fine bay. Here the natives came to us with hogs in abundance, some of which were killed and cured, but the pork soon contracted a disagree|able taint, which was much complained of by the ships companies. While eaten fresh, the meat was of an exquisite flavour.

Nothing remarkable till the 5th, when we made sail, and about five in the afternoon, the Reso|lution reached Anamocoa, and moored in her old birth. Lat. 21.88. long. 185.8. but the Dis|covery not being able to beat up against the storm, did not arrive till seven in the evening; when, casting anchor she drove, and in less than an hour, was three leagues to leeward of the Resolution, and in the utmost danger of being wrecked. All hands were now employed in weighing up the anchor, and a number of hands came seasonably from the Resolution to our assistance. The night was tempestuous, with a heavy rain and high sea. Page  103 Our labour, till four in the morning was inces|sant. We made but little way to the windward, notwithstanding the utmost exertion of our whole strength. Providentially the gale subsided; we swayed the anchor, and before day-light was safely moored by the side of the Resolution. Here, though the sea was rough, and we were at a great distance from shore, the natives continued to trade and supply us with plenty of fresh provi|sions, with which they kept market daily.

On the 8th, Feenou came on board, and gave an account of the loss of several of his people, in attempting to accompany us in their canoes from Appee; that he himself was in the utmost danger; that being overset in his canoe, he was obliged to swim more than two leagues; and that at last, he was miraculously discovered and taken up, by a fishing canoe on the coast of Ap|pee, when he was almost spent. We expressed great joy at his deliverance; and he no less, to find the ships safe in their former station, as he thought it almost impossible that they could weather the storm. Being amply provided with every necessary this island could afford,

On the 9th, we set sail for Tongataboo, or Amsterdam Island; but in our passage, both the Resolution and Discovery fell foul of the same rock: the Resolution only touched upon it slight|ly; but the Discovery stuck fast, and hung upon it, gunnel too; happy it was, that we had day|light, and fine weather, and that the Resolution was within call. By clapping the sails to the mast, and lightening the ship abaft, we swayed her off with little damage. We were then within two leagues of Amsterdam; off which, in the evening, we cast anchor in six fathom water. We were instantly surrounded with natives, who came Page  104 to welcome us, and seemed overjoyed at our ar|rival. It is not uncommon for voyagers, to stig|matize these islanders with the name of SAVAGES, than which no appellation can be worse applied, for a more civilized people does not exist under the sun. During our long stay with them, we did not see one instance of disorder among them|selves, nor one persen punished for any misde|meanor, by their own chiefs; we saw but few quarrels among individuals. On the contrary, much mirth and seeming harmony was observable. Highly delighted with their shows and heivas, they spend their time in a kind of luxurious indolence, where all but the Chiefs, labour a little, but none to excess. The Araké, indeed, paddles himself in his canoe, though he must have a towtow or servant to help him to eat. This seems strange to an European, as it reduces the man to the con|dition of a child, and yet it is but one remove from what we see daily practised before our eyes. The gentleman has his table spread, his food of various sorts set before him; has all his appa|ratus made ready, his bread cut, his meat carved, and his plate furnished; he has his drink hand|ed to him, and in short, every thing which the tropical king has, except only conveying all those matters to his mouth, which (tho' not the practice at the courts of European princes) the Araké thinks necessary to be done by his tow-tow. Yet the addition of this single act of handing his meat and drink to his mouth, brings a term of re|proach upon the Araké; though, by the handiness of his servants in the services of the table, the European gains the character of the polite gentle|man. Such and so slender are the distinctions in the refinements of nations; the barriers that divide simplicity from sumptuousness, and the Page  105 plainness of the Araké from the magnificence of the prince.

On the 11th, we weighed and sailed in com|pany with the Resolution, and moored again in Maria's Bay, one of the finest harbours in the South Seas. Here we were surrounded by more than 150 canoes at once, all laden with provi|sions, or the manufactures of the country. Fee|nou, who seemed to be the Emperor of the islands, [and who all along affected to be thought the real Sovereign] still accompanied us. And about six leagues from this harbour had his chief resi|dence. Plenty of hogs, and fowls without num|ber, were brought us, and were purchased at so cheap a rate as a hog for a hatchet, and a fowl for a nail, or a string of blue beads. Our live stock were put ashore upon a most delightful lawn, where they ranged at pleasure, and where their pastures were bounded by refreshing shades. On the little island on which they were placed to graze, a plash of water was found, which by digging was enlarged to a pond, that not only supplied drink for the cattle, but water in plenty for the use of the ships. In this harbour too were found every necessary for repairing the da|mages the ships had received in striking against the rock; and here too every attention was paid us that our Commander in Chief had experienced in his former visits, of which the inhabitants had not yet lost the remembrance.

[On the 19th, the chiefs were assembled, and Capt. Cook made his most valuable presents. To the king he gave a young English bull and cow; to Feenou, a horse and mare, and to the king's father-in-law a Cape ram and two ewes.]

But on the 20th, an accident happened, that put the whole island in commotion. While our Page  106 people were engaged in preparing fire-works to entertain the chiefs, two turkies, a she-goat, and a peacock were stolen from the Discovery, and craftily carried off. They were no sooner missed, than complaint was made to Feenou of this breach of hospitality, and a peremptory demand made to have them restored. Whether he was privy to the theft, and was willing to connive at it; or, what was more probable, knew not by whom it was committed, nor how readily to recover crea|tures of so much curiosity, which, no doubt, would be artfully concealed, he seemed to make light of it, and to offer hogs and fowls in return; but this offer was rejected; and Capt. Cook being applied to, ordered the canoes about the ships to be seized, two chiefs that were in the ship to be detained, and an order issued for burning all their boats, if what was taken away were not, in four and twenty hours restored. This order being known abroad, the inhabitants assembled from all quarters, and in less than half a day, more than 1500 of their fighting men appeared in arms, upon the beach; in the mean time, our two Cap|tains had ordered their pinnaces out, their boats to be manned and armed, parties of marines to be put on board, and every preparation to be made, as if to carry their threats into execution. Upon their first landing, a native issued from the woods, out of breath, as if just come from a long journey, and acquainted the Captains that he had seen the strange creatures, that had been taken away, at the house of a chief, on the op|posite side of the island, whither he was ready to conduct them, if they chose to follow him.

Our Captain thinking this a proper opportu|nity to survey the island, accepted the offer; and accordingly set out, in company with Mr. Blythe, Page  107 Master of the Resolution, Mr. Williamson, Third Lieutenant, with several other gentlemen, attend|ed with a party of marines, directing their course as the Indian led the way.

They had hardly been gone an hour, before strong parties of natives poured down from the hills, to strengthen those that were already as|sembled upon the beach. The Captain of ma|rines, who had charge of the boats, having drawn up his men on seeing the numbers of the enemy begin to appear formidable, ordered them to fire over their heads. This they disregarded, and were beginning their war-song, which always precedes their coming to action, when Capt. Cook gave Feenou to understand, that he would instant|ly destroy them, if they did not that moment disperse. Feenou terrified by the countenance with which this threat was accompanied, rushed among the foremost ranks of the warriors, seized the spears of the chiefs, broke several of them, and returning, laid them at the Captain's feet. This had in part the desired effect; the islanders retreated in a body, but seemingly unwilling to disperse.

The Captain of marines disliking the appear|ance of the enemy, made signs from the shore for the ships to bring their broadsides to bear, and at the same time drew up his men under their guns. The Commanding Officer on board the Discovery improved the hint, and instantly fired some round shot directly over the heads of the thickest of the enemy. This compleated what Feenou had begun; a panic seized the chiefs, and the rest sled like so many sheep without a pursuer. Capt. Clerke, ignorant of what had hap|pened, but not out of hearing of the great guns, was at a loss to determine whether to go on or to Page  108 return; but the great guns ceasing after the first discharge, he rightly concluded that, whatever might be the original cause of their firing, it did not require a second discharge to remove it; he therefore resolved to proceed. In his progress, the heat became almost intolerable, which was rendered still more insupportable by the want of water, there being none to be met with, except what was brackish.

After a journey of more than 12 miles, through a country intersected with numerous plantations, and where there was hardly any beaten path, he at length arrived at the residence of the Chief, whom they found feasting on a barbicued pig, a stewed yam, and some bread-fruit, of which he had plenty. Surprized at the sight of the Cap|tain and his attendants, and conscious of their errand, he went out immediately, and produced the turkey, goat, and peacock, which he rea|dily returned, but made no apology for the theft, nor for the trouble he had given the Araké of the ships, in coming so far to recover the loss.

On their return to the tents, they found Feenou still there, who welcomed them with much seem|ing sincerity, and began with apologizing for the conduct of his people, owing, he said, to the misapprehension of the orders from the ships, which were, as they thought, to burn and de|stroy all without exception, men, women, and children, and to lay waste the island. He then invited Capt. Cook to accompany him a little way into an adjoining wood, with which invitation he very readily complied, and found two cocoa-nut-trees, with the branches stript of their leaves and fruits, hung with yams, bread-fruit, and shad|docks ranged in spirals curiously intersected, and terminated each with two hogs, one ready bar|bicued, Page  109 and one alive, which he had ordered to be prepared as presents to the two Commanders, for which he would receive no return. The barbi|cued hog was an acceptable present to the people who had travelled four and twenty miles, with no other refreshment than what they carried with them, except some fruit, which they gathered on the road. A party of islanders were planted in readiness to dismantle the trees, and the boats were employed to carry their contents on board the ships; and thus ended this memorable day, which, probably, will be commemorated in this island as a day of deliverance, by the latest pos|terity.

[During our stay here, our Commanders came to the knowledge of the real rank and cha|racters of the chiefs, who had been assiduous in loading them with favours. Feenou, who had affected to be thought the sovereign, was here deprived of his royal dignity, and Poulaho, ac|knowledged to be lord over all; there were be|sides, a person of supreme authority, whose name was Mareewagee, and another named Toobou, who were held in high estimation, and to whom the people paid implicit obedience; but superior to these last was Prince Fatafaihe, King Paulaho's son. Mareewagee and old Toobou were brothers. Feenou was Mareewagee's son, and King Pou|laho was his son-in-law, having married his daugh|ter; such were the relationship of this royal fa|mily, who held no less than 150 islands in obe|dience, and all comprehended under the name of the Friendly Islands.]

Here more capital thefts were committed, and more islanders punished than in all the Friendly Islands besides; one was punished with 72 lashes, for only stealing a knife, another with 36, for endea|vouring Page  110 to carry off two or three drinking-glasses; three were punished with 36 lashes each, for heav|ing stones at the wooders; but what was still more cruel, a man for attempting to carry off an axe, was ordered to have his arm cut to the bone, which he bore without complaining. Capt. Cook observes, that slogging seemed to make no greater impression upon them than it would have done upon the main-mast. Captain Clerke hit upon a mode of treatment, which had some effect. He put them under the hands of the barber, and com|pleatly shaved their heads. This exposed them to the ridicule of their countrymen, and pointed them out to the guards, never to let them come near the ships or tents any more.

It is not to be wondered, that after such wan|ton acts of cruelty, the inhabitants should grow outrageous; and though they did not break out into open acts of hostility, yet they watched every opportunity to be vexatious.

[On the 22d, some of the officers from both ships, who had made an excursion into the inte|rior parts of the island, and had taken with them their guns, with the necessary ammunition, and some other articles as presents, had in the course of their expedition the ill fortune to be stript of every thing they had about them, by the dexterity of the natives. This had like to have been a knotty business. The chiefs, from what had happened before, fearing they should again be put under confinement, sled on the first notice of the outrage, so that there was now no chief of any authority to apply to for redress.

Capt. Cook, having had no knowledge of the ex|cursion, (and Omai having been applied to by the sufferers to seek redress) was not a little displeased at Omai's taking upon him to intermeddle in an Page  111 affair of so much consequence, and very severely reprimanded him for his presumption. This put Omai on his metal, and being a great favourite with Feenou, he applied to him to return, and succeeded upon the most solemn assurance of safety, as Capt. Cook would not resent it, the gentlemen having made the excursion without his leave. When the chiefs returned, they urged a very plausible ar|gument for absenting themselves. Had the gen|tlemen, said they, intimated to us their desire of seeing the country, we would have appointed pro|per persons to have protected them, and then we should have been answerable for any losses they might have sustained; but as they acted entirely at their own risque, they must blame themselves for the consequences. Though Capt. Cook gave himself no farther trouble about the matter, most of the things were recovered, one musket only excepted.]

On the 24th, one of the natives who accom|panied us on board, watched his opportunity to steal a drinking vessel, but being catched in the act was punished with 18 lashes, to the no small diversion of his countrymen. We were now vi|sited by the flux, which, however, only weaken|ed our men, but carried none off.

On the 19th, Mr. Williamson and Mr. Blythe, who were fond of shooting, and consequently of ranging the woods and thickets, were set upon by ten or twelve of the natives, who took from them their fowling-pieces and shot-bags, the for|mer of which they carried off, but dropped the shot-bags on being pursued.

Recourse was had to the former expedient, of seizing the canoes, and threatening the island, as before; and one of the fowling-pieces was, by Page  112 that means, recovered; but the other was never returned.

On the 25th, order were given to prepare for sailing, the live stock were taken on board, so altered, that they could not have been known for the same poor skeletons which, two months before had been landed on these fertile shores. Capt. Cook made Feenou a present of a horse and a mare, a bull and a cow, a ram and a ewe, for the many services he had rendered him and his people, during their residence in the Friendly Isles, by which he gratified him beyond his ut|most wishes. These valuable presents were im|mediately driven to his palace, at Tongataboo, distant about four leagues.

The ships being now compleatly stowed; hav|ing wood and water as much as they could make room for, with hogs and bread-fruit, cocoa-nuts, yams, and other roots, greens in abundance, and, in short, every thing that the ships could contain, or the crews desire, the boats were sent out to seek a passage to the South-eastward, in order to visit the celebrated little island of Middleburgh, of which, former voyagers had deservedly given a most enchanting description.

On the 29th, the boats returned, having dis|covered a narrow gut, not half a cable's length in breadth, and from 3½ to 5 fathom water, loomy bottom.

This day Mr. Nelson, of whom mention has already been made, being alone on the hills and rocks, collecting plants and herbs indigenous to the island, and at a considerable distance from the ships, was attacked by five or six Indians, who first began by throwing stones, at which they are very dexterous; and then, finding he had no fire-arms, closed in with him, stript him of his Page  113 clothes and his bag, which were all that he had about him.

On the 1st of July, the boats were manned, and the Captains of both ships went on shore, to prefer their complaints to the Araké; but the offenders, upon enquiry, being found to be boys, and the clothes and bag of plants of small value, Mr. Nelson, unwilling to embroil the inhabitants in any more disputes, interceded with Capt. Cook, as we were just upon our departure, not to make his loss an object of contention, but to take leave of the Chiefs in the most friendly manner, who, upon the whole, had behaved with uncommon kindness and generosity.

On the 3d, while we were getting things in readiness to depart, we had an opportunity of discovering the reason of a very singular mark, which was observed by former navigators a little above the temples of many of the Chiefs. We perceived that this day was kept sacred throughout the whole island; that nothing was suffered to be sold, neither did the people touch any food; and besides that, several of our new acquaintance were missing. Enquiring into the cause, we were told that Feenou's mother was dead [Poulaho's son, according to Capt. Cook] and that the Chiefs, who were her descendants, stayed at home to have their temples burnt. This custom is not confined to this island only, but is likewise common to se|veral others, particularly to those of Ea-oo-wee, or Middleburgh and Appee. This mark is made on the left side on the death of a mother, and on the right when the father dies; and on the death of the high-priest, the first joint on the little finger is amputated. [Mr. Anderson says, this is done on occasions of sickness. These people have an unconquerable dread of death; and when they Page  114 think themselves in danger, they hope that the Deity will accept of the little finger, as a sort of sacrifice efficacious to procure the recovery of their health; not more probable than our Jour|nalists reason. These people had therefore their superstitious rites, though we were not able to discover how or when they were performed.

Capt. Cook gives a different reason, too, from our Journalist, for the mark in the temples, which is owing, he says, on all occasions of mourn|ing, to their custom of striking their faces with their fist; but the most extraordinary practice among them is, their beating their Chief to sleep with their hands. When the Chief is inclined to rest, two women, one on each side, ply their palms briskly to every part of his body, and so continue to do all night; and when he wakes in the morning, they help to make his kava. If he happens to wake before the sun rises, they then redouble their beating till he goes to sleep again.

On the 4th we unmoored, worked out of the bay, and lay in readiness to take the advantage of a wind to carry us through the gut, in our way to Ea-oo-whe, or Middleburgh.

On the 5th, there was an eclipse of the sun; but the weather being unfavourable, our astrono|mers were rather disappointed.

On the 7th, we cleared the gut. Being now beyond the reefs, we again cast anchor, at about three leagues distance. We had scarce let fall our anchors, when there came along side a large canoe, in which there were three men and a wo|men, of superior dignity to any we had yet seen; one of them, supposed by his venerable appear|ance, to be the high-priest, held a long pole or spear in his hand, to which he tied a white flag, and began an oration which lasted a considerable Page  115 time; and after it was ended, he ascended the side of the ship, and sat down with great composure upon the quarter-deck, till he was accosted by Capt. Clerke, who, after the usual salutations, invited him and those who accompanied him, into the great cabin; but his attendants declined the invitation; and to make known the dignity of the great personage in whose presence they were, they prostrated themselves before him, the women as well as the men, and touched the sole of his right foot; first with the palm, and then with the back of the hand, the usual homage paid to all the Sovereigns of the Friendly Isles. This aged native brought with him, as a present to the Cap|tain, four large hogs, six fowls, and a propor|tionable quantity of yams and plantains. In re|turn, the Captain gave him a printed gown, a Chinese looking-glass, some earthen cups, and several other curiosities, which he accepted with great courtesy, and with an air of dignity which remarkably distinguished him.

The Captain and officers paid him great atten|tion, and shewed him the different accommoda|tions on board the ship, at which he expressed great astonishment. He was then invited to eat, which he declined. He was offered wine, of which the Captain drank first; he put it to his lips, tasted it, but returned the glass. After be|ing on board little more than an hour, he was de|sirous of taking leave, and pointed to a little island, to which he gave the Captain a very pressing invi|tation to accompany him; but that could not be complied with, as the ships were every moment expected to sail. This venerable person was about six feet three inches high, finely proportioned, and had a commanding air, that was both affable and graceful.

Page  116On the 8th Feenou came on board the Resolu|tion, to take his final leave: he brought with him five hogs, with a large proportion of yams and fruit. He testified his grief at parting, with all that appearance of sincerity that characterizes the people of these happy islands.

On the 9th we weighed, and on the 12th cast anchor, on the S. W. side of the island of Ea-oo-whe, or Middleburgh, where the people came on board with as little ceremony as if they had been acquainted with us for many years. [Indeed, Capt. Cook was no stranger there; for Taoofor, their chief, had been his tayo, or bosom friend, when he was at this island in his former voyage.] They brought us the produce of the island; but being already supplied with every necessary of that kind, our chief traffic was for birds and feathers. Here the parrots and paroquets were of the most beautiful plumage, far surpassing those usually imported into Europe from the Indies; there were a great variety of other birds, on which many gentlemen in both ships set a great value, though they were purchased for trifles. The feathers we purchased were of divers colours for the northern market, but chiefly red from the Marquesas and Society Isles. We also purchased cloth, and many other articles of curious workmanship, the artists of this island, for invention and ingenuity in the execution, exceeding those of all the other islands in the South Seas. But what chiefly tended to prolong our stay here, was the richness of the grass, which made into hay, proved excellent food for our live stock. From the accounts cir|culated through the ship when we arrived, it was generally believed, that we might travel through this island with our pockets open, provided they were not lined with iron; but to this, the beha|viour Page  117 of a party of the inhabitants, to William Collet, Captain's Steward of the Discovery, was an exception. Being alone, diverting himself in surveying the country, he was set upon and stript of every thing he had about him, his shoes only excepted, and on preferring his complaint, his keys were all that he was able to recover.

[Here Capt. Cook, while the cattle that were reserved were grazing, made an excursion into the heart of the country, where the hills rose to a great height, from whence torrents of rain in the rainy season are poured down to the sea. While he was absent, one of the natives, in the circle where our people traded, struck one of their countrymen with a club, which laid bare, if not fractured his skull, and then broke his thigh with, the same weapon, before our men could interpose. He had no signs of life when carried off, but af|terwards revived a little. His crime was, being caught in the fact with a better man's wife than himself. She, it seems, was only to have a slight beating.]

On the 18th, [17th, Cook] orders were given to prepare for sailing: and Otaheite was appointed our place of rendezvous, in case of separation. We had now been near three months improving our live stock, wooding, watering, repairing our ships, and laying in fresh provisions in these friendly islands, when the above orders were is|sued out. The crews of both ships received these orders with alacrity; for though they wanted for nothing, yet they longed to be at Otaheite, where many of them had formed connections that were dear to them; and where those, who had not yet been there, had conceived so high an idea of its superiority, as to make them look upon every Page  118 other place they touched at as an uncultivated garden, in comparison with that little Eden.

[Just before we set sail, Omai was offered the Sovereignty of the place; and would gladly have accepted of it, had Capt. Cook approved of it; but he did not; for what reason does not appear.]

We found the best articles for traffic at these islands; iron tools in general, axes and hatchets; nails, from the largest spike down to tenpenny ones; razors, files, and knives, are much sought after; red cloth, and linen both white and co|loured; looking-glasses and beads are also in esti|mation, but of the latter those that are blue are preferred to all others, and white ones are thought the least valuable. A string of large blue beads would at any time purchase a hog.

In return for these, all refreshments may be had, such as hogs, fowls, fish, yams, bread-fruit, plantains, cocoa nuts, sugar-cane, &c. &c.

It may be expected, says Capt. Cook, that after spending between two or three months among them, I should be enabled to clear up every difficulty, and to give a satisfactory account of their customs, opinions, and institutions, both civil and religious; especially as we had a person on board, who might be supposed qualified to act the part of an interpreter, by understanding their language and ours; but poor Omai was very de|ficient; for unless the object or thing we wanted to enquire about was actually before us, we found it difficult to gain any tolerable knowledge of it from information only, without falling into a hundred mistakes: and to such mistakes Omai was more liable than we were. For having no curiosity to gratify, he never gave himself the trouble to make remarks for himself; and when he was desired to explain matters to us, his ideas Page  119 appeared to be so limited, and perhaps so different from ours, that his accounts were often so con|fused as to perplex instead of instructing us. Add to this, that it was very rare that we found among the natives a person who united the ability and inclination to give us the information we wanted, and we found that most of them hated to be troubled with what they probably thought idle questions. Our situation at Tongataboo, where we staid longest, was likewise unfavourable. It was in a part of the country where there were few inhabitants, except fishers. It was always holy|day with our visitors, as well as with those we visited; so that we had but few opportunities of observing what was really the domestic way of living among the natives. Under these disadvan|tages, it is not surprising that we should not be able to bring away any satisfactory accounts of many things; but some of us endeavoured to remedy these disadvantages by diligent observa|tion. Those most worthy of notice respected the pains taken to obtain an adequate knowledge of their religious notions: the rigid severity with which their mourning and other ceremonies are performed, would induce a belief that they meant thereby to secure to themselves a felicity beyond the grave; but of this they seem to have no con|ception; all their views are temporal, and all their prayers directed to avert the evils of this life. The supreme Author of most things, they call Kallafoetonga, who they say is a female, re|siding in the sky, and directing the thunder, wind, rain, and, in general, all the phaenomena of na|ture. They believe that when she is angry, the productions of the earth are blasted; that they themselves are afflicted with diseases and death; and that nothing prospers that they undertake. Page  120 They have great faith in their endeavours to ap|pease this Deity; and for that purpose all their rites and ceremonies are directed. They have, however, some imperfect notions of the immate|riality and immortality of the soul; and assign their heroes and chiefs seats above the clouds, where, when they arrive, they are to live for ever. They have, like the Heathens, a plurality of gods; but we do not find, that, like the ancient patriarchs, they carry any of their gods about with them. They believe in good and bad spirits, inhabitants of air, earth, and water, who never are seen, but whose power are made apparent by their effects.

Whatever their plan of government may be, it seems general throughout the friendly islands; and it is certain, that no people upon earth appear to be better regulated. The subordination, how humiliating soever it may be, is submitted to without a murmur. No discontent appeared among the inferior classes of the people, during the three months the ships continued among them; and it was observable, that the jealousies, if any, originated among the Chiefs; the common people were all submission.

They do not offer up human sacrifices to their Deities, as they do in the Society Isles; neither was any animal whatever slain for that purpose, while the ships remained at any of the friendly ports.

The burials of their Chiefs and their mournings, are very solemn and universal; and they have days set apart for abstinence from food and labour; but no sabbath, or periodical assemblies for the celebration of divine worship. Their burying-places indeed are consecrated, and they have priests who are principals in all their ceremonies.

Page  121Such are the imperfect outlines of their devo|tions, and such is the simple plan of their go|vernment; regulated by no written laws, but sub|ject to correction as a child to its parent, and, upon all solemn or necessary occasions, called upon in the same manner.

At six in the morning we weighed, Capt. Cook having first given the Cape Ram and two Ewes to Taoofa, they having been slighted by Maveewa|gee, and reserved for the present Chiefs, who promised to take great care of them, and where there was a great chance of their propagating, as there were no dogs on the island. We were soon under sail, steering our course to the Southward, to fetch a wind to carry us to our intended port.

On the 19th we were out of sight of land, when in lat. 22.24. S. the wind shifting fair W. N. W. with hard gales, which continuing for several days,

On the 23d we found our ship leaky, and no possibility of stopping her leaks till we could make land. All hands were employed in pumping out the water, and when we found it did not increase upon us, the leak gave us little or no concern.

Nothing remarkable till the 29th, when in lat. 28.7. the weather became tempestuous, and a sudden squall carried away our main-top and top-gallant masts, split our main-sail, and carried away the jib. It is astonishing to see with what spirit and alacrity English sailors exert themselves. Amidst a storm, when it is almost impossible for a landsman to trust himself upon deck, our sailors mounted aloft, and with incredible rapidity cleared away the wreck, by which they preserved the ship. Nothing equal to this disaster had befallen us be|fore in the course of the voyage. During the night we hoisted lights and fired guns of distress, but neither were seen nor heard by the Resolution. Page  122 The storm continuing with unabated fury during the night and all next day, we handed our sails, and scudded under our fore-sail and mizen stay-sail, at the rate of seven and eight knots an hour, and at length were obliged to lie-to with our ship's head to the West, course E. N. E.

On the 31st, we got fight of the Resolution, about four leagues to leeward. She had damaged her main-top-mast head, but had secured it, and was otherwise in perfect repair. Lat. 28.4. long. 199.41.

August the 1st, we celebrated the anniversary of our departure from England, having just been one year absent. The men were allowed a double allowance of grog, and they forgot, in the jollity of their cups, the hardships to which they were exposed in the storm.

On the 2d, our carpenters were employed in replacing the old top-mast with a new one; but just as they had got it in readiness to point the base of the top-mast through the main-top, they discovered, to our unspeakable grief, that the main-mast head was shattered four or five feet below the top. This put an end to our labour at this time. The top-mast was lowered till the main-mast could be secured, which was a work of infinite difficulty in our situation, and could not be accomplished without the assistance of the carpenters from the Resolution. The signal of distress was thrown out, but the sea ran so high that no boat could live. In this situation we con|tinued till the storm abated, when the mast being lashed, a spare jib-boom was got up for a main-top-mast, and a mizen top-sail yard for a top-sail yard; and thus equipped, we made what sail we could, the Resolution shortening sail to keep us company. Lat. 7.49. long. 203.1.

Page  123In this crazy condition, with our leaks rather increased, we met with a storm

On the 3d, which required the utmost exertion of our strength to encounter, every hand in the ship was employed, some at the pumps, and others in handing the sails, which was a work of the greatest danger, yet happily accomplished without any accident.

On the 8th, at six in the evening, the man at the mast-head called out, Land, which was joyful news to all on board, and about seven we stood in for it. About eleven we saw several canoes, pad|dling towards the ships, in each of which were three naked Indians. We made signs for them to come on board, which they declined, but made signs for us to land. Our boats were instantly hoisted out, and sent to sound, but no anchorage being found, it was resolved to pursue our voyage, with|out losing any more time. This island [Toobouai] was a new discovery. Its latitude, by observation, 23.25. long. 210.37. E. The men appeared of the largest stature, tattowed from head to foot; the language different from any we were yet ac|quainted with; and their dress nothing but a piece of matting round the waist, like that of the Am|sterdamers; their complexion darker, their heads ornamented with shells, feathers, and flowers; and their canoes elegantly carved, and neatly con|structed. Of their manners we could form little or no judgment. They appeared timid; but by their waving green boughs, and exhibiting other signs of peace, they gave us reason to believe that they were friendly. They exchanged some small fish and cocoa-nuts, for nails and Middleburgh cloth. The appearance of the island, as we ap|proached it, was lofty, but small. Its greatest Page  124 length about four leagues, and its breadth about two leagues.

We now proceeded with an easy breeze, till

The 12th, when we saw the island of Maitea.

The 13th, the man at the mast-head called out, Land, distant about seven or eight leagues; we soon perceived it to be the island of Otaheite, of which we were in pursuit. Lat. 17.44.

On the 14th, about six in the morning, we stood in for the land, and before night were safely moored in the harbour called by the natives, Oheite Peeha. Here we were surrounded by an incredible number of canoes filled with natives, besides men, women, and children, who swam to the ships, expressing their joy at our arrival. We were scarce moored before a Chief, named Ootee, came on board the Resolution, to welcome Capt. Cook. He was attended by Omai's brother-in-law, who took little or no notice of Omai, till taking him down into the cabin, and shewing him his treasure of red feathers, and giving him a few, the news of his riches presently spread, and Ootee, who would scarce speak to him before, now begged that they might be tayo's, and exchange names. Omai accepted the honour, and made him a pre|sent of some red feathers, and Ootee, by way of return, sent a-shore for a hog. 'Twas visible to all on board, that it was not the man but the red feathers, that was of consequence.

They were now eager to enter into conversation with Omai, and informed Capts Cook, through his means, of the arrival in that port of two Spa|nish ships from Lima, who had twice visited them: that at their departure, the first time, they had taken four of the natives with them, and had left four of their people in their room; two priests, a ser|vant, and a person named Mateema, who was Page  125 highly spoken of by the natives: That they had built a house on shore, and erected a cross, with an inscription, which were still standing; that they had left some cattle, with goats, sheep, and geese; but that most of them were dead: that they promised to return soon, which they did, and brought two of the natives back, the other two having died at Lima; and that they had taken their own people back, but had left their house standing.

Dinner was no sooner over, than both Captains, accompanied by Omai, went on shore, and visited the Spanish erections; which seemed to indicate a deeper design than the natives were aware of; they had taken possession of the island, in the name of his Catholic Majesty, and had inscribed the cross with the King's name, Carolus III. imperat. 1774, which Capt. Cook took the liberty to de|face, and on the other side of the post caused the following memorial to be inscribed: Georgius Tertius Rex, Annis 1767, 1769, 1773, 1774, 1777. Here the natives pointed out to them the grave of the Commodore, who died there while the ships lay in the bay, the first time. Most of the fresh provisions with which we were supplied at the Friendly Isles, being expended in the voy|age, orders were given to prohibit all trade with the natives, except for provisions, and that only with such persons as were appointed by the Com|manders as purveyors for the ships. By this ne|cessary regulation, fresh provisions were soon pro|cured in plenty, and every man was allowed a pound and a half of pork every day. On this day, the crews of both ships were made acquainted with the course they were to steer, and the reward to which they should be entitled by act of parlia|ment, should they discover a communication be|tween Page  126 the Pacific and the Atlantic Ocean; and also, if they should sail beyond the 89th degree of Northern latitude. At the same time, it was left to their choice to share the usual allowance of grog, now, or reserve it till they should come to the cold regions of the North, when double allow|ance would probably be necessary. The crews of both ships were unanimous for giving up their grog, and substituting the milk of the cocoa-nut in its room.

On the 14th, Omai was put in possession of the house the Spaniards had built; his bed put up in it after the English fashion; and he was indulged to sleep on shore, during our short stay at this part of the island. Here also the live stock were landed, and put to graze in the meadows that bordered on the shore.

On the 16th, Capt. Cook, with Omai, took an airing, to the great astonishment of the inhabi|tants, many hundreds or whom followed them with loud acclamations. Omai, to excite their admiration the more, was dressed cap-a-pee in a suit of armour, which he carried with him, and was mounted and caparisoned with his sword and pike, like St. George accoutred to kill the dragon; only that instead of a long sword, Omai had pistols hung to his girdle, which he sometimes made good use of, when the crowd became troublesome, to drive them suddenly away.

The chief of this part of the island, a minor, being absent when the ships arrived, the news had been rapidly conveyed to him, and he was just returned, as the ships were preparing to depart. Word was brought on board the Reso|lution, that young Waheindooa, for that was the name of the chief, wanted to see Capt. Cook, and accordingly, the Captain and Omai went on shore Page  127 to pay, as was customary, the first visit. They were received with form. The chiefs were all as|sembled; Capt. Cook was informed of the er|rand of the Spaniards to take possession of their island; but they were ready to make a formal surrender of it to Capt. Cook. In confirmation of this grant, the young Prince was desired to pay homage to the Captain, and to embrace him.

This ceremony ended, Omai, who had prepared a maro, composed of red and yellow feathers, which he intended for Otoo, king of the whole island, was fool enough to present it to Waheiadooa, to be by him forwarded to Otoo. He thought by this management to have secured the favour of both; but the contrary was the effect, for the most valuable part of the present was kept be|hind, and not a 20th part was presented to Otoo. The first did not thank him, and the latter took it as an affront. Some presents passed between the Captains and the Chiefs; and while the live stock was grazing, the Commanders and officers em|ployed their leisure time in surveying the island. In their walks, some officers discovered what they thought a Romish chapel; but what Capt. Cook afterwards found to be a toopapaoo, or sacred re|pository, where the remains of old Waheiadooa lay in state. It was uncommonly neat, and had two priests as attendants.

For these last two or three days, the caulkers from both ships were employed, in stopping the leaks of the Discovery; and the carpenters in securing the masts, till we should arrive at the port of Mattavai, where the ships were to undergo a thorough repair.

On the 18th and 19th it blew a hard gale, and we were obliged to veer out 20 fathom more of Page  128 our best bower cable for safety, as we rode hard at our moorings.

On the 21st, the signal was made for un|mooring.

Early on the 22d, in the morning, the live stock, were taken on board, and about nine we weighed and sailed, accompanied with several canoes, though the wind blew a storm, and we sailed under the double-reefed top-sails. In the evening, the Resolution took her old station in Mattavai Bay: but the wind suddenly shifting, and the breeze coming full from the land, we were driven three leagues to leeward of the bay; by which we were reduced to the necessity of working all night to windward, amidst thun|der, lightning, and rain, and among reefs of coral rocks, on which we every moment expected to perish. We burnt false fires, and fired several guns of distress; but no answer from the Reso|lution, nor could we see any object to direct us during this perilous night.

Before our departure, one of their Eatooas, or prophesying priests, had prophesied, that we should not land at Mattavai that day. These impostors are held in great esteem through all the Friendly Islands, and this accident, though it might have been easily foreseen, increased their veneration.

In the morning of the 23d, however, the wea|ther cleared up, and we could see the Resolution about three leagues to windward, when a shift of wind happening in our favour, we took advan|tage of it, and by twelve at noon were safely moored within a cable's length of the Resolution. It is impossible to give an adequate idea of the joy, which the natives expressed upon our arrival in this bay, because their manner of expressing joy is Page  129 so different from our sensations, that were we to see persons stabbing themselves with sharp instru|ments till their bodies were besmeared with blood, we should think they were pierced with the most frantic despair, and that it would be almost im|possible to assuage their grief; whereas here, beat|ing their breasts, tearing their hair, and prick|ing their heads, their hands, and their bodies, are the most significant signs of their gladness to see the friends they love best. At the same time they are ready to overwhelm you with kindness, and would give you, for the moment, all they have in the world; but the very next hour crave all back again, and like children teize you for every think you have got besides.

The ships were no sooner secured, than the sailors began stripping them of every yard of rigging they had left; for certainly no ships were ever in a more shattered condition. Our voyage from New Zealand, if not from the Cape, might be said to be one continued series of tempestuous weather, suspended only by a few intervals of sun-shine; and the employment of our artificers at sea and on shore, a laborious exertion of their umost skill to keep us above wa|ter. Here it was not only necessary to strip the main-mast of the Discovery, but to take it out and carry it on shore, to be properly secured. This was a work of no small difficulty. Here too it was found necessary, to unship our stores of every kind; to air and unpack the powder; new-bake that part of the bread that had con|tracted any dampness; to erect the forge on shore; and in short, to set all our artificers to work on board and on shore, to refit the ships for the fur|ther prosecution of the voyage.

Page  130A messenger was dispatched from Capt. Cook to King Ottoo, to acquaint him with our arrival, and to desire his permission to send the cattle we had brought from Britain, to feed in the pastures of Opparree. The king expressed his joy on the return of Capt. Cook, and readily gave his con|sent. He at the same time ordered one of his principal officers to accompany the messenger in his return, and to take with him presents of fresh provisions for the Commanders of both ships, and to invite them on shore, to dine with him the next day. This invitation was accepted, and it was agreed between the Captains, that their visit should be made with as much state as their pre|sent circumstances would admit. The marines and music were therefore ordered to be in readi|ness at an appointed hour, and all the rowers to be clean dressed.

On the 25th, about noon, the commanders, with the principal officers and gentlemen, em|barked on board the pinnaces, which, on this occasion, were dressed with all their decorations. Omai, to surprize the more, was clothed in a Captain's uniform, and could hardly be distin|guished by any of the multitude then assembled from a British officer.

From Mattavai to Opparree, was about three miles. They arrived at the landing-place about one o'clock in the afternoon, and were received by the marines already under arms. As soon as the company were disembarked, the whole band of music struck up a grand military march, and the procession began. The road from the beach to the entrance of the palace (about half a mile) was lined on both sides with natives from all parts, expecting to see Omai on horseback, as Page  131 the account of his appearance on his first landing on the other side of the island, had already reach|ed the inhabitants of this. As he appeared to them in disguise, he was not known; they were not however wholly disappointed, as the grandeur of the procession exceeded every thing of the kind they had ever seen. The whole court were likewise assembled, and the king, with his sisters, on the approach of Capt. Cook, came forth to meet him. As he was perfectly known to them, their first salutations were frank and friendly, ac|cording to the known customs of the Otaheiteans; and when these salutations were over, proper at|tention was paid to every gentleman in com|pany; and that too with a politeness that, to those who had never been on this island before, was quite unexpected.

As soon as the company had entered the pa|lace and were seated, and some discourse had passed between the king and Capt. Cook, Omai was presented to his Majesty. He had hitherto escaped unnoticed, with the other inferior officers who were not particularly known. Omai paid his Majesty the usual homage of a subject to a sovereign in that country, which was kneeling and embracing his foot, and then entered into fa|miliar conversation on the subject of his travels. The Earees, or kings, of this country, are not above discoursing with the meanest of their sub|jects, but Omai was now considered here as a person of rank, and a favourite of the Earees of the ships. The king having received from him a valuable present, was desirous to hear his story, and asked him several questions before he gave him time to answer one. At length Omai began by magnifying the grandeur of the Great King; he compared the splendor of his court to the bril|liancy Page  132 of the stars in the firmament; the extent of his dominions by the vast expanse of heaven; the greatness of his power, by the thunder that shakes the earth. He said, the Great King of Pretanne had three hundred thousand warriors every day at his command, clothed like those who now attended the Earees of the ships, and more than double that number of sailors, who travers|ed the globe, from the rising of the fun to his setting; that his ships of war exceeded those at Mattavai in magnitude, in the same proportion, as those exceeded the small canoes at Opparree.—His Majesty appeared all astonishment, and could not help interrupting him. He asked, if what he said was true, Where the Great King could find people to navigate so many ships as covered the ocean from one extremity to the other? and if he could find men, where he could find provi|sions for so great a multitude? Omai assured him, that he had spoken nothing but truth; that in one city only on the banks of a river far removed from the sea, there were more people than were contained in the whole group of islands with which his Majesty was acquainted; that the country was full of large populous cities; notwithstand|ing which provisions were so plentiful, that for a piece of certain yellow metal, like that of which he had seen many [meaning the medals given by the Captain to the Earees] the Great King could purchase as much provisions as would maintain a sailor on board a ship a whole year; that in the country of the Great King, there are more than 100 different kinds of four-footed animals, from the size of the smallest rat when it is first brought forth, to the magnitude of a stage erected on an ordinary canoe, on which six men may stand erect; that all these animals are so numerous in Page  133 their several kinds, and propagate so fast, that were it not that some were killed for food, and that others prey one upon the other, they would over-run the land: Omai, having by this rela|tion obviated king Ottoo's doubts, adverted to his first questions. He said, the ships of war of Pretanne were furnished with poo-poos [guns] each of which would receive the largest poo-poo his Majesty had yet seen within it; that some carried 100 and more of those poo-poos, with suitable accommodations for a thousand fighting men, and stowage for all sorts of cordage and war|like stores, besides provisions and water for the men and other animals, for 100 or 200 days; and that they were sometimes abroad as long warring with the enemies of the Great King in the diffe|rent parts of his dominions in the remotest parts of the earth; that they frequently carried with them in these expeditions poo-poos, that would hold a small hog within them, and which throw hol|low globes of iron, of a vast bigness, filled with fire and all manner of combustibles, and imple|ments of destruction, to a great distance; a few of which, were they to be thrown among the fleet of Otaheite, would set them on fire, and de|stroy the whole navy, in less than half a day, were they ever so numerous. The king seemed more astonished than delighted with what he said, and suddenly left Omai, to join the company that were in conversation with Capt. Cook and the other officers.

After the hurry of the visit was over, we were conducted to the water-side in the same manner as we approached the palace, and were attended by the king and most of the chiefs.

Soon after our arrival, one of the natives, who had been at Lima, came and visited us. He re|tained Page  134 a few Spanish words which he had learnt at Lima, and Si Senore, was as ready on all oc|casions, as was, if you please Sir, or, as you please Sir, with Oedidee, who had formerly accompa|nied Capt. Cook in a seven months voyage, in which he had visited the Friendly Islands, New Zealand, Easter Island, and the Marquses. These two were our constant visitors while the ships stayed, and afforded a good deal of diversion to the crews.

On the 25th in the morning, Omai's mother, and several of his relations arrived. Their meet|ing was too unnatural to be pleasing. We eould not see a woman frantically striking her face and arms with sharks teeth, till she was all over be|smeared with blood, without being hurt. As it conveyed no idea of joy to feeling minds, we could never be reconciled to this absurd custom. She brought with her several large hogs, with bread-fruit, bananos, and other productions of the Island of Ulitea, as presents to the Captains; and she and her friends received in return, a great variety of cutlery, such as knives, scissars, files, &c besides some red feathers, which last were even more acceptable than iron. They conti|nued to visit the ship occasionally till we quitted the island.

Before noon king Ottoo, with his chiefs and attendants, and two young princesses his sisters, came on board, followed by several canoes, laden with provisions sufficient to have served both ships a week. They were entertained as usual, with a sight of all the curiosities on board the ships, and the young princesses, longing for almost every thing they saw, were gratified to their utmost wishes, with bracelets of beads, looking-glasses, bits of china, artificial nosegays, and a variety Page  135 of other trinkets, of which they had one of a sort each, while at the same time the king and his chiefs amused themselves with the carpenters, ar|mourers and other artificers, employed in the re|pairs of the ships, casting longing eyes on the tools and implements with which they perform|ed their work. In this manner they past the time till dinner was ready. King Ottoo, with his chiefs, dined with the Captains, the principal of|ficers, and Omai in the great cabin, while the ladies were feasted in an apartment separated on purpose, and waited upon by their own servants. During dinner, the music, particularly the bag-pipes, with which the Ottaheiteans seemed most delighted, continued to play, and the young la|dies who were within hearing, though out of sight, could hardly refrain from dancing the whole time. After dinner the king and his chiefs were pres|sed to drink wine; but most of them having felt its power before, declined tasting it; one or two drank a glass, but refused to drink any more.

What contributed not a little to increase the pleasure of the king, was a present made him by Capt. Cook, of a large quantity of the choicest red feathers that could be purchased in the islands of Amsterdam. Red feathers, as has already been observed, are held in the highest estima|tion in Otaheite, where, when the ships first ar|rived, a quantity of them, not greater than might be got from a tom-tit, would have purchased a hog; but every sailor being furnished with them, they sunk 500 per cent. in value. They are here used as amulets, or rather as propitiations to make their prayers acceptable to the good spirit whom they invoke with tufts of those feathers in their hands, made up in a peculiar manner, and held in a certain position with much seeming so|lemnity. Page  136 Of this Capt. Cook was an eye-witness, when he went afterwards to be present at a hu|man sacrifice, of which two were offered up while we lay moored in the harbour of Mattavai. In the course of Capt. Cook's former voyage, the name of Towha frequently occurrs, as Admiral in Chief of the naval force of Otaheite.

From this chief, on the 1st of September, a messenger arrived at Oparree with advice that he had killed a man, to be sacrificed to the Eatooa, to implore the assistance of that god against Eimea; and to require the presence of king Ottoo at the ceremony, without which it could not be perform|ed. This horrid rite was to be solemnized in consequence of a war which had subsisted for some years between the Island of Otaheite and that of Eimea, and which was now come to a crisis. The poor victim, as it appeared, had been knock|ed on the head a day or two before the ceremony was to take place; and the priests had been pre|paring for the solemnization, in which, however, there was nothing so very horrid as might have been expected. The chief sacrifices were dogs and pigs, over the entrails of which the priests made long prayers and incantations, holding at the same time tufts of red feathers in their hands, knotted in various forms. During the ceremony a mara, or royal girdle, was spread out at full length; it was about five yards long and fifteen inches broad, ornamented with red and yellow feathers, these last taken from a dove found upon the island, and curiously disposed, so as to pro|duce a most pleasing effect; and besides this dis|play of royal magnificence, there was a kind of ark exhibited, the mystical contents of which were kept secret, and were supposed to represent the Eatooa to whom the sacrifice was offered up. Page  137 The poor victim who had been killed had but a small share in the exhibition. After having been exposed a few hours in various attitudes, some|times masked, and sometimes covered with young plantain-trees, and prayers and petitions seem|ingly addressed to him, had been said or sung in a plaintive tone, the body was buried in a grave about two feet deep, and then the priests pro|ceeded with the usual offerings of dogs and pigs; these were dressed in the nicest manner; and their entrails, after being cautiously and carefully exa|mined, were thrown into the fire and consumed; from these, it should seem, that their good and bad omens were prognosticated. The sacrificed pig with his liver were now put upon a whatta or scaffold, and the carcass of the dog was deposited by him on the same shelf, and then all the fea|thers, except an ostrich plume, were inclosed within the Eatooa in the ark, and the ceremony finally closed.—Whoever is desirous of reading the account at large, may see it very accurately stated by Capt. Cook, who was an eye-witness to it, in the 2d volume of his voyages, pages 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, and 45. He remarks, that the victim is always of the lowest class, is generally some worthless wretch, who is suddenly put to death without the least notice, and who is slaughtered as oxen are with us by a single blow.

The ordinary sorts of red feathers were collect|ed by officers and men all over the Friendly Islands; but those that were presented to king Ottoo, and were now exhibited, were of the superior kind, and were in value much above the ordinary red feathers, as real pearls are with us in value above French paste. They were taken from the heads of the paroquets of Tongataboo and Ea-oo-whe, Page  138 which are of superlative beauty, and precious in proportion to their sineness and the vivid glow of their dazzling colours.

Though all public trade was prohibited, as was usual, till the ships should be furnished with fresh provisions, it was not easy to restrain the men on shore from trading with the women, who were for ever enticing them to desert. The ladies of plea|sure in London, have not half the winning ways that are practised by the Otaheitean misses al|lure their gallants. With the seeming innocence of doves, they mingle the wiliness of serpents. They have, however, one quality which is pecu|liar to themselves, and that is constancy. When once they have made their choice, it must be ow|ing to the sailor himself if his mistress ever proves false to him. No women upon earth are more faithful. They will endeavour to make them|selves mistresses of all their lovers possess; but they will suffer no one else to invade his pro|perty, nor will they embezzle any part of it them|selves without having first obtained his content; but that consent is not easily withheld, for they are incessant in their importunities, and will never cease asking, while the sailor has a rag or a nail to bestow.

Next day, August 26, a party of officers made a visit to Ottoo at Oparree, taking with them the poultry with which Capt. Cook was to stock the island of Otaheite; these consisted of a peacock and hen, a turkey-cock and hen, one gander and three geese, a drake and four ducks. They found at the palace there, a gander which had been given to Oberea, by Capt. Wallis, ten years be|fore; several goats, and a bull, which the Spani|ards had left when they last visited the island about eight months ago: It was tied to a tree, alone, Page  139 the cows having either died on their passage, or were carried back to Spain. Capt. Cook sent three cows he had on board, to this bull, for a finer was never seen, and his own bull he landed at Mattavai.

At Oparree, Capt. Cook planted melons, pota|toes, shaddocks, pine-apple plants, and some vines; he had the pleasure of seeing several of them in great forwardness before he left the island.

During our four months stay at this and the neighbouring islands, there was hardly a sailor on board that had not made a very near connection with one or other of the women of this island; nor indeed, many officers that were proof against the allurements of the better sort, who were no less amorous and artful, though more reserved, than those of the inferior order.

The temperature of the climate, the plenty of fresh provisions, fish, fowl, pork, bread-fruit, yams, (a kind of sweet potatoes, which they have the art of stewing with their pork in a very sa|voury manner) added to the most delicious fruits of the island, contributed not a little to make our stay here not only tolerable, but even desirable; nor did idleness get possession even of those who were most indolently inclined. We had not a vacant hour between business and pleasure, that was unemployed. We wanted no coffee-houses to kill time, nor Ranelaghs or Vauxhalls for our evening entertainments. Every nightly assembly in the plantations of this happy isle, is furnished by beneficent nature with a more luxuriant feast than all the dainties of the most sumptuous cham|petre, though lavished with unlimited profusion, and emblazoned with the most expensive decora|tions of art. Ten thousand lamps, combined and ranged in the most advantageous order by the Page  140 hands of the best artists, appear faint, when com|pared with the brilliant stars of heaven, that unite their splendor to illuminate the groves, the lawns, the streams of Oparree. In these Elysian fields, immortality alone is wanting to the enjoyment of all those pleasures which the poet's fancy has con|ferred on the shades of departed heroes, as the highest rewards of heroic virtue.

But amidst so many delights, it was not for human nature to subsist long without satiety. Our seamen began to be licentious, and our offi|cers to be punctilious. Several of the former were severely punished for indecency in surpassing the vice of the natives by their shameless manner of indulging their sensual appetites; and two of the latter went ashore to terminate an affair of ho|nour by the decision of their pistols. It happened that neither of them were dextrous marksmen; they vented their rage by the fury with which they began the attack; and after discharging three balls each, they returned on board, without any hurt, except spoiling a hat, a ball having pierced it, and grazed upon the head of him who wore it. It was, however, remarked, that these gentlemen were better friends than ever, during the remaining part of the voyage.

While these things went on by way of amuse|ment to some, others were more usefully employed in the repairs of the ship. The mast that was shattered in the head, and carried ashore to be repaired, was in a short time rendered more firm than ever; the sails that had been split, and were otherwise rendered unfit for further service, were replaced: the cordage carefully examined, the masts new rigged; and, in short, the whole re|pairs compleated with more celerity and strength than could have been expected, in a place where Page  [unnumbered]

[illustration] [depiction of the landing at Tahiti]
Dodd. del.
Omai's Public Entry on his first landing at Otaheite.
Page  141 many conveniencies were wanting to fit us out for that part of our voyage which still remained to be performed.

For this purpose, repairs were not more necessary for our equipment than provisions. The purvey|ors, therefore, and butchers, were incessantly employed in purchasing and killing hogs for pre|sent use, and the salters in salting the overplus for future stores; while the Captains and superior of|ficers were devising new amusements to keep the King and his Chiefs in good humour, in order to encourage their people to furnish us with am|ple supplies.

Not a day passed but some new exhibition was contrived for their entertainment. Omai, of whom little account was made, but for his riches, contributed his share to vary the scenes of plea|sure. He one day endeavoured to ride out on horseback, in his armour, brandishing his glitter|ing sword, to the terror and amazement of the gaping multitude, when, lo! he was brought to the ground by a sudden start of his spirited horse. Another day he diverted them with playing off fire-works, under the direction of the chief engi|neer. He was now made a principal in all public shews, and was pushed forward with King Ottoo himself. In a naval review, which was exhibited by Towha, the great Admiral, Omai had the command of one division of the fleet, while King Ottoo commanded another division, and Towha the centre. The greatest dexterity appeared in their arrangements to land, where the military exercises were chiefly carried on; one party en|deavouring to supplant the other, in order to get possession of the most advantageous ground. In these manoeuvres Omai acquitted himself with tolerable applause, being well supported in all his Page  142 exercises by Capt. Cook, who played him off as having been much improved in arts and military exercises.

During our stay, there was a rumour of actual war, and the forces of the island, both by sea and land, were called forth in earnest, to be in readi|ness to embark on the first notice. This war, it seems, had originated in 1774, when Capt. Cook was here before, and in part had subsisted ever since, neither side caring to come to action; but it now came to a crisis, and news was brought that the Otaheitean party in Eimeo had been worsted, and had fled to the mountains; and that a reinforcement was absolutely necessary. All trade was therefore stopped; no cocoa-nuts to be had, the milk of which was the only liquor, ex|cept water, which the ship's company were al|lowed to drink; and the weather being excessive hot, there was great murmuring among the men both on board and on shore. Capt. Cook was under the necessity of interceding with King Ot|too to renew trade. Whether peace was made, or only a truce for a short time, is not certain, but in a few days the warriors dispersed, and every thing went on again after the usual manner.

On the above rumour, it was computed, that near 300 war canoes were mustered in Mattavai bay, with stages on each, on which sat from three to fix Chiefs in their warlike dresses, which seemed calculated more for shew than use in battle. On their heads were large turbans wound round in many folds, and over that a monstrous helmet; and on their bodies, instead of the light airy dress worn in common, they were incumbered by many garments of their own cloth, which added indeed to their stature, but which must disqualify them from exerting their strength in the day of battle. Page  143 Men of fertile imaginations, fond of tracing the analogy of ancient customs, among the different nations of the world, might possibly discover some similarity between these cumbrous dresses, and those of the Knights of ancient chivalry, who fought in armour. It is certain, that the Ota|heitean, who fights on foot, must feel the same encumbrance from his heavy war-dress, as the ancient Knight, who fought on horseback, must have done from his unwieldy armour; and there is no doubt but the former will, one time or other, be laid aside in the tropical isles, as much as the latter is now in every other part of the world.

Soon after the first interview, Oedidee, of whom we have spoken, brought a wife on board the Resolution, whom he had lately married; which discredits the notion that was universally believed by former Voyagers, that those who be|longed to the society of Arreoys were sworn to ce|libacy. Either this man was an impostor, or the fact just mentioned cannot be true. He appeared in a rich English dress, which had been sent him as a present from England, perhaps from the Ad|miralty. They were kindly received by Capt. Cook, and had much respect paid them. Soon after his arrival, fire-works of a new device were played off before many thousands of the natives; but it was easy to remark, that they were not all equally delighted with the exhibition.

The common people were thrown into the ut|most consternation by a storm of thunder and lightning, which almost instantly succeeded. Nor were they ever perfectly reconciled to us after|wards. They thought it presumption in us to provoke the Eatooas, by imitating their powers and many of them retired to the woods, and never returned again to their houses during our stay.

Page  144[Our] Journalist seems here to have been wanting in true intelligence. The reason of their flight was, a capital robbery that had been committed on the Surgeon's Mate of the Resolution, who, having taken a tour into the country, had taken 4 hatchets with him, to purchase curiosities, and was robbed of them all by the native whom he em|ployed to carry them. This alarmed the whole island. Even Ottoo himself had taken flight in dread of the consequences; but was brought back by Capt. Cook, who followed him, and assured him he would take no part in the affair, as the gentlemen themselves might seek their remedy, if they took the liberty of rambling abroad without leave.]

Whether they really wished us to be gone, or dreaded our stay, an alarm was soon after spread, that two Spanish ships were arrived at Oaite Peeha; that they had landed some men there, and were taking in some refreshments to enable them to proceed. This report was every where circu|lated; and whether Capt. Cook believed it, or only made it a pretence to quicken our activity, he gave instant orders to clear the decks, mount the guns, which lay as it were buried in the hold, and to get every thing in readiness for action. In the mean time, he sent Mr. Williamson, 3d Lieu|tenant, in the great cutter, manned and armed, to learn the truth of the report, by looking into the harbour of Oaite Peeha, to see if any foreign ships were at anchor there, or whether the whole ru|mour was a fiction. That gentleman executed his commission with great celerity; having, in much less time than was expected, twice doubled Point Venus, sailed round that promontory, made the harbour he was sent to examine, and brought word that the only grounds for the report were, Page  145 that four large trading canoes from an adjacent isle, had been there a few days before his arrival, but that they sailed again immediately, having been totally disappointed of a market.

Though we were now relieved of the apprehen|sions of an attack, we were not suffered to relax in our preparations to depart. Wood and water had already been taken on board, and as much provi|sions as could be procured; and little remained to be done, except to re-imbark our live stock, to strike the tents, and bring off the baggage of the officers and men who had been stationed on shore. Notice was therefore given to King Ottoo, of our intentions to sail with the first fair wind. He seemed to express great concern at our sudden resolution, and came on board, attended with Towha, his great Admiral, and the principal of|ficers of his court, who all brought with them presents of hogs and fruit, the only valuable pro|ductions of the island, except wood and water, to European Voyagers, and received in return, axes, hatchets, spike-nails, and cutlery ware, &c. which were reserved to the last, in order to encourage the Chiefs to use their utmost endeavours with their people, to bring in their hogs, while it was yet in our power to receive them. No people on earth could express their gratitude with more seeming sincerity, than the King and his Chiefs, for the presents they had received; nor were our Commanders and Officers wanting in suitable returns.

On the 28th, having now been just 40 days on the island, King Ottoo came on board, to invite our Commanders with their Officers to Oparree, as he understood it was to be the last time that he should have the opportunity of pay|ing us his acknowledgments on shore.

Page  146On the 29th, the pinnaces were ordered out, and we proceeded to Oparree, in the same state as on our first visit. At the landing-place we were received with uncommon marks of friend|ship. Every, Chief in that part of the island, of which Ottoo was the Earee-da-hai, or Lord paramount, to the number of 500 and more, attended, and conducted us to the King's house or palace, where a sumptuous banquet was pro|vided, and after dinner a more numerous and brilliant company of performers assembled at the Theatre for our entertainment, than we had ever seen on any stage in the tropical islands before.

There is a sameness in their drama, that admits of little or no variation, as perhaps to foreigners, who are unacquainted with the language and man|ners of a country, there may appear to be in every stage-exhibition, wherever performed. Be that as it may, the dresses on this occasion were entirely new, and by far more showy than formerly; the number of dancers were increased; ten young Ladies composed the first group, with their heads most magnificently ornamented with beads, red feathers, shells of the most beautiful colours, and wreathed with flowers in so elegant a style, as hardly to be excelled; had their music been equal to their performance, this part of the exhibition would have been compleat.

A party of warriors were next introduced, dressed in their war-habits, consisting, as has al|ready been observed, of different coloured cloth, of their own manufacture, so ingeniously fashioned and blended together with so much art, as, with the helmets that cover their heads, to fill the stage with men, of whose majestic figure it is not easy to convey an idea. These were armed with spears, lances, and battle-axes, and exhibited all the Page  [unnumbered]

[illustration] [depiction of a dramatic piece at Tahiti]
Dodd. del. Royce. Sc.
Representation of the Heiva at Otaheite
Page  147 forms of attack and defence which are practised in real action. The principal performers were the King's brother and a Chief of gigantic stature, who displayed such wonderful grimaces and dis|torsions of face and countenance, by way of pro|vocation and challenge, as were not only laughable in some attitudes, but terrible in others. After these disappeared, the players were brought for|ward, and performed a more serious piece than we had yet seen, at which the natives sat graver and more composed than usual. And the whole per|formance concluded with a dance of ten boys, drest in every respect like the girls in the first scene, with their hair flowing in ringlets down their shoulders, and their heads ornamented in a very theatrical style.

When the play was over we returned to our boats, attended by the whole assembly, who ac|companied us to the water-side, where the King took a most affectionate leave.

On the 29th Capt. Cook ordered all the women to be put on shore, which was a task not easily ef|fected, most of them being very loth to depart; nor was it of much consequence, as they found means afterwards to follow us to Hueheine, Ulitea, and the other Society Isles; nor did they leave us, till our final departure on our northern disco|veries, never more to return.

Several of the sailors being very desirous to stay at Otaheite, King Ottoo interested himself in their behalf, and endeavoured to prevail on Capt. Cook to grant their request; but he peremptorily rejected every application of that kind though often repeated; nor would he suffer any of the natives to enter on board, though many would gladly have accompanied us wherever we intended to sail; they had even been assured that we never Page  147〈1 page duplicate〉Page  148 intended to visit their country any more. Some of the women too would have followed their Ehoonoas, or Pretanne husbands, could they have been permitted; but Capt. Cook was equally averse to the taking any of the natives away, as to the leaving any of his own people behind. He was very sensible, that when once cloyed with enjoyment, they would reciprocally pine for home, to which it would not be in their power to return; and that for a little present gratification, they would risque the happiness of the remaining part of their lives.

King Ottoo, when he found he could not ob|tain his wishes, in this respect, applied to Capt. Cook for another favour, which was, to allow his carpenters to make him a chest, or press, to secure the treasures he had accumulated in presents, and by way of traffic, from the European Voyagers. He even begged that it might be made so large, that two men might sleep upon it, as otherwise neither locks, nor bars, nor bolts would be suffi|cient to secure his treasure when the ships were gone. This Capt. Cook readily granted, and while the workmen were employed in this service, they were plentifully supplied with barbicued hogs, and such dainties as the country afforded; and were so carefully attended and protected, that they did not lose so much as a single nail. It was some of these workmen that Ottoo was so desirous to retain; but these were of too much conse|quence on board to be parted with, had there been no other motive for bringing them away; nor was Ottoo much concerned about the depar|ture of the rest.

While the carpenters were busied in making this uncommon piece of furniture, King Ottoo was constant in attending their operations, and Omai had frequent conferences with him on the Page  149 subject of his travels. He astonished him more by the relation he gave of the magnificence of the Morais in Pretanne, than by all the wonders with which he had before surprized him. When he told him that the King's morai was open to all comers, and that the persons of the deceased Kings were to be seen as perfect to appearance as when in the vigour of youth, he seemed to la|ment that his date of existence was to be limited with his life; and that his remains were to perish, while his Morai preserved no memory that he had ever had a being. Omai endeavoured to impress him with an idea of the magnificence of the tombs and memorials of the dead that were to be seen in the Morais of Pretanne; but having nothing to compare them to, he was unable to make himself sufficiently understood; nor was he more success|ful in describing the solemn grandeur of the places of worship, where the people assembled every se|venth day, and at other stated times, to offer up their prayers to the good spirit. Of the splendour of the theatres he could speak more intelligibly, as some faint idea of them might be gathered from what had been exhibited on board the ships, and in the illuminations and fire-works played off on shore. When Omai told him of the magnitude of the palaces and houses in Pretanne, of their de|corations and furniture; of the extent of their plantations, and the multitude of living animals with which they were stored, he listened to him with particular attention, as not doubting the truth of his relation; but when he began to de|scribe the roads, and the rapidity with which the people travelled in carriages drawn by four-footed animals, no child could ever express greater sur|prize at Gulliver's travelling to the world of the moon on ganzas, than Ottoo, when Omai assured Page  150 him, they could traverse an extent of ground equal to the whole length of the island of Otaheite in a single day.

The King, as appeared by his generosity to Omai, was highly entertained by the story of his travels; for when he went to take leave, his Ma|jesty presented him with a double canoe, properly equipped and manned, in the room of that which he purchased at New Zealand; but that, it should seem, was constructed as a present to the Great King of Pritanne, which Capt. Cook could not take on board on account of its size.

Every preparation for sailing being already compleated, the live stock all on board except three cows and a bull, two ewes and a ram, two she-goats, and the poultry already mentioned, which were left as presents to King Ottoo.

In the evening both ships were under sail, di|recting their course to the westward to Eimeo, accompanied by Omai in his Otaheitean vessel, with his two New Zealand youths on board, who discovered no uneasiness at their present situation, nor any desire to return home.

The island of Otaheite has already been so often and so accurately described, and the man|ners, customs, and ways of living of the inha|bitants, so amply enlarged upon by former voy|agers, that little remains to be added. The writer was attentive only to two facts, one of which he found reason to believe had been misrepresented, and the other very unfairly related; the first re|spects the Society of Arreoys, composed, as it was said, of a certain number of men and women, associated in lewdness, and so abandoned to all sense of humanity, as to destroy the issue of their libidinous intercourse; than which nothing could be more injurious to the characters of any people Page  151 than this diabolical practice ascribed to this society.

There are in this and the adjoining islands, per|sons of a middle rank between the Manahounas or Yeomen and the Earees, who having no concern in the government, nor any distinct property in the islands, associate together for their own amuse|ment, and the entertainment of the public. These travel from place to place, and from island to island in companies, not unlike those of the strolling players in England, only that they per|form without pay; but that they cohabit indis|criminately one with another, so many men with so many women in common, is no otherwise true, than the same may be suspected among the strolling companies just mentioned; nor are they under any other restraints from marrying, than that the society admits of no marriages among themselves, nor of any married people to be of their society, it being a rule with them, never to be encumbered with children; if therefore it should happen, that issue should prove the consequence of a casual amour, there is no alternative; the mother must either quit the society, or somehow or other dispose of her child; which some of them do there, as many unfortunate girls do here, by secretly mak|ing away with them to avoid infamy; it being equally disgraceful there to be found with child, while members of the Society of Arreoys, as it is for women here to be so found without husbands.

The other fact, which the writer took pains to determine, was, whether the beastly custom im|puted to them, of gratifying their passions without regard to places or persons, was well founded? and he solemnly declares, that the grossest inde|cencies he ever saw practised while on the island, were by the licentiousness of our own people, who, Page  152 without regard to character, made no scruple to attempt openly and by force what they were un|able to effect with the free voluntary consent of the objects of their desire; for which several of them were severely punished. To assert, there|fore, that not the least trace of shame is to be found among these people in doing that openly which all other people are naturally induced to cover, is an injurious calumny, not warranted by custom, nor supported by the general practice even of the lowest class of individuals among them.

These people have one custom in common with the Neapolitans and Maltese, which ought not to be forgotten, and that is, their fishing in the night and reposing themselves in the day; like them too, they burn lamps while they fish, with the oil drawn from the cocoa-nut, which they know well how to extract.

On the 30th we continued our course the whole day, under double-reefed top-sails; and in the evening came in sight of Eimeo, where we an|chored next day in a safe harbour, and were re|ceived by the people with every appearance of hospitality.

On the 31st our live-stock was landed, and as our supply of wood at Otaheite was little more than just served for present use, our carpenters and wooders were here sent out to cut wood, and our purveyors to collect hogs. Here we found Omai, who had out-sailed us in his double-masted canoe, and who, on his arrival, had been diverting the natives with his feats of arms; and had raised their curiosity to a very high degree, by acquaint|ing them with our intention of paying them a visit, as no European ship had ever anchored at that island before. The Chiefs of the island came on board, with large hogs by way of presents; and Page  153 were presented, in return, with axes, hatchets, looking-glasses, and red feathers: our purveyors were likewise much gratified, by the success they met with in marketing, purchasing the largest hogs for the meerest trifles; as for instance, a hog of 100 weight for twelve red feathers, and so in proportion for less or larger.

But this friendly intercourse was soon changed to a scene of desolation, that no injury we could re|ceive from the pilfering disposition of the inha|bitants could justify. The people had brought us every thing their island afforded, and had left it to the generosity of the purchasers to give, in return, whatever they pleased; but unfortunately

On the 2d of October, a goat was missing from the live-stock. It had been secretly conveyed away in the night, from the pastures on which they were placed to feed, notwithstanding the vi|gilance of the guard appointed to look after them. With the loss of this animal, which no doubt was looked upon as a prize of great value, the Earee of the island was made acquainted by Capt. Cook, and a peremptory requisiton made to have it restored, on pain of having his country laid waste, his shipping destroyed, and himself per|sonally punished for the crime of his subjects. The King promised his assistance, and required time for enquiry, but as soon as he was at liberty he absconded, and was no more seen; and the goat being still missing, and no means used for reco|vering and restoring it, a party from both ships, with the marines in a body, were ordered out to search for it and bring it back; or if it could not be found, to carry the threats of the Commander into execution. For three days successively they con|tinued their search without effect; till tired with the trifling evasions of the Chief, they began, first Page  154 by burning the suspected houses, where they had reason to think the goat was concealed; and that not succeeding, the devastation became general, burning and destroying indiscriminately some of the best houses, and as many of their large war canoes as fell in their way; at the same time cut|ting down their fruit-trees, and destroying their plantations. The natives who lived at a distance, hearing of the havock that was made near the bay, filled their canoes with stones and sunk them, in hopes of preserving them, but that availed them nothing. The Captain ordered boats to be manned and armed, the canoes that were sunk to be weighed up and destroyed; and in short, a general devastation to be carried thro' the whole island, if the goat should be withheld. Add to this, that two young natives of quality, being found on board our ship, were made prisoners, and told they were to be put to death, if the goat should not be re|stored within a certain time. The youths pro|tested their own innocence, and disclaimed all knowledge of the guilty persons; notwithstanding which, every preparation was apparently made for putting them to death. Large ropes were carried upon the main deck, and made fast sore and aft; axes, chains, and instruments of torture were placed upon the quarter deck in the sight of the young men; whose terrors were increased b the information of Omai, who gave them to under|stand that, by all these solemn preparations, their doom was finally determined. Under these appre|hensions, the poor youths remained till

The 9th, when about three in the afternoon a body of between 50 and 60 natives, were 〈◊〉 from the ship hastening to the harbour, who, when they came near, held up the goat in their arms Page  155 in raptures that they had found it, and that it was still alive.

The joy of the imprisoned youths is not to be expressed; and when they were released, instead of shewing any signs of resentment, they were ready to fall down and worship their deliverers. It can scarce be credited, when the devastation, ceased, how soon the injury they had suffered was forgotten, and provisions again brought to market, as if no violences had ever been committed by us; only the Earee of the island never made his appearance. Though this account was generally discredited on the first publication of this journal, yet it now appears by the relation of Capt. Cook himself, that it was well founded. We have al|ready observed, that a war had long subsisted be|tween King Ottoo, and Mahaine, the Earee of Eimeo, and Capt. Cook had been solicited to take part in it, which he had declined, and thereby had lost the friendship of Towha; but after having burnt the houses of many of the enemies of Ottoo, had broke up, burnt and destroyed more than 20 canoes, most of them war canoes, he regretted that he had been obliged to do them more mischief than they had suffered from Towha in his late ex|pedition.

All this while multitudes of the inhabitants of Otaheite, who had stolen off in the night in their canoes (mostly women) were witnesses of the se|verity with which this theft was punished at Eimeo; but it seemed to make no unfavourable impression upon them. They continued their good offices as long as we remained in the Society Isles.

Having procured a large quantity of wood; of which Otaheite furnished but a scanty supply, and likewise a number of hogs for present use and fu|ture stores.

Page  156On the 12th in the morning we prepared to sail, and before noon were out at sea with a fine breeze, directing our course to N. W. for Hue|heine, to which island Omai had previously set sail before us.

In the night the weather being hazy, Omai lost sight of the ships, and fired his gun, which was answered by the Resolution. During the after|noon the breeze left us, and a dead calm ensuing, made our Otaheitean passengers immoderately sick by the rolling of the ship. They then began to repent their folly in following the fugitives whom they had no hopes of ever reclaiming, and to wish themselves safe home again on the shores of Mattavai.

On the 13th in the morning we came in sight of Hueheine, and about noon were close in with the land, when the natives came in multitudes, with hogs and provisions of all kinds, as presents to their friends. Omai, who had already reached the shore, and hauled his vessel upon the beach, was encircled by the natives, who crowded about him, some to gratify their curiosity, and others to express their joy at his return. In less than half an hour King Oreo was seen to go aboard the Resolution. He had with him two large hogs, as presents to Capt. Cook, with some bread-fruit ready roasted, and a large quantity of bananoes, plantains, and other fruit. Capt. Cook received him with open arms, enquiring particularly after the good old venerable King Oree, for whom he entertained the most perfect friendship; and being told he was dead, he could not help shedding tears. We were soon after favoured with a visit from Oreo, who made a like present to Capt. Clerke, and received in return a breast-plate of red fea|thers, Page  157 with which he seemed better pleased, than with any thing that had before been given him.

As soon as he returned on shore, he issued out orders, requiring all his people to behave with the strictest justice to his good friends from Pretanne; and he appointed proper Officers to see his or|ders carried into execution, but without effect; for he had hardly reached his place of abode, be|fore one fellow was detected on board the Reso|lution in stealing iron from the armourer's forge, and had one side of his head and eye-brows close shaved and both his ears cut clean from his tem|ples, by way of example to deter others.

On the 19th, peace being established in the usual form, the live stock were landed, among which were a horse and mare for Omai, two cows and a bull were intended for King Oree, if he had been alive, but being dead, were left with Oreo.

As this was one of the most plentiful of all the Society Isles, it was proposed to make some stay here, in order to careen the ships, and to lay in provisions for future use. This was the more ne|cessary, as we were about to sail to countries wholly unknown, where it was uncertain what ac|commodations we might meet with, or to what straits we might be reduced. The tents were therefore put ashore, the beds and furniture of every kind unladen, and every crevice of the ships examined, scraped, washed with vinegar, and smoked; and while this last operation was perform|ing, the lower port-holes were left open, for the rats to make their escape; in short, a thorough revision was directed to be made of every thing on board, as well to cleanse the furniture from the vermin, as to remove the danger of infection from putrid air, generated by a perpetual succession of multitudes of both sexes, in close resort between Page  158 decks ever since our arrival at Otaheite. The sick were at the same time landed for the benefit of the air, and every means used to recover, and to pre|serve them in health, when recovered.

Among the sick was Capt. Cook himself, for whose recovery the crews of both ships were under much concern, as the success of the voyage was thought in a great measure to depend upon his care and conduct. By the Doctor's advice, he was prevailed upon to sleep on shore; where he was assiduously attended night and day by the Surgeons of both ships, who alternately watched with him, till he was out of danger. As soon as he was able, he rode out every day with Omai on horseback, followed by multitudes of the natives, who, attracted by the novelty of the sight, flocked from the remotest parts of the island to be spec|tators. In the mean time, the ships were crowded with hogs, poured in upon us faster than the butchers and salters could dispatch them; for se|veral days after our arrival, some hundreds, great and small, were brought on board, and if any were refused, they were thrown into the boats and left behind. Bread-fruit, bananoes, plantains, cocoa-nuts and yams were brought in the same plentiful proportions, and purchased for trifles. Red fea|thers were here, as at Otaheite, a very marketable commodity, with which the seamen made pur|chases of cloth, and other manufactures of the island; those of them, who were followed by their misses from Otaheite, kept separate tables for them, at a small expence; the misses catered and cooked for their mates, who feasted every day on barbecued pigs, stewed fowls, roasted bread-fruit, cocoa-nuts, and a variety of other delicacies, which were purchased for them for the merest trifles. Among the common men, there were Page  159 many who laid in store of these good things for their future support in case of being reduced to short allowance, and they had reason afterwards to console themselves on their provident care.

The example made of the first Indian thief, by exposing him to the ridicule of his countrymen, had a better effect than a thousand lashings, which were forgotten almost as soon as inflicted; whereas the laughable figure the fellow made with his ears off, and the hair of his head shaved, was a perpetual punishment, which it was not in his power to conceal. By this seasonable severity, and the vigilance of the Officers, whom the King had appointed to superintend the police, we con|tinued unmolested for several days.

On our first approaching the island we cast an|chor, till the ground for mooring should be exa|mined, and in weighing, to change our station, our cable parted, and we were obliged to leave the anchor behind, till we had more leisure to sway it up. This proved a troublesome business, in which we were at length assisted by the activity of the natives, who at services of this kind are very alert. By diving, and properly fixing ropes, they helped us to recover our anchor in a few hours, which we had laboured at, in vain, for several days.

The carpenters and caulkers had no sooner compleated their business on board, than they were ordered on shore to erect a house for Omai, who had been enabled, by the generosity of Capt. Cook, and his other friends, to purchase a small estate for a plantation, in the cultivation of which he was to proceed after the English manner, and to employ his two New Zealanders as labourers in digging, and preparing the ground.

The erection of a house of pretty large dimen|sions, with stable and out-offices (appendages new, Page  160 and hitherto unnecessary in this country) was a work of no small labour, and could not be ac|complished in any reasonable time, without the assistance of many hands; the carpenters, and a number of labourers from both ships were therefore set to work, and though a watch was placed to look after their working-tools, the vi|gilance of Argos, could not have secured the more than golden prize to them, from so many crafty Jasons. It happened, however, that a few chissels, gimblets, and other trifles were all that were missing; for as no nails or iron were to be used in the construction of the buildings, the saws, axes, adzes, and larger tools were not so easy for them to carry off and conceal; while therefore the chief attention of the sentinels were fixed upon these, an Indian found means to carry off a quadrant from the astronomer's observatory; and though it was almost instantly missed, and the thief discovered, and fired at while he was yet in ight, he found means to escape to the woods, where he concealed his booty, notwithstanding the most vigilant search. At the firing of the gun, and the bustle that succeeded among the Indians, who were in crowds about the tents, the marines on board took the alarm, and putting themselves in arms hastened on shore, where they found all quiet, the thief having been found and brought in, by some of his companions, who were well rewarded for their fidelity. The fel|low was instantly taken on board and put in irons, where he remained all night. In the morning it appeared he was of some note, as a number of hogs, and great quantities of fruit and cloth were brought on board, to purchase his release; but without effect. About noon he was brought to trial, and sentenced to suffer the loss of both Page  161 his ears, besides having his head shaved, and his eye-brows fleed, than which, no punishment could have subjected him to greater disgrace. In this bleeding condition he was sent on shore, and ex|posed, as a spectacle, to intimidate the people from meddling for the future with what was not their own; at the same time they were given to understand that theft, among us, was considered as a capital crime. The Indians looked with hor|ror upon the man, and it was easy to perceive, that this act gave them general disgust; even Omai was affected, though he endeavoured to justify it to his Indian friends, by telling them, that if such a crime had been committed in the country where he had been, the thief would have been condemned to lose his life. How well so|ever he might carry the matter off, he dreaded the consequences to himself, which, in part, ap|peared before we left the island, and were pro|bably more severely felt by him, soon after we were gone. However, king Oreo and the chiefs about him still continued to keep up appearances; they paid and received visits as usual, made pre|sents, and accepted returns, and suffered trade to go on between the inhabitants of the island and the ships companies, as if no offence had been given. At all their feasts and entertainments the Captains and Omai were invited to be guests, and plays and fire-works succeeded each other by way of political finesse, to promote harmony. In the mean time, another theft was committed at the same place. Mr. King, the astronomer, was robbed of his brandy-case, some plates, and some knives and forks, which he never recovered; but his quadrant was brought back in a few days after it was stolen, not at all damaged.

Page  162On this occasion, trade was again interrupted, the Indians dreading to come to market when any of their people had been guilty of any fraud.

Capt. Cook, though he rode out every day, atttended by Omai, still continued in a very weak condition; but was visited, and had great atten|tion paid him by the chiefs; he reasoned with Oreo on the absurd custom of suspending trade, whenever any of his people had done us an in|jury; represented the practice as equally hurtful to them as to us, and that, though the delinquent was liable to punishment, no other person would ever be molested, unless the course of justice was interrupted, bv refusing to deliver up the crimi|nal when detected. This reasoning had its weight with Oreo and his chiefs, who ordered the trade to be renewed as before. We had now been in harbour, in O-wharre road in Hueheine, more than thirty days, during which time Omai's build|ings were quite compleated, and he had got all his effects and furniture on shore; the European seeds, with which Capt. Cook had furnished him, sown, and part of his grounds planted with the fruit and other trees of the country, in all which he was assisted with every spare hand from both ships.

One would have imagined that, seeing him|self apparently the richest man in the island, and possessed of much the finest house, he would have been elated with his situation, and over|joyed at being so happily placed; but quite the reverse: he wanted rank, which was not in the power of fortune to confer, and nothing but power could give consequence in a country where rank was not to be purchased; the nearer therefore the time approached of our departure, the more de|jected he grew; and when he had made an en|tertainment at taking possession of his new settle|ment Page  163 at which he was honoured with the com|pany of the commanders and officers from both ships, and with the king and chiefs of the island, he could scarce conceal his trouble, being appre|hensive, as he told Capt. Clerke secretly, that as soon as we were sailed, they would level his build|ing with the ground, and make prize of all that he possessed. Upon this occasion, however, Capt. Cook, who had all along treated him more like a son than a passenger, and who was now pretty well recovered, being acquained with the cause of his melancholy, embraced this opportunity of re|commending him to the protection of the king and the chiefs present, intimating to them, at the same time, that if any violence should be offered to Omai, or that he should be molested in the free enjoyment of his property, he would, upon the return of the ships, (for they entertained a notion that the return of the ships would be pe|riodical) lay waste the island, and destroy every human being that had, in any manner, been in|strumental in doing him an injury. This threat made the deeper impression upon the chiess, by what had lately happened at Eimco; for notwith|standing all their professions, it was very evident they were more influenced by fear than affection. Nothing, however, was wanting, to impress the chiefs with an opinion of Omai's consequence. The drums, trumpets, bagpipes, hautboys, flutes, violins, and, in short, the whole band of music attended, and took it by turns to play while din|ner was getting ready; and when the company were seated, the whole band joined in full con|cert, to the admiration of crowds of the inhabi|tants, who were assembled round the house on this occasion. The dinner consisted, as usual of barbecued hogs, fowls variously dressed, some af|ter Page  164 the manner of the country, and others after the English manner, with plenty of other provisions, and wine and other liquors, with which king Oreo made very free. Dinner over, heivas and fire-works succeeded; and when night approached, the multitudes that attended as spectators, dis|persed without the least disorder.

We now received orders to prepare for our de|parture. We had, in this island, procured more than 400 hogs, many of them large.

Though it had been found in former voyages, that most of those that were carried to sea alive refused to eat, and consequently were soon killed, yet we resolved to make one experiment more, and by procuring large quantities of yams, and other roots, on which they were accustomed to feed on shore, we ventured to take a few alive in each ship. For this purpose our carpenters pre|pared styes for their reception in those parts where they might remain the coolest: and while they were employed in that business, the live stock that were still on shore were taken on board, as were likewise every other article that remained.

Nothing remarkable happened till the 25th, when, early in the morning, we were surprized with an account, that Omai's plantation was root|ed up and destroyed, his fences broken down, and his horses and cattle set at large, without be|ing able to discover who were concerned in this malicious and deliberate act of premeditated mis|chief. Capt. Cook, highly incensed, offered con|siderable rewards for discovering and apprehend|ing the offenders; when it was found, that the fel|low who had had his head shaved, and his ears cut off, [who had threatened to kill Omai] was the principal, and, being a native of Ulietea, an adjacent island, had fled there for refuge; but Page  165 Capt. Cook offering six large axes, for bringing him to justice, and promising to stay seven days longer, to give time to apprehend him, some des|peradoes undertook the task, and on the fourth day brought him on board. He was charged as the sole perpetrator; but it was thought he must have had accomplices, as he could not by him|self, in one night, have plucked up so many trees, destroyed so many plants, and dug and defaced the ground in so many places, where the Euro|pean seeds had been sown. However, he refused to make any confession, and, when put in irons, remained sullen.

The preparations for our departure, which this event had suspended, recommenced; and in the mean time, to shew every attention possible to Omai, the spare hands from both ships were sent ashore, in order to restore his plantation to its for|mer condition, and to reinstate him in the quiet possession of it before the ships should sail. At the same time Capt. Cook ordered the following inscription to be cut upon the outside of his house:

Georgius Tertius, Rex, 2 Novembris, 1777.
Naves
  • Resolution, Jac. Cook, Pr.
  • Discovery, Car. Clerke, Pr.
And to recommend him the better to the chiefs, he was accompanied every day by Capt. Cook and some of his officers, who dined with him, and invited king Oreo, and the principal people of the island by turns, to be of the party. He also made entertainments for the young princesses and their brothers, with music and dancing accord|ing to the English fashion; and to please the public in general, Capt. Cook caused fire-works to be played off almost every other night, for their diversion. But notwithstanding all these Page  166 endeavours to reconcile Omai to his country|men, he could not help thinking himself the object of their envy, rather than of their admi|ration. They beheld him in the same light as the gentlemen in every country see low-born ci|tizens suddenly rising from indigence to wealth giving themselves airs, and affecting state. At the same time that they laugh at their folly, they en|courage their profusion; and while they partake of their entertainments, they take pleasure in mortifying their pride. Such was the real case with Omai. While he was feasting the chiefs, and had nails to give to one, red feathers to another, glass and china-ware to a third, and white shirts to the ladies; Who but Omai? but when they found he had expended most of what he had brought from abroad, and had but just enough left by the bounty of his friends to buy him a plantation and to stock it, the chiefs, while they partook of his entertainments, paid him little or no respect; and, had it not been for their deference to Capt. Cook, would probably have treated him, amidst the splendor of his banquets, with the utmost con|tempt.—Such is the disposition of mankind through|out the world. Men, sprung from the dregs of the people, must have something more than acci|dental riches to recommend them to the favour of their fellow-citizens; they must have superior sense to direct their conduct, and superior ac|quirements to render the virtues they possess con|spicuous. That this was not the case with Omai, every day's experience furnished sufficient proofs, Not many nights had passed after the waste made on his plantation, before lights were seen about his house, which, it is supposed, were intended to set it on fire, had not the precipitancy of the centinel, by firing his piece too suddenly, given Page  167 the alarm, and furnished the incendiaries with notice to make their escape. The man, too, who had laid waste his plantation, and who was in irons on board the Resolution, the night before we in|tended to sail, found means either to jump over-board, or by some invisible assistance to unloose his chains and slip out of the ship. He was to have been punished, not by death, but by a ba|nishment worse than death. He was to have been put on shore on some distant island, from whence it would have been next to impossible he could ever have made his escape to molest Omai. How he came to get from his confinement is not cer|tainly known; but the sentinel who was set to guard him, was sentenced to be publicly whipped, and to receive 24 lashes every morning, for fix mornings successively; and a midshipman and mate, who commanded the watch, were sentenced, the former to be expelled the ship, to which he never more returned during the voyage; the other, to be turned before the mast; but on sub|mission was forgiven, as was likewise the sentinel, after suffering the first day's punishment. As soon as the midshipman from the Resolution came on board the Discovery, the third Lieutenant of the Discovery was ordered on board the Re|solution.

On the 2d of November, being in readiness to sail, Capt. Cook took Omai aside, and gave him lessons of instruction how to act. At the same time, directing him to send his boat over to Uli|tea, his native island, to let him know how the Chiefs behaved to him in the absence of the ships. If well, he was to send by the messenger three white beads; if they seized upon his stock, or broke in upon his plantation, three red beads; or Page  168 if things remained just as we left them, he was to send three spotted beads.

In the morning of the 3d, we unmoored; and the wind being fair, we made sail out of Hueheine road, and when we were under way, Omai came on board, either to prevail on Capt. Cook to let him return to England, or to take his final leave never to see him more. His parting was very af|fecting; if tears could have prevailed on Capt. Cook to let him return, Omai's eyes were never dry; and if the tenderest supplications of a du|tiful son to an obdurate father, could have made any impression, Omai hung round his neck in all the seeming agony of a child trying to melt the heart of a reluctant parent. He twined his arms round him with all the ardour of inviolable friend|ship, till Capt. Cook, unable any longer to con|tain himself, broke from him, and retired to his cabin, to indulge that natural sympathy which he could not resist, leaving Omai to dry up his tears, and compose himself on the quarter-deck.

When he had vented his grief, he returned and reasoned with Omai on the impropriety of his request, reminded him of his anxieties while in England, lest he should never more have been permitted to return home; and now that he had been restored to his country and friends at an im|mense expence to his Royal Master, it was childish to entertain a notion of being carried back. Omai still renewed his tears; he had wished, he said, to see his country and friends; but, having seen them, he was contented, and would never long for home again. Capt. Cook assured him of 〈◊〉 best wishes; but his instructions must be obeyed, which were to leave him with his friends. At parting, he added six large axes to the presents he had before made him, and some chisels and Page  169 Sheffield ware, which he knew would be useful to him.

Such was the parting of Omai from his beloved patron, who had contracted a real friendship for him. He said, he should be the most miserable of all human beings when his protector was gone, for that the inhabitants would be plotting his de|struction, and he should not have a happy moment while he had any thing left to live upon. His two New Zealand boys were under little less con|cern to part from the ships than Omai himself. They had already learned to speak English, so as to be able to express their hopes and their fears. They hoped to have gone along with the ships, and they cried bitterly when they understood that they were to be left behind. Thence arose a new seene between Omai and his boys, that had not the officers on the quarter-deck interposed, might have ended unfortunately for Omai. They re|fused to quit the ship, till they were compelled to it by force, which was no easy matter; the eldest now near sixteen, being of an athletic make, and of prodigious strength, and the youngest about eleven, being likewise a giant for his age, were not easily managed. They were both very tracta|ble and obliging, till they found they were to be left at Hueheine, but then they grew desperate, especially the youngest, who was not easily sub|dued. They discovered dispositions the very re|verse of the islanders among whom they were des|tined to reside, during the remainder of their lives; and, instead of a mean, timid submission, they shewed a manly, determined resolution not to be subdued, though overcome; and ready, if there had been a possbility to succeed, to have made a second, or even a third attempt, to have regained their liberty. We could never learn Capt. Cook's Page  170 real reason, for refusing to take on board some of those gallant youths from New Zealand, who, no doubt, would have made useful hands in the high latitudes they were about to explore; and would besides have exhibited living pictures of a people whose portraits have been imperfectly de|picted, even by our best draughtsmen. There is a dauntless fierceness in the eyes and countenance of a New Zealand warrior, that loses all its force under the feeble pencil of a fribbling artist. It is now, indeed, too late to lament the non-im|portation of a native from every climate, where Nature had marked a visible distinction in the characters of person and mind. As one in each climate might have been procured without force; and when assembled together, would have formed an academy for the study of the human frame, that would have attracted the notice of artists from every country, more than the celebrated statues of Greece and Rome.

[Omai's European weapons consisted of a mus|ket, bayonet, and cartouch-box; a fowling-piece, two pair of pistols, and two or three swords or cut-lasses. With these, and with his coat of mail, he thought himsself invincible; and it seemed that he had a project in his head to make war upon Bola-bola, in revenge for the injuries his father had re|ceived from the men of that country, when they conquered Ulietea.] Capt. Cock's Remark.

We shall now take our leave of Omai, with just observing, that Capt. Cook having furnished him with the means of enriching his country and the adjacent isles with some of the most useful ge|nerae of four-footed animals, (horses, cows, sheep and goats) besides a breed of geese, turkies, and other domestic appendages, that were strangers to the tropical islands, he might, with proper management, rise superior to all the Earees in the Page  171 kingdoms round him, had Nature given him ta|lents to improve those advantages which chance had thrown in his way; but even his patron was doubtful of his conduct, and was anxious to the last to warn him how he proceeded.

In the evening of the 3d of November, the day we set out from Hueheine, we arrived at Ulietea, and were suddenly surrounded with boats laden with provisions. Here, as usual, we landed our live-stock, carried the tents ashore, and erected the astronomer's observatory. One of our first exploits in this island, was the act of a sentinel, who was set to watch the sheep and the goats, and who, being insulted by some of the natives, ran one of them through the body. The deceased was instantly carried off by his companions, and for a few nails was properly disposed of, so that we never heard any thing more of his murder. This happened

On the 6th, when the grind-sstone was stolen from the Discovery; but the thief being detected and apprehended, it was brought back the same day, together with a large hog, by way of ransom for the pilferer.

On the 16th, about two in the morning, the sentinel at the observatory fell asleep, and suffered his musket to be carried away. He then took it into his head to leave his post and follow after it, with a design, however, never more to return to the ships. When this was known on board, or|ders were immediately issued for securing the King and Royal family, till the man should be taken and restored; threatening at the same time to lay waste the country, if he was suffered to escape. It was some days before he was disco|vered, and at length he was found at the distance of about ten miles, sitting in a lone house, sur|rounded Page  172 by Indians, chiefly girls, who had stri|ped him of his clothes, and disguised him in an Indian dress, with his head curiously ornamental with feathers, and his musket lying leaded by him. He made no resistance, Capt. Cook himself having condescended to be his pursuer. He was put in irons, tried, and sentenced to have 24 lashes every|day for a week; but, being a brave soldier, on submission, was forgiven.

On the 22d, Mr. M—, Midshipman, and the Gunner's Mate, made their escape in a canoe, with two of their Otaheitean misses, and landed on an adjoining island, with a view to continue their course to Otaheite, as soon as they had fur|nished themselves with provisions for the voyage. They were no sooner missed, and report made to Capt. Cook, than he ordered all the boats to be manned, and a pursuit to commence with all pos|sible expedition; at the same time putting the King, his two sons, and his daughter Po••••…, under confinement, till the fugitives should be taken and restored. This he did, no doubt, to interest the people of the island in the pursuit, and to prevent their assisting the deserters in making their escape. He also promised a reward of large axes, looking-glasses, and other articles of consi|derable value, to any of the natives who should be instrumental in apprehending and bringing them back. To enforce his orders, he caused all the canoes to be seized, and he threatened destruction to the country if his men should be withheld. He set the King at liberty to assist in the pursuit of the fugitives; but threatened the young princes with slavery, if they were not brought back within a certain time. This might seem hard usage, yet it had its effect; and without this steady resolute proceeding, the deserters would never have been Page  173 recovered. Our own boats went, day after day, to all the adjoining islands, without being able to learn the least trace of them; and this they con|tinued, till having searched every island within the distance of two day's sail, they were at length obliged to give over any farther search as fruitless.

On the 29th, after seven days absence, some Indians came on board, and acquainted Capt. Cook that the fugitives were found, and that in a few days they would be brought back. This was a well-concerted tale to put us off our guard, whi•• they had carried a deep-laid plot into exe|cuti••, to seize Capt. Clerke and Lieut. Gore, and to carry them off, and confine them till the prisoners on board were released. This was near being effected, when it was discovered by a girl, that one of the officers had been brought from Hueheine. She, hearing some of the Uliteans say, that they would seize Capt. Clerke and Mr. Gore, ran to acquaint the first of our people she met, with what they intended; for which she was threatened with death by the Uliteans for making the discovery. It was therefore found necessary to conceal her, till an opportunity offered to convey her to her friends. Upon this information, Capt. Cook re|newed his threatenings, which he said he would instantly order to be carried into execution, if the men were not delivered up.

Next day, (the 30th) about five in the evening, a number of canoes were seen at a distance, making towards the ships; and as they approached nearer, they were heard to sing and to rejoice, as if they had succeeded in finding what they went in search of. About six they came so high, that we could discern with our glasses the deserters fastened toge|ther, but without their misses. They were no sooner brought on board, than the royal prisoners Page  174 were released, to the unspeakable joy of all but the two fugitives, who were under great appre|hensions for their lives. Their punishment, how|ever, was not so severe as might have been ex|pected. S— was sentenced to receive 24 lashes, and M— turned before the mast, where he continued to do duty while there was little or no|thing to do; but on asking forgiveness, was re|stored to his former station on the quarter-deck.

It appeared that the Indians had traced them from island to island, from Ulietea to Otaha, from Otaha to Bolabola, from Bolabola to the little island Taboo, where they were found; but where they never would have been looked for by us, had not the Indians traced them out.

On the 1st of December the tents were struck, the live stock taken on board, and we prepared to sail.—An account of our intercourse with the Earees and Chiefs of the island, would only be a tedious repetition of what had passed before in the other islands; but one thing still remains to be told. Amongst the visitors, who occasionally came on board the Resolution, was Ooroo, the dethron|ed Monarch of Ulietea, who resides at Hueheine, a royal wanderer, furnishing in his person an in|stance of the instability of power; but what is more remarkable, of the respect paid by these peo|ple to particular families, especially to those who have once possessed the rights of sovereignty; for they suffer Ooroo to preserve all the ensigns of royalty, though he has lost his dominions. Ano|ther instance of the like kind, was Oree, with whom Capt. Cook was well acquainted, when in 1769, he commanded the Endeavour. Oree was the Chief of Hueheine, but he now resides in Ulietea in a private station, but still preserves his consequence.

Page  175On the 2d, notice was given to the Otaheitean misses that they must all prepare to depart; that the ships were in readiness to leave the country, never to return to the Society Islands any more. This news caused great lamentation, and much bustle and confusion. They were now at a great distance from home, and every one was eager to get what she could for herself before she could part from her beloved. Most of them had already stript their mates of almost every thing they pos|sessed, and those who had still something in re|serve, led a sad life till they shared it with them. But what is most astonishing, notwithstanding what has been said of the constancy of these misses, there were scarce a man who had to do with them without being injured by them. When we took our departure from Ulietea, we had scarce hands enough able to do duty on board, there being more than 30 under the Surgeon's hands. In this situation, those who were well were obliged to do duty for those who were hurt; which, to do them justice, they very willingly performed.

It was not, however, till the 7th, that we could get the ships clear of these troublesome gentry. In the mean time a messenger had arrived from Omai to Capt. Cook, according to his desire, with a very satisfactory account that every thing went well with him, except that his goat had died in kidding, and requesting two more axes, and another goat, which were readily sent him.

On the 8th we set sail with a brisk wind to the westward, and Capt. Cook having received advice that the King of Bolabola had part of a large an|chor to dispose of, we directed our course to that island, where we arrived on the 8th. Here both Captains landed, and were introduced to the old King. He received them according to the tro|pical Page  176 custom, ordered mats to be spread for them, and plaintains, bananoes, and cocoa-nuts, to be brought by way of refreshment. He then entered into discourse with them; pressed them to bring their ships into harbour, and treated them in every respect with great apparent kindness, though he had been represented by Tupia to former voy|agers as little better than a common robber. Being told that they were in haste to sail, and that they could not stay to come into harbour, he en|tered upon business; and after directing them to the place where the anchor lay, he told them, that one part of the purchase must be a ewe; that he had a ram, which had been presented to him by some strangers, who had lately visited his island, and who had left him a ewe, but she was dead. Capt. Cook instantly ordered a ewe to be brought from the ship, for which, and four large axes, he purchased the anchor, weighing about 700 pound weight. Capt. Cook makes no mention of the ewe, but enlarges the quantity of the other pur|chase. They then took leave, and having brought the anchor on board, both ships set sail, steering, N. by F.

The Island of Ulietea, which we had just left, has nothing in it that differs essentially from what is to be met with in the other islands, only that the women have more liberty here than at Otaheite, and are not restrained from eating in company with the men. While here, we were visited by the King and his Chiefs. Gave and received en|tertainments. We attended their plays, and, in return, amused them with fireworks, illuminations, and other diversions, in the same manner as at the other islands, and remarked very little difference in the characteristics of the natives.

Page  177As we were now taking our leave for ever of those fertile isles, we added to our live-stock more than 100 hogs, which we found would eat after they had recovered the sea-sickness. In the for|mer voyages, it was not known that hogs would not eat while they were sick; it was therefore thought prudent to kill them, after fasting three or four days, from a belief that, having fasted so long, they would never eat again; and, if they died of themselves, none of the crew would eat carrion.

On the 9th in the morning we were by obser|vation in lat. 15.15. S. and in long. 207.52. E. and it may not be improper to observe, that the spot on which the astronomer's tent was erected in the island of Hueheine, was in lat. 16.42. S. and in long. 208.57.25. E. of Greenwich; that at Mattavai Point, 17.29. long. 210.12.28. Ulietea 16.45. long. 208.25.22.

PART II.

Containing an Account of what happened in prose|cuting the Voyage to the North, to determine the Existence or Non-existence of a Passage between the great Pacific and Atlantic Oceans in that He|misphere.

HAVING taken leave of the islands with which we were before acquainted in the southern hemisphere, we now directed our course to the northward, to explore coasts and countries hitherto unvisited by any English voyager, and but lately known to the navigators of other countries.

Page  178We took our departure from the Society Isles, as has already been said, on the 9th of December, 1777, steering N. by E. as near as the winds would let us, with mostly fine weather till the 20th, when in lat. 4.54. S. we were surrounded with land and sea weeds, and bodies of trees, which seemed to be but lately separated from their re|spective roots; but it was not till

The 23d that we discovered land. On that day, in lat. 2. N. long. 203.15. E. after having crossed the line the day before, the man at the mast-head called out land, bearing N. E. distance between six and seven leagues. We instantly wore ship, and stood in for a fine bay, on which we found good anchorage in 48 fathom water. On viewing the island from the ships, there did not appear the least sign of an inhabitant; but near the shore there were shoals of sharks, and the sea seemed crusted over with sea-fowls, some of a very large size. The boats that had been sent out to reconnoitre returned in the evening with one large turtle each, and loaded with boobies and other tro|pical birds, that by hungry mariners are generally esteemed good eating. They likewise brought several sharks, which they found in such crowds, that they knocked them on the head with their oars.

On the 24th we changed our station, and an|chored in 17 fathom water.

And on the 25th we kept Christmas in much mirth and festivity, the crew having plenty of provisions, and the Gentlemen plenty of turtle. The ships being safely moored, and the weather fine, but almost insupportably hot, the men were allowed the whole day to amuse themselves, and every one had a pint of brandy to make merry, and drink health to their friends in Old England.

Page  179In the evening, parties from both ships were invited to go a turtling, but none were pressed into that service, all were volunteers. On our landing, the crews went different ways; and in order to know where to meet, fires were made in separate directions; one fire for the Resolution's party, and one for that of the Discovery's. Our party before morning had turned more than 20 turtles, and had carried them on board; and when the boats were unloaded, returned for more. In the mean time, a fishing party were likewise sent out, and were no less successful than the turtlers; hut on this service a seaman had a very narrow escape. As he was helping to draw the seine, a shark made a chop at his arm, but fortunately caught only a piece of his shirt's sleeve, with which he made off.

The Resolution's turtlers had made a trip to their ship to unlade; but on the return of their boats to the island, one of their men was missing, who, tired with carrying a turtle of more than 100 weight in the heat of the day, had laid it down on the beech, and retired to a thicket, to shelter himself from the sun. Here he fell asleep, and as soon as he awoke, be endeavoured to recover his turtle, but in vain; he had entangled himself among the bushes, and in the evening, after a most painful search, he was found almost speechless through fatigue and want of refreshment.

All this day our people continued their diver|sion on the S. E. side of the island; but

On the 26th, about ten in the morning, Mr. B—y, Mr. E—r, and Mr. P—k, with ten or twelve seamen in the cutter, having a good quantity of water on board, and each man a pint of brandy, directed their course to the N. E. quar|ter, and about noon arrived at a neck of land, Page  180 over which they were to travel on foot to come at the place where the turtle were supposed to har|bour, and where it was dangerous to attempt to approach them by sea by reason of the surf. Here they safely secured their cutter, and near the shore they erected a kind of hut, to which they carried their provisions, and sat down to rest and to refresh. This done, they agreed to divide, and to pursue their sport in separate parties. Accordingly they set out, and before the next morning they had sent in as many turtle as the cutter could well stow. This they did by placing them across a couple of oars in the nature of a bier, and keeping men em|ployed in conveying them from the place where they were turned, to the cutter. As they grew tired of their diversion, they repaired to the place of rendezvous; but it was some surprize to the rest, when at nine in the morning, Mr. B—y, Mr. P—k and Simeon Woodrooff, the gunner's mate, was missing. It was then concluded that they had gone too far within land, and that they had either lost their way, or some accident had be|fallen them; perhaps from natives lurking secretly in the woods, though none had openly appeared.

Under these apprehensions two seamen, Bar|tholomew Loremer and Thomas Trecher were sent out in search of them, each carrying a gallon of water, with brandy and other refreshments, in case they should meet with the Gentlemenn their way. In a wild uncultivated country, over-run with bushes and close cover, the reader, who has never been bewildered in a full-grown thicket after sport, can have no idea of men's being lost in the short space of a few miles. So, however it happened. The Gentlemen, invited by the mixed melody of the birds in the woods, left these people as soon as they had properly stationed them, Page  181 and entered an adjoining thicket, with their guns. The sport they met with led them on till night began to close upon them. They were then at a distance from the turtlers, and in the midst a trackless cover, with nothing but lew trees to di|rect their return; but what was more alarming, the sun was no sooner set, than a thick fog suc|ceeded, which involved the woods in darkness, though the open beach remained clear. In vain they attempted to regain the shore; for, instead, of being able to discern the trees they had marked to secure their retreat, they could hardly see one another at five yards distance. In this situation, they soon began to lose all knowledge of their way; and lest, instead of proceeding in the right course, they should pursue a contrary direction, they agreed to sit down to rest, and for that pur|pose chose the first convenient spot that chance threw in their way. Though their minds were troubled, they had scarce set themselves down, when sleep got the better of their anxiety, and they all lay composed till attacked by swarms of black ants, (creatures more poisonous than bugs) with which they were in a manner covered when they awoke; and so disfigured and tormented with their bites and blisters, that it is hardly possible to desribe their distress. Thus circumstanced, their first care was to clear themselves from these vermin, by stripping themselves, and sweeping them off with brushes made of the wings of the birds they had killed; this done, they clothed themselves again, in order to renew their atttempts to recover the shore; but all in vain. The farther they walked, as it appeared afterwards, the farther they went astray. At length, suspecting their error, they resolved to remain stationary; and each man, placing himself against an adjoining tree, endea|voured Page  182 to console himself as well as he could till morning, when the appearance of the sun should enable them to judge of the course they were to pursue; but in a trackless wilderness how were they to make their way! The thicket in many places was overgrown with thick grass and bram|bles reaching; to their middles, and in others so thick intersected with boughs, and matted with leaves, that it was hardly possible to keep com|pany, or to penetrate with their utmost efforts, when these obstructions happened) one hundred yards in as many minutes. Still, however, la|bouring to advance, they, at length, all at once, observed an opening that led, as they thought, to the long-wished for shore. They forgot, for the moment, the pains of their lacerated limbs, though all torn with briars and besmeared with blood, and comforted themselves with the hope of a speedy deliverance. But they had still a journey of about seven or eight miles to perform, before they could reach the place from whence they set out. Almost spent with fatigue, and their spirits wasted with the most painful exertion of bodily strength, without having a drop of water to quench their intolerable thirst, they at length arrived at the hut, when, to their great mortification, they found it deserted, and destitute of every kind of refreshment. In this situation casting their eyes towards the ships, they perceived the boats hastening to their relief. The officer who commanded, and the crew, had waited at the hut till all their provisions were ex|pended, and the officer not knowing how to pro|ceed, had repaired to the ship for a fresh supply, and for fresh orders, and was now returning fully furnished and instructed. On his arrival he was struck with astonishment at the sight of three such miserable beings, as the Gentlemen and Mate Page  183 appeared to be, lacerated all over, and besmeared with blood, and with scarce a rag about them broad|er than a garter. Their cry was for grog, which was dealt to them sparingly, and they were in|stantly sent on board to be properly taken care of.

The first enquiry they made, was, whether any of the company had been sent after them; and being answered in the affirmative, and that they were not yet returned, they could not help ex|pressing their doubts whether they ever would return; adding their wishes at the same time, that no means might be omitted to endeavour their recovery.

It is natural for men, who have just experienced any signal deliverance, to feel poignantly for the safety of others under the same critical circumstances. It was therefore no small satisfaction to the suf|ferers, when they were told, that every possible means would be tried for the poor men's relief; and to enable those who were to be sent on that errand the better to direct their search, the gen|tlemen described, as well as they could, the spot where they thought they heard men halloo to one another about the dawn of day. There were now twenty of the crew (seamen and marines) who had been dispatched from on board, for recover|ing the gentlemen. These had orders to traverse the thickets in a body, till they should find one or other of them, either living or dead; for, till the gentlemen appeared, nothing could be concluded with certainty concerning them. The majority were of opinion, that, if they had been alive, they most certainly would have returned as soon as it was dark, as they could have no motive to pursue their sport in the night; and it was by no means probable, that they should be bewil|dered, because they might surely have found Page  184 the same way out of the cover, by which they went into it. This was very plausible; but 〈◊〉 on board, who had sailed with Commodore Byron, and who remembered the almost impenetrable thickets in the island of Tinian, where men could not see one another in open day, at the distance of five yards, knew well how the gentlemen might be entangled, and how hard it would fare with them if it should so happen. But, as this instance was known only to few, it was regarded by none; and the former opinion, that some fa|tal accident had happened to them, prevailed ge|nerally till the gentlemen appeared, when the whole mystery was unravelled.

Early in the morning of the next day, (the two men being still missing) the whole party assem|bled, and the plan of their proceeding was form|ed. By marching in lines at such a distance from each other, as to be within hearing, it was thought impossible to fail of finding the men, if living, or of discovering some traces of them, if dead: and they were to direct their line of march to|wards the spot where the sound of the voices was heard by the gentlemen.

After a diligent search of six hours, Bartholo|mew Loreman was discovered in a most miserable condition, almost blinded by the venomous bites of vermin, added to the scorching heat of the sun, and speechless for want of something to clear his throat. He made signs for water, and water was given him. He had got out of the thicket, and was wandering about upon the beech, without being sensible of the miserable condition in which he was found. It fortunately happened, that a boat from the Discovery had been sent round the point of land already mentioned, and stationed near where the turtlers had been employed the Page  185 night before, for the purpose of taking the gentlemen on board, in case they should have been strayed to any considerable distance. If this precaution had not been taken, this man must have perished before he could have been conveyed by any other means to the place of rendezvous; and it was with the utmost dif|ficulty that he was carried to the nearest boat. As soon as he could be brought to his speech, he said he had parted from his companion Trecher in the morning, not in anger, but not agreeing about the way back, nor ever expecting to see one another again. They had traversed the thicket as long as they were able, in search of the gentlemen without success; and when over|come with fatigue, they sat down to refresh, and he believed had drank a little too freely of the grog they had in charge, for they both fell a|sleep. They were frightened when they waked to find it dark night; and although they felt their faces and hands covered with vermin, the thoughts of having neglected their duty, and the dread of the consequences so distracted their minds, that they were hardly sensible of any other pain. As rest was now no longer their object, they rose and wandered, they neither knew nor cared where, till day began to break upon them. In the mean time, several wild projects came into their heads. At last they thought of climbing the highest tree, to try if they could discover any hill or eminence, from whence they might take a view of the coun|try, in order to be certain whether it was inha|bited or not. This was approved of by both, and Trecher mounted the loftiest within his reach, from whence he said he could discern, towards the South-west, a hill of considerable height; and as that was, as he thought, the point that led to the Page  186 shore, thither he proposed that they should go; but Loreman rather chose to endeavour to regain the shore by another course; and as he thought he heard the report of a gun the evening before, he determined to make towards the point from whence the sound proceeded; and in that he hap|pened to judge right; and when he got out of the wood, being parched with thirst, he killed a turtle and sucked the blood. His companion, he said, who was at some distance farther in the thicket, and who did not hear the report of the gun, did not believe what he said; whereupon they agreed to part. What course Trecher took he could not tell, but he believed to the South-west.

Loreman was judged in too dangerous a con|dition to admit of any delay; he was therefore sent off in the boat, and being put under the care of the Surgeon, soon recovered.

After this detail it was debated, whether to resign Trecher to his fate, or to continue the search. The humanity of the officer, who had the command of the party, prevailed. It was now about ten in the morning, of the 29th, when the whole party, after taking some refreshment, set out to scour the thickets, and, by hallooing, ringing of bells, beating of drums, and pursu|ing different courses, determined he should hear them if he were alive. It was no easy task to pe|netrate a trackless cover, over-grown with un|derwood, and abounding with infects, of which the musquitoes were the least troublesome. But numbers make that easy, which to individuals would be impracticable. They went on chear|fully at first; but, before a few hours were elaps|ed, even the gentlemen, who were inspirited by their success in killing game, began to be tired, and it was thought adviseable to rest and refresh Page  187 during the middle of the day, and to renew the pursuit after they had dined. As yet they had not been able to discover any trace or track of the man they were seeking, though it had been a|greed between Trecher and his companion, to cut boughs from the trees, as they passed along, by way of mark or guide to each other, in case of separation.

This was no small discouragement; and few had any relish to renew a labour attended with so much fatigue, and so little prospect of success.

The officers were alone inflexibly bent on the pursuit. The men, though they were no less willing, were not all equally able to endure the fatigue; and some of them were even ready to drop, before their dinner and their grog had revived their spirits. The only expedient that now remained to be tried, was, that which Tre|cher himself had projected, namely, to climb the highest tree that appeared in view, in order to look for the hill which he pretended to have seen, and to which it was thought probable that he might direct his course. This was no sooner proposed than executed. In a moment a sailor was perched at the top of every lofty tree in sight, and the high land descried, seemingly at no great distance from the place where the party had din|ed. It was now agreed, to make the best of their way to the eminence, but this proved not so easy a task as it at first appeared to be. When they thought themselves just ready to mount, they met with a lagoon that interrupted their progress; and coasting it along, they discovered the skele|ton of a creature that, by its length, appeared to be an allegator. In viewing this narrowly, something like the track of some large animal was observed to have passed it, and the high grass Page  188 on the margin of the lagoon to have been fresh trodden. This excited the curiosity of the whole party, who imagined that some monster inhabit|ed the lagoon, against which it was prudent for them to be upon their guard. The waters of the lagoon were salt as brine, and every where skirted with a kind of reed and sedge, that reach|ed as high as a man's head, and could not be pe|netrated without danger from scorpions or other venomous reptiles, several of which had been seen in the bushes. All attempts therefore of suc|ceeding by this course appeared to be labour lost; and as no other were thought more probable, it was resolved to relinquish the pursuit, and to re|turn to the boats: but the day being already too far spent to make their return practicable be|fore the morning, it was agreed to coast it along the lake, to endeavour to find access to the op|posite hills; and this was the more easily effect|ed, as between the sedgey border and the thicket there was an open space of unequal breadth, only sometimes intersected with brambley patches that joined the lake, but of no great extent. Through these they made their way with little opposition till the lake appeared to deepen, when a most stubborn woody copse seemed to bid de|fiance to their further progress. This difficulty, however, was with much labour surmounted, and it was no sooner passed, than the lake was found to terminate, and the ground to rise. The coun|try began now to put on a new face. The pro|spect which had hitherto presented nothing but a wild and almost impenetrable thicket, as they ascended the rising ground, became delightful. And when they had attained the summit of the eminence, was exceedingly picturesque. Here they determined to pass the night within a plea|sant Page  189 grove, which seemed to be designed by na|ture for a place of rest. The whole party now assembled, and orders were given by the com|manding officers to erect temporary huts to shel|ter them from the evening damps. These huts were only boughs and leaves of trees set up tent fashion. In this service some were employed in cutting down and preparing the materials, while others were busied in dispossing and putting them together; some were ordered to collect fuel, and others to carry it to the summit of an adjoining hill, in order to be kindled at the close of day, and kept burning during the night, by way of signal, to let the man know, if alive, where to re|pair; and the ships, that the party were safe. Be|fore night set in the huts were completed, the fire was lighted, the sentinel at his station, the watch set, and the party all retired to rest, when, about the dead of night, the sentinel who attend|ed the fire, was surprized by a four-footed mon|ster. This monster, upon examination, proved no other, than the identical Thomas Trecher, of whom they had been in search so long, crawling upon all sours; for his feet were so blistered, that he could not stand, and his throat so parched that he could not speak. It is hard to say which was predominant, their joy, their surprize, or their laughter. No time, however, was lost in administering comfort to the poor man. He was a most affecting spectacle, blistered from head to foot by poisonous insects, whose venomous stings had caused such an intolerable itching, that his very blood was inflamed by constant rubbing. By anointing him with oil, the acrimony, in some degree, abated; and by frequently giving him small quantities of tea, mixed with a little brandy, they brought him to his speech; but it was some Page  190 days before he recovered the perfect use of his faculties.

The absence the whole night of the party sent out in search of him, having been reported to Capt. Cook, he had ordered two boats into the lagoon, to go different ways, to assist in the search; but being in the evening relieved from his anxiety, he recalled the boats, and gave orders to prepare for sailing.

We had now been off this island near 7 days, in which time we had taken more than 300 turtle, from 90 to 100 lb. weight on board. But tho' it seemed more than 60 leagues in circumference, there were not the smallest traces of any human being having ever been upon it before: and, in|deed, should any people be so unfortunate as to be accidentally driven upon it, they could not possibly exist for any length of time. There are, it is true, many birds, and abundance of fish, but no visible means of allaying thirst, nor any vege|table that could supply the place of bread. On the few cocoa-trees upon the island, the number of which did not exceed thirty, very little fruit was found; and in general, what was found, was either not fully grown, or had the juice salt or brackish; so that a ship touching here, must ex|pect nothing but fish and turtle; but not a drop of fresh water was to be found throughout the island.

On the 1st of January, 1778, about ten in the morning, we unmoored, and set sail, with the Re|solution in company, directing our course N. by E. with a gentle breeze from the East.

To the island which we had just left, Capt. Cook gave the name of Christmas Island, leaving in it a bottle, with a similar inscription to that cut on Omai's house, the date only excepted. It lies Page  191 in lat. 1.59. N. and in long. 201. E. from Green|wich. It is a low barren island, and has all the appearance of having been blighted. The few co|coa-nut trees that were found upon it, produced hardly any fruit, and, except a few on the bor|ders of the lagoon already mentioned, what they bore were without kernels.

Early on the 2d of January, Christmas Island bore S. S. E. as far as the eye could carry, and as we were now clear of land, and proceeding with a prosperous gale, and had plenty of provisions on board, the men were allowed turtle to boil with their pork; which, however, in a few days was disconti|nued by the advice of the Surgeon, and turtle sub|stituted in the room of every other kind of meat. This was found both healthful and nourishing, and was continued till within a few days of our arrival at another island, where we met with fresh provisions, and water equal to any we brought with us from the Society Isles.

On the 3d, the wind shifted W. S. W. and a storm came on, preceded by a louring darkness, that presaged some violent convulsion; and soon after it broke forth in thunder, lightning, wind, and rain, which in two hours increased to such a violent degree, as no man on board had ever known the like. Fortunately for us, its violence in a few hours abated; but in that little time the sea broke over our quarter, and cleared the decks of every thing that was loose. Before noon, the wind subsided, but the rain continued till evening, of which we made good use. From the time of our leaving Ulietea to the present day, we had received no fresh supply of water; and, though the still had been constantly at work, our comple|ment began already to run scanty. This after|noon, several indications of land were observed; Page  192 such as great quantities of sea-weed floating about the ships, and fresh timber driving with the cur|rent. The Resolution made the signal to shorten sail and stand to the Southward, which was obeyed; but, no land coming in sight while it was day-light, after eight hours search we left off the pursuit, and resumed our course to the North|ward, which we continued till

The 13th, when, in lat. 13.3. long. 202.6. we steered to the N. W. in search of land, the signs of which were very striking; but, after continuing that course all night without succeed|ing, we again stood to the North. From this time till

The 20th, nothing material happened, some slight storms excepted; we shall therefore •••…me our relation of what occurred to Trecher, from the time that he parted from his companion, on the 29th of December, till the night he was found on the 3d.

It was, as has already been observed, several days, before he could perfectly recollect all that passed in his mind, and all that he suffered in his person. He confirmed Loreman's relation of what passed while they remained together; but, in the morning of the 29th, when they agreed to part, his thoughts ran chiefly on discovering some house or place of resort of the natives, as it ran strongly in his mind, that an island of such extent as that appeared to be, could not be wholly des|titute of inhabitants. In pursuit of this idea, he determined to make towards the hill or high land, which he had seen from the top of the tree; and to observe the course of the sun for his guide, but he met with many obstructions that retarded his progress. The reeds and the rough grass were in many places so high and thick, that he was almost Page  193 suffocated in attempting to get through them, and was frequently obliged to return, when he thought he had nearly reached the opposite side. Though there were serpents, and, he believed, scorpions, continually bissing, in almost all directions, the fear of being stung by them was absorbed by the more immediate torture he felt from the musqui|toes, and other venomous insects, that fastened upon him, and teized him incessantly; add to these distresses, the bad condition of his shoes, which were worn to shreds; and, though he tied them round and round with cords made of twisted grass, yet it was hardly possible for him to keep them upon his feet for ten steps together. In this melancholy situation, rest was a stranger to him; yet sleep would sometimes close his eyes, and fill his imagination with horrors still more distressing than those he felt while awake. To|wards the evening of the 29th, he thought he heard the howling of dogs; and, a-while after, the growling of some savage beast, but of what species he could not tell; however, he saw no|thing, and these might only be the creatures of his own disturbed fancy. Towards night he got to|gether a quantity of broad leaves from the trees to make him a bed, and to cover his face and hands from the black ants. To allay his thirst, he thought of chewing the stems of a reed, that had a saccharine taste, and was probably a wild kind of sugar-cane, which gave him some re|freshment, and contributed not a little to his pre|servation. Soon as day began to dawn, he found himself weak and languid, and had very little stomach to renew his labour. His first care, how|ever, was to repair his shoes. This he did by forming wisps of grass into the shape of soals, and placing them underneath the remains of the lea|ther Page  194 soals. He then tied them together round his feet and ankles with cords, made as before; and with these he made shift to scramble on a-while, but they soon wanted repair. He again had re|course to his first expedient, and mounted a tree that over-topped the cover, and got sight of the high land that first animated his pursuit. He thought it so near that he could soon reach it; and, hastening down, made his way with more alacrity than ever, being prepossessed that if he reached that eminence, his deliverance would be certain. For some hours he struggled through the most formidable obstacles, the cover being now so thick and strong, and withal so high, that he could hardly see the light over his head through the leaves and the bushes. This happened to be the outer border that skirted the lagoon, which when he had penetrated, and found an opening, his heart leaped within him; but his joy was or short duration. He presently discovered that he had another difficulty to furmount, before he could reach the summit of his wishes. He at|tempted the lagoon, and waded nearly across, without the water rising higher than his middle, but all at once plunged over-head in deep water, and it was next to a miracle that he saved himself from drowning. He then returned quite ex|hausted and dejected, and breaking through the sedge of the margin of the lake, he stumbled upon the skeleton of the monster already men|tioned, which he believed was fifty feet long. He was so scared at the fight of the bones, that his hair stood on-end, and he thought of nothing now but being eaten up alive. Totally dispirited, and faint for want of food or any thing to drink, and deprived of all means of proceeding any far|ther, he crept along the lake till he came to a Page  195 cocoa-nut tree near the edge of the thicket, which he attempted to climb, but fell down for want of strength to keep his hold, and lay for several hours incapable of motion. He heard, he said, a noise in the cover, in the day, but could neither halloo to be heard, nor follow the sound, though some of the company must have passed very near him; but seeing the fire lighted on the hill in the even|ing, it encouraged him to make one struggle more for life. Without a shoe to his foot, having lost them in the lake, he made shift to crawl up the hill, as already related. Few readers will think it possible for a man to suffer so much in so short a time; and yet many have lost their lives by be|ing bewildered in England, and many more on the wild heaths in Scotland, which cannot be sup|posed to be so dangerous as the thick cover of a desolate island, where no man ever set his foot be|fore. But, be that as it may, such is the account given by Trecher, of his sufferings during the three days he was absent from the ship.

Having now been 17 days at sea, without see|ing land,

On the 18th, a very severe storm arose, which blew with irrestible fury for some hours, and obliged us to clue up our main sheets, and scud bofore it, at the rate of seven or eight knots an hour; but before noon the wind died away, and a dead calm succeeded. Such is the variableness of the weather near the tropics.

On the 19th, being then in lat. 21.12. N. and long. 200.41. E. the man at the mast-head called out, High land, bearing E. N. E. and in a very little time came in sight of more land, apparently of an equal height with the former. As we ap|proached the windward island, it presented no very promising aspect, being mountainous, and Page  196 surrounded with reefs, without any signs of inha|bitants; we therefore stood off and on till

The 20th, when we bore away for the land to leeward, but not then in sight.

About nine in the morning, it was seen the se|cond time, at the distance of about seven or eight leagues. We were charmed with its ap|pearance as we came near it, observing it to abound with rivers, and to exhibit a prospect so full of plenty, that we anticipated the pleasure we expected, by supposing ourselves already in possession of a most seasonable supply. We had been for several days reduced to the scanty allow|ance of a quart of water a-day, and that none of the best; and now that we saw, or thought we saw, whole rivers before us, our hearts were di|lated with joy; yet we had still much to suffer. We found ourselves debarred from the thing we were most in want of for several days, by shoals and rocks that to us were impracticable. We coasted along the N. W. side of the island, sound|ing as we went, while the boats from both ships were employed in searching for some bay or har|bour, where we might safely anchor. In the mean time, several canoes came from the shore with plantains and dried fish on board, who parted with what they had for any trifles that were offered them; and at first behaved with great civility, but could not be persuaded to venture on board. At five in the evening, we were two leagues from the shore, surrounded by Indians in their canoes, with hogs in abundance, some very large, which we purchased according to their size, for a spike or a ten-penny nail each.

While we remained at sea, no people on earth could be more friendly; but our boats had no sooner landed, than a quarrel arose between the Page  197 natives and our people, which was terminated by the death of one of the former. It was said that the Indians were the aggressors, by throwing stones at the boats to prevent the people from landing, and that orders being given to fire a gun over the heads of the assailants, without doing them any hur; tinstead of commanding respect, it only en|couraged them in insolence, till Mr. W—, our third Lieutenant, presenting his piece, shot one of the ringleaders dead upon the spot.

This early act of severity was probably the means of saving many lives. The Indians dispersed immediately, carrying off the dead body with them. And the boats, not having made any dis|covery, returned to the ships, where they were taken on board, and secured till next morning.

On the 21st the boats were again sent out, but to as little purpose as before. Little trade was this day carried on, as the natives seemed very shy. But,

On the 22d, the ships having found anchorage on the south-west side, they were no sooner moored than they were again surrounded with a more numerous multitude of islanders than before, who seemed to express the greatest astonishment at the greatness of our ships; nor did it appear that they had ever seen an European ship before, though they were not wholly unacquainted with the use of iron. Most of their canoes were laden with hogs, plantains, bananoes and sweet potatoes, which they readily exchanged chiefly for iron. Here the sailors were suffered to make what pur|chases they pleased; only women were prohibited by Capt. Cook's order, on the severest penalties.—This caution, which was undoubtedly dictated by humanity, to prevent the introduction of a loathsome disease among an innocent people, Page  198 created a general murmur among the seamen, whose pleasure was centered in that kind of com|merce, in the new discovered islands, wherever they went.

In the afternoon the pinnace was ordered out, and the two Captains landed on the beach, where they were met by the Chiefs of the island, and more than 2000 of their subjects, not in a hostile manner, but in amity, exchanging presents, and establishing trade.

Capt. Cook made signs for water, and was con|ducted to a most delightful pool, so conveniently situated for supplying the ships, that, had not the Resolution been driven from her moorings by the violence of an easterly wind and strong current, nothing could have exceeded our entertainment at this hospitable port. We met with no obstruc|tion in watering. These people merited our best commendations in their commercial intercourse, never once attempting to cheat us, either ashore, or along-side the ships. Some of them, indeed, at first betrayed a thievish disposition; or rather they thought, that they had a right to every thing they could lay their hands on; but we soon convinced them, that this conduct was not to be suffered with impunity. One of our visitors, in the course of trade, offered some fish-hooks to sell. He was observed to have a small parcel tied to the string of one of them, which he separated with great care, and reserved for himself. Being asked what it was, he pointed to his belly, and spoke some|thing, which we could not understand; at the same time saying it was bad, as if he did not wish to answer any more questions about it. On seeing him so anxious to conceal the contents, he was re|quested to open it, which he did with great re|luctance. They found that it contained a thin Page  [unnumbered]

[illustration] [depiction of the people of the Sandwich Islands]
A Man and Woman of Sandwich Islands.

p. 199.
Page  199 bit of flesh, which to appearance had been dried, but was now wet with salt water. It struck us that it might be human flesh, and the question being put to him, he answered, that the flesh was part of a man. Another of his countrymen, who stood by, was then asked, whether it was their custom to eat those killed in battle, and he im|mediately answered in the affirmative. Other proofs were not wanting to confirm this abomi|nable practice; and also that they, like the Ota|heiteans, offered up human sacrifices. We found, indeed, upon further acquaintance, such a simila|rity of language, manners, customs, religious rites, and, in short, propensities of disposition, as left us no room to doubt of their once having been one and the same people. When the Resolution was forced to sea she had but half her complement of water; nor had she fresh provisions sufficient to supply her people for any length of time. We in the Dis|covery were more fortunate. In the evening of the 24th we could see the Resolution to leeward eight or nine leagues; and in the mean time, while she was beating up, we were employed in com|pleating our hold.

On the 24th, one of their great men paid a vi|sit to Capt. Clerke. He came off in a double canoe, and like the King of the Friendly Islands, paid no regard to the small canoes that lay in her way, but run against them, or over them, with|out endeavouring in the least to avoid them. His attendants helped him into the ship, and placed him on the gangway, where they stood round him, holding each other by the hands; nor would suffer any one to come near him, but Capt. Clerke himself. He was a young man, clothed from head to foot, and accompanied by a young wo|man, supposed to be his wife. His name was said Page  200 to be Tamahano. Capt. Clerke made him some suitable presents, and received from him in return, a large bowl, supported by two figures of men, the carving of which, both as to design and exe|cution, shewed some degree of skill. He could not be prevailed upon to go below; but after staying some time in the ship, he was carried again to his canoe, and returned to the island. The next day several messages were received by Capt. Clerke, inviting him to return the visit; and acquainting him, that the Chief had provided a large present on that occasion; but being anxious to get to sea and join the Resolution, the Captain did not think it adviseable to accept the invitation. This was the only Chief of note seen upon this island.

On the 25th we were in readiness to fail, and, having lost sight of the Resolution, we imagined that, not being able to fetch her former station, she had bore away to another island, which had been seen to the N. W. distance about 10 or 12 leagues.

On the 26th we weighed, directing our course to the N. W. but about ten in the morning, the man at the mast-head descried the Resolution at a great distance, bearing S. by W. whereupon we instantly tacked, and stood S. by E. to join our Commodore. This being effected, we remained several days beating up, but in vain, to regain our former birth.

On the 29th we bore away to another lee island, named Oneeheow, which abounded with hogs and fruit, and where the natives were equally hos|pitable with those we had just left, and brought from the shore every kind of provision their coun|try produced; but, there being no water to be procured at a moderate distance, and the reefs being dangerous, and the surf running high, Capt. Page  [unnumbered]

[illustration] [depiction of the people of the Sandwich Islands]
A Man of the Sandwich Islands in a Mask.

page 200.
Page  201 Cook, after surveying the island, and taking pos|session of it, in the name of his Royal Master, (calling the whole cluster Sandwich's Isles) was preparing to depart, when a storm came on from the eastward, and again obliged the Resolution to put to sea.

The Captain had already exchanged several presents with the Chiefs of the island, and had, in particular, presented a Chief with two she-goats and a ram; and had received in return six large hogs, with a quantity of salt, an article which, be|gan to be much wanted. He had likewise purchas|ed all such necessaries for the ship's use, as the inha|bitants could supply: and it was fortunate that he had so done, before the storm came on; for after|wards it would have been equally impossible for him to have recovered his station here, as he had found it to regain his former birth in the other harbour. Our boats, while the shore was acces|sible, were diligent in bringing on board the pro|duct of the island; so that, on the evening of

The 1st of February we had more than 250 hogs on board, with salt in abundance, besides three months allowance of sweet potatoes, bana|noes, plantains, sugar-cane, and other provisions.

Early in the morning on the 2d we weighed, and soon came in sight of the Resolution; and both ships left the island to pursue the voyage.

These islands, which lie between the latitude of 21.20. and 22.15. N. and long. 199.20. and 201.30. E. are not, in beauty and fertility, much inferior to the Friendly Islands in the southern hemisphere, nor are the inhabitants less ingenious or civilized. It is not a little astonishing, there|fore, that they should remain so long unknown to the Spaniards, as they lie, as it were, in the midway between Manilla and the Western Coasts of New Page  202 Spain, and will now probably be their rendezvous for refreshments. Except the first quarrel that happened, of which we have already spoken, we had not the least difference with any of the na|tives during our stay. What they had to dispose of they parted with upon the easiest terms; nor did they seem quite so thievishly inclined as those on the other side the line.

Every island in this group, of which there are more than we could count, appeared to be well peopled. In that which we first visited, called by the natives Ottooi, it was no uncommon thing to see between two and three thousand of the natives assemble on the beech, when any thing was to be shewn that excited their curiosity. And there we learned the names of four other islands, viz. Woahoo, Oneeheow, Oreehowe, and Tahoora; the last inhabited by birds, of which there were, as we were told, incredible numbers.

The men in these islands are of the middle size, of a dark complexion, not much tattowed, but of a lively open countenance. They were no other|wise clothed than decency required; and what they had on appeared to be their own manufacture, of which there were various fabricks, and of a va|riety of colours. Some were made with borders exactly resembling coverlets, and others appeared like printed cottons; and, besides cloth, they had many other articles which shewed that they had artificers among them not wanting in inge|nuity. One peculiarity we observed among the men, and that was, in the cut of their hair, which they trimmed up to a ridge along their heads, in form like what, in horses manes, is called hogging. Others again wore it long, plaiting it in tails, which hung below the waist; and these we took for marks of distinction among them. Add to Page  203 this, a kind of cap and short cloak worn by their Chiefs, in shape like those worn by the Ladies in England, and composed of feathers of different colours, ranged in rows, one over another, and narrowing from the lower border till they termi|nated in a kind of net-work round the neck. The brilliant colours of the feathers in those that hap|pened to be new, added not a little to their fine appearance; and we found that they were in great estimation with their owners, for they would not at first part with one of them for any thing that we offered, asking no less for each than a musket. However, some were afterwards purchased for very large nails. The best sort was certainly scarce, and it should seem, were only used at their theatrical exhibitions, or other solemnities. The cap is made like a helmet, and sits very close, hav|ing notches to admit the ears. It is a frame of twigs and osiers, covered with a net-work, into which are wrought feathers, in the same manner as in the cloaks. These, with the cloaks, probably compleat the theatrical dress.

The women in general had shock hair, which they were at great pains to ornament. They had large holes in their ears, that, filled as they were, with most beautifully coloured shells made up in clusters, served for jewels, and had no bad effect. Their head-dress consisted of wreaths of flowers, decorated with feathers chiefly red; and having, in general, lively piercing black eyes, white teeth, small features, and round faces, were not a little inviting, had not Chpt. Cook's severe prohibition put a check to the predominant passion of our men.

Their dress, upon the whole, was more decent than that of the men; and few were without neck|laces and bracelets, of which they seemed very fond, and for which our strings of beads were well Page  204 suited. To their necklaces were sometimes seen small human figures of bone, hung pendant.

Their language differed but little from that of every other people we had lately visited; and we soon learnt to converse, so as to make ourselves understood.

Their manufactures the people freely sold for nails, hatchets, scissars, knives, or iron instruments of any kind; glass bowls was a valuable article; so were beads, buttons, looking-glasses, china-cups, and in short, any of our European com|modities.

Their weapons of war consisted—Of spears twelve feet long, curiously polished, and tapered; about an inch and half in diameter at top, and shod with bearded bone, about a foot in length at the lower end—Of daggers of a particular make, with which they could stab with both ends—Of bows and arrows, which seemed rather calculated for diversion for boys, than for killing enemies; their arrows being a slender reed, only about half a yard long, shod with wood—Of small battle-axes, most ingeniously fabricated of stone and wood, and neatly wrought, as were their implements of every kind—Of saws made of sharks teeth, with which they cut up the dead bodies they prepare for meat—And of slings, with which they threw stones with great force, to a great distance, but with no certain aim.

Their canoes were long and narrow; not more than two feet wide in the middle, from whence they tapered to both ends. They were strengthened by cross bars, which served both for feats and stretchers, and had small out-riggers, to prevent over-setting.

That they had some knowledge of iron before we landed among them is certain; but how they Page  205 came by it is not clearly to be accounted for; the most probable conjecture is, that it must have been drifted to their coast from some wrecks; and that opinion is strengthened, by part of an iron hoop being the only precious remains of that metal that was seen among them, which was purchased by Lieut. King. But from this small specimen, how to learn the use of it, which they certainly did, by their eagerness to purchase it? This remains to be accounted for.

Except the sugar-cane, which appeared indi|genous to these islands, and which were rare in those on the other side the line, their produce was much the same with that of the Friendly Isles, only the cocoa-nuts were by no means so large, nor in such great plenty here as at the Friendly Isles.

Wood was not to be purchased in plenty, nor did we stand much in need of that article.

Hogs, dogs, ducks, and poultry, were here in greater abundance than on the other side the line; but their plantations were not so beautifully ranged, nor so well cultivated. The houses here are warmer, as the air is colder. They are built tent-fashion, and are covered from top to bottom. Their food consists of the fruits of the earth, and of animal food, of which there was great plenty, if dogs made a part of it; nor was there any want of fish, nor of instruments to catch them.

There seems, indeed, a remarkable conformity between these islands and those of the opposite he|misphere, not only in their situations, but in their number, and in their manners, customs, religious, ceremonies, arts, and manufactures of the inhabi|tants; though it can scarce be imagined, that, as the globe is now constituted, they could ever have any communication, being at more than 2000 Page  206 miles distance one from the other, with very little, if any, dry land between. One custom remark|able, they seem to have in common with the New Zealanders; and that is, pulling out one of their teeth.

From observing this general conformity among the tropical islanders, some have been led to be|lieve, that the whole middle region of the earth was once one entire continent; and that what is now the Great South Pacific Ocean, was, in the beginning, the Paradise of the World: but who|ever would wish to hear more on this subject, will do well to read Burnet's Theory of the Earth, where, if they do not find arguments solid enough to convince their reason, they will meet with rea|sons sufficiently plausible to amuse their fancy. But we must now take leave of these islands, tho' we shall have occasion to mention them again with less commendation.

Capt. Cook, the short time he remained at Atooi, visited the morais on the island, which formerly had been most magnificent structures, but were now much in decay, but still preserved all the appearances of human sacrifices; of which there is not a doubt, any more than of their eating the flesh of their enemies, which they call savoury meat.

On the 3d of February, the day after we took our departure, we had heavy squalls, but not so violent as to force us to part company.

On the 4th, it cleared up, and we pursued our course E. N. E. having pleasant weather, and a favouring gale.

On the 5th, our men had pickled pork served instead of their ordinary allowance, one pound per man a-day, with a pound and a half of yams, instead of bread; and this was continued to them Page  207 for seven weeks, which they liked much better than their ship's provisions.

Nothing material occurred till

The 9th, when there appeared the usual signs of land, but we saw none, and continued our course till

The 13th, when we tacked and stood N. N. W. lat. 30. long. 200. E. But,

On the 14th, we stood again N. by E. with a light breeze. During this interval of fine weather, our sail-makers were employed in getting up and reviewing the sails, when it was found that they were in a miserable condition, being eaten through by the rats in a hundred places. While they were employed in repairing them, our other artificers had work enough to do; for it was made a point to suffer none to remain idle, when the business of navigating the ship did not require their immediate attendance. The course we were now steering we continued with little or no variation, except what was occasioned by the shifting of the winds, till the 21st, when in lat. 39. long. 209. E. we short|tened sail, and steered N. N. W. the whole night, having had strong signs of land to the Eastward the whole day; but no land coming in sight, we again renewed our course, and so continued till

The 26th, when a most dreadful storm arose, with such a swell, that though we were not more than half a mile from the Resolution, we fre|quently lost sight of her amidst the heavy seas. In this gale, both ships suffered considerably in their sails and rigging, it being impossible to hand them before we were surprised by the tempest. We were now in lat. 43.17. and in long. 221.9. and were attended by seals, sea-lions, man-of-war birds, Port Egmont hens, shags, and sea-gulls, which were strong indications of land.

Page  208On the morning of the 27th, the wind abated but the swell still continued from the Southward and we proceeded under close reefed top-sails til about ten in the morning, when we shook out the reefs, and made all the sail we could, in company with the Resolution.

March the 1st, the wind died away, and being in lat. 44.49. and long. 228. E. we sounded with 180 fathom, but found no bottom. We now be|gan to feel the effects of an alteration in the cli|mate. From intense heat, it became piercing cold; and our men, who despised their Magellan jackets, while within the temperate climates, now first began to find the comfort of them in these Northern regions.

On the morning of the 2d, some parts of the sea seemed covered with a kind of slime, and my|riads of small sea animals were seen swimming about, which they did with equal ease upon their backs, sides, or bellies; and as they varied their position with respect to the light, they emitted the brightest colours of the most precious gems. Sometimes they appeared quite pellucid, at other times assuming various tints of blue, from a pale sappharine to a deep violet colour, which were frequently mixed with a ruby or opaline redness, and glowed with a strength sufficient to illuminate the vessel and water; these colours appeared most vivid, when the glass into which these animalcula were placed, was held to a strong light, but had only a brownish cast when the animals had sub|sided to the bottom. With candle-light, the colour was chiefly a beautiful pale green; and in the dark they had a faint appearance of glowing fire. Mr. Anderson supposed them a new species of animalcula, which have a share in producing that Page  209 lucid appearance often observed near ships at sea in the night.

On the 5th, being moderate weather, we sounded, and at 56 fathoms found bottom, loamy sand and shells. At six in the evening, we short|ened sail, and stood all night S. one half W. with the water as white as milk.

On the 6th, both ships wore and stood N. by E. shortening sail in the evening, and standing all night to the Southward.

On the 7th, we made the land. Cape Blanco, the Westernmost known point of California, bear|ing E. N. E. then distant about 8 or 9 leagues. It appeared mountainous, and covered with snow. This day the gentlemen in the gun-room dined on a fricassee of rats, which they accounted a venison feast; and it was a high treat to the sai|lors, whenever they could be lucky enough to catch a number sufficient to make a meal.

On the 8th, we wore ship, and stood N. E. by E. lat. 44.23. long. 233.5. E. We had heavy squalls, with snow and rain. We continued working off land, making little or no way to wind|ward. In the evening, we close reefed our top-sails, and within half an hour could not shew an inch of sail, except fore and mizen stay-sails. The storm continued all night, and part of the next day, without the least abatement.

Early in the morning of the 9th, saw the Reso|lution to windward, and at eight came in sight of Cape Blanco, bearing N. by W. distant about three leagues. At ten tacked ship, and stood off land, both ships in company, lat. 43.10. long. 232.4. E.

On the 10th, both ships stood again for the land, which we could see at a great distance. At six in the evening, the land being distant about a Page  210 league, we wore ship, and stood off all night, Lost sight of the Resolution, lat. 43.41. long. 232.50.

On the 11th, she answered our signals, and we were soon in company; but the sea running mountains high, and the wind increasing a strong gale, we stood N. by E. the wind at E. by N. and about two in the afternoon, the Cape bore N. E. by E. distant about six leagues. Here the wind being somewhat abated, and the sea having changed its colour, we sounded at 160 fathom, but no bottom. Both ships stood again W. S. W. all night with little wind, but great swells from the Eastward, lat. 43.39. long. 231.19.

On the 12th, light winds, which continued all the morning with snow and sleet. At two in the afternoon, both ships stood S. by W. with a stiff breeze. At six wore ship, and stood N. wind E. N. E. At ten, course N. N. E. wind W. by S. and so continued all night, lat. 43.2. long. 231.57.

On the 13th, about eight in the morning, we wore ship, and stood W. by S. heavy rain, and snow. At noon split the mizen top-mast stay-sail. At night, course W. S. W. wind variable. Lat. 43.32. long. 230.52.

On the 14th, at six in the morning, wore ship, and stood N. by E. wind N. W. by W. Strong gale, with snow and rain. About three in the af|ternoon, the wind abated. Stood for the land, then distant 6 or 7 leagues, bearing N. E. by E. lat. 43.9. long. 231.55.

On the 15th, wore ship, and stood N. half W. the wind E. N. E. all the morning. In the after|noon, heavy squalls, with rain. About four, split the main top-sail. At six, close reefed the top-sails, and stood all night N. N. E. with heavy Page  211 rains, and a strong gale. Till this day, the yams on board our ship lasted; but now bread was de|livered out to the ship's company in their stead, at two-thirds allowance. All well, and in perfect health, notwithstanding the severe service. Lat. 43.9. long. 229.34.

On the 16th, it cleared up, and the wind being moderate, we made sail N. ½ E. the wind at W. S. W. At ten in the morning, finding the water to change colour, we sounded at 17 fathom, and looking a-head, saw a large reef, not above two cables length before us. We fired a gun as signal to the Resolution, and had just time and room to escape the danger. Had it been night, in two minutes we must all have perished. We tacked, and stood to the Southward till the morning of

The 17th, when we came in sight of land, bearing N. E. by E. distance eight or nine leagues, high, and whited over with snow. The weather was this day so altered, that the gentlemen who delighted in the sport, diverted themselves in the boats with shooting ducks, shags, sea-larks, and gulls; and next morning,

The 18th, we continued to steer along shore, the land not more than three miles distant; saw no inhabitants, but very large trees, and bleak mountains covered with snow. About twelve at noon we hauled upon a wind, and stood W. by N. wind S. W. by S. As we found the coast rugged with high rocks above water, we suspected other rocks below. We therefore kept at a con|venient distance from the land, and opened upon several fine inlets and close harbours, but no en|trance for ships of burden. Lat. 44.49. long. 231.50.

On the 19th, made sail early in the morning, and stood N. N. E. coasting it along shore, the Page  212 land high and mountainous. We heard howlings of wild beasts, but saw none. The shores were covered with sea-fowl, and the skirts of the woods with land birds of various kinds.

On the 20th, the weather still continuing fine, we pursued our course N. N. E. with light winds from the S. E. till two in the afternoon, when the clouds began to darken, and the rain pour down in torrents. At five it blew a stiff gale, and at night a fog arose, when we soon lost sight of the Resolution. At ten it blew a hurricane. We close reefed our top-sails, lowered our top-gallant yards, and stood W. S. W. wind S. firing guns, and hoisting lights as signals to the Resolution; but not being answered, we lay to till morning, with the ship's head to the South, lat. 45.22. long. 231.42.

On the 21st, as soon as it was day-light, we saw the Resolution bearing N. N. W. distant about four miles. We made sail, and soon came up with her: the wind abating, we pursued our course N. one-half W. and before noon, lost sight of land, as it trended to the East. About four in the afternoon, the weather altered, and a heavy snow came on, which soon filled the decks, the flakes being such as no man on board had ever seen before, and as broad as a small saucer. Be|fore it was dark it turned to rain, and so continued with gusts of wind during the night.

On the 22d, we came again in sight of land, bearing N. by E. distant about five or six leagues, covered with snow, and abounding with trees of an immense height; as we neared it, we observed several smokes far up the country; but before we reached the shore, a sudden storm came on, more violent than any we had yet met with on this tempestuous coast. Before we had time to hand Page  213 the sails, it split the jib, carred away the stay, and shivered the main top-mast stay-sails to frit|ters. As night approached, we furled the courses and lay too under bare poles.

On the 23d in the morning the wind abated, and the weather cleared up. We made sail to the Southward; but before dark it again began to blow with heavy rain. We stood all night with the ship's head S. one-half W. with starboard tacks on board. No observation.

On the 24th we tacked ship and stood N. N. E. the wind at N. W. by N. a steady breeze; we shook out our reefs and made sail. Such and so variable was the weather on Drake's New Albion coast. From a hard gale, which increas|ed to a hurricane, not being able to shew an inch of sail for several hours, the sea running to a tremendous height, the ship rolling till the yard-arms almost reached the water, it all at once cleared up, moderate and fine gales took place, and so continued the whole day. We were now by observation in lat. 47.25. long. 230.1. As night approached the clouds began to lour, and to threaten another storm: but except some snow and hail which fell in the night, nothing re|markable happened till

The 25th, when a thick fog arose, and we lost sight of the Resolution; but before night we were again in company. About six in the even|ing it came on to blow hard with heavy showers; we wore ship and stood to the Southward, the rain continuing the whole night.

On the 26th, at five in the morning, we had a heavy fall of snow, which lasted four hours, with piercing winds the whole day. About ten we bore away, and stood N. N. W. the wind at N. E. In the evening we tacked ship and Page  214 stood to the Southward. We were now in lat. 48.28. long. 228.40.

On the 27th, at six in the morning, stood W. by N. with a stiff breeze. At ten it became very heavy and dark. We stood N. by E. the wind shifted to E. by N. and a calm succeeded. But about six in the evening the wind freshened, and before we could hand the canvas, split the fore-top-sail.

Early on the 28th, it blowing very hard, we close-reefed our top-sails, and stood N. N. E. the wind at E. This day we saw three men of war birds, two Port Egmont hens, several seals, and sea-lions, with some whales. Lat. 49.6. long. 228.18.

On the 29th, at two in the morning, it still continued to blow very hard. We tacked, and stood S. S. W. till seven in the morning, when the weather cleared up, and the wind rather abated. We shook out our reefs, and made sail N. by E. with a light breeze from E. by N. At ten the man at the mast-head saw land, bearing from E. S. E. to W. N. W. distance five or six leagues. At half after one, P. M. we bore away N. E. by E. for a bay, which we thought we saw to the Eastward. As we approached it, we observed several smokes and fires a consider|able way within land. At length, after a series of the most tempestuous weather that any ships ever experienced for so long a time, we discover|ed an inlet, the mouth of which was not more than two miles over; in which we entered, and found it a sound, which narrowed as we advan|ced, though it still continued of a considerable depth. About seven in the evening we anchored in ninety-seven fathom water, and was presently joined by the Resolution. We made signs for Page  215 some of the natives to come on board; but this they declined, though some hundreds soon came about the ships, to which they appeared to be no strangers, as they give us to understand, that iron was what they valued most. We observed likewise, that their weapons were headed with copper, and their arrows with iron, which they could obtain only from the Russians, or from trade with the Hudson's Bay Company. Though they declined coming on board, they were ne|vertheless very civil; and when they took their leave, saluted us with a war-song. We were now so far advanced to the Northward and Eastward, as to have reached that void space in our maps, which is marked as a country unknown.

Early in the morning of the 30th, the boats were armed and manned, and both Captains proceeded to examine the Sound, in order to find a convenient place to refit the ships, which had suffered materially in the violent gales, which for the last twenty days they had been combating, at the hazard of being hourly dashed to pieces upon the rocks, or stranded upon the shores.

In their progress they were fortunate enough to discover a cove, the most convenient that could be wished; the entrance of which was about two cables length, bounded by high land on each side, and furnished with wood and water (now much wanted) so conveniently situated, that both could be taken on board at less than a cable's length from the shore; but, though now within the distance of four miles, it was four o'clock in the evening before we could get the ships properly moored, owing to the uncertainty of the weather, and the violent gusts to which this coast is subject. All this while the Indians behaved peaceably, and apparently with much Page  216 friendship. They brought, after a short ac|quaintance, a great variety of valuable skins, such as beaver, foxes, racoons, squirrels, rein|deer, bears, and several others, with which we were but little acquainted; but what they chiefly desired in exchange, were cutlery wares of all sorts, edge-tools, copper, pewter, iron, brass, or any kind of metal, with the use of which they were not unacquainted. All our people were now employed in the necessary repairs of the ships, and in cutting wood and getting water on board, while the gentlemen diverted themselves in shoot|ing and botanizing.

On the 1st of April, about four in the even|ing, there entered the cove a large canoe, in which were thirty armed Indians, who, on their first appearance, began a war-song, and when they had finished, took to their paddles, and rowed round the ships, having first stript them|selves of their clothing, except one man, who stood upright in the vessel, delivering an oration, of which not a man on board could understand a word. They paddled round the ships several times, as if led by curiosity; but did not offer to molest any of the workmen, nor did they offer to trade. But all hands being instantly ordered un|der arms, these new visitors were seen to clothe themselves as before, and to make towards the ships. The Orator made not the least hesitation, but mounted the ship's side, and accosted the Captain with much civility, and after receiving some presents, and stopping a little while to ob|serve the artificers, he took a very polite leave, descended to his boat, and was landed on the op|posite shore of the Sound.

On the 3d, a large body of Indians were seen paddling along the Sound, mostly armed with Page  217 spears from 20 to 30 feet long, and with bows and arrows very neatly made. On their nearer approach they too were heard to tune up their war-song, and to brandish their weapons, as if in defiance of an enemy. Their number was alarming; there being not less than between 3 and 400 of them in their war canoes, who we ap|prehended were come to attack us; but we after|wards understood they were come to attack a bo|dy of their enemies on the opposite shore, whom they afterwards engaged, and returned victorious. We were frequently visited by such parties, who appeared always in arms, but never offered the least violence. They brought, besides skins, great quantities of fish, with plenty of game, which we purchased of them for glass bowls, looking-glasses, nails, hatchets, or whatever uten|sils or toys were either useful or ornamental.

The men were of an athletic make, very rough to appearance, but more civilized than from their aspect there was reason to expect. To iron they gave the name of te-tum-miné, and to other me|tals ché-à-poté.

On the 5th, the water, which was excellent, was so conveniently situated, that by erecting a stage, and constructing a spout, we could convey it in casks into the ships without farther trou|ble. This facilitated the labour of the waterers, and shortened our stay, as wood was conveyed on board with very little more trouble.

On the 6th it blew a storm, and the tide came rolling in at an alarming rate; it presently rose eight or nine feet higher than usual, and drifted several of our materials from the shore, which we never could recover; and at nine in the morn|ing the Discovery drifted very near the Resolu|tion, and very narrowly escaped being bulged.

Page  218On the 7th, the artificers again resumed their labour. The natives continued their visits, and besides fish, furs, and venison, brought bladders of oil, which were greedily purchased by the men. With this they made sauce for their salt-fish, and no butter in England was ever thought half so good.

During our stay here, which was but very short, owing to the time lost in making the land, and the advanced season of the year, no people could be more obliging; they were ready to accompany the gentlemen, who delighted in shooting, in their excursions, and to shew them the different de|vices they made use of to catch and to kill their game; they sold them their masks, their calls, and their gins, and made no secret of their me|thods of curing the skins, with which they carried on a traffic with occasional visitors; in short, a more open and communicative people does not live under the sun. They have, besides sea-fowl in abundance, swans, eagles, and a variety of o|ther land-fowl, of which we had never seen the species. Nor were their fishermen more reserved than their hunters; they pointed out the haunts of the different sorts of fish, and they were not averse to helping their new acquaintance to com|pleat their lading, whenever they had been unsuc|cessful in filling their boats.

They had not hitherto discovered any disposi|tion to pilfer; but on the 10th day, after our arrival, several of them being on board, and our people having no suspicion of their honesty, one of them watched his opportunity to slip into the great cabin, and carry off the Captain's watch; which being soon missed, all the Indians on board were seized, their boats secured and searched; and at length it was found hid in a box on board Page  219 one of their canoes, which the offender delivered up without the least concern. This watch, had the thief been permitted to carry it off, would pro|bably have been parted with to the first sailor he had met with for a single nail. About the same time another Indian made free with a bolt from the armourer's forge; but was seen in the fact, and an endeavour made to wrest it from him; but he instantly jumped over-board, and gave it to one of his companions, who was making off with it, till fired at with small shot, which brought him back; and he surrendered it, but with such a fierceness expressed in his countenance, as suffi|ciently indicated his intent. In a moment, every Indian in the cove disappeared, and in less than three hours more than 900 of them assembled in the Sound, and being unclothed, (which is their custom when they mean to engage) began their war-song, and approached the ships. We were in readiness to give them a warm reception; but seeing our preparations, and perhaps not liking our countenance, they all laid down their arms, and putting on their clothes, came peaceably round the ship, without offering the least incivility.

Being in great want of masts, most of those we brought out with us being sprung, our car|penters were sent into the woods to cut down such trees as they should find fit for their pur|pose. This they did without the least interrup|tion from any of the inhabitants. They found trees from 100 to 150 feet high, without a knot, and measuring from 40 to 60 feet in circumfe|rence. In these trees the eagles build their nests. When they had cut down what best suited their purpose, the great difficulty was to bring them to the ships; and in this labour they were assisted by the natives. It was now their spring, and Page  220 the weather began to change for the better. When we first arrived the thermometer was as low as 38½, and now

This 20th day of April it is as high as 62 de|grees. We have at present the full range of the woods, the snow all melted away, and the rivers open. We found plenty of game, and catched fish in abundance.

April 22. This morning we were visited by a large body of Indians, who had come from a great distance with furs, and other articles of trade. These were warmly clothed with cloaks of valuable furs, that reached down to their ancles; and among them was a stately youth, to whom the rest paid great respect. Him our Captain invited on board, which he at first de|clined; but after shewing him some axes, glass bowls, looking-glasses, and other articles that excited his curiosity, he suffered himself to be handed into the ship, where he staid some time, admiring every thing he saw. While these con|tinued to trade, it was remarked, that no other Indians came in sight; but they had hardly left the ship, when another body of Indians appeared, more than double the number of the former, who hemmed them all into the cove, and stript them of every thing they had about them, and then came and traded with us.

At the same time a chief, who had attached him|self to Capt. Cook, came on board to take his leave, and received a present, for which in return he presented a beaver-skin of much greater value. This called upon the Captain to make a consi|derable addition to his present, with which the chief was so pleased, that he pulled off his beaver-skin cloak, and laid it at his feet. Struck with this instance of generosity, the Captain fetched him a Page  221 new broad sword with a brass-hilt, which made this chief compleatly happy.

On the 26th, having finished the repairs of the ships, we began to prepare for our departure; the tents were ordered to be brought on board, the astronomers observatory, and what live-stock we had yet left; and as the last service to be per|formed, we cut grass for their subsistence, which we were fortunate enough to find in plenty, and to have a pretty good time to make it into hay. We also, by the assistance of Mr. Nelson, whose busi|ness, as has already been observed, was to collect the vegetable and other curious productions of the countries through which we passed, were en|abled to stock ourselves with a large proportion of culinary plants, which was of infinite service to us in our more northerly progress. And now having all things in readiness we began to tow out of the cove into the Sound, to which Capt. Cook gave the name of King George's Sound, and with a light breeze and clear weather to pro|ceed on our voyage: but we had scarce reached the Sound, when a violent gust from E. S. E. threw us into the utmost confusion. All our boats were out, our decks full of lumber, and night com|ing on dark and foggy, our danger was equal to any we had hitherto met with in the course of the voyage; though an especial Providence seemed to attend us, and to interpose in our favour: for by this storm a leak was discovered in the Reso|lution, which, had it been calm weather, would probably have proved fatal to the crew. Hav|ing cleared the Sound, we shaped our course to the Westward, and so continued till day-light, when, seeing nothing of the Resolution, we shortened sail; and before noon she came in sight, seemingly in distress. The storm continuing, Page  222 we pursued our course to the North-westward, till

May 1st, when the weather became fair, and we proceeded with a pleasant breeze. Being now at leisure to recollect what observations oc|curred at the harbour we have just left, the cu|rious reader will not be displeased with a short relation. When we first arrived in the Sound, the rough countenance of the men seemed to promise no very agreeable entertainment during our stay; but when they saw our distress, and that we only meant to repair our ships, so far from giving us any disturbance, they gave us every assistance in their power. They supplied us regularly with fish; and, when they found that our men liked their oil, they brought it in bladders, and exchanged it for whatever they were pleased to give in return. They discovered no propensity to thieve, till they found we were preparing to depart, and then they were so co|vetous of our goods, that they could not resist the temptation, when a fair opportunity offered, to carry off whatever fell in their way.

The cove, in which we anchored, we found to lie in 49 deg. 33 min. N. and in 233 deg. 16 min. E. but whether the Ruffian discove|ries had reached so far, we could not be able to determine: that the inhabitants were no stran|gers to the use of iron and other metals was, as has already been observed, visible on our first ap|proach; but by their manner of using what they possessed, it was not easy to discover from what quarter it came. In the situation we were in, we did not think it safe to venture far into the coun|try, having no spare hands to attend us. Of their houses we saw but few; and of their manner of living we know but little. That they eat the Page  [unnumbered]

[illustration] [depiction of the people of the Soolka Sound]
A Man and Woman of Soolka Sound.

p. 223. 224.
Page  223 flesh of their enemies, we had some reason to sup|pose, by observing a human head in one of their canoes, and arms and limbs in another; but that fish, and the flesh of the animals they catch in hunting, are the principal part of their food, is not to be doubted. Their bread is made from the roes of fish, but in what manner they prepare it, we could not learn; their sauces chiefly sea-blub|ber or oil. We saw none of their houses near the shore, by which it should seem that their win|ters are severe, and that they chuse the recesses of the woods, for shelter as well as safety. The few houses we saw were all built of wood, and hung round with dried fish, and skins of various animals. They have different masks for different purposes; some they put on when they go to war, which are really frightful; some that cover their whole bodies, and give them the appearance of the animals they are in pursuit of, whose cries, while, they are young, they are taught to imitate; they have decoys excellently adapted for entrap|ping both fish and fowl; and they have snares likewise for snaring wild beasts, and contrivances for killing and curing them as soon as they are catched.

We saw no plantations which exhibited the least trace of knowledge in the cultivation of the earth; all seemed to remain in a pure state of na|ture; shrubs there were in the woods that put forth blossoms, and trees that promised in time to bring forth fruit; but except some currant bushes, wild rasberries and junipers, we saw none bearing fruit that were known to any but Mr. Nelson.

The men were not ill made, but they disfigured themselves with grease and coarse paint; they were of a dark copper-colour, with lank black Page  224 hair, which they tied in a knot behind; but they so bepowdered, or rather befeathered it with down, that the colour was hardly discernible: their clothing was a cloak made of skins of beasts, which covered them from the neck to their knees, and gave them a savage appearance; some of them wore high fur caps, but the Chiefs among them had their heads dressed in a more becoming manner. In that consisted their chief distinction. Their heads were bound round with fillets, deco|rated with feathers, which adds so striking a grace to the human figure, that almost every nation in the known world have agreed in making plumes of feathers a part of their warriors uniform. Their weapons of war were spears from 20 to 30 feet long; their bows about three feet and a half; their arrows two feet, pointed with bone or flint, some few with iron; but they had one horrid weapon peculiar to themselves, resembling a man's head with hair; it had eyes and nose, but where the mouth should be, a sharp piece of bone or flint about six inches long was firmly mortised and ce|mented; in the neck part was a hole, through which they passed a strong cord, and fastened it to the right arm; this we saw none of the warriors without; many of them had besides, a knife about twelve inches long, of which they were very choice. We saw no musical instruments among them; but some had musical voices, and seemed fond of dancing and tumbling in a bearish way. Their canoes were of an uncommon length, many of them from 30 to 40 yards long, made of the main body of one of their enormous trees, of which we have already spoken; their breadth from four to five feet over in the middle, and gradually narrowing, like all others, to both ends, but the stem much higher than the stern. They were Page  225 strengthened by bars of wood, or stretchers, placed across at certain distances, and were rowed by paddles about six feet long, swelling from the middle, but sharp at the lower ends. Some of those canoes were roughly carved and painted with the figures of the sun, moon, and stars, probably the objects of their worship; but what was remark|able, they had no out-riggers to prevent their oversetting, like those of the southern isles.

The women are much more delicate than the men, and dress in cloaks curiously woven with the hair of wild beasts, intermixed with the most beautiful furs. We saw but few of them during our stay, and those who came in sight were rather in years; they were, however, much fairer than the men; and even fairer than many of the men we had on board. Their employment seems chiefly confined at home. We saw none of them employed in fishing, nor did we meet any of them in the woods. Besides the care of their children, and the manufacturing and making the clothing, they may probably assist in curing and preparing the skins, with which these people certainly carry on a traffic with strangers; though of that trade, for want of understanding their language, we could not sufficiently inform ourselves. Be that as it may, when we left the harbour, we had more than 300 beaver skins on board, besides other less valuable skins, of foxes, racoons, wolves, bears, deer, and several other wild animals; for dogs excepted, we saw no other domestic creatures about them.

On May the 1st, in the morning, the weather being fine, we spoke with the Resolution, who informed us of the danger they were in of foun|dering in the late gale, by a leak, which increased so fast upon them, that it baffled the utmost ef|forts Page  226 of all the hands they had on board; gaining upon them considerably, though every man in the ship, even to the Captain, took it in turn to work at the pumps; but what was astonishing, it had now stopt of itself, without the carpenter's being able to discover either the cause or the cure. However, Capt. Cook gave us to understand, that he intended to put in at the first harbour he should fall in with.

We were now in high spirits, not dreaming of the hardships we had yet to suffer, and we pursued our course at a great rate. Before night we were in lat. 54.44. N. and in long. 224.44. E. with whole flocks of sea-fowl flying over our heads; among which were strings of geese and swans, all flying to the southward. We had other indications of land, and on

The 2d we came in sight of a high mountain, being then in lat. 57.3. and in long. 224.7. E. This mountain Capt. Cook named Mount Edgecomb.

On the 3d, at half an hour after four in the morning, Mount Edgecomb, bore S. 54. E. a large inlet N. 50. E. distant six leagues; and the most advanced point of the land to the N. W. lying under a very high peeked mountain, which obtained the name of Mount Fair Weather, bore N. 52. W. This inlet was called Cross Sound, as being first seen on that day, so marked in our ca|lendar. At noon the lat. was 58.22. and the long. 220.55. We continued our course to the north-westward as the land trended, till the 10th, when we opened on a very high island, to which Capt. Cook gave the name of Kaye Island, in ho|nour of his friend the Rev. Dr. Kaye, Sub|almoner to his Majesty. A point shoots out from the main towards this island, to which the Captain Page  227 gave the name of Cape Suckling. This island, on examination, was found barren, and destitute of inhabitants. This we left to the southward, and continued our course, in hopes of discovering some harbour where the Resolution might exa|mine her leaks. We were now in lat. 59.51. and in long. 215.56. the land high and mountainous, and covered with snow. At four in the afternoon, we came in sight of Cape Elias, a vast promontory, that seemed to cover its head in the clouds. It bore from us S. ½ W.

On the 11th we had a flask calm, which lasted for the space of four hours, during which all hands were employed, officers as well as men, in fishing, shooting, or chasing the seals, and sea-lions that played about the ships. Great quantities of fine cod were caught, which furnished a high treat to both ships companies; and some docks, sea-larks, and four sea-parrots, were killed by the fowlers. In the evening a fresh breeze sprang up, and we coasted along shore, but saw no inhabitants, though many fires were observed in the night within land. In our course we passed a bay, named by Capt. Cook Comptrollers Bay. Lat. 60.15. long. 215.15.

On the 12th we hauled up to double a cape, to which our Commodore gave the name of Cape Hinchinbroke, and saw the land trending very much to the northward. About 3, A. M. we tacked, steering N. N. W. and at nine in the morning, opened a large strait, the entrance of which appeared to be about four miles. About four in the afternoon we entered the mouth of the strait, and met a strong current that set to the southward to oppose our progress; having a stiff breeze, and the wind much in our favour, we with difficulty stemmed the tide, and before six in the evening, the Resolution opened a close harbour Page  228 or bay, that trended to the eastward, round a bluff point of high land, and was soon followed by the Discovery. Here both ships cast anchor close under the lee of the land, which we had scarce ac|complished, before the boats were ordered out, and some, eager to haul the seine, and others to go a shooting, were impatient to begin, when un|expectedly they were alarmed by four canoes, in which were between 20 and 30 Indians not more than two miles distant, and rowing with all their might towards the boats, who not being prepared for such an attack, made the best of their way back to the ships. As the Indians neared the boats, they began their war-song, as their custom is, and brandishing their arms, denounced defiance; but by this time other boats armed from the ships, had joined the sportsmen, who were now so near the ships as to be out of danger. The Indians had then time to cool; they retreated to the op|posite side of the harbour, and in a very little time returned, with a white cloak displayed as a signal of peace, which was answered by a white flag; and then they came on board without the least ce|remony. Their features, size and colour differed little from those we had just left in George's Sound; but they had a slit between their lower lip and chin, through which they could put their tongue, that gave them the appearance of having a double mouth. Add to this, the ornaments they wore in their noses and ears, of tin and copper, and no figures upon earth could be more gro|tesque. However, they behaved civilly, and it being near night they took their leave, promising to visit us again in the morning; which they ac|cordingly did, bringing with them the very same forts of skins which we had purchased of the In|dians at our former harbour, and which they rea|dily Page  229 parted with for any thing made of iron, though they were rather choice. These were clothed with the skins of birds neatly sewed together, and they had besides a covering madelike parchment, which in rainy or snowy weather was water proof, so that no wet could affect them. Their ordinary canoes too had coverings of the same kind.

They had some instruments for fishing, which we did not observe among the more southerly Indians; such as harpoons, and gigs, all of which they were very ready to part with, as well as their clothing, of which, though valuable to us, they made but little account. These were chiefly pur|chased by the sailors for glass beads, who found them warmer, and better adapted to the climate than any of their other clothing. They had spears also, and lances headed with iron, very neatly ma|nufactured, and knives, which they kept as bright as silver; but these they refused to exchange for any thing we offered.

In the morning of the 13th, we weighed, and pursued our course to the northward up the strait all day, with the pleasing hope of having found the passage of which we were in search. In our way we passed several very fine rivers that emptied their waters into that which we were now explor|ing. About four in the afternoon, we came to an anchor in 18 fathom water, and were surrounded with Indians who came to plunder; but finding us on our guard, they sneaked off without their booty. Here, being safely moored just opposite to a small rivulet of excellent water, the boats were ordered out to fill the empty casks, and the car|penters from both ships were set to work to find out the leak in the Resolution; and after a most painful search, a hole was discovered in the ship's side, eaten quite through by the rats; which, by Page  230 the working of the ship in the storm, had provi|dentially filled with rubbish, and thereby pre|vented her foundering. So said our Journalist, but Capt. Cook observes, that the seams were open, both in and under the wale; and in seve|ral places not a bit of oakum in them.

On the 14th, while we were employed on this necessary service, we were visited by crowds of In|dians, persuading us to proceed; but our pinnace being ordered out, with boats to attend her, in order to examine the strait, it was found to be only an inlet, through which there was no passage for ships or other vessels to any considerable distance. Lat. 60.53.

To our great disappointment, therefore, after continuing here eight days, during which time every part of the sound had been examined, and the country for several miles round reconnoitred, we took leave of this sound (to which Capt. Cook gave the name of Prince William's Sound) to the great joy of the ships companies, who with work|ing the ships up one day and down another, as wind and tide served, were almost worn down with hard labour, though none were sick; nor did any accident happen to any, except to William Austin, who unfortunately had his leg broke by lifting an anchor out of the boat to launch it overboard, and being entangled in the buoy-rope, went down with it in 22 fathom water, but came up again without any hurt, and was afterwards, by the care of the Surgeon, perfectly cured.

On the 16th, when the weather, which had been foggy, cleared up, we found ourselves sur|rounded by land on every side, and sheltered in a nook, called Snug Corner Bay, and a snug corner it certainly was.

On the 17th, Mr. Gore, from the Resolution, was sent to examine the northern arm of the inlet, Page  [unnumbered]

[illustration] [depiction of the people of Prince William's Sound]
A Man and Woman of Prince William's Sound.

p. 230.
Page  231 and Mr. Bligh, the master, to take an easterly di|rection; this last found the arm, he went to exa|mine, to terminate in a group of islands; Mr. Gore reported that his arm was open, and probably a passage might be found; but Mr. Roberts, who accompanied him, was of opinion, that he saw the end of the inlet; this to Capt. Cook rendered the passage very doubtful; and being willing to pur|sue his voyage to the North while the season was yet favourable, he resolved to waste no more time in a fruitless search.

On the 20th, having the weather fine and the wind fair, we returned to sea, not by the same channel, but by one more to the westward than that by which we entered. It was separated from the other by an island, extending 18 leagues, in the direction of North-east and South-west, to which the Commodore gave the name of Mon|tague Island; and the intermediate islands, because of their verdures, he called Green Islands.

Early on the 21st a storm came on, which ob|liged us to lay to with the ship's head to the eastward; but in the afternoon it abated, and about five we came up with the southernmost promontory [Cape Elizabeth] which we had seen the day before, and opened on a fine bay, which trended full to the westward, with very high land on both sides.

In the morning of the 22d we tacked, and stood to the westward, and still saw the land trend very much to the southward. Lat. 59.7. long. 208.26.

On the 23d, the weather being clear and plea|sant, and there being little or no wind, the boats were ordered out, and all hands were employed in fishing, except the Gentlemen, who preferred the diversion of shooting.

Page  232On the 24th a stiff breeze sprung up, attended with very heavy squalls, with snow and rain, in which we carried away our main top-gallant-mast in the slings, and received other damage in our sails and rigging. This day we passed a deal of land to the westward, which appeared to us like islands, (among which was that called Cape Her|mogenes,) mostly very high; we continued steer|ing as the land trended, and examining every bay and inlet as we passed along. Lat. 58.26.

On the 25th we altered our course, to N. by W. the land trending away to N. E. high and mountainous. At noon we passed some large islands, bearing from W. S. W. to N. W. and which obtained the name of Barren Isles, and soon after came in sight of a lofty promontory, whose ele|vated summit, forming two exceedingly high mountains, was seen above the clouds. To this promontory Capt. Cook gave the name of Cape Douglas, in honour of his good friend Dr. Doug|las, Canon of Windsor.

On the 26th, at 3 A. M. we perceived one continued chain of mountains, to the highest of which was given the name of Mount St. Augustine; and saw two very high burning mountains at a considerable distance. We kept steering to the northward, as we saw no land a-head, by reason of a great fog; but as soon as the fog cleared up, we found ourselves in the entrance of a vast river, supposed to be about four miles over, with a strong current setting to the southward, lat. 59.8.

On the 27th we found the river to widen as we advanced, and the land to flatten. We continued under an easy sail all day and the following night, sounding as we advanced from 30 to 40 fathom, shelly bottom and white sand. We were once more flattered with having found the passage, 〈◊〉Page  233 which we were in pursuit, being now in the lati|tude of 60 degrees north.

On the 28th, in the morning, we sounded at 24 fathom, the tide still setting strong to the southward at the rate of five and six knots an hour; but the wind dying away, the signal was made for casting anchor, when both ships came to in 26 fathom water; but the Resolution ex|pecting to come to with her small stream anchor, let the whole run out, and lost both anchor and hauser, besides the ship's grapnel in looking for it. About 8 at night, the signal was made to weigh and sail; but at ten the current ran so strong, that both ships were again obliged to cast anchor in 24 fathom, bottom same as before. It was now light all night, and we could perceive the river to make N. N. W. very rapid. lat. 60.5.

On the 29th we made sail with a fresh wind, and advanced apace, but on trying the water we found a great alteration from salt to fresh. This day we were visited by several Indians, who brought skins of wolves, foxes, squirrels, deer, and some few beaver, which they exchanged for tri|fles. In the night we observed they made large fires; but the flames from the two burning moun|tains seemed to darken their light. We were now close under them, and the roaring they made was infinitely more terrifying than the most tremen|dous thunder. They are of an immense height, and rise in the form of sugar-loaves, and bore N. and S. of each other, and are called by the natives, Ea-neb-kay. We found regular soundings all this day, till opening into a large wide extended bay, the water shallowed, and we cast anchor in nine fathom water, brown sand and shells as before.

Page  234On the 30th, the boats were ordered out, and after a fruitless search to find a passage, sounding from two to four fathom, with the water brackish, they returned in the morning, and were taken on board. In the evening, they renewed their labour, sounding to the north eastward, as the day before they had sounded in the opposite direction.

On the 31st, the Resolution plyed higher up, and came to an anchor in 16 fathom water, and found the ebb already begun. It ran only three knots an hour, and fell upon a perpendicular 22 feet. Here they saw an opening between the mountains, and were in doubt whether the open|ing did not take an easterly direction through the above opening; or whether that opening was only a branch of it, and that the main channel con|tinued its northern direction. Next day Mr. Bligh, the master, reported, that he had found the inlet contracted to the breadth of one league by low land, through which it continued its northerly direction; that he proceeded three leagues through this narrow part, which he found navigable for the largest ships; but the water, as it ran down, fresh. He landed on an island, that, it should seem, divided this main channel, and a branch that had an easterly course, upon which he found current bushes, with the fruit already (June) set; and some other fruit-trees unknown to him. About three leagues beyond this, he ob|served another separation in the eastern chain of mountains, but still thought the main channel preserved its northern direction. To get a nearer view of the eastern branch, the Resolution weigh|ed, and plyed up before high water; but the wind being contrary, he was obliged to cast an|chor, and having dispatched two boats to make observations, and examine the tides, they found Page  235 that the flood set strong into the eastern branch, which Capt. Cook distinguished by the name of River Turnagain; and that the ebb came out with still greater force. Being now convinced, that no passage was to be expected by this river, any more than by the main branch, Capt. Cook gave orders to Mr. King to land on the northern point of the low land, there to display the flag, and take possession of the country and river, and to bury in the ground a bottle, containing some pieces of English coin, of the year 1772, and a paper, on which was inscribed the names of the ships, and the date of the discovery. In the mean time, a party of us, with officers, attended by a serjeant's guard of marines, landed on the easternmost shore, in order to reconnoitre the country. We had pro|ceeded more than four miles without seeing one inhabitant, and were going to scour the woods for game, when a body of Indians, to the number of forty or fifty, rushed out of an adjoining thicket, all armed after their manner with bows and spears; a few of our marines discharged their pieces over their heads, which instantly stopt their career; and they were retreating as rapidly as they came on, when the officer, who had the command, advancing singly grounded his piece, and made signs for them to halt. One who seemed to have the command of the rest, turning suddenly about, observed his motions, and understood them; and calling to the rest, they all stopt, and, after a short consultation, laid down their arms, and stripping themselves quite naked, laid their clothes down by them. This we un|derstood they did, to show that they had no arms concealed. We then advanced, and entered into a kind of dumb discourse, of which we could under|stand enough to know that they wanted us to ac|company them to their town, which we very Page  236 readily did; they very deliberately put on their clothes, and then shewed us the way.

When we arrived, we found a number of wretched huts, with women and children, old men and dogs, who at first sight of us, were more frightened than their masters, hanging their tails, and sneaking away. One of these Mr. Law, our Surgeon, purchased. These huts consisted of nothing but long poles, rudely constructed into the form of a hovel, and covered over with heathy earth. For a door, they had a hole just large enough to creep in at, which, in cold weather, they close with a kind of faggot. Their inner apartments were holes or pits dug in the earth, and divided like stalls in a stable. Their furni|ture we did not take the pains to survey. We saw some bladders full of blubber or fat, hanging about, and some skins of beasts; also, dried fish in plenty. We likewise saw several wooden uten|sils, besides their arms; and we saw quantities of salt in wooden troughs. They had dried flesh, too, probably the remains of their winter provi|sions, which we understood they eat raw, and some of which they offered us for dinner. In these huts, or holes, they burn no fire; but in the winter they shut themselves up close, and have lamps, which they continually keep burning: for here, during the winter months, they scarce ever see the sun. We were not a little surprised at the sight of some of their children, who were as fair, and their skins as white, as those of many children in England; their dark coppery complexion is therefore owing to their anointing and greasing their children when they are young, and exposing them to all weathers while they have light, and shutting them in their smoaky caverns when it is dark. We found little or no difference between Page  237 the people in this sound and those we have de|scribed in the other, except having large drops or ornaments at their ears and noses, of beads of their own making. These they would not part with. They had gloves and boots likewise of their own manufacturing, and cloaks very curiously wrought. Their hair in general was long and black, which they dress and decorate with feathers and down. The women wear ornaments of ivory, beads, or transparent stones, which they hang to their ears, or run across their nostrils with a needle of bone about an inch and a half long, having another of equal length, which they pass cross a false mouth just above the chin. To these they string their ornaments, as in the figure annexed: and in this consists their pride. Having gratified our curi|osity, we returned to our ships; and having no|thing farther to detain us,

On the 2d of June, in the afternoon, we set sail. The same afternoon, the Resolution struck, and stuck fast on a bank in the middle of the ri|ver; but on the return of the tide, floated off without any damage. We were now in lat. 61.15. N. and in long. 209.55. E. many leagues within land, and it was not till the 6th that we cleared the channel.

The 4th, being his Majesty's birth-day we kept as a day of rejoicing.

On the 5th, we passed the burning mountains, and the wind dying away, we cast anchor, and shooting and fishing now took place of watching and hard labour. While the crews were pursuing their sport, two canoes approached the ships, with more than forty strangers, who were differently clothed from those Indians we had hitherto seen in this latitude. They brought with them curi|osities of various kinds and shapes; also great quantities of skins of seals, wolves, deer, black Page  238 and white foxes, racoons, martins, sables, and some few beavers, which they themselves had compleatly manufactured, and were soon pur|chased by those on board. The dress of these men were skins of birds, with the feathers out|wards, very neatly sewed, and reaching from the neck to the mid-leg. Under these they had a kind of trowsers, which parted in the middle, and sur|rounded their thighs. Under their feet they had a coarse covering that served for shoes. All these, though the weather was cold, they parted with, and most of them went naked from the ships, making signs for us to follow them, though it was not easy to discover from whence they came, nor where they were to go.

The 6th, a breeze sprang up, and we cleared the strait, to the unspeakable joy of the sailors, who, during the whole time from our entrance till our return, worked with incredible labour, an|choring and weighing as in the former sound, just as the winds and the tide afforded opportunity. During our passage, we had frequent interviews with the natives, who, the nearer we approached the shore, were, as we have observed, better clothed, and shewed some manufactures of their own, and of other nations; and were in possession of a greater variety of skins than those within land, which were strong indications of a foreign trade; but by what conveyance carried on, all our endea|vours at this time could not discover. This day we passed the barren isles.

On the 7th, at noon, St. Hermogenes bore N. four leagues distant. It appeared green and fer|tile.

On the 8th, we continued this course with very little variation, till night, when a thick fog came Page  239 on, and we lost sight of the Resolution. This weather continued till

The 10th, when the Resolution, in coasting along the main, ran foul of a dangerous reef, that appeared just above water, close under her lee|bow. Her good fortune still accompanied her, for she slid off without damage. Lat. 56.44. long. 207.53.

On the 11th, we were alarmed by the clashing of the waves, as if some great building was tum|bling in, and looking round the ship, we saw ourselves involved among shoals of seals and sea-lions, who presently set up the most frightful howlings; at the same time, we observed a large whale to pass along, at which we fired a swivel, but without effect. We this day stood to the North-East as the land trended.

On the 12th, Cape St. Barnabas bore N. 52. E. At eight o'clock, we opened upon some new land, the extreme Eastward point of which bore E. S. E. In the evening we stood S.

On the 14th, in the morning, we saw Trinity Island, distant 7 or 8 leagues, lat. 56.23. lon. 205.16. We directed our course along shore.

On the 15th, the weather hazy, we lost sight of land, sounded, and found no ground at 100 fathom. A storm came on, and both ships stood to sea.

On the 16th, it abated, the weather clear, [came in sight of Foggy Island, so called by Beer|ing] stood W. N. W. with a stiff breeze; lat. at noon by observation, 56.24. long. 202.17.

On the 17th, stood in, and saw land trend S. ½ E. as far as the eye could carry. At nine in the morning we opened a large bay, the entrance of which from S. W. to N. W. about three miles over; but having a fine breeze in our favour, we Page  240 continued along shore. We were now about two leagues distant from the shore, which was covered with geese, ducks, shags, and sea-fowls, innu|merable.

On the 19th, we coasted along shore, and pas|sed many dangerous rocks and shoals, which we saw project from the main into the sea to a great distance. We were now in lat. 55.26. long. 200.48. E. At two in the afternoon, we passed two large islands to the Southward of us, and about three had passed all the land to the Southward, when, being within half a mile of the main, we observed three canoes making towards us, in which were six Indians. When they came along side, they made signs for us to drop our anchors, inti|mating that the people on shore would be glad to see us; at the same time, we thought we heard the report of a gun. Little notice, however, was taken of what passed. The people from the gang-way talked with the men, one of whom made signs for letting down a rope, to which he tied a neat box, curiously made up with small twine, for which he would take nothing in return. The man who took it, looked upon it as a great curiosity; and, after the Indians were gone, began to exa|mine the contents, when a note was found in the inside, which was immediately carried to the Cap|tain, and a consultation was held on the quarter-deck to endeavour to decypher the contents; but none on board the Discovery could make out a letter. The ship was then hove-to, three guns fired, and a jack hoisted to the mast-head for stopping the Resolution. This being observed, all on board were struck with fear for the safety of the Discovery, thinking that some fatal disaster had happened, and that she was going to the bottom. Their boat was instantly hoisted out, Page  241 and Mr. Williamson, third Lieutenant, came in all haste to learn the cause. With him our Cap|tain returned, and related what had happened, and shewed Captain Cook the note, who likewise held a consultation upon it, and it was handed from the quarter-deck to the gang-way, where every man in the ship might see it; but not a man could make out more than something like the date 1778, of which they were not clear. We therefore con|tinued our course along the coast as the land trend|ed, but saw no opening, nor any inhabitants. About midnight, we saw a vast flame ascend from a burning mountain, and observed several fires within land. Latitude by observation 54.47. N. long. 197.52. E.

On the 20th, early in the morning, looking out a-head, we saw something like a reef before us, and fired a gun for the Resolution to tack; happy that day-light had enabled us to escape the danger.

On the 21st, we steered S. W. but at eight A. M. finding the land to trend more to the Southward, we altered our course to S. S. W. the extreme of the land in sight bearing W. by S. seven or eight leagues, very high land, and much snow. About two in the afternoon, we came again in sight of the two burning mountains, which we had before seen, but at a great distance, bearing N. W. by N. Our course during the night was S. S. W. During the course of this day, the weather being fair, and but little wind, the men were employed in fishing; and in less than four hours caught more than three ton weight of cod and holybut, some of the latter more than a hundred pounds weight. Here a man in a small canoe came on board the Resolution. He bowed and pulled off his cap, and shewed evident signs of Page  242 having had commercial dealings with the Russians. He wore a pair of green cloth breeches, and a jacket of black cloth. He had nothing to barter, except a grey fox skin.

On the 22d, our men were employed in salting and barreling up, for future use, what the ship's company could not consume while fresh, which proved a most acceptable supply. All this day we kept our course S. W. by S.

On the 23d, in the evening, we shaped our course more to the Westward, the weather thick and hazy.

On the 24th, little wind and hazy. Saw no land; but looking over the ship's side, observed the water to change to a milky white. Sounded, and found ground at 47 fathom. About four P. M. we saw two very high islands bearing N. W. distance about five leagues, and could discern the main land contiguous. We bore away under the lee of the Westernmost, and continued steering all night S. by W.

On the 25th, in the morning, we changed our course, steering S. W. as the land trended. At ten the same morning, we had a full view of the land for many miles, but saw no signs of houses or inhabitants; but doubtless, though the coun|try appeared rugged and barren, and in many places white with snow, there were many people in the inland parts. About seven in the evening we could see land at a great distance, bearing due South, which had the appearance of a large island. Hitherto we had been exploring the coasts of an unknown continent; unknown, at least, to our European geographers: though we shall see by the sequel, that it was not wholly unexplored by the Asiatic Russians. Towards night, though it had been perfectly clear all day, the air began to Page  243 thicken, and by ten at night the fog was so thick that we could not see the ship's length. We kept firing guns, burning false fires, and standing off land all night, as did the Resolution; and in the morning of the

26th, when the fog dispersed, we found our|selves in a deep bay, surrounded by high lands, and almost ashore under a high mountain, which we had not before discerned. Both ships instantly dropt anchor in 24 fathom water, blue muddy bottom, within two cables length of the shore, and among shoals and breakers, from which we most miraculously escaped. For some time we stood in amazement how we could possibly get into such a frightful situation. But being in it, for our own safety we moored both ships; and happy it was we used that precaution; for a gale came on, when our whole existence depended upon the goodness of our cables. In the evening, the boats were got out, and the Captain, with several other gentlemen, went on shore; but with great danger were landed, as were likewise some boats from both ships, to cut grass for the live stock that yet remained. They afterwards found that this was an island, called by the Russians, Vonulashka Island; but saw no inhabitants. In their excursion the gentlemen shot two eagles and several other birds of various sorts, and soon re|turned on board the ships. Lat. obs. 53.39. Long. 193.16. E.

On the 27th, at three A. M. it ceased blowing, and the weather began to clear. At six we un|moored, and sailed under close reefed top-sails, directing our course N. W. for an opening we saw at about a league distance; but at nine the wind dying away, we anchored again in 25 fathom water, loamy sand. It being a dead calm, our Page  244 boats were ordered out, and some gentlemen went again on shore, to examine the island more closely. In their search they found something like an In|dian mansion, being a deep pit sunk in the earth, with some poles placed across it after their manner, and covered with sods, and a hole to creep into it about two feet square. In it they found the bones of dried fish, and of birds, and near it a place where there had been a fire, but all had the ap|pearance of being long deserted. They also found the rib of a whale, about eight feet long, which it was not easy to account how it could come there. About noon the gentlemen returned on board, and a breeze springing up from the Eastward, we weighed, and took leave of this dangerous bay, to which Capt. Cook gave the name of Providence Bay, as it was owing to Pro|vidence that we were here miraculously preserved from perishing. We had pleasant weather all day, and the land high all round us. We sounded all the afternoon from 18 to 36 fathom, mostly sandy bottom. In the evening we saw a large body of Indians towing a whale which they had struck, who were too busy to mind us till late, when two canoes came along-side and traded. We were surprised when they asked us for tobacco, and more so when they shewed us some, together with snuff in their boxes. As tobacco was a precious commodity on board, we could spare them little, but for that little they were thankful, and de|parted. We passed several islands to the East|ward, very high and mountainous.

On the 28th, in the morning, Mr. Nelson, ac|companied by several other gentlemen, went on shore botanizing; they found great variety of plants and flowers peculiar to the country, besides others, with which we were all well acquainted; Page  245 such as primroses, violets, currants, rasberries, juniper, and many other Northern fruits, which were now all in blossom. They found also a bird's nest, with five small eggs, not unlike a sparrow's. After some stay they came again on board, and the wind dying away, and the Reso|lution having got far a-head, our boats were em|ployed in towing us, when a strong current meet|ing us right a-head, baffled their endeavours. This current ran with such force, that the Reso|lution, unable to stem it, cast anchor, and soon after was joined by the Discovery. Here several canoes came from the land to trade, and made signs for more tobacco, of which our own men were in great want. About noon we opened on a fine harbour to the Westward of us; but we were the whole afternoon in working up the Race, as it was called, from the rapidity of its motion, and the strength with which it set against us. Our first attempt to stem it proved fruitless. We were driven as far back as the place from whence we set out. On the tide's turning in our favour, we made a second attempt, and succeeded. About six in the evening, we cast anchor 12 fathom water, and soon after came to moorings. We were, in less than an hour, surrounded with more than thirty canoes, with rock fish and dried sal|mon, which they exchanged for beads, small nails, or any thing we offered them. They had likewise some very pretty baskets of their own making, with other utensils, which plainly in|dicated a communication with foreign traders.

On the 29th, the boats were employed in wa|tering the ships, and the sail-makers, &c. began to overhaul the rigging, and all hands were em|ployed in different repairs. In the mean time se|veral Indians hovered round the ships with fish Page  246 ready dressed, which they presented to any indis|criminately who would accept them; but would take nothing in return, except tobacco or snuff were offered them; neither did they offer to steal or take any the most trifling thing away: and what was remarkable, not a woman was to be seen, nor did any come near the ship during our stay. Our Captain took notice of two that seemed su|perior to the rest, he invited them on board, and with much entreaty prevailed on them to enter. He made them presents of a few beads, and two or three hands of tobacco each, for which they in the most submissive manner expressed their gra|titude. All this while our botanist and his atten|dants were busily employed, and sent plenty of celery and other wholesome herbs on board, as well for the use of the great cabin as for those of the subordinate tables, down even to the lowest of the ship's company.

On the 30th both Captains landed, in order to survey the island, and take a more accurate view of the harbour, Captain Cook intending to make this the place of rendezvous on his return: they met with several friendly Indians in their way, to whom they made presents.

On the 1st of July the signal was given to un|moor; but, the wind shifting to N. N. E. Mr. Edgar, master of the Discovery, accompanied by several other gentlemen, made a visit to an Indian town, which they saw at the distance of five or six miles, situated on the side of a pleasant little hill, that seemed to command a view of the bay, and of a great extent of country around. At this town they arrived about ten in the morning, when a well-looking old man made them understand he was chief of the place. To him therefore they made their addresses, by presenting him with some Page  [unnumbered]

[illustration] [depiction of the people of Onalashka]
A Man and Woman of Onalashka.

p. 246.
Page  247 trifles, and a small hand of tobacco. By way of return, he made signs for the strangers to sit down; and when they were seated, he brought them fish of various sorts, dried and fresh, and some dried venison, which, however, they declined to taste: observing, therefore, that the strangers wanted only to satisfy their curiosity, he made signs for them to follow him; leading them to every house, and, last of all, to his own. These houses were no other than square caverns dug in the ground, and latticed with rough poles, over which were laid sods of earth, leaving a square hole in the middle like a hatch-way, through which to enter. They descended by means of a ladder, made by cutting notches in a beam, deep enough to re|ceive the toes and the ball of the foot; and by that ladder women and children, as well as men, run up and down like so many rats, without fear of falling. The old Indian did not seem willing to shew the gentlemen the inside of the houses, nor were they over-solicitous to examine them. The smell, when they looked down, was enough to satisfy them. These holes or houses, if they may be so called, were some of them forty feet long, thirty broad, and about twelve feet deep. In these they never burn fire, but kindle their fires at some distance, chiefly in the night, but for what reason we could never learn. Hence it is, that sailors are enabled to judge of the populous|ness of a country by the number of these fires that are seen from the shore. From the houses the old Indian led them to the sheds where they ma|nufactured their skins; shewed their manner of dressing them, their store-houses, and in short, all their arts and artificers, their women only except|ed, of whom one only made her appearance, and she was old, and far from being inviting. About Page  248 eight in the afternoon the gentlemen returned; and however they might be surfeited with what they had seen, they shewed by the dinner they made that they had not lost their appetite.

While Mr. Edgar, &c. were thus pleasing them|selves with one kind of amusement, Mr. Law, Sur|geon, was diverting himself with another. He went a hunting, and traced an old fox to her cover, where, after digging a considerable way, he found seven young ones; two of which he brought on board, and one of them lived a long time after.

On the 2d of July we cleared the harbour, called by the inhabitants Samganooda, situated on the North-side of Oonalashka, in lat. 53.35. long. 193.30. About noon we saw the land trend to S. S. E. hauled up to E. N. E. and continued all night in that course.

On the 3d, at two A. M. she wore ship, and stood to the Southward till day-light, and then tacked, and steered E. N. E. At noon we saw the extreme of the land, bearing E. ½ S.

On the 4th, at two A. M. we steered N. N. E. At ten sounded at seventy fathom, blue mud, shelly bottom, and making very little way, our men were employed in fishing, and in less than four hours catched upwards of 800 weight of cod. At noon we had an observation, lat. 55.49. N. long. 195.34. Course all night N. E.

On the 5th, we saw the land very low and even, trending away to the Southward of the East. We were distant from the Northernmost shore three or four leagues, and from this day we be|gan sounding till our arrival in watering harbour. This day all hands employed in fishing; and as our people were now put on two-thirds allowance, what each caught he might eat or sell. For|tunate for them, they caught some tons of fine Page  249 fish, which proved a most seasonable supply; for the ship provisions, what with salt and mag|gots eating into the beef and pork, and the rats and weavils devouring the heart of the bread, the one was little better than putrid flesh, and the other, upon breaking, would crumble into dust. At noon, this day, we directed our course N. N. E. being now in lat. 56.36. long. 196.19. per watch.

On the 6th we continued the same course, and, sounding, found ground at twelve fathom. We tacked, and stood to the S. E. and, sounding again, found ground at three fathoms and a half. We were now in Beering's Straits. We tacked instantly, and stood to the North, having had a|nother providential escape from running upon the rocks. We got out our boats, and sounded from 7 to 5½ fathom, rocky bottom for eight or nine leagues to the Northward. Lat. 57.4. long. 199.40. We were now in a most perilous and labo|rious navigation; sounding every day, and every day in danger of perishing on the rocks.

On the 7th sounded from twelve to four fa|thom, hard bottom, with shells. Lat. 57.17. long. 200.6.

On the 8th sounded from seven to twenty fa|thom; small shells, with sand. Lat. 57.46. long. 201.40. per watch.

On the 9th a great fog; lay by most part of the day; sounded from six to ten fathoms and a half; lat. by observation 58.15. long. 201.11.

On the 10th we had thunder, hail, and rain. The men almost exhausted with fatigue; sound|ed from twelve to nine fathoms and a half. Lat. 57.58. long. 221.19.

The 11th we came in sight of land. The air clear and pleasant; we steered N. W. by W. the Page  250 Westward point of land in sight, bearing W. ½ N. This day the gentlemen from both ships diverted themselves in shooting. At noon our Captain returned on board with three sea-parrots, four pigeons, several gulls, teals, and shags. These parrots are in size and shape not unlike those on land, but web-footed, and their plumage diffe|rent. Numbers of them were shot, and brought to England as curiosities. The pigeons too are much like those on land, but web-footed, and make a most disagreeable cooing, much like the croaking of the sea-lion; sounded from twelve to six fathoms. Lat. 58.11. long. 199.50.

On the 12th nothing material; the day was pleasant, and he had a full view of the land, but saw neither tree nor bush; sounded from eight to sixteen fathom. Latitude by observation 58.20.

The 13th, sounded from eight to thirteen fa|thom. Lat. 58.13. long. 198.8.

The 14th we coasted along shore, N. N. W. and at three in the afternoon found ourselves to the windward of the Southward point, with a strong tide setting to the S. E. About four a thick fog arose, and being within two miles of the shore, came to an anchor in ten fathom wa|ter, the extreme point of land to the Westward, bearing N. N. W. very high; distant between six and seven leagues. Sounded all day from ten to twelve fathom. Latitude by observation 58.20. long. 197.51.

The 15th, about ten in the morning, the weather clear and fine, we came to an anchor in seventeen fathom water, lat. 58.24. long. 197.4. Here the cutters from both ships were man|ned, and all the gentlemen went on shore. We saw no other inhabitants but bears and foxes, and some wild deer; we heard in the adjoining woods Page  251 the howlings and yellings of wolves and other wild beasts; but thought it neither safe nor sea|sonable to pursue them. After spending the greatest part of the day in botanizing with Mr. Nelson, we returned on board, leaving on the bluff part of a rock a bottle behind us, in which were enclosed some blue and white beads, with a note of the ships names, the date when left, by whom, and on what expedition. We found near the shore the horns of some sea-monsters, from twenty to twenty-four inches long, nearly as thick as a man's leg at the root, and tapering to a point, with a gradual sweep. Lat. 58.24. long. 197.4. We were no sooner returned than a breeze sprang up, when we weighed, and again made sail, with the ships heads W. N. W.

The 16th, the water shallowed so fast, that it was thought prudent to drop anchors again, and to send the boats out with a compass to examine the strait to a considerable distance a-head. In half an hour a gun was fired from the boats, as a signal not to proceed, and the man at the mast-head saw land appear just above water. This proved a barren spot, not above an acre wide, with nothing but shells and the bones of fishes on it. The boats having sounded from W. to N. W. by N. from two to one fathom and a half, returned with their report, that no passage could be found in that di|rection. From this day to the 20th, the boats were continually sounding in all directions amidst the most dreadful tempest of thunder, lightning, and hail, that ever blew; but such was our dan|ger, that Capt. Cook himself shared in all the la|bour: and what added to our misfortune, the Resolution parted her best bower within ten fa|thoms of the anchor, and it was wonderful that she was not wrecked. Lat. 58.40. long. 196.40.

Page  252On the 17th all hands that could be spared were employed in sweeping for the anchor, but in vain; being quite worn down with fatigue, they were forced to give over, and men from the Discovery were ordered to supply their places. Latitude by observation 58.53. long. 197.4.

On the 18th the anchor was recovered, when every officer on board both ships was obliged to do the duty of common men. No pen can de|scribe our danger from the horrible situation we were in.

The 19th was wholly employed in sounding from eight to two fathom. Lat. 59.37. long. 197.17.

On the 20th Captain Cook himself, in sound|ing to the S. E. found a narrow channel, regular soundings, from eight to ten fathom. Hope took place of despair, and all hands returned to their labour with fresh spirits. We presently weighed, and pursued our course with a fine breeze. The day continuing clear, at noon we had an obser|vation in lat. 59.37. long. 197. E. This day we were visited by some Indians, who had little to part with, except dried fish, and bows and arrows. The only peculiarity we observed was, that most of them had their heads shaved close. They seemed fondest of Otaheite and other Indian cloth, for which they would part with any thing.

On the 21st, about noon, both ships brought to, the wind and current both uniting to oppose our progress; founded from twelve to five fa|thoms and a half. Lat. 59.26. long. 197.18.

On the 22d we were overjoyed, on sounding, to find the sea deepen to forty fathom; but, before night that joy was much damped by a prodigious fall of snow, of which it was with difficulty that the decks could be kept clear, though the water Page  253 was constantly employed in shovelling it off dur|ing the night. Lat. 59.11. long. 197.14. course S. S. W.

The 23d made sail, and steered W. Lat. 58.26.

The 24th continued our course W. by S.

The 25th lay to most of the day, by reason of the fog. Lat. 57.43. long. 193.

The 26th, when it began to clear up.

On the 27th we had clear weather, and regular soundings, from twenty-seven to thirty fathom; black sand and small shells.

On the 28th sounded all day from twenty-eight to thirty-three fathoms; sandy bottom.

On the 29th the man at the mast-head called out land very high, distance about two leagues right a-head. We tacked, and stood off. Long 189.20. per watch.

On the 30th we continued along-shore, course N. ½ E. sounding from twenty-five to thirty-five fathom. Lat. 61.14. long. 190.10.

The 31st we were again alarmed with irregu|lar soundings, from ten to thirty fathom, but were soon relieved, by the water deepening. Lat. 31.20. long. 188.11. per watch.

August the 1st, the sea continued to deepen, but the land trending to the southward, obliged us to change our course. We were now in lat. 60.59. N. long. 191.47. E.

On the 2d we again bore away N. W. all the morning, and at noon tacked to N. E. by N. Lat. 62.13. long. 191.33.

The 3d, course all day N. N. E. This course we pursued, with a little variation to the eastward, till the evening, when we saw land, bearing S. W. distance seven or eight leagues. Latitude by ob|servation 63.4. long. 192.10. This day, word was brought us from the Resolution of the death Page  254 of Mr. Anderson, the surgeon. His funeral was performed with the usual sea-ceremonies; and our surgeon, Mr. Law, was appointed in his place; and Mr. Samuel, surgeon's mate of the Resolution, succeeded Mr. Law.

The 4th at noon, sounding from fifteen toten fathom we came again in sight of land, which bore from us W. to N. ½ E. At noon we sounded, and found only eight fathoms and a half. In the even|ing we came to an anchor in fifteen fathom. Lat. 64.44. long. 192.7.

On the 5th, we came to in twelve fathom wa|ter, under the lee of a small but high island, in lat. 64.41. long. 192.14. to which Captain Cook gave the name of Sledge Island, as a sledge and the remains of a Russian town were found upon it, but no inhabitants. There were likewise found some Russian snow-shoes. Mr. Nelson, and his associates found, on this island, great quantities of wild celery, and a kind of wild vetch or chich|ling, of which the ship's company made the pro|per use.

Early on the 6th we weighed, and stood W. by N. As we coasted along shore, several Indians were seen on the opposite side of the island, who were, to all appearance, preparing to pay us a visit. We hove to; but, after waiting an hour, and none coming, we continued our course. We soon came again into shallow water, and finding the land too near us from the western shore, we altered our course to N. N. W. sounding from four to six fathom water, six leagues from the main land. We were now obliged to come to anchor, as a heavy snow darkened the air, and rendered our proceeding hazardous. Lat. 4.44. long. 192.42.

Page  255On the 7th, judging ourselves near the shore, though not in sight, we weighed and tacked; and as the fog dispersed, we saw the land mountainous and rocky, with neither tree nor shrub in sight, but exhibiting the most dreary prospect that the mind of man can conceive. At the same time, an island was seen bearing N. 81. W. eight or nine leagues distant, named by us King's Island. It seemed of no great extent. We hastened from this horrid situation, but in the course of the day were under the necessity of coming to an anchor three times; but in launching it the last time, we observed the stock of our best bower to be sprung. Nothing could equal our apprehensions. We immediately made signals, and acquainted our Commodore with our distress. Fortunately, the stock of an unserviceable best-bower hung over our side, which, by the assistance of the carpenters and smiths of the Resolution, added to our own, was in less than twenty-four hours, though under every disadvantage, substituted in the room of the other, and rendered perfectly safe. And happy it was, for

On the 8th, we had a violent storm of hail, rain and snow, which continued all the morning; but the wind dying away about noon, and the current setting to the N. E. we were drifted to leeward close in shore, under a very high track of land, and among rocks and breakers. Both ships instantly came to in 9 fathom water, the Resolution with her best-bower, within two miles of the shore, and the Discovery with her coasting anchor. Here we saw high land, extending from N. by W. to N. W. by N. distant about three leagues. Over the western extreme was an elevated peaked hill, situated in lat. 65.36. and in long. 192.18. Under this hill lies some low land, stretching out Page  256 to the N. W. the extreme point of which bore F. by E. This point of land is the more re|markable, being the western extremity of all Ame|rica hitherto known, and named by Capt. Cook Cape Prince of Wales. And now a breeze spring|ing up in our favour, we quitted this perilous situation; and seeing the land trend away to the N. W. we directed our course accordingly, till, having doubled the westernmost point, we steered again to the eastward, and continued that course the whole night.

On the 9th about 2 A. M. we came again to an anchor, a strong current from 5 to 6 knots an hour setting against us; but the ships pitching bows under, and the water from the upper deck run|ning, as through a sieve, to the lower deck, in less than half an hour, every thing between decks was afloat, so that the poor men had not a dry rag to put on. This obliged us to weigh as fast as possible; but, in our situation, that was a work of no small labour and difficulty, as at this time many of our hands, through fatigue, and being constantly exposed to the rain and snow, and in a damp ship, were ill of colds, attended with slow fevers, which rendered them incapable of duty. Out of 70 hands, officers included, we could only muster 20 to the capstern. We had with difficulty weighed our small bower, and had made two un|successful attempts at the sheet anchor, when the Resolution left us, making all the sail she could carry, to surmount the current. We were now in the utmost distress; but by contriving several ad|ditional purchases we at last succeeded, with the misfortune, however, of having two of our ablest hands wounded; and it was next to a miracle that none were killed. The Resolution was now out of sight, but, judging our distress, she lay to amidst Page  257 a cluster of islands, of which we told no less than seven, very small but very high. As soon as we came in sight, she made sail, and we followed with all the sail we could crowd till about mid|night, when we were surprised by a sudden squall, which split our main top-sail, and shivered our jib to ribbons; it was, however, of short conti|nuance. Lat. 65.46. long. 191.45.

On the 10th, we had fine weather and a calm sea, and were proceeding, at a great rate, our course W. when, unexpectedly we opened into a deep bay, where we saw at the distance of a few leagues, a large Indian town, which our Commo|dore at first supposed to belong to the island of Alaschka; but from the figure of the coast, the situation of the opposite shore of America, and from the longitude, he found reason to alter his opinion, and to conclude that it was a part of the country of Tschutski, or the eastern extremity of Asia, explored by Beering in 1728. Long 189.25. Here we cast anchor in 13 fathom water, and both Captains, attended by a proper guard went on shore. About 30 or 40 men, each armed with a spontoon, a bow and arrows, stood drawn up on a rising ground close by the village. As we drew near, three of them came down towards the shore, and were so polite as to take off their caps, and to make us low bows. We returned the civility, but this did not inspire them with sufficient con|fidence; for the moment we advanced, they re|tired. Capt. Cook followed them alone, with|out any thing in his hand; and by signs, prevailed on them to receive some trifling presents. In re|turn, they gave him two fox skins, and a couple of sea-horse teeth. They seemed very cautious; expressing their desire by signs, that no more of our people might be permitted to come up. On Page  258 Capt. Cook's laying his hand on the shoulder of one of them, he started back, and in proportion as the Captain advanced, the natives retreated; al|ways in the attitude of being ready to make use of their spears, while those on the rising ground stood ready to support them with their arrows. Insen|sibly, a few of our people got in among them; but a few beads being distributed to those about them, soon created a confidence, and, by degrees, a sort of traffic commenced. In exchange for knives, beads, tobacco, and other articles, they gave us some of their clothing, and a few arrows; but no|thing could induce them to part with a spear, or a bow. These they held in constant readiness, never quitting them, except at one time, when four or five of them laid theirs down, while they gave us a song and a dance. Their arrows were pointed either with bone or stone, but very few of them had barbs, and some were blunted. The use they made of these was, probably, to kill small animals, without damaging their skins. The bows were such as we had seen used by the Ame|rican Esquimaux. The spears or spontoons were of iron or steel, of European or Asiatic workman|ship, curiously ornamented with carvings and inlayings of brass and white metal. Those who stood ready with their bows and arrows, had their spears slung over their right shoulders; a qui|ver slung over their left with arrows; some of their quivers were extremely beautiful, being made of red leather, on which were very neat em|broidery, and other ornaments. Several other things, and in particular their clothing, shewed they were not destitute of ingenuity.

All the Americans we had seen since our ar|rival on that coast, were rather low of stature, with round chubby faces, and high cheek bones. Page  259 The people we now were among, had long vis|ages, and were stout and well-made. In short, they appeared to be a quite different nation. We saw neither women nor children; nor any aged, except one man, who was bald-headed, and carried no arms. The other seemed to be picked men, and rather under than above the middle age. All of them had their ears bored, and some of them had glass beads hanging to them. These were the only fixed ornaments we saw among them, for they wore none to their lips; in which they essen|tially differ from their American neighbours.

Their clothing consisted of a cap, a frock, a pair of breeches, a pair of boots, and a pair of gloves, all made of the skins of deer, dogs, seals, &c. extremely well dressed; some with the hair or fur on, and others without. The caps were made to fit the head very close; and, besides these caps, which most of them wore, we got from them some hoods made of the skins of dogs, large enough to cover both head and shoulders. Their hair seemed to be black, but their heads were either shaved, or the hair cut close off, and none of them wore any beard. Of the articles they got from us, knives and tobacco they valued most.

We found the village composed both of their summer and their winter habitations. The latter are exactly like vaults, the floors of which are sunk a little below the surface of the earth, and boarded, and under them a kind of cellar, in which we saw nothing but water. At the end of each house was a vaulted room, which we took to be a store-room. Over it stood a kind of sentry-box or tower, composed of the large bones of large fish.

The summer-huts were pretty large and conical. The framing was of light poles and bones, covered Page  260 with the skins of sea-animals. We examined the inside of one. There was a fire-place just within the door, near which lay a few wooden vessels, all very dirty. Their bed-places were close to the sides. Some privicies seemed to be observed, for there were several partitions made of skins. The bed and bedding were of deer-skins, and most of them were dry and clean.

About these habitations were several stages, ten or twelve feet high, for drying their fish and skins out of the reach of their dogs, of which they had many; large and of different colours, with long soft hair, like wool; probably used in drawing the sledges, for sledges they had in their huts. Perhaps these dogs, being numerous, may constitute a part of their food; for several of them lay dead, that had been killed that morning.

Their canoes are of the same sort with those of the Northern Americans.

By the large fish-bones, and of other sea-ani|mals, that lay scattered about, it appears, that the sea supplies them with the greatest part of their substance.

After a stay of about two or three hours with these people, we returned to our ships, and pur+sued our voyage.

On the 11th we passed several large islands to the eastward of us, and at the same time left the extreme point of the northern cape of Asia, which we saw trend away to the W. by S. as far as the eye could carry, mostly high land, barren and co|vered with snow. We then bore away to the north-east, sounding from 5 to 6 fathom, and about 3 P. M. finding the sea to change of a milky colour, and at the same time to shallow very fast, we came to in 7 fathom water, and sent the boats out to sound, who soon returned, finding Page  261 the sea to deepen as they proceeded. We then got under way, standing all night N. one half W. passing in the night several large sea cows and other sea monsters. Lat. 66.5. long. 191.19.

On the 12th we altered our course, and stood to the westward, when both ships tacked, and plyed to the North, leaving two very small islands on our starboard bow. In the evening we crossed the arctic circle, and stood all night W. by S. 66.35. long 189.39.

In the morning of the 13th we stood once more north eastward. We were now in lat 66.40. and from 20 to 40 fathom water, the weather warm and fine. We altered our course and steered all night N. N. E.

On the 14th in the morning, we hauled our wind and stood with the ship's head to the N. E. About 5 in the afternoon we came in sight of land, distance about 5 or 6 leagues, very high, woody, and covered with snow; we stood in for land; but finding the coast rugged, and the wa|ter shoal, we stood again W. S. W. and continued that course the whole night. Lat. 67.27. long. 191.40.

On the 15th, finding ourselves attacked by a heavy storm of wind, attended with rain, we bore away N. W. by W. and continued that course till the evening, when we shortened sail and stood to the southward. Lat. obs. 68.18. long. 192.37.

On the 16th at noon we found ourselves in lat. 69.46. long. 192. E. We then stood from N. N. E. to N. E. sounding from 22 to 23 fathom water. Lat. 69.46. long. 192.

On the 17th the weather began to grow pierce|ing cold. The frost set in, and froze so hard that the running rigging was soon loaded with ice, and rendered almost impossible to make the sheafs or Page  262 blocks traverse without the assistance of six men to do the work of one. But what was most re|markable, was the sudden transition from heat to such severe cold. The day before was warm and pleasant, but in the evening of this day the ice was seen hanging at our hair, our noses, and even at the men's fingers ends, if they did but expose them to the air for five or six minutes: and still the farther they ran to the eastward, the colder it grew, and the ice the more connected. About 2 in the afternoon we found ourselves surrounded with large floating islands of ice, which, like clouds in the sky, were continually varying their appearances; but the farther we ran to the east|ward, the closer the ice became compacted. As the weather was now clear, though piercing cold, we could see the ice extending on every side E. and W. as far as the eye could carry. We stood to the northward, and being embayed, we observed a large island floating, with the tide towards us, whereon was supposed to rest great numbers of sea-monsters. Being apprehensive of danger, the signal was made for tacking. We kept off and on all night. Lat. 70.41. long. 197.

On the 18th, hot victuals froze while we were at table; and this weather continued for some days. Being now well in with the ice, and having lost sight of land, we kept working to the westward. At noon a great fog came on, but soon clearing up, the sun made his appearance, and we had an observation, by which we found we were in lat. 70.54. long. 198.17. About eight at night it blew a gale, with heavy snow; we shortened sail, and stood to the southward.

The 19th when looking round in the morning, as soon as the fog cleared away, we saw nothing but fields of ice covered with whole herds of sea-lions, Page  263 sea-horses, and other amphibious animals, to the number, as it was thought, of some thou|sands. Thus surrounded, a signal was made from the Resolution to bring to, and to load the great guns, while the boats were getting ready to attack these hideous looking creatures with muskets. This, by the sailors from both ships, was accounted sport; and they went to the attack with as much alacrity as if to a match at foot-ball. Orders were given, as soon as the great guns were discharged, to quicken the attack with the musketry as fast as possible. In a few minutes not a creature was to be seen upon the ice but such as were killed, or so severely wounded as not to be able to crawl to the open sea. Some lay growling on the ice not quite dead, with two or three balls through their heads, and others tumbling about with horrible vindictive looks, threatening destruction to who|ever should approach them. These monsters, when at their growth, are in length from the head to the hindmost fin from eleven to twelve feet; round the belly from twenty to twenty-six feet. Four long stiff fins serve them for feet, with which they crawl or slide upon the ice, and move with wonderful agility; two large tusks, at the distance of 7 or 8 inches apart, project from the nostrils, in length from twenty inches to two feet four, thick at the root, and tapering to a point; their forehead resembles that of a bull. They have whiskers on each side the mouth, about six inches long, as stiff as a knitting-needle, with which they raise themselves upon the ice. Their eyes are small. They have no teeth; nor have they any tail. They have, like the seals, some little hair upon their skins, but very thin; and are, upon the whole, most horribly ugly creatures. After the engagement was over, all hands were employed Page  264 to collect the carcasses, and to carry them on board; but what was thought an ill reward for their labour, orders were next day given by Capt. Cook to substitute the flesh of these sea-monsters in the room of all other provisions, bread or flour only excepted. This was strongly opposed by the crew of the Resolution, and Capt. Clerke remon|strated against it. He was told by Capt. Cook, that he might do as he pleased on board his own ship; but the state of the provisions on board the Resolution made it necessary, and that he himself should set the example. Capt. Clerke endeavoured, but in vain, to enforce the order, and the matter passed on without any serious consequences.

On the 20th we tacked ship, and stood to the westward, the wind much against us. We tacked every two hours, still working over to the Asiatic shore, with a view to examine the coasts on both sides, before we returned to the southward. We were now in lat. 70.54. long. 194.55.

On the 21st, we came in sight of the continent of America, extending from S. by E. to E. by S. the nearest part five leagues distant.

We continued labouring among the ice till the 25th, when a storm came on, which made it dan|gerous for us to proceed; a consultation was there|fore held on board the Resolution as soon as the violence of the gale abated, when it was unani|mously resolved, that as this passage was imprac|ticable for any useful purpose of navigation, which was the great object of the voyage, to pursue it no farther, especially in the condition the ships were in, the winter approaching, and the distance from any known place of refreshment great.

About two in the morning of the 26th we ob|served a great body of ice nearing us very fast, and in a few hours after we saw the ice all closed as far Page  265 as the eye could carry, bearing from N. E. to S. W. We continued to sail W. S. W.

On the 28th several pieces of loose ice passed us, one of which came soul of the Discovery, and shook her whole frame; it was feared she had re|ceived considerable damage, but upon the carpen|ters examining her sore and aft, nothing was found amiss. We now took leave of the ice for this sea|son, directing our course S. S. W.

On the 29th we saw land in the morning, which bore from N. N. W. to S. W. very high, and covered with snow. At two, P. M. we were in with the land. It showed itself in two hills, like islands; but afterwards seemed connected, and appeared in every respect like the opposite coast of America. In the low ground, lying between the high land and the sea, was a lake, extending to the S. E. farther than we could see.

The 30th, at two, A. M. bore away E. by S. At seven saw land; the extreme of which bore S. E. At two, P. M. saw more land, trending to the southward. At this time came in sight of a narrow channel that seemed to lead to the lake, which we had seen the day before. H••…led our wind, and stood N. E. by E. In the evening we were in with the land, and not a shrub to be seen, but birds innumerable, chiefly sea parrots.

On the 31st, at day-light, we came in sight of the eastern cape, named Cape North, bearing S. S. E. very high, and covered with snow: we were then distant from the nearest shore four or five leagues. Continued our course from S. S. E. to S. E. by E. At noon the extreme of the south|ward point bore S. W. by S. At three, P. M. we saw two small, but very high islands, bearing from N. N. E. to N. W. which we left to the northward. We were then in lat. 68.56. and Page  266 long. 180.51. At night both ships tacked to the westward. This day we passed an island, to which Capt. Cook gave the name of Burney's Island.

Sept. 1, we continued coasting to the eastward, as the land trended; distance about four miles from the shore. Here Capt. Cook took occasion to fix the Eastern point of the Asiatic Continent. It shews, he says, a steep rocky cliff facing the sea, and lies in the lat. 67.3. and long. 188.11.

On the 2d we continued coasting along shore. Course all day S. S. E. Saw many very high trees, supposed to be pines.

On the 3d we opened into the great bay, called the bay of St. Lawrence, where we anchored the 10th of last month; but what was remarkable, none of the inhabitants, whom we had visited, of|fered to approach us, though the weather was favourable.

On the 4th stood W. N. W. right in for the land. At six, A. M. bore away S. ½ W. the easternmost point of land bearing S. by E. dis|tance six or seven leagues, and so continued all day. At night stood E. N. E.

On the 5th we lost sight of the main continent of Asia, which we left the day before. Lat. 64.7. long. 189.1.

On the 6th we saw land from W. N. W. to E. N. E. very woody, and covered with snow in the vallies. Here we found ourselves in sight of Sledge-Island, near the continent of America; and here Capt. Cook was desirous of discovering the island of Alaschkska, which the Russians had de|scribed as abounding with wood and water.

On the 7th, there came two canoes from the shore, with four Indians in them, though we were distant full four leagues. We hove to for their Page  267 coming up; but when along-side, they had little or nothing to part with, except some dried fish. They were invited on board, but could not be persuaded to enter. The Captain made them presents of some trifles, with which they departed well pleased. They were clothed in skins, after the manner of all the inhabitants of the Western coasts of America, among whom we found a re|markable uniformity of dress and colour.

On the 8th, we steered E. ½ N. passing several bays and fine harbours all day; found the country pleasant, and the coast delightful. Lat. 64.22. long. 197. beyond which the coast took a more Northerly course. Here we found a strong cur|rent to set to the S. E. at the rate of five knots an hour.

On the 9th, at five, A. M. land appeared from S. E. to E. like two islands, but, after fatigue|ing trials, we found them join to the main land. At four, P. M. the land opened all round, from one shore to the other; and we found ourselves in the middle of a deep bay, but very shallow, some|times three, but never above five fathoms and a half water. At this time, a head-land on the West shore, distinguished by the name of Bald Head, lay N. by W. one league distant. We saw the bay to run as far as the eye could carry, but im|possible to proceed, as in many places the water shallowed under three fathom. We stood off and on all night.

On the 10th, having a stiff breeze, we ran right across the mouth of the bay, for the N. W. shore, and just before night the Resolution nar|rowly escaped running upon a rock. This day, Capt. Cook landed on a narrow border of land which joined to the beech, and which was covered with grass and heath, with a variety of wild ber|ries, Page  268 but rather over-ripe. He observed traces of foxes and deer upon the beech, but none were caught; on each side of this peninsula the coast forms a bay. The projecting point of this pe|ninsula, obtained the name of Cape Denbeigh. Several natives were seen on the peninsula, and one came off, to whom Capt. Cook gave a knife, and asked him for something to eat. The man paddled off; and meeting with another man, with two dried salmon in his canoe, took them from him, and brought them to the Captain.

On the 11th, we came to anchor, in six fathom water, distance from the shore about four miles; the Easternmost point of the bay bearing N. E. by E. distance about eight miles, very high land. In the night, we saw several fires, but no Indians came off to us.

On the 12th, in the morning, the boats from both ships were sent on shore, where they saw some houses of a wretched construction; a small sledge, and several other articles belonging to the Indians, but none of the natives. About ten, they re|turned with a load of wood, which they found drifted on the beech, but no water; the wood had drifted from the Southward, for we saw no trees, but black spruce. We then stretched over to the other shore, and the boats were again sent out, and about nine in the evening returned, loaded with wood, which the men were obliged to carry through the water on their shoulders, as the boats could not come within half a mile of land, for breakers. This was a grievous task, as many of them but just recovered their late illness. This day several natives came from the S. S. E. side, in large canoes, having great quantities of salmon, dried and fresh, which they exchanged for blue and red beads, needles, pins, knives, or scissars, Page  269 or any European trinkets that were offered them; but what they valued most was tobacco. For this they would exchange their bows and arrows, their warlike instruments, and whatever else they valued most; but of this commodity, as has already been noticed, we had but little to spare. We were again obliged to change our station, and stretch to the other shore, where a safe anchorage was discovered, near which we could get wood and water with the greatest ease. We now stood more to the Southward, in order to avoid those breakers we so narrowly escaped before; and next day our great cutter was sent out, properly pro|vided with a compass, and six days provision, to survey the bay, with a view to determine whether that land to which the Russians have given the name of Alaskah, joined to the American conti|nent, or whether there was not a passage through the bay to the Northward. While the cutters were on this service, the boats continued wooding and watering, and before the return of the former, the latter had got the full complement of both on board, and the ships were in readiness to depart.

The 13th, cast anchor in four fathoms and a half water, within a mile and a half from the mouth of a great river, from whence before night we had got more than 20 tons of water; we had likewise got a considerable quantity of wood from the shore. This day a family of the natives came near the place where we were taking off the wood, miserable looking objects, who for four knives made out of an iron hoop, parted with more than 400 lb. weight of fish, which they had caught this and the preceding day.

On the 14th, the men had leave to go ashore by turns to gather berries, which they now found ripe, and in great abundance, such as rasberries, Page  270 blue-berries, black and red currants, huckle ber|ries, with various other sorts, all in full perfec|tion. A party was likewise sent out to cut spruce, to brew into beer for both ships. Of this liquor, however, the men were not very fond in this cold climate, especially when they were given to un|derstand that their grog was to be stopped, and this beer substituted in the room of it. This oc|casioned great murmuring, and it was found ne|cessary to give it alternately, spruce one day, and grog another.

On their excursions, the parties were always well armed, and had marines to attend them; and their orders were never to go out of hearing of the ships guns, but to repair instantly on board on the proper signals. These precautions, however, seemed unnecessary, as they never met with any molestation from the natives, who were not nu|merous upon the coast.

On the 17th, the party that were sent out to survey the bay returned, after a diligent examina|tion of two days and two nights. Their report was, that from the elevated spot from which they had taken their survey, they could see the inlet terminate in a considerable river, which emptied itself into the sea at the head of the bay; that in its course it watered many most delightful vallies, which were bounded on every side with hills of a moderate height, interspersed with mountains or a stupendous height. This report being con|firmed by the officers who commanded the cutters from both ships, the boats were all taken on board and secured, and wood and water having been plentifully supplied, the bay and sound ex|amined, and the exact situation determined to be lat. 64.31. and long. 197.13. there remained no|thing but to name the sound, and take our leave. Page  271 In honour of Sir Fletcher Norton, then Speaker of the House of Commons, to whom Lieut. King had the honour to be nearly related, it was named Norton Sound, called by the natives Chacktoole.

On the 18th, we weighed and sailed, retracing Beering's Straits, which we had before explored, without any material accident, though we found the water to shallow, insomuch that we were forced to abandon the thoughts of passing between Bes|borough Island and the main, to more than six miles distance.

On the 19th, shoal water obliged us to haul to the Westward, by which the whole coast from 63 to 60 remains unexplored; within which, from several indications, it should seem that a consider|able river runs into the sea.

On the 20th, about two P. M. we came in sight of land, which appeared like two islands. Lat. 63.19. and at six in the evening came up with it, but found both islands in one, without either bush or tree. Course S. W.

On the 21st, saw a great number of islands; but they too, when we approached them, ap|peared all in one. Lat. 62.56. Course S. S. W.

On the 24th, we met with a dreadful tempest of wind, rain, and hail, or rather ice, between two and three inches square, by which several of our men, who were obliged to keep the deck, were severely wounded. In this long run, we passed several remarkable promontaries and islands, particularly in lat. 63.30. N. we passed two head-lands, distance from each other about half a mile. We hove-to, and our boats sounded across, in some places not above one fathom and a half. In lat. 62.56. we came in sight of a cluster of islands, as we imagined; but on our nearer approach, found them all in one, barren, and without a Page  272 shrub or tree. In lat. 60.12. we came up with a stupendous rock or high island, almost covered with snow, and without any other inhabitants ex|cept birds and seals; to this last Capt. Cook gave the name of Winter Island, from its dreary appearance.

On the 26th, the Resolution made the signal of distress. On hailing her we were informed, that she had again sprung a leak in the late violent gale, and that all hands were employed at the pumps and in baleing; and that it was with dif|ficulty they could keep her above water. Lat. 58.39.

On the 29th, we were again visited with a severe storm, and involved in heavy seas, our hull being sometimes entirely under water, and the waves rising to the yard-arms. About midnight it came on to snow, and the Resolution kept making sig|nals and firing guns all night. At day-light, we saw her distant five or six miles. We shortened sail, and waited for her coming up. And,

On the 30th, being both in company, the storm abated and the sea quite calm, both ships hove-to, and, while the carpenters were employed in stopping the leak in the Resolution, the people were busied in fishing. Those on board the Dis|covery caught 40 large cod, besides turbot, which were the more acceptable to officers and men, as our salt provisions were now very bad. Lat. 56.30. N.

On the 1st of October, we continued our course to the Southward. Lat. obs. 55.27. And

On the 2d, about five in the morning, we made land; and hauled our wind in search of Samga|noodo Harbour, on the island of Oomalashka, of which we had mistaken the entrance. About six in the evening we came in sight of a large Indian Page  273 town in a deep bay, where we found ourselves sur|rounded with whales of a prodigious size. We sounded, and found no bottom at 100 fathoms. Here some of our former friends came off to us, and being informed that our design was to anchor in our late harbour, they undertook to be our pi|lots, and one of them slept all night on board the Discovery.

On the 3d, in the morning, we found our|selves right a-breast the Race, and saw the Reso|lution just within the entrance. About two in the afternoon, the wind and tide both uniting in our favour, we safely anchored in our late birth.

All hands were now set to work, the carpenters in stripping the sheathing from the Resolution to examine her leaks, and the sail-makers, caulkers, and riggers, in their respective employments, for which there was great need, both ships having suffered much in their sails, seams, and rigging, in the late tempestuous weather, and in the icy Northern seas; but what gave the greatest plea|sure to the seamen, was the success they met with in fishing, whenever the weather was such as to suffer them to haul the seine. At the mouth of the harbour, they could at any time, in three or four hours, fill their boats with holybut of an enormous size; one of them, sent on board the Resolution, during our stay, weighed 220 lb.—Each mess had now a small cask with a quantity of salt given them, in order to make some provi|sion to help out their short allowance, which it was found necessary to continue till their arrival in the tropical islands, where the ships might again be furnished with a frefh supply.

On the 4th, our Captain went on board the Commodore, where he was acquainted by Capt. Cook with the distress of the Resolution, which Page  274 ever since the hard gale on the 26th had been ready to founder; on that day, on sounding the pumps, three feet water were found in the well; and judging the leak to proceed from the same place as before, the carpenters were employed in search of it, when, to their great surprize, they found the full casks afloat, and great quantities of pro|visions utterly spoilt. Their first care was to skuttle the bulk-heads, and to let the water down into the hold, and then the pumps were kept constantly at work to pump it out; but this was beyond their power; they could gain but little with incessant labour, and when they came into harbour had 28 inches still in the hold. The carpenters had already stript the sides of the Resolution 16 feet from the counter forwards, where they found the inside timbers so much de|cayed, that their report was, if their continuance at sea had been necessarily protracted a fortnight longer, she must have gone to the bottom.

We had still much to do, our articles for the tropical trade were nearly all exchanged, and we could expect no supplies of provisions without an equivalent. We therefore sent a small spare bower anchor on shore, and set our armourers to break it up, and make it into spikes, axes, hatchets, nails, and other tropical merchandize.

While every thing was getting ready, the of|ficers diverted themselves as usual with shoot|ing and surveying the country; and here they found amusement enough, having discovered a Russian settlement, divided only by a neck of land about 15 miles over, and a bay of about 1 miles, which they had to cross. From this set|tlement Capt. Cook received a very singular pre+sent. It was a rye-loaf, or rather a pye, inclosing some salmon very nicely seasoned. The man who Page  275 brought it was named Derramoushk, and brought likewise a present for Capt. Clerke. These came from some Russian gentlemen settled in that neigh|bourhood. In return some bottles of rum, wine and porter were sent back by the same hand; and Corporal Lediard of the marines, a very intelli|gent person, sent to gain information, who soon returned with three Russian seamen and furriers, who, when they first discovered us at a distance from the shore, were apprehensive that we were Japanese, with whom their nation was at war; but on our nearer approach, they were convinced from the trim of our ships that we were strangers; they were therefore encouraged, by the report of the natives, to make themselves known, and to of|fer their assistance as far as lay in their power. These were received with open arms; generously entertained, and a very friendly intercourse established.

The road across the neck of land was rather rugged, but when that was surmounted, the com|munication was easy. Some of our gentlemen who went to return the visit, were met by an of|ficer, who received them politely, and directed them to the factory, where, besides the fort, they found a Russian bark of about 50 or 60 tons, eight small swivels, and one three pounder laid up for the winter, and intended for Kamshaska the ensuing summer. Our gentlemen were here shewn the stores belonging to the factory, con|sisting of skins and oil; their coppers for boiling the oil, with the small ware with which they traf|ficked with the natives by way of exchange. Iron instruments of war are prohibited, nor do they suffer any offensive weapons of any kind to be introduced among them. It is probable there|fore, that the long knives we saw in the possession of the more southerly Indians, were some that were Page  276 taken from those unfortunate Russians, who, on the first discovery of this continent, fell a sacri|fice to the savage barbarity of the natives. It was a little unfortunate, that we had not one per|son on board either ship that had the most distant knowledge of the Russ language; every thing was to be understood by signs. Our officers could just make out, that a Russian Captain had been murdered by the natives, and that the Russians had taken a severe revenge, and had laid the coun|try under contribution, and obliged the inhabi|tants to pay a certain annual tribute in skins; but to what extent they had subdued the country, or in what year, they could not at all understand. They learnt, that the name of the island was Noo-Oonalashkah, in lat. 53.55. long. 167.30. E. of Greenwich; that they had another settlement to the Southward, and other vessels that were con|stantly employed in trading with the natives, and collecting their skins and oil; that the fac|tory was supposed to clear about 100,000 ru|bles annually by this trade; and that it was in|creasing; that their only guard consisted of a|bout 40 Kamshatskadale Russians, and 300 na|tives, over whom they were obliged to keep a watchful eye. Our gentlemen's entertainment there was rather friendly than sumptuous; they had dried venison, dried salmon, and great variety of other fish, dressed after the Russian manner; their biscuit was black, and their bread rye; their butter not extraordinary; their wine and brandy, the Indians who conducted the gentlemen earned, from the ships, with which the Russian officers made very free. The evening; being spent in mutual enquiries, by which neither side could receive much satisfaction, they were shewn to the apart|ments prepared for them, where they slept un|disturbed. Page  277 In the morning they renewed their enquiries, and the Russians, by exhibiting the chart of their discoveries and conquests, gave our gentlemen more satisfactory information than they could otherwise have obtained. They observed a remarkable conformity between those charts ex|hibited by the Russians as far as they went, and their own. The Russian discoveries extended from the 49th to the 64th degree of Northern latitude, by which the impracticability which we had discovered of a North-west passage by any strait or sound was fully confirmed.

They were now equally communicative to each other; the Russian gentlemen were desirous of knowing the names of the navigators and ships, with the expedition they were engaged in; and they were invited on board to receive further information. To this they readily agreed; and as soon as our gentlemen had satisfied their curiosity; had visited the Russian houses, which were built with timber, and those of the natives built with poles and earth; had remarked the simplicity of the latter, which seemed but one degree above the level of the beavers they hunt|ed; and of the former, that was little more than a degree above those of the natives; they set out upon their return to the ships, accompanied by the Russian gentlemen, by whom they had been entertained.

About five in the evening, they all came on board the Resolution: the Russian gentlemen were received by Capt. Cook with that fami|liarity and politeness that was natural to him; they were taken into the great cabin, where both Captains with their principal officers and gen|tlemen were assembled to entertain them, and where the bottle was pretty briskly pushed about, Page  278 as that was the principal subject in which the strangers could bear a part. Here they were in|terrogated as to the time generally taken up in making the voyage to Kamshatska, which they answered, by dividing the year into twelve parts, and pointing to the two middlemost. As the master of the vessel which lay at Aegoochskach was of the company, he was asked at what time he expected to arrive at Kamshatska. He answered about the 9th month, meaning in July. He was then requested to take letters with him to be for|warded to England through Russia, should it so happen that he should arrive at that port before us. This charge he readily undertook; and, being pretty well plied with liquor, they slept on board the Resolution, and next day came on board the Discovery, where they dined, and, be|ing amply supplied with grog, went jovially away in the afternoon.

Before our departure, we were visited by the Principal of the Russian factory, whose name was Erasim Gergorioffzin Izmyloff. He came from the Southward, accompanied by a number of In|dian canoes, laden with skins, who on coming ashore in the harbour, instantly began erecting a tent, which in half an hour they finished, cover|ing it with skins. He was received on board the Resolution with the respect due to his rank; and by his deportment it was easy to perceive that he was of family. He was a young gentleman of a fair complexion, and graceful stature, and, though differing but little in point of dress from those by whom we had been visited before, he was, not|withstanding, very different in his manners and behaviour. He had travelled much, but chiefly in these savage countries, and in the Northern parts of Asia, and understood, and could talk the Page  279 language of the natives, but could speak no European language, except his own. He was handsomely entertained on board both ships, and had every attention paid him that, in our situa|tion, he had reason to expect; nor was he insen|sible of our civilities. He wrote a letter, directed to the Governor of Kamshatska, which he re|quested Capt. Cook to deliver. It contained, as we afterwards understood, a detail of his own mercantile affairs, and a representation of us, as trading with the Indians. He told us, that his residence was on the coast, off which he had re|ceived a note in a little box, and that he was the person who wrote that note and sent it. Some presents reciprocally passed: those on his part were cloaks and skins; on ours, tobacco and spirituous liquors, of both which we observed the Russians to be immoderately fond.

After sleeping on board the ships two nights, and observing, with an attentive eye, the diffe|rent employments of the artificers, and examin|ing the various conveniencies and accommoda|tions which we had on board, he took his leave on the 26th, intending to make some stay at the settlement of Egooschac, which the gentlemen of the Resolution had just visited.

From this gentleman Capt. Cook received much useful information. He had some excel|lent maps and charts of the Northern coasts and islands, which never had been published, but which had every mark of authenticity. He said, there were only two harbours on the peninsula of Kamtschatka that were fit to receive ships of burden; the bay of Awatska and the river Oluto|ra: as to the many islands to the North of Kamt|schatka, lying between that and the coasts of America, which had found place in former maps, Page  280 were wholly omitted and others added, by which the Captain was enabled to compleat his own. From the information given by this gentleman, we have been able to correct our own map pre|fixed to this voyage, with respect to the situation of islands between the Bay of Awatska, and the country of Alascha, the name by which the con|tinent of this part of America is known to the Russians, and called by the natives.

There are, it seems, Russians settled on all the principal islands between Oonalashka and Kamt|schatka, for the purpose of collecting furs. Their great object is the sea-beaver or otter. The na|tives are a quiet inoffensive people, and for ho|nesty might serve as an example to the most en|lightened people upon earth. The latitude of Saganoodha harbour is 53.5. longitude 193.11.

On the 25th, the repairs of both ships being compleated, and the wind coming fair to the Southward, we unmoored and were preparing to sail, when the Resolution, on clearing the harbour, run upon a rock, and, it was feared, had re|ceived much damage, as at low water she swayed 13 inches, and it was twelve at night before she was disengaged. This necessarily retarded our de|parture; and happily it was that we were got safe into harbour, for a storm arose, which tumbled the waters into the race with unexampled fury.

On the 26th, the wind abated and came fair to carry us to sea, and the ship being found unhurt, we weighed, and, having cleared the harbour, made sail, directing our course up the race, to the N. W. At eight o'clock we were out of the race, but still continued our course to the West|ward, when at midnight a heavy gale came on attended with snow and rain.

Page  281On the 27th, the gale still continuing, to add to our labour, we sprung a leak, which kept us to the pumps till the storm abated. While it was at the height, it carried away our fore and main|tacks, and, in endeavouring to save them, John Mackintosh, seaman, was struck dead, and the boatswain and four men were much wounded.

On the 28th, having lost sight of the Resolu|tion in the heavy gale, about three in the morn|ing we heard her signal for wearing. Lat. 53.52.

On the 29th, about eight A. M. we again saw land, supposed to be the island called Amogh|ta, and by ten were in danger of perishing on a lee-shore. At eleven our people in taking in a reef of the fore-top-sail, called out a ship under sail, bearing N. N. W. but on a nearer view found it an elevated rock covered with snow. Lat. 53.57. long. 191.192.

On the 30th, we were again within the race, and at six in the evening passed the entrance of our harbour, when five canoes made towards us; but being now in full sail, intending to leave the coast, our leak not being found dangerous, they were unable to overtake us, nor did we think it of consequence to lie bye till they should come up.

On the 31st, we pursued our course to the Southward. Lat. 52.3.

On the 1st of November, we once more stood to the Southward, after which no accident, or any thing worth relating happened, till our ar|rival on the coast of O-why-e, so called by the Russians, and by Capt. Cook Providence harbour, except that on the 7th a cormorant was seen to fly several times round the Resolution; which was the more noticed as those birds are never seen far from land, and none was near.

Page  282On the 26th, being then in lat. 21.15. about six A. M. we came in sight of land, bearing from S. S. W. to N. W. very high and beau|tiful; we were then so much in want of provi|sions, that Capt. Clerke, much against his in|clination, was under the necessity of substitut|ing stock-fish in the room of beef; but we were no sooner well in with the land, than we were visited by many of the inhabitants, who came off with their canoes with all sorts of provisions which their island afforded; and every man on board, had leave to purchase what he could for his own subsistence. This diffused a joy among the mariners that is not easy to be expressed. From a sullenness and discontent visible in every countenance the day before, all was chearfulness, mirth and jollity. Fresh provisions and kind damsels are the sailors sole delight; and when in possession of these, past hardships are instantly forgotten: even those whom the scurvy had at|tacked, and had rendered pale and lifeless as ghosts, brightened upon this occasion, and for the moment appeared alert. This flattering beginning, however, yielded no substantial re|lief. The boats that were sent to sound the shore, and to look for a harbour, went out day after day, without being able to discover so much as a safe anchorage, and we were longer in finding a harbour than in making the coast. Nothing could be more toilsome or distressing than our present situation; within sight of land, yet unable to reach it; driven out to sea, by one storm, and in danger of being wrecked on the breakers by another. At length, after having examined the leeward side of the island, Captain Cook made the signal to stand out to sea. This was on the 7th of December, when it was de|termined Page  283 to take a long stretch, in order, if pos|sible, to get round the S. E. extremity, and to ex|amine the weathermost side, where we were told there was a safe harbour. In this attempt we split our main-top-mast-stay-sail, and lost sight of the Resolution. The weather continuing tem|pestuous for many days, heavy complaints again prevailed among the ship's company. Their sufferings, from incessant labour and scanty provisions, were grown confessedly grievous. Their grog, that had been stopped as soon as we arrived upon the coast, was again dealt out to them as usual; and it was with the kindest treatment from their officers, that the men could be kept to their duty; yet on Christmas-day, when each man was allowed a pint of brandy, and free leave to enjoy himself as he liked, not a murmur was heard; they the very next day returned to business, and continued it without repining, till

The 16th of January, 1779, when, after a series of the most tempestuous weather that ever happened in that climate, the boats from both ships were sent out to examine a fine bay, where we were informed there was a harbour in which we might safely moor, and where we should be supplied with materials to refit the ships, and provisions to victual them. In the evening the boats returned with the joyful news, that they had succeeded in their search, and that the har|bour promised fair to answer all that had been said of it.

On the 17th our boats were employed in towing the ships into harbour in sight of the greatest multitude of Indian spectators in canoes and on shore, that we had ever seen assembled to|gether in any part of our voyage. It was con|cluded, Page  284 that their number could not be less than 2 or 3000. While we were hovering upon the coast, we had often been visited by 200 canoes at a time, who came to trade, and who brought us provisions when the weather would permit; and, besides provisions, they brought us great quantities of cordage, salt, and other manufactures of the island, which the Captains purchased for the use of the ships, and without which we could not have subsisted; for during the tempestuous weather our cordage snapped rope after rope, so that our spare hands were incessantly employed, night and day, in knotting and splicing, of which there was no end.

This day, before two o'clock, P. M. we were safely moored in 17 fathom water, in company with the Resolution, which a few days before we had given over for lost. From the time of at|tempting to get round the island, till the 8th of January, we had never been able to get sight of her, though both ships were constantly looking out to find each other. They had suffered much in their masts and rigging, and were happy at last, as well as ourselves, to find a convenient harbour to refit. We were scarce moored, when a young man, of majestic appearance, came along side, and after an oration, and the usual ceremonies of peace had passsed on both sides, he came on board, bring|ing with him a small barbecued hog, some ready-dressed bread-fruit, and a curious mantle of red cloth, as presents to the Captain; and in return was complimented with several axes, looking-glasses, bracelets, and other shewy articles that attracted his notice. While he was busy in ad|miring every thing he saw on board the Discovery, the pinnace was ordered out, and he with his at|tendants were taken to Capt. Cook, where he Page  285 found another Chief, of a still more graceful as|pect, named Kaneena. All these were received with all possible respect. In the mean time came in another Chief, named Koah, who was soon dis|covered to be a priest; but who, in his youth, had been a distinguished warrior. After entertaining them with music, and inviting them to partake of such refreshments as the ship afforded, and mak|ing them some handsome presents, the Captain acquainted them with his wants, by shewing them the condition of his ship, and requesting a small portion of ground to land his materials, and to erect his tents. This request was readily granted, at the same time giving the Captain to understand, that the great King was absent, that he had lately been at war with the King of the neighbouring island of Maw-whee, that he was employed in set|tling the terms of peace, and that in less than ten days he was expected home. That they might, notwithstanding, land whatever they thought fit; and that the ground they had occasion for should be marked out and taboo'd, that is, appropriated to their use, without any of the natives being per|mitted to encroach upon it. Both Captains very readily embraced the offer, and prepared to ac|company their benefactors to the town near which they wished to pitch their tents. Upon their land|ing, several vacant plats of ground were shewn them, and, when they had made their choice, stakes were ordered to be driven at certain dis|tances, and a line to be carried round, within which the common people were forbidden to en|ter, under the severest penalties. Matters being thus amicably settled, no time was lost on our part to get every thing on shore. The tents, the armourer's forge, the masts, the sails, the rigging, the water-casks, the bread, the flour, the powder, Page  286 in short, every article that wanted either to be re|viewed or repaired were sent on shore; and not the least interruption was given to the boats em|ployed in the carriage, or insult offered to the persons who conducted them. On the contrary, the Chiefs offered some empty houses, that were conveniently situated near the new dock (if that may be so termed where our artificers were set to work) for the sick to lodge till their recovery. No strangers were ever more hospitably received.

On the morning after our people landed, six large double canoes were seen entering the har|bour at a great rate, having not less than 30 pad|dles to each canoe, with upwards of 60 Indians on board, most of them naked. Seeing them on their nearer approach making towards the ships, the Captains ordered the guns to be shotted, the marines to be drawn up, and every man to be ready at his post; the Indians assembled so fast, that before noon, the ships were surrounded with more than 100 canoes, in which there were not less than 1000 Indians. They at first traded friendly, having hogs in abundance, and plenty of bread-fruit, plantains, bananoes, and whatever else the island produced; but they had not been there long, before a large stone was thrown in at the cabin-window of the Discovery, by an invisible hand. A watch was instantly set, and in less than half an hour another stone was thrown at the caulkers, as they were at work on a stage on the ship's side. The offender was seen, and in sight of the Chiefs, and the whole multitude, he was seized, brought on board, tied to the shrouds, and punished with fifty lashes. In a few minutes, such was their fright, there was not an Indian to be seen near the ships.—Like unlucky boys, when one is apprehended for some naughty trick, the rest Page  287 commonly fly the place.—And in fact, these peo|ple are in many respects like children, and in none more than in this instance. Before the day closed, they all again returned to trade, and, when night approached, not a male was to be seen; but swarms of females, who came to sleep on board, though much against the will of Capt. Cook, who, upon the first arrival of the ships upon the coast, wished to have prohibited all commerce with the women of the island; but he soon found, that if that commerce was forbidden, all other trade must cease of course, for not a pig could be purchased, unless a girl was permitted to bring it to market.

There are who have blamed Capt. Cook for his severity to the Indians; but it was not to the In|dians alone that he was severe in his discipline. He never suffered any fault in his own people, though ever so trivial, to escape unpunished. If they were charged with insulting an Indian, or injuring him in his property, if the fact was proved, the offender was surely punished in sight of the Indians. By this impartial distribution of justice, the Indians themselves conceived so high an idea of his wisdom, and his power too, that they paid him the same honours as they did their Et-u-a, or Good Spirit.

The caulkers, who have already been men|tioned, when they came round in course to the after-part of the Resolution, found that, besides the seams that wanted closing, there were other more material defects. The rudder's eyes were almost eaten through with rust, and the bolts ready to tumble out. This was an alarming defect; and all other business was suspended till that was re|paired.

Page  288Every thing went on now as smoothly as could be wished. The Chiefs, if they saw any of their own people misbehave, would themselves give in|formation, and bring them to punishment; they were so very obliging, that, seeing us in want of wood to burn, they made an offer of a high fence, that surrounded the Morai, adjoining to the town, for a present supply.

On the 19th, being the fourth day after our ar|rival, several very large canoes were seen to come from the S. E. We at first thought they were the friends with whom we had traded on the other side of the island; but on their nearer approach, we found they were all armed and clothed in the military uniform, after their country manner. This gave us cause to suspect some traiterous de|sign, but our fears were in some measure dissipated by the assurances we received from our friends on board, that they were some of the warriors that had accompanied the King in his expedition against the Eree of Maw-wee, and that they were now returning home in triumph; but, notwith|standing this assurance, it was thought prudent to be upon our guard, and the rather as the women who were on board, told us, that their people de|signed to attack us, and to mattee, that is, to kill us every one.

Next day, before nine in the morning, more than a thousand Indians surrounded the Discovery, insomuch that pressing their weight chiefly on one side, the ship was in danger of being over-set. The Captain ordered two great guns to be fired, in order to try what effect that would have in dis|persing them. In less than three minutes, there were a thousand heads to be seen above water, so many having jumped into the sea, frighted on the sudden report of the guns; neither did a single canoe come near us all the next day. Some of the Page  289 women however remained on board, who never could be prevailed on to shew themselves upon deck in the day-time; but whether from fear of their own people, or of the great guns, we never could learn. As all trade was now stopt, and no|thing brought on board for our subsistence, Capt. Cook went on shore to expostulate with the Chiefs, and by some trifling presents to engage them to trade as before; threatening at the same time to lay their towns waste, if they refused to supply the ships with the provisions they stood in need of. His remonstrances had the desired effect, and next day we purchased not less than 60 large hogs, with great quantities of fruits and vegetables for the ships use.

In a few days after this, the old King Terreeoboo was seen to enter the harbour, on his return from Maw-wee. In the afternoon he visited the ship in a private manner, attended only by one canoe, in which were his wife and children. He staid on board till near ten at night, when he returned to the village Kowrowa.

The next day about noon, the King, in a large canoe, attended by two others, set out from the village, and paddled towards the ships, in great state. Their appearance was grand and magni|ficent. In the first canoe was Terreeoboo, and his Chiefs, dressed in their feathered cloaks and helmets, and armed with long spears and daggers. In the second, came the venerable Kaoo, the Chief of the Priests, and his brethren, with their idols dis|played on red cloth. These idols were busts of a gi|gantic size, made of wicker-work, and curiously co|vered with small feathers of various colours, wrought in the same manner with their cloaks. Their eyes were made of large pearl oysters, with a black nut fixed in the centre; their mouths were set with a Page  290 double row of the fangs of dogs; and together, with the rest of their features, were strangely dis|torted. The third canoe was filled with hogs, and various sorts of vegetables. As they went along, the Priests, in the centre canoe, sung their hymns with great solemnity; and after paddling round the ships, instead of going on board as was ex|pected, they made towards the shore, at the beach where our men were stationed. On their approach, the guard was instantly ordered out to receive the King; and Capt. Cook, perceiving he was going on shore, followed him, and arrived nearly at the same time. They were conducted into the tent, where they had scarce been seated, when the King rose up, and, in a very graceful manner, threw over the Captain's shoulders, the cloak he him|self wore, put a feathered helmet upon his head, and a curious fan in his hand. He also spread at his feet five or six other cloaks, all exceedingly beautiful, and of great value. His attendants then brought four very large hogs, with sugar-canes, cocoa-nuts, and bread fruit. This part of the ceremony over, they all made a circle round with their images in procession, till they arrived at their Morai, where they placed their deities, and deposited their arms.

Next day both Captains, accompanied with se|veral of their officers, went to pay the King a vi|sit on shore. They were very respectfully received, and having dined after the Indian manner, the King rose, and clothing Capt. Cook with a man|tle, such as is worn by the great Oreno in grand procession, he was conducted to the morai, or place of worship, where a garland of green plan|tain leaves was put upon his head, and he was seated on a kind of throne, and had the honour of exchanging names with the King, the strongest Page  291 pledge of friendship these islanders can confer. He was now addressed in a long oration by a priest clothed in a vestment of party-coloured cloth, who concluded the solemnity with a choral hymn, in which he was joined by all the priests present; who had no sooner finished their song than they all fell at his feet, the King acquainting him, that this was now his building, and that he was from henceforth their Orono. From this time an Indian Priest was, by the King's order, placed at the head of his pinnace, at whose approach the Indians in their canoes, as he passed them, prostrated themselves till he was out of sight; and this they did when the Captain was alone: but the Priests had orders from the King, whenever the Captain came ashore in his pinnace, to attend him, and conduct him to his house, which the sailors now called Cook's Altar.

When all these solemnities were over, we were not a little astonished to find in this King, the same infirm, emaciated, old man, that came on board Capt. Cook when off the island of Ma-wee; and it was soon discovered, that he was then ac|companied with the same persons, viz. his two younger sons, one sixteen, the other twelve, with his nephew Maiha-Macha, a man of a most savage countenance.

[When we first approached the coast of this island of O why hee, we were astonished at the sight of a mountain of a stupendous height, whose head was covered with snow. This was so rare a sight in an island between the tropics, that several of the officers and gentlemen from both ships were desirous of taking a nearer view of it; and for that purpose they requested the King's permission, and a guide to attend them, which was readily granted, Page  292 and no less than ten Indians contended which should accompany them.]

On the 26th Mr. Nelson, our botanist, and four other gentlemen set out in the morning on this expedition, which they afterwards found attended with no small fatigue, and not a little danger; for after travelling two days and two nights, and ex|periencing the greatest fatigue and hardships; no water, no paths to direct their way; no inhabitants for many miles, and the cold excessive as they approached the mountain, which seemed covered with snow, they were glad to get back without any accident. In the course of their journey, they were directed to the cottage of an old hermit, who, they said, had formerly been a great war|rior; but who, for several years past, had retired to this sequestered spot. He received them with|out any kind of emotion, but would accept of no|thing that they offered him. He appeared by far the oldest man they had seen on the island.

On the 29th they returned to the ships, and the only advantage that accrued from their journey, was, a curious assortment of indigenous plants and some natural curiosities, collected by Mr. Nelson. During their absence every thing remained quiet at the tents, and the Indians supplied the ships with such quantities of provisions of all kinds, that orders were given to purchase no more hogs in one day than could be killed, salted, and stowed away the next day. This order was in conse|quence of a former order, to purchase all that could be procured for sea-stock; by which so many were brought on board, that several of them died be|fore they could be properly disposed of.

It had been generally thought impracticable to cure the flesh of these animals in the tropical cli|mates; and it is believed, that few trials had ever Page  293 been made before those of Capt. Cook. In his first voyage in 1774, he first made the attempt, but not very successfully. But it was now be|come absolutely necessary, either to perfect the discovery, or relinquish the voyage.

The method we took was always to slaughter them in the afternoon, and as soon as the hair was scalded off, and the entrails removed, the carcass was divided into pieces, from four to eight pounds each, and the bones of the chine and legs taken out, and, in the large sort, the ribs also. Every piece being then carefully wiped and examined, that no bruise might escape, and all the veins cleared out, that no coagulated blood might re|main, they were then handed to the salters while the flesh was still warm. After they had been well rubbed with salt, they were then placed in a heap on a stage, raised in the open air, covered with planks, and pressed with the heaviest weights we could lay on them. In this situation they lay till the next evening, when they were again well wiped and examined, and the suspicious parts taken away. They were then put into a tub of strong pickle, where they were always looked over once or twice a day, and if any piece had not taken salt, which was readily discovered by the smell, they were immediately taken out, re-examined, and the sound pieces put to fresh pickle, and the other either used immediately, or thrown away. This, however, seldom happened. After six days, they were taken out, examined for the last time, and being again lightly pressed, they were packed in barrels with a thin layer of salt between them. Some of this pork was brought to England, per|fectly sweet and good.

On the 1st of February, 1779, William Wat|man, gunner's mate, died. His body in the af|ternoon was carried on shore in the pinnace, and Page  294 buried, according to his own desire, in the Morai belonging to the King. The Indians who dug his grave about four feet deep, covered the bottom of it with green leaves; and when the corpse was de|posited in the earth, the Chiefs who attended the funeral, put a barbecued hog at the head, and another at the feet, with a quantity of bread-fruit, plantains and bananas. More was going to be added, when Capt. Cook ordered the grave to be covered up, and a post erected to the memory of the deceased, inscribed with his name, the date of the year, day of his death, and the nation to which he belonged. From this circumstance, Capt. Cook gave this port the name of Watman's Harbour. The next day the Indians rolled large stones over his grave, and brought two barbecued hogs, plantains and bananas, cocoa-nuts, and bread-fruit, which they placed over his grave, upon a stage erected for that purpose.

We were now preparing to depart, when our Captain was presented by the King with twelve large hogs, three boats-load of bread-fruit, pota|toes, sugar-cane, and cocoa-nuts; and the same present was made to Capt. Cook.

This day, Feb. 2, the King came on board, attended with twenty of his Chiefs, and gave the Captains of both ships, with their officers, an in|vitation to an heiva, in which many of the prin|cipal Chiefs were to be performers. Capt. Clerke excused himself from ill health; but Capt. Cook and the other Gentlemen promised to attend.

The same day the King and his Chiefs dined on board the Resolution, and were entertained with music, the whole band having orders to play all the while they sat at dinner. They were highly delighted with the music, and would not suffer the performers to rest a moment.

Page  295About four in the afternoon, the pinnaces from both ships were ordered to be in readiness to take the company ashore, with their pendants and co|lours displayed, to do honour to a king and peo|ple, by whom we had been so hospitably enter|tained. More than 200 canoes attended us to shore, where a number of Chiefs were ready to receive us, who ail observed a profound silence at our landing, and conducted us to the place ap|pointed for the entertainment. But we were much disappointed by the performers, who were far in|ferior to those of the Southern islands.

The only part of the performance that was to|lerable, was their singing, with which the heiva or play concluded; the young princesses, the chiefs, and even the king himself joining in the chorus.

The play being ended, Capt. Cook acquainted the King that, with his permission, he would ex|hibit some fire-works, that, if they did not frighten, would very much astonish his people. The King very readily gave his consent; and the engineer was ordered to begin his exhibition as soon as it was dark. On the rising of the first sky-rocket, the Indians fled precipitately, and hid themselves in the houses, or wherever they could find any shelter; at first there were some thousand spectators; but in less than ten minutes there were not fifty to be seen, the King and his attendants excepted, whom the Captain and the gentlemen with the greatest difficulty persuaded to stay. When the second rose up in the air, lamentations were heard from every quarter; and when the water-rockets were played off, the King and his Chiefs were hardly to be restrained. Other fire-works it was found dangerous to exhibit, as these had already struck the spectators, the King as well as his people, with a general panic. We therefore took leave of Page  296 the King and Royal family, and returned on board our respective ships. The King having been made to understand that we should sail the first fair wind, came next morning to visit the Captains of both ships, who were now preparing to sail. This being publicly known, the Indians in general expressed their concern, but particu|larly the young women, whose lamentations were heard from every quarter.

In the evening of the 4th of February, all hands were mustered, and none were missing.

In the morning of the 5th, we cleared the har|bour, shaping our course for Maw-wee, as we had been informed by the King, that in that island there was a fine harbour and excellent water. We had not been long under sail, when the King, who had omitted to take his leave of our Captain in the morning, as not suspecting our departure so sudden, came after the ships, accompanied by the young prince, his son, in a sailing canoe, bringing with them ten large hogs, a great number of fowls, and a small turtle (a great rarity) with bread-fruit in abundance. They also brought with them great quantities of cocoa-nuts, plan|tains, and sugar-canes.

Besides other persons of condition who acom|panied the King, there was an old priest, Kaoa, who had always shewn a particular attachment to Capt. Clerke, and who had not been unrewarded for his civility. It being rather late when they reached the ships, they staid on board but a few hours, and then all departed except the old priest and some girls, who by the King's permission were suffered to remain on board till they should arrive at some of the neighbouring isles. We were now steering with a fine breeze, but just at the close of the evening, to our great mortifica|tion, Page  297 the wind died away, and a great swell suc|ceeding, with a strong current setting right in for the shore, we were in the utmost danger of being driven upon the rocks. In the height of our dis|tress and trouble, the old priest, who had been suffered to sleep in the great cabin, leapt over|board unseen, with a piece of silk, the Captain's property, and swam to shore.

The next day, seeing a large canoe between us and the shore, we hove-to for her coming up, and to our great surprize perceived the old King, accompanied by several of his Chiefs, having in their vessel the priest who had stolen the silk, whom the King delivered to the Captain, at the same time requesting that his fault might be for|given. The King being told that his request was granted, unbound him, and set him at liberty; telling the Captain that, seeing him with the silk, he judged it was none of his own, and therefore ordered him to be apprehended; and had taken this method of exposing him for injuring his friend. This singular instance of Indian generosity and justice, ought not to be forgotten. It appears, however, that this old priest, who had changed names, and was proud of being called Bretanne, had slipt away from Mr. Bligh, master of the Re|solution, to whom he had pretended to discover a much more commodious harbour, than that of Kakooa, which they had just left. As soon as they had delivered the silk, which the Captain would have had the King to accept, they departed, and had scarce reached the shore, when a heavy gale came on, with thunder, lightning, and hard rain. We wore ship, and continued working off the land all night, and soon lost sight of the Reso|lution, who, as well as the Discovery, continued beaing about the island seven days successively, in Page  298 dread every moment of being wrecked upon the coast. On the fourth day, after we had lost sight of the Resolution, the storm being a little abated, we observed her under a high part of the island, lying with her fore-top-gallant-mast down, her fore-top-sail-yard upon the cap, and the sail furled, which gave us reason to suppose that some acci|dent had befallen her; and as we expected, so we found it. We stood down for her with a heavy gale; but it was not till next day that we could come to speak with her. Capt. Cook himself be|ing upon deck when we came up, informed us that he had sprung his fore-mast in two different places; that the ship was leaky, and that it was with the greatest difficulty they kept her above water. He further said, that on the 7th in the morning they discovered the leak; that at that time they made thirty inches of water in three hours; and that ever since all hands had been constantly employed night and day in baling and pumping; we likewise understood, that they had split their main-top-sail, and that they were now bound to our late harbour to repair their damage. We pursued the same course; but it was not till the 11th, when we opened on the bay in which lay our port. We were very soon surrounded with our old friends, who brought us hogs, bread-fruit, plantains, bananoes, and cocoa-nuts, which they threw on board, without waiting for any re|compense. We were likewise visited by the old King, the Prince, and many of the Chiefs, who came to welcome us, and who were seemingly glad of our return. About ten in the morning, both ships moored near their old birth, and pre|sently all hands were set to work to strip the mast, and to carry it on shore to be repaired.

Page  299The next day the King came again on board, and mutual presents and mutual civilities were continued as usual: but about five in the after|noon, there came along-side a large canoe, with about 60 of their fighting men, all armed, with little or no provisions on board, and who seemed to have no good design. Our Captain observing their motions, ordered the guns to be shotted, and every man to his post. About six, they departed, without offering the least insult; but soon after we saw, upon a high hill, a large body assembled, who were observed to be gathering stones, and laying them in heaps. At dark they were seen to disperse; but great lights and fires were kept burning all night.

In the morning of the 13th, they again assem|bled, and began rolling the stones from the brink of the hill, in order, as we supposed, to divert our attention, but which rather served to awaken our fears. Our Captains looking upon this as an insult, ordered the guns to be levelled, and fired among them, and in ten minutes there was not an Indian to be seen near the place.

In the afternoon, the King came on board the Resolution, and complained to Capt. Cook of our killing two of his people, intimating at the same time, that they had not the least intention of hurt|ing us. He continued on board some hours, amusing himself with seeing the armourers at work; and when he departed, requested that they might be permitted to make him a Pahoo-a, (an instrument they use in battle when they come to close quarters) which was readily granted.

From this time forward the natives became very tumultuous and unruly, and stole every thing they could lay their hands on, with any tolerable chance of escaping. They were fired upon, but Page  300 that only enraged them. One who had just stolen the armourer's tongs and an iron chisel, with both which he was making to shore, was intercepted by Capt. Cook himself, who, with a few marines, endeavoured to seize him as he was landing; but the Indians seeing his design, came rushing in a body to the water-side, among whom the fellow found means to secrete himself; and the multi|tude, instead of delivering him up, attacked the boats that were in pursuit of him, seized their oars, broke them, and forced our whole party to retreat.

Capt. Cook having only a few marines with him, part of those who were placed as a guard to the carpenters employed upon the mast, did not think proper to renew the attack; but returned to the tents, ordering a strict watch to be kept during the night, and his whole force to be kept under arms till the matter should be accommo|dated. For this purpose, Mr. Edgar, our master, was sent with a message to the young prince, who from the beginning had behaved friendly, to ac|quaint him with the cause of the fray, and to de|mand the delinquent to be delivered up. The prince, instead of listening to his remonstrances, assumed another countenance, and Mr. Edgar was very roughly handled, and glad to make his escape with a sound beating.

The temper of the Indians was now totally changed, and they became every day more and more troublesome.

On the 14th, a vast multitude of them were seen together, making great lamentation, and moving slowly along to the beating of a drum, that scarce gave a stroke in a minute. From this circumstance, it was supposed they were burying the dead, who had been killed the day before. Page  301 No violence, however, was either done or at|tempted this day, though the girls that were on board gave us to understand, that their country|men only waited a favourable opportunity to attack the ships.

On the morning of the 15th, our great cutter, which was moored to the buoy, was missing from her moorings, and, upon examination, the boat's painter was found cut two fathoms from the buoy, and the remainder of the rope gone with the boat.

This gave cause to suspect that some villainy was concerting; and, in order to prevent the ill-consequences that might follow, both Captains met on board the Resolution, to consult what was best to be done on this critical occasion. The officers from both ships were present at this coun|cil, where it was resolved to seize the King, and to confine him on board till the boat should be returned.

With this view, early on the morning of the 16th, Capt. Cook, with Mr. Phillips, Lieutenant of Marines, and nine of his men, went on shore, under cover of the guns of both ships, to one side of the bay where the King resided; and Mr. King, second Lieutenant of the Resolution, who had always been stationed with a guard to protect the working party and the waterers on shore, went, as usual, to the other side. The Indians, observing our motions, and seeing the ships warp|ing towards the towns, of which there were two, one on each side the bay, they concluded that our design was to seize their marine. In consequence of which, most of their large war canoes took the alarm, and were making off, when our guns, loaded with grape and canister shot, drove them back; and the Captain and his guard landed without opposition. We observed, however, that their warriors were clothed in their military dress, Page  302 though without arms, and that they were gather|ing together in a body from every direction, their Chiefs assuming a very different countenance to what they usually wore upon all former occasions. However, Capt. Cook, attended by the Lieute|nant of Marines, a Serjeant, and nine privates, regardless of appearances, proceeded directly to the King's residence, where they found him seated on the ground, with about twelve of his Chiefs round him, who all prostrated themselves on see|ing the Orono enter. The Captain addressed the King in the mildest terms, assuring him that no violence was intended against his person or any of his peo|ple, except against those who had been guilty of a most unprecedented act of robbery, by cutting from her moorings one of the ship's boats, with|out which they could neither conveniently water the ships, nor carry on the necessary communica|tion with the shore; calling upon the King, at the same time, to give orders for the boat to be immediately restored, and inviting him, in the most friendly manner, to accompany him on board, till his orders should be carried into execution. The King protested his total ignorance of the theft; said, he was very ready to assist in disco|vering the thief, and should be glad to see him punished; and shewed no unwillingness himself to trust his person with the Orono, though he had lately exercised very unusual severities against his people. He was told that the tumultuous ap|pearance of his people, and their repeated rob|beries, made some uncommon severities necessary; but that not the least hurt should be done to the meanest inhabitant of his island by any person belonging to the ships, without exemplary pu|nishment; and all that was necessary for the con|tinuance of peace was, to pledge himself for the Page  303 honesty of his people. With that view, and that view only, the Captain said he came to request the King to place confidence in him, and to make his ship his residence, as the most effectual means of putting a stop to the robberies that were now daily and hourly committed and committing, by his people, both at the tents and on board the ships, and were so daring as to become insufferable. The King, upon this remonstrance, was preparing to comply, and his two sons were actually on board the pinnace to accompany the Orono, when a wo|man, mother to the boys, and a great favourite of the King's, came after them, and, with many tears and entreaties, besought them to come on shore and not to go on board the ships. The Chiefs, at the same time, began to take the alarm; but the good old King, not yet suspecting, or pretending not to suspect, any treachery, had made himself ready to accompany the Captain, and was actually on his way; but by this time the women and children were sent away, and the men put on their war mats, and armed them|selves, and so great a body of Indians were got together, and had lined the shore, that it was im|possible they could break through the multitude, who now began to behave outrageously, and to insult the guard. Capt. Cook, observing their behaviour, gave orders to the officer of marines to make way, and if any one opposed, to fire upon and instantly dispatch him. This order the Lieutenant endeavoured to carry into execution, and a lane was made for the King and his Chiefs to get to the boats; but they had scarce reached the water-side, when the word was given, that the Orono (for so they called Capt. Cook) was about to carry off their King to kill him. In an instant a number of their fighting men broke Page  304 from the crowd, and with clubs and stones rushed in upon the guard, four of whom were presently dispatched. A ruffian making a stroke at Capt. Cook, was shot dead by the Captain himself, who, having a double-barreled gun, was aiming at another, when a savage came behind him, and striking him on the head with his club, felled him to the ground; and then thrust his pahooa through his body with such force, that, entering between his shoulders, the point of it came out at his breast. The quarrel now became general. The guns from the ships began to pour in their fire upon the crowd, and the musquetry from the boars; but such was their intrepidity, that, con|trary to all expectation, they stood their ground, and carried off in triumph the bodies of the dead.

Besides Capt. Cook, whose death was univer|sally deplored, Corporal Thomas, and three pri|vates, Hinkes, Allen, and Fadget, fell victims to their fury; and three more of the marines were desperately wounded. Lieut. Phillips, who had received a wound between the shoulders with a pahooa, shot the man dead who had wounded him, just as he was going to repeat his blow: it seemed as if it was against our Commodore that their vengeance was chiefly directed, by whose order they supposed their king was to be forced on board, and punished at his discretion. Seeing him fall, they set up a great shout, and his body was instantly surrounded by the enemy, who snatching the dagger out of each other's hands, they shewed a savage eagerness to have a share in his destruction.

Thus fell the greatest navigator that this or any other nation could boast; the account of whose death was transmitted to England by Pro|fessor Page  [unnumbered]

[illustration] [depiction of the murder of Captain Cook at Hawaii]
Representation of the Murder of Capt Cook at O'Why-ee
Page  305 Pallas, from Petersburg, long before the arrival of our journalist; and with such circum|stances of agreement in the principal facts, as suf|ficiently prove the authenticity of both.

The Professor says,

"The inhabitants shewed Capt. Cook (during his first stay) a respect that bordered on adoration; but on his second land|ing they grew more thievish than before; and at last, the cutter belonging to the Discovery was cut loose and carried away. The day after this happened the Captain, with his Lieutenant, and nine marines, landed. He went up to the re|sidence of the chief Terreboo. He was received with respect; but he found a great crowd assem|bled with the chief. Some of them grew inso|lent as he made his complaints; one of them in particular indulged his grimaces in so provoking a manner, that the Captain discharged at him the shot of his fowling-piece. On which a ge|neral commotion ensued. The Lieutenant fired, and killed one dead upon the spot; but instead of dispersing, they now made a general attack, and though the marines fired one round with great effect, the crowd was not intimidated, but rushed on with such rapidity, that there was no time to load again. In the first onset Capt. Cook and four of his people were unhappily killed upon the spot; and it was with great difficulty that the Lieutenant and the remaining marines could make their retreat, most of them wounded; and it would have been almost impossible for them to have escaped, had it not been for the fire from the pinnace and long-boat, that lay at some dis|tance from the beach. Capt. Clerke saw no pos|sibility of revenging the loss of his gallant coun|tryman but with great slaughter, he therefore Page  306 kept upon the defensive."
—To return to our Journalist.

The dead being past recovery, the distressed situation of the living was now to be regarded. The Resolution was without her mast, and lay in a manner at the mercy of the savages, who it was every moment expected, would have cut away her moorings and drifted her on shore. It was therefore the first care of Capt. Clerke, who succeeded to the command, to order the mast to be floated away, and to get the tents and all our other baggage on board. For this purpose no time was to be lost. While many of the na|tives lay dead upon the beach, it was judged the properest time to take advantage of that inter|val of inactivity, which always succeeds any con|siderable exertion of Indian ferocity. Lieutenant King, who, as has been observed before, com|manded the working-party on the other side the bay, and who had cultivated a friendship with the priests, whose dwellings were contiguous to the Morai, was all this while ignorant of what was going forward; but could not help being under inexpressible anxiety at seeing the extraordinary agitation by land, and hearing the firing from the ships at sea, and the boats near the shore; but at the same time had assured the priests, who were equally alarmed, that whatever might be the mat|ter, they should be safe; was not a little startled, when just at that critical moment, two great shot from the Discovery cut a tree in the middle, under which some of them were sitting, and split a piece from a rock in a direct line to their dwellings: for Capt. Clerke being under no less concern for Lieut. King and those under his command, and having no clue, but appearances to go by, had caused Page  307 the fire of the great guns to be directed to that quarter, as soon as the natives were dispersed from the other. Our whole force was therefore col|lected, and, having landed under cover of our guns, we marched rapidly up the hill, with bayo|nets fixed, and took possession of the Morai, which stood on elevated ground, and gave us an advan|tage over the savages, who could not approach us from the shore, neither could they attack us from the towns, without being exposed to our fire from the ships. They made several unsuc|cessful attempts to dislodge us, but were repulsed with loss. After sustaining an unequal conflict for three hours, in which several of them were killed, without being able to make any impression on our small body, and without our losing a man, though several were much hurt by the stones from their slings, they at length dispersed, and left us masters of our tents and of all our other property.

Our next care was to recover the bodies of our dead. A strong party under Lieut. King, were sent out in the pinnaces and boats, with a white flag, in token of peace, to endeavour to procure them. They were met by Koah, a Chief, (with whom Mr. King was well acquainted) and of note among the savages, at the head of a vast multitude, without at first answering our signal; but Mr. King, commanding the armed boats to stop, and going himself in a small boat alone, with a white flag in his hand, had the satisfac|tion to be instantly understood; the men threw off their war-mats; the women returned to the beach, and Koah shewed equal confidence, by swimming off with a flag in his hand, and on en|tering the boat where Mr. King sat, with as much unconcern as if nothing had happened: being told Page  308 that they were come to demand the body of Capt. Cook, or to declare war, if it was not instantly restored, he assured the Lieutenant, that he would go himself and procure it, begged a piece of iron of him, and joyfully swam on shore, calling out to his countrymen, that now we were all friends again; but notwithstanding this Chief's dissembled friendship, our men in the boats, who had entered into parley with the natives, were informed, that the warriors were then on the back of the hill, cutting up and dividing the bodies of the slain. While we remained in our boats, several other Chiefs came to the water-side; and one in parti|cular, with Capt. Cook's hanger, which he drew in a vaunting manner, and brandished it over his head; others shewed themselves with the spoils taken from the dead; one having a jacket, ano|ther a shirt, a third a pair of trowsers, and so on; insulting us, as it were, with the trophies of their victory.

At this time it was thought prudent to stifle our resentment, and to reserve our vengeance till a more favourable opportunity. We were now in want of water; our sails and rigging in a shattered condition; our cordage bad, and our repairs not near finished; all therefore we had to do, was to re|main upon the defensive till we were better pro|vided.

At the close of the evening, as soon as it was dark, a canoe was heard paddling towards the Re|solution, in which were two men. As it approached, both sentinels fired, but without hurting either of the men, though the balls went through the bot|tom of the canoe. Notwithstanding this, the canoe came close under the ship's stern; and one of the men calling out Tinne, Tinne, (the name Mr. King was known by) whom the Priests had always Page  309 supposed to be the Orono's son, and, therefore, the Earee of the ship, this excited every one's curio|sity, and orders were given to admit them on board; they were priests, and produced a piece of flesh, carefully wrapped up in a cloth, which they solemnly assured us was part of the thigh of our late Commander; that he saw it cut from the bone, but believed that all the flesh of the body was burnt; that the head and all the bones, ex|cept what belonged to the trunk, were in the pos|session of Terreoboo, and the other Chiefs; that what we saw, had been brought to Kaoa, the High Priest, to be made use of in some religious ceremony; and that he had sent it as a proof of the sincerity of his innocence and his friendship. Being asked, if any part of the flesh had been eaten, they expressed the utmost horror at the idea. They afterwards asked, with some apparent apprehension, when the Orono would come again, and what he would do to them on his return? The same question had been asked by others, which shews, the opinion they entertain of the spirit's power after it is separated from the body. They then desired to be set at liberty, which was granted. One of the men was the Priest who had attended Capt. Cook, and who was ready on all occasions, to fall down and worship him. He la|mented his loss with abundance of tears, and earnestly besought us to keep their coming a se|cret, for if it should be known, it would prove fatal to their whole fraternity. They farther in|formed us, that 17 of their countrymen were killed in the first action at Kowrowa, of whom five were Chiefs; and that Kaneena and his brother, our particular friends, were among the number; eight, they said, were killed at the observatory, of whom three were of the first rank. As this was the fact, Page  310 the story that was given out to conceal it, may be worth relating.

On the 19th, says our journalist, the father and mother of two girls, who had concealed themselves on board the ship, came in the dead of the night, in their canoe, loaded with cocoa-nuts and bread-fruit, which they had been gathering in the day for their own subsistence, as a supply for their children, lest, from what had happened, they should have been suffered to die for want; ac|quainting us at the same time with a treacherous design of their countrymen to cut our cables, and drift the ships ashore. They were taken on board, and detained prisoners till morning, when not an Indian was to be seen near the harbour, but such as were old and feeble, and knew not how to make their escape. The informers were tenderly treated, had presents made them, and were after|wards dismissed, at their own desire, upon a neigh|bouring island, with every token of kindness.—The truth is, the Priests had desired the guard-boat to attend them, lest they should have been fired at, and interrupted by the guard-boats of the other ship, by which they might have been discovered, and perhaps put to death.

Among other incidents of the present day, Feb. 16, there was one which could not be under|stood. Two boys were seen swimming towards the ships, singing, as they approached the ships, a mournful and plaintive song. They had each a long spear in his hand, which, on boarding the Discovery, they delivered to the Officer on the deck, and then departed. Who sent them, or for what purpose, we never could learn.

On the 17th, the different promotions took place, and according to their succession, the Offi|cers changed ships; Capt. Clerke went on board Page  311 the Resolution, and Mr. Gore, first Lieutenant of the Resolution, took the command of the Dis|covery.

On the 18th both ships were again warped near the shore, and a spring put upon their cables, in order to cover the boats which were sent to com|pleat our complement of water. On this motion crowds of inhabitants were seen to assemble, with a large black flag displayed, which we interpreted as a signal for war; but we afterwards found that it was part of their ceremony in burying their dead. Under this mistake a few guns were fired from the ships to disperse them, by which the King's nephew, Maiha Maiha, was wounded, and a poor woman lost her arm. This made a strong impression on the whole body of Indians, and we were left in quiet both this and the next day, to pursue our repairs and compleat our hold.

On the 19th they began again to be trouble|some. In the morning, while the boats were loading, at the well, the stones came about the watermen like hail, some of them of more than a pound weight; one in particular was seen com|ing; but who threw it, no one could tell. This being attended to, a native was observed to creep out of a cavern, who, as soon as he had discharged his stone, retired back to his place of shelter. Him we marked, and returned to our ships; and it being now apparent that nothing was to be gained by fair means, orders were given to strike terror among them, by pursuing them with fire and sword. About two in the afternoon, all who were able to bear arms, as well sailors and arti|ficers as marines, were mustered, and preparations made to sustain them, while with lighted torches they rowed on shore, and set fire to the S. E. town, pursuing the frighted inhabitants while their Page  312 houses were in flames, with unrelenting fury. Many were put to death, and all driven to seek shelter where they could, scarce a house having escaped the general conflagration. In this vin|dictive enterprize, the cavern or hole of the crafty Indian, whose insolence had been one principal cause of the desolation that followed, was not for|gotten. His cavern had been marked, as has al|ready been observed, and on seeing our sailors ap|proach it, such was his inveteracy, that he heaved a huge stone at the assailants, one of whom he dangerously wounded, but was instantly dispatched by the discharge of three muskets, and a bayonet run through his body. Our vengeance being now fully executed, we returned to the ships, loaded with the spoils of the towns, consisting of bows and arrows, clubs, and arms of all kinds, which they use in battle; and having the heads of two of their fighting men, of which the courageous native was one, stuck at the bows of the pinnaces, as a terror to the enemy from ever daring again to molest us.

About four in the afternoon of the 20th, ten girls came down to the well, where the waterers were busy, with quantities of fruit, as much as they could carry, for which they would take no|thing in return, only praying to be taken on board. This was denied them, as peremptory or|ders had been given by Capt. Clerke, forbidding the admission of any more of their women.

This day, in the morning, a Chief was seen coming down the hill, followed by a number of boys, with a white flag displayed, and carrying boughs and green branches in their hands. They came singing to the water side; but that did not prevent their receiving the fire of a party that was placed as a guard. On seeing his ensign answered Page  313 by a white flag at each mizen-top-mast-head, he, accompanied with three other Chiefs, came on board, having some cocoa-nuts, plantains, and bread-fruit, as presents to the Commander, for which they would accept of nothing in return. This Chief, whose name was Eappo, came to make submission; and, as a token of his since|rity, promised to collect the bones of our deceased warrior, as he called him, and to bring them, and lay them at our feet. This was the token of the most perfect submission that a native warrior could make to his conqueror; and this was accepted on the part of our Commander. In this manner, and on these conditions, peace was to be restored.

At nine in the morning of the next day, the same old Chief returned, attended by a more nu|merous suit than before, having several large hogs added to his peace-offerings; and with him, likewise, he brought the bones of Capt. Cook, his back-bone, and the bones of his feet only ex|cepted, which he promised to produce the next visit he made. On examination, the head ap|peared to have been scalped; the face was en|tirely gone; the hands had the flesh on, but scored and salted; and, as he assured the Captain, most of the flesh besides was burnt. Our Com|mander made signs to return the cutter, but was told it was broke up and burnt for the iron. The arms belonging to the marines, who were killed, were next demanded; but these, it was said, were carried up the country by common people, and were irrecoverable. Some presents were made to this friendly Chief, who departed well satisfied. We were now preparing to depart, when provisions of all sorts came pouring in upon us faster than we could consume them. The Chief kept his promise, and

Page  314On the 23d, Eappo and the King's son, came on board, and brought the bones of the Captain that were missing: these were all placed in due form, in a case made for the purpose, and under a triple discharge from the ships, buried in the bay. The terror of the natives on this occasion was increased, by a four pound ball being loaded by mistake, which fortunately did no other mis|chief than that of exciting the jealousy of the na|tives, that our professions of peace were not sin|cere; which possibly might be the case with him who loaded the gun, as the sailors in general could hardly be restrained from violence, whenever a native came within their power. Nothing more remained now to be done.

This day we had the satisfaction of getting the foremast of the Resolution shipt, which was a work of great labour, and some difficulty, as the ropes were now become rotten, and unable to sustain the purchase; however, that being at length ac|complished, and the repairs compleated, so far at least as our circumstances would allow, we bent our sails in the morning; and were visited by many of our former friends, among whom was the King's youngest son, a boy of about fourteen years of age, of whom Capt. Cook was remarkably fond; and the boy, in return, was no less attached to the Captain. He came to express his sorrow for the accident that had happened, which he did by a plentiful flow of tears. He gave us to un|derstand, that his two brothers were killed, and that his father was retired to an inaccessible place. Capt. Clerke made him some presents that were pleasing to him, and he departed very much com|forted.

About 7 in the evening, a breeze springing up in our favour, we unmoored, and soon left Page  315 Karakakooa Bay, for that was the name of the bay in which we had been moored, shaping our course to the N. W. Nothing remarkable till

The 28th, when we opened upon a fine bay, in one of the Leeward Islands, called by the inhabi|tants O-aa-ah, where the ships came to an anchor, and where both Captains landed: they found a fine running river, but brackish towards the sea; they therefore made a very short stay. Several of the inhabitants came on board, who were so im|moderately fond of iron, that they endeavoured to wrench the very ring-bolts from the hatches. Here we put ashore the family that accompanied us from O-why-e, and here we purchased a few small swine; some bread-fruit and plantains, and a quantity of a root called Ta-ee, not unlike fern-root, but of an enormous size, some weighing from 60 to 70 pounds. It is a powerful anti-scorbutic, of the saccharine kind. Pounded, we made an excellent liquor from it, very pleasant, and exceedingly wholesome. We had quantities of it when we reached Kamshatska, and as good as when first purchased. Having found nothing else to engage our attention in this island, we set sail in the evening; and

Next day, March 1, about noon, we moored in our old birth, which, notwithstanding, had a most beautiful appearance from the sea, being well cultivated, and full of villages. We made sail in the evening for Atooi, where we had an|chored the preceding summer. We learned that the name of the island we had just left, was Woa|hoo, lat. 21.50. N. long. 202.15. E. Here we were received with seeming coolness. Hogs, and the produce of the island, were brought us indeed in abundance; but when our casks were landed, in order to exchange our water (that of O-why-he Page  316 being both bitter and brackish, and the water here excellent) the coopers were no sooner set to work, than one native snatched up an adze, another a bucket, a third a bag of nails, and so on; and this among a crowd of people of more than four or five hundred in number. To put a stop to these depredations, orders were given to fire over their heads; but this not having the de|sired effect, a gun from the ships threw them all into confusion. Two were seen to drop; and by the shrieks and cries of the women, more were sup|posed to have been killed or wounded. For a while the multitude retreated; but being rallied by some of their Chiefs, who doubtless had heard that we were not invulnerable, they returned in greater numbers than before, when it was thought prudent to lay aside watering, and to provide for our own safety. All hands were now ordered to their posts, and an engagement commenced in earnest, when the Indians instantly gave way, af|ter a few being killed and wounded by our fire; and they never again offered the least violence during our stay. A perfect agreement took place, and presents were mutually exchanged on both sides.

The reason assigned for our cold reception at first, was, because we had introduced among their women a bad disorder, when at that harbour be|fore, of which many of their people had died.—But now, peace being established, all the bad wa|ter was started from both ships, and a plentiful stock of good water taken on board, to serve us during our long run to Kamshatska, for which we were preparing. Here one of the Chiefs, named Noo-oh-a, expressed a desire to accompany us in our voyage, when, being told that we were never more to return to that island, he lamented the op|portunity Page  317 he had lost when we were here before; and pointing to the sun, seemed to suppose that we should visit that luminary in our course, and that the thunder and lightning of our guns, and that which came from above, were both derived from the same source.

Before our departure, an Indian brought on board our ship, a piece of iron, to be fashioned into a podooa, which, upon examination, ap|peared to be the bolt of some large piece of ship timbers, larger than any that our ships could pro|duce. This excited the curiosity of the officers on board; but no farther discovery could be made, but that it had been taken from a part of a large ship that had been drifted on the coast since our leaving the island in 1778. It was of a paler colour than our iron; but of what nation, we were unable to discover.

From this harbour we sailed on the 9th, and visited the opposite side of the island, where we had likewise passed a part of the former winter. Here we were received with much kindness and hospitality; and here we purchased yams and po|tatoes for our summer's consumption, which the companies of both ships were glad to accept in exchange for their allowance of bread, that part of their food being both scanty and bad.

Besides the natural productions of the country, we purchased in these islands many tons of salt, much of their cordage and cloth, and a great va|riety of artificial curiosities, such as their weapons of war, their instruments for fishing; their cloaks and coverlets; their caps, masks, nets, instru|ments of music; their needles, thread, working tools, bracelets, ear-jewels, and, in short, almost every thing that was new to us, or which was pe|culiar to them; among which were some house|hold Page  318 utensils, and prints for impressing their cloth. The island we are now preparing to leave is named Oneeheow, and lies in lat. 21.49. N. and in long. E. from London, 193 nearly.

On the 15th, we made sail; and soon after were informed that Capt. Clerke was taken ill. We at first stood to the Westward, veering a little to the South, in search of a small island, named Modoo Pappapa, which, we were told, abounded in turtle. We continued this course till

The 30th, when we were in lat. 20.19. N. long. 180.40. per watch. We now altered our course, and steered N. W.

April 1, we continued steering N. W. ½ W. lat. 21.46. N. long. 180.2.

On the 3d, we crossed the Northern Tropic, long. 177.39. E. steering N. W. by N. in a di|rect course for Kamshatska. On the 3d day, after leaving the island of Oneeheow, it began to blow a hard gale, which continued, with very little in|termission, to the present day, when our ship be|came very leaky, and we were informed that the Resolution was much worse than the Discovery.

On the 9th, for the first time, since our leaving Oneeheow, or Nehu, as the sailors called it, we had an observation, and found ourselves in lat. 32.16. long. 160.40. E.

On the 10th, we observed a tropic bird hover|ing about the ship, and by her motions we ex|pected her to light, being far to the Northward of her proper climate; however she left us, and made for the Resolution. In the evening it began to blow, with heavy rain, and continued an un|remitting gale till

The 13th, when we were in lat. 39.50. very cold and foggy. As we now began to approach the higher Northern latitudes, the flannel jackets Page  319 that had been stored up while we were among the tropical islands, were again brought into use, and were of infinite service to the poor men. We now altered our course to the Eastward, having great signs of land on our larboard beam.

On the 15th, being in lat. 41.59. the signs of land increased. The weather being fine and clear, we seized this opportunity to search for the leak, and, knowing it to be forwards, we moved the sails from the fore sail-room, and found them wringing wet; but the leak was out of our reach; however, when the weather was fine, it gave us very little trouble.

On the 16th, the Resolution's boat came on board, and Capt. Gore and our first Lieutenant went to visit Capt. Clerke, who still continued very ill. On their return, they brought a dismal account of the condition of the Resolution; she became leaky on the 7th, when it blew a tempest. On the carpenters going down to the cockpit for lights, they were alarmed by finding themselves over their shoes in water, and, upon further exa|mination, the casks in the fish-room and spirit-room were driving one against another, by which two casks of French brandy were staved. They then searched forwards, where they found the coal-hole six feet deep in water, and the ship's whole complement of paint destroyed; several casks of shells and curiosities staved, the light-room deck blown up, and the bulk-head between the gunner's store-room and the coal-hole, burst open. In this alarming situation, they continued during the whole time that this stormy weather lasted, pumping night and day; and every officer in the ship (the Captain, who was ill, only ex|cepted) took his turn with the common men, who were sickening apace with fatigue; nor were Page  320 they then relieved from hard duty, when our gen|tlemen left the ship; which was the reason we could make no stay to examine the extent of De Gama's or Company's Land, which, however, we discovered, by our run, not to extend farther to the Eastward than it is marked in our ordinary maps. The misfortune of the Resolution's people did not end with the damages above recited; much of their bread was spoiled, and they were forced to take from us a ton of yams to supply its place.

On the 18th, we lost sight of the Resolution; but by every appearance were at no great distance from land. Large pieces of timber drifted by us, and land birds innumerable were seen to the Westward. We were now in lat. 46.10. and our long. 160.25. running at the rate of seven or eight knots an hour.

On the 19th, we came in sight of the Resolu|tion: and though it blew hard, they threw out the signal for us to make sail, from whence we con|cluded that the leak still distressed them. At noon we were in lat. 48.38. and long. 159.10.

On the 20th, we had a deep snow, attended with frost, by which our men were exposed to incredible hardships. It fell so heavy upon the decks and rigging, that it was next to impossible to keep them clear, or, not being clear, to make the ropes traverse. Fortunately it ceased freezing in the night.

On the 21st, we were in lat. 49.48. when we began to get every thing in readiness for coming to anchor.

On the 22d, we were in the latitude of Lon|don; the water of a milky colour, but no sound|ings at eighty-five fathom. In the evening, the Resolution made the signal to tack ship, and we Page  321 never afterwards saw her till our arrival at our des|tined harbour.

On the 23d, we came in sight of land, very barren, very rugged, and covered with snow; from whence we were distant not above a league, with our starboard tacks on board, the water near the shore black with wild fowl, and a sheet of ice skirting the land, covered with sea-lions, seals, and other amphibious animals. At half past ten, P. M. we were put about, finding by our log|book and watch, that we were fifty miles to lee|ward of our port.

On the 25th, we were out of sight of land, with a heavy gale, a fall of snow, piercing cold, and twenty of our hands frost-nipped.

The 26th, it blew hard from the N. E. We kept working to windward, which doubled our labour; and our concern for our Commodore in|creased so much the more, as we judged by our own sufferings what must be the fate of the Re|solution, that was much less able to struggle with the storm than the Discovery. The storm conti|nuing with sleet and snow, three men could scarce do the work of one.

Amidst these complicated distresses, our leak increased to an alarming degree.

On the 28th, we made 17 inches in three hours. The wind dying away, we tried the current, and found we drifted half a mile an hour to the South|ward. A man was sent up to the mast-head, to look round for the Resolution, but without suc|ceeding. We now gave her over for lost.

On the 29th, we stood in for the land, and at two in the afternoon, we came in sight of the en|trance of the bay of Kamshatska, then distant be|tween seven and eight miles to the Southward. We made sail, and stood right in; but finding it froze Page  322 over, we judged that the Resolution could not possibly be there, and therefore concluded that she must have gone to the bottom.

Early next morning, we once more attempted the entrance of the bay, and finding the ice drifted, we conceived hopes that we might be able to force a passage through the loose ice, which, now the weather was fine, did not appear so for|midable as before. About noon, a pleasant breeze sprung up, and we directed our course to a flag we saw displayed just within the bay, and happily succeeded, drooping our anchor in twenty fa|thom water, within less than three leagues of our intended harbour. In about half an hour, while our boats were still looking out for a passage, we observed at a distance two boats making towards us, one of which we knew to belong to the Reso|lution; the other belonged to the Russians. No joy could exceed that which the certainty of the safety of the Resolution spread through the whole ship's company of the Discovery. She had been in port ever since the 27th, and had given us over for lost, never expecting to see us more. She had met with some damage in her sails and rigging; but by her fortunately hitting the harbour, she had escaped much of the distress that we suffered from the severity of the weather.

Early on the first of May, we weighed, having the Resolution's boat to direct us. Soon after day-light, we were within the light-house near the entrance of the harbour, but were opposed by a strong tide from the shore, which drifting huge pieces of floating ice against us, made our fur|ther progress both dangerous and fatiguing but, having the wind fair, about five in the even|ing we came to in sight of the town, and soon af|ter dropt anchor near the Resolution.

Page  323On the 2d, the Resolution unmoored, and both ships came to, and moored within a mile of the town, and within a cable's length of the ice, which entirely shut up the head of the bay.—Here we found only one small sloop, about fifty tons, which, as soon as the ice was clear, was bound on a trading voyage to the Northward.—We had no sooner dropt anchor than our boat was ordered out, and our Captain, with several other gentlemen, went to visit Capt. Clerke, and to take his orders for our future proceedings. We found him still growing weaker and weaker; we there|fore shortened our stay.

On the 3d, some of the principal officers and gentlemen went on shore, and were received by a subaltern, who now had the command of the fort, situated close by a little miserable town, called St. Peter and St. Paul, which, by its appearance, could not be supposed to furnish provisions for the ships crew a single week. We soon learnt that the Governor lived at a town called Bolcheritsk, distant about 135 miles; and that an express had been sent to him on the 29th, about noon, in a sledge drawn by dogs, to notify our arrival. The subaltern, in the mean time, shewed us every ci|vility. We found on our landing a sledge drawn by dogs, in readiness to receive our Commander, and to conduct him to the residence of the officer already mentioned, where he found some gentle|men belonging to the Resolution. It was not, however, a little strange, that though we were ex|pected, and that the Empress of Russia had given orders to her Governor to furnish us with every accommodation in his power, that not a person was to be found that understood any other language than that of the natives of the place, and of Rus|sia; neither of which languages was intelligible to Page  324 any of us; so that, having no interpreter, every thing was to be conducted by signs.

They were hospitably received, and entertained with stewed fish, venison-soups, and other dishes, dressed after the manner of the country; and the officer who now had the command, behaved with an uncommon degree of civility, or, more pro|perly, servility, by paying every attention that his circumstances would admit, to make the Com|modore's situation tolerable. He had made him understand, that at the distance of about sixteen wrests, at a town called Paratounka, there lived a priest, who might possibly be able to converse with him; and with that view, he, the very next day, sent an express to invite him to the fort, at the same time intimating that the Governor was a German, who could talk all languages, which accounts for the omission before complained of: and indeed, as it afterwards appeared, we were expected here the preceding summer, and that our arrival was now unlooked for. On board, the carpenters were busy in stripping the ships bows, where they found the leak of the Resolution to have been chiefly seated. The larboard bow had been stript of its sheathing, and the oakum had been washed out. The sailors were employed in getting the sick on shore, with every part of the ships stores that stood in need of revisal; and though the weather continued piercing cold, no time was lost in forwarding the repairs.

On the 4th, one of our boats, in putting the astronomer's assistant on shore at the influx of the tide, was suddenly encircled by the floating ice, in such a manner as not to be able to move one way or the other; another boat, sent to her relief, was soon enclosed in the same manner, and till Page  325 the return of the tide, both were forced to remain in that deplorable situation, not a person on board daring to trust himself among the floating ice, to go to their assistance. About twelve at night they were released, and the icey prisoners returned on board, almost perished with cold.

A still worse accident happened to Lieut. King, the ingenious writer of the third volume of Cook's voyage, on his first attempt to land; for having no clue to direct him to the village before him, in passing the trackless snow and ice, the ice broke under him, and for a moment he disappeared. Providentially he rose again clear; and the man who attended him having a boat-hook in his hand, instantly threw it to him; he catched it, and laying it across two pieces of ice, recovered his footing.

On the 5th, six gentlemen arrived from Bol|cheritsk, among whom was a merchant who came to trade for skins; some of which he purchased from us, as we thought, at great prices; but as we afterwards found, for little more than half their value. These are all monopolized by the Russian Company, already mentioned in our account of the last summer's voyage, and not a skin is to be had from the Kamshatskadales. This gentleman was accompanied by the Governor's Secretary, who could speak both German and Dutch, and who brought a letter from the Governor, written in German, complimenting the Commodore on his arrival, tendering his best services, and ex|cusing his absence; adding, at the same time, that when he was made acquainted with the ne|cessaries of which we stood in need, he would give immediate orders for their supply, as far as was in his power; and that he would embrace the first opportunity of waiting upon the Commodore. It Page  326 happened that Mr. Webber, our draughtsman, was master of the German; and on reading the letter, it was judged more respectful, as well as more suitable to the occasion, for Capt. Gore, our Commander, and Lieut. King, of the Resolution, to be messengers, as they could give a more par|ticular account of our many wants than could pos|sibly be transmitted in a letter.

On the 6th the Ruffian gentlemen were enter|tained on board the ships, Mr. Webber acting as interpreter to the merchant, and the governor's secretary understanding a little French, was well enough understood to make the conversation and the bottle pass jovially round. About ten at night the company parted; and,

In the morning of the 7th, Capt. Gore, at|tended by Lieut. King of the Resolution and Mr. Webber, and accompanied by the merchant and Ruffian secretary, set out for Bolcheritsk (Bol|cheraika says our Journalist, mistaking the name of the river for the name of the town) where, af|ter a most fatiguing journey, they arrived on the 13th, and were received by Major Behm the Go|vernor, with a politeness that did honour to the post he filled.

After the usual salutations, they entered into general conversation, when our gentlemen soon discovered that the Major was not only a man of breeding, but of general knowledge; that he had been made acquainted by his court with our intention of touching at Kamshatska; that the character of our first Commander, Capt. Cook was known to him by the historical relations of his former expeditions; and that the whole route, that he was supposed to pursue in the present ex|pedition, he had deduced from his own observa|tions, aided by the charts and maps of which he Page  327 was himself in possession. Capt. Gore, when he came to speak of our North-west course, put the letter into his hands, which our Commodore re|ceived from the Ruffian Ismyloff at Samganuida, (of which notice has already been taken;) and which chiefly related to the business of the factory, having only slightly touched upon the civilities he had received from us, and had represented us as in|terlopers, or merchant-boats, engaged in a new line of commerce, which he apprehended might be in|jurious to that in which the factory was engaged. The Governor, however, was of too liberal a turn of mind to be at all affected by such an ill-found|ed opinion; but had he been inclined to give ear to this uncandid insinuation, or to the natu|ral jealousy and distrust of the Kamtschatska|dales, (for they had not yet got rid of the panic with which they were seized at our first approach,) an incident had just happened, that would have infallibly established their credit. The reader will recollect, that in passing Beering's Straits, the ships touched at a town on the Asiatic coast, inhabited by the Tschutskoi nation, a race of stout hardy men, totally different from the Americans on the opposite side of the Straits. This nation had hitherto maintained their independence, and had resisted all the attempts of the Ruffians to reduce them The last expedition against them in 1750, terminated in the defeat of the Ruffians, who from that time had removed their frontier fortress from the Anadyr to the Ingiga, a river that empties itself into the sea of Okotsk. From this fort, the Governor received dispatches the day of the arrival of our officers at Bolcheritsk, containing intelligence, that a tribe of the Tschut|skoi had arrived at that place with propositions of Page  326〈1 page duplicate〉Page  327〈1 page duplicate〉Page  328 friendship, and voluntary offer of tribute; that on enquiring into this unexpected alteration in their sentiments, they had informed his people, that towards the letter end of the last summer they had been visited by two very large Ruffian boats, that they had been treated by the people who were in them with the greatest kindness, and had en|tered into a league of friendship and amity with them; and that relying on this friendly disposi|tion, they are now come to the Ruffian fort, in order to settle a treaty on such terms as might be acceptable to both nations. This extraordi|nary history had occasioned much speculation, both at Ingeginsk and Bolcheritsk; and had not our gentlemen furnished them with a key to it, must have remained perfectly unintelligible: they felt, however, no small satisfaction at being able to clear up the mystery: with which too the Go|vernor was no less pleased than instructed.

By this time dinner was ready, and the gentle|men were invited to partake of what had been provided; they would have excused themselves on account of dress, but the Governor would admit no apology.

After dinner they took occasion to deliver to the Governor their instructions, with a list of those articles of which the ships stood most in need; representing at the same time the shattered con|dition of the ships, and how much they were in want of sails and cordage, as well as provi|sions, having met with no supply of beef or bread from the time they left England in 1776, to the present day; nor of tobacco, a chief article with our sailors, though for three months they had been under the necessity of subsisting without. The Governor heard him with atten|tion, and being sensible that the gentlemen must be Page  329 fatigued, and desirous of rest, begged he might be permitted to conduct them to the house pre|pared for their residence during their stay, where they found every thing provided for them in the nicest order; and a house-keeper and cook; a serjeant, two sentinels, and an interpreter allowed for their domestics. These civilities were accom|panied with the most lively expressions of esteem, at parting; and in the morning, when the gentle|men rose, they found their wishes anticipated by an order lying on their table, ready to be forward|ed to the subaltern at the fort, to supply the ships with the articles they most wanted, without re|gard to their being wanted by the garrison.

The gentlemen were not more gratified than astonished, at finding the spirit of a prince in a Governor sent to the remotest corner of the earth to preside over a semi-barbarous people, living in a district the most deplorable and uncultivated; but they were still more surprised, when, upon enquiring as to the price of the several articles they stood in need of, they were told, that nothing more was required of them, than an attestation of those things being received which should be in his power to furnish, in justification of his own conduct, in not having been wanting in duty to his Sovereign, whose commands he had received, to exert his utmost endeavours to contribute every assistance to promote a design so liberally set on foot by her favourite ally the King of Great-Britain.

And recollecting that tobacco was an article highly prized by the mariners, and not to be pur|chased, at any price in his district, our gentlemen, before their departure from Bolcheritsk, found a quantity, not less than 400 weight, deposited in their house,

"labelled as a present to the seamen Page  328〈1 page duplicate〉Page  329〈1 page duplicate〉Page  330 on board the ships;"
and another bag containing 20 pounds of tea, and 20 loaves of sugar, as the present from the Governor's lady to the officers; along with these she had likewise sent a present of fresh butter, honey, figs, rice, &c. for Capt. Clerke, with her good wishes for the recovery of his health.

We should be wanting therefore in justice to this worthy Governor, were we to pass over his behaviour to us unnoticed; which was such as did honour to his feelings as a man, and to her Imperial Majesty as an officer.

Our gentlemen, after being entertained in a most magnificent manner for several days, was ac|companied in their return by the Governor him|self; who, after enforcing his orders for our im|mediate supply from the country, came to see that his orders had been obeyed at the fort. He had already ordered 13,000 weight of meal to be collected from different districts at a great dis|tance, and conveyed to us at whatever expence, accompanied with 20 head of horned cattle. These our sailors rejoiced to see, and, though ske|letons compared with those of England, were re|ceived by us with an eagerness not easily to be exceeded; for not having had the relish of fresh beef for more than three years, the very scrapings of the bones would have been to our sailors, at this time, a treat infinitely more grateful, than at home they would have thought the most luxu|rious feast.

On the 16th, while the gentlemen were still at Bolcheritsk, a small bullock, procured by the ser|jeant of the fort, was killed, and divided between the crews of both ships. The same evening, John M'Intosh, the carpenter, mate of the Re|solution died, and was decently buried, and the aged priest at Parantounka attending.

Page  331It was the 23d before the Governor and officers arrived at Paratounka, in the vicinage of which the priest resided, of whom we have already spo|ken. With him the Governor spent the after|noon, but when night came he slept at the fort, if fort a mere log-house could be called, without either gun or platform to place a gun.

On the 25th the pinnace from the Resolution was manned, and properly equipped to bring him on board. He was saluted with 13 guns from the Resolution, and 11 from the Discovery; and when he entered the ship he was received with music, and with all the honours that circum|stances would admit; and he was so well pleased with his reception, that he staid two days and two nights on board: during which time, Capt. Clerke being ill, committed the care of entertaining him to the officers with whom he was acquainted, who did not fail to make it agreeable. Some very noble presents were made him at his departure, consisting of curiosities collected from every part of the world, with a gold watch, two fowling-pieces, a brace of silver-mounted pistols, and other valuable articles of English manufacture; to all which were added, near 100 gallons of brandy from the ships stores, as a present from the sailors out of their allowance, they having, at their own request, desired that so much should be spared out of their allowance for grog, in lieu of the tobacco that his Excellency had generously ordered to be divided amongst them gratis; to|bacco at that time had been in such estimation, that he who had been provident enough to make a re|serve, sold it nearly at the price of silver.

Orders were now given to get every thing on board, and prepare for sailing as fast as possible: both ships had been stripped of their sheathing Page  332 to the water's edge, but the leak of the Disco|very was found much lower, being a hole worn in her bow, which, had not the hull been cleared, could never have been come at.

Having now got the meal on board, the crews were served with an allowance of half rye and half flour; which, however, not being accustomed to, they did not very well relish, though it was found to be very wholesome. The Governor had made Capt. Clerke a present of a cow, for which it was necessary to provide provender; and large quantities of ducks, geese and poultry were taken on board, to supply the want of other live stock; for here they had no sheep, nor any other do|mestic animal, except dogs, which serve the na|tives both for horses and hunting: nor was there a cow in the country, that we saw, except what the Governor sent to Capt. Clerke, and one in possession of the priest. What was remarkable, though the sea seemed almost covered with wild ducks, and sea-fowl of various sorts, they were all so shy, that very few were killed.

We had now been here a month, when,

On the 4th of June, being his Majesty's birth|day, the same was celebrated with great magnifi|cence on board and on shore. The ships were dressed with streamers, and with the colours of all nations, and a flag was displayed at the tents. The Russian gentlemen were sumptuously enter|tained, on board, and the common men were served with double allowance of meat and liquor; and being permitted to divert themselves on shore, many of them made parties, and traversed the woods in pursuit of game, with which they were told the country abounded. But, as they were ignorant of their haunts, they met with no success.

Page  333Before our departure, packets were entrusted to the care of the Governor, to be forwarded to England by the way of Petersburgh, both for go|vernment and to private friends; these we have since been informed were carefully transmitted. And now, having all things in readiness, our full complement of wood and water on board, and of every necessary the country afforded, and waiting only for a wind,

Early on the 12th of June we weighed, and sailed, directing our course to the northward; but were detained in the bay till

The 15th, when we were alarmed with a noise louder than the loudest thunder, and presently were almost blinded with the fall of ashes, which in less than an hour, covered the decks all over from stern to stern, an inch thick; among which were mixed pumice-stones as large as walnuts, and many smaller stones, which seemed to have received no alteration by fire. We were all dri|ven down between decks, but about ten in the morning were released by the shower ceasing. On looking round, we found they issued from a vol|cano at the distance, as we supposed, of about twenty miles, then bearing from us W. S. W. During this eruption, we were not only obliged to retire ourselves, but to fasten down the hatches fore and aft; so that what with the closeness of our confinement, and the sulphureous fumes from the ashes, we were almost suffocated. We were therefore no sooner released, than we weighed an|chor and steered to the eastward.

On the 17th and 18th we continued our course E. and E. by N.

On the 19th steered E. by N. Lat. 54.56.

On the 20th came in sight of land, high, and covered with snow, called by Beering, Kronot|skoi-noss, Page  334 but found that Cape a degree more to the southward than he had laid it down. Lat. 55.52.

On the 21st we continued to steer E. N. E. came in sight of Kamtschatska-noss, saw a dead whale, two seals, and a number of sea-lions.

On the 22d we stood to the N. E. and, seeing a change in the colour of the water, we sounded, but found no ground at 100 fathom. We con|tinued the same course till the 25th, when we were in lat. 59.9. and long. 168.30. E.

On the 26th we changed our course E. N. E. and finding the sea covered with gulls and shags, we sounded, but found no ground at 120 fathom.

On the 27th we stood E. one-half N. and found ourselves by observation in lat. 59.57. long 17. E. We changed our course and stood N. N. W.

On the 28th, early in the morning, we came in sight of land, very high and covered with snow, the extreme point of which bore N. E. distance about 6 leagues. We continued our course along shore, with regular soundings at about 54 fathom, free from reefs, and a very bold shore. We steered this course till

The 30th, at noon, when we were in lat. 62.1. Thadeus's Noss came in sight, beyond which the coast seemed to stretch directly North. Here it is observable, that on the Asiatic coast, the sea near the shore is everywhere of a convenient depth for sailing; while on the opposite shore it con|tinues so shallow for several degrees together, as not to be navigated but with the utmost caution.

On the 1st of July, the weather began to grow hazy, with thick fogs. We shaped our course for the point in our chart, called Tschutkoski-Noss, which with that of Thadeus, form the N. E. and S. W. points of the gulph of Anadyr.

Page  335The 3d in the morning, when the fogs left us and it began to rain. At ten in the morning, saw a very high point of land, bearing from us N. N. E. distance about 7 leagues. We hauled upon a wind, and stood E. N. E. till two in the afternoon, when we passed a small island, called by the Russians St. Nicholas; in some parts very high and covered with snow. Lat. 63.45. long. 187.

On the 4th at one in the morning, we bore away N. ½ E. and about noon, the next day, saw land from W. to N. E. appearing like two islands. These were the islands of St. Diomede, in the mid|way between the two Continents. At four o'clock we hauled up to W. N. W. being near the East Cape of the Asiatic Continent, and sounding from 26 to 29 fathom. At ten at night, the weather being clear, we had an opportunity of seeing the remarkable peeked hill near Cape Prince of Wales, on the American side, and the East Cape of Asia, with the two connecting islands of St. Diomede between them.

On the 6th we continued coasting from N. ½ W. to N. ½ E. with the land to the westward high and snowy. Lat. 67.10. long. 191. E.

On the 7th, saw ice in a large body to the east|ward, distance about 2 or 3 leagues, and about noon passed several large masses of ice. We tacked and stood N. W. by W. with a stiff gale and heavy snow.

On the 8th fell in with the ice again in a solid body; at the same time bore away S. S. W.

On the 9th, at three in the morning, we hauled up along side the solid ice, freezing cold all day. Lat. 69.12.

On the 10th continued our course all the morn|ing, and at nine passed a large field of loose ice, Page  336 distance about three miles, and at noon went through it.

On the 11th we found ourselves surrounded with ice. We kept working to the S. E. passing many large fields of ice, covered with sea-cows. We kept luffing up and bearing away, till with some difficulty we got through. Lat. by obser|vation 67.40. long. 188.40. We continued working through the ice till

The 14th, when by observation we were in lat. 69.37. We continued bearing away to the northward, till

The 18th, when by observation we were in lat. 70.28. long. 194.54. and being very near the ice, a large white bear passed us in the water, but made for the ice at a great rate. In half an hour, we saw multitudes of them upon the ice, making to the eastward, when we observed the sea-cows, as the bears approached them, flying like sheep pursued by dogs.

On the 20th we came in sight of land at the distance of about 5 or 6 leagues, bearing from S. to S. E. sounded from 24 to 21 fathom. Our course being W. ½ S. all the morning, at 3 P. M. we al|tered it, and stood to the southward and westward. This day the crew of the Resolution had the good fortune to fall in with two large white bears, and to kill them both, the two fore tusks of the largest weighed 436lb.

On the 21st we stood from W. ½ N. to W. N. W. and at six o'clock we passed a large island of ice, on which were whole herds of sea-cows of an enormous size. We fired several muskets among them, which sent them to the water with dreadful yellings. At nine in the evening we came in sight of the American shore, distant about six leagues. We steered all night W. by N. and next Page  337 morning found ourselves almost surrounded with fields of ice drifting to the southward. At twelve o'clock we hauled our wind to the southward, and, by the alertness of our seamen, we passed them with very little damage.

On the 22d, about two A M. we again stood S. S. W. but at six saw the ice all round us from S. E. to N. W. hauled our wind upon our larboard tack, and stood S. S. E. We were all this day luffing up and bearing away to avoid the ice, which was on every side in sight, in many frightful shapes.

On the morning of the 23d it came on to blow very hard, and, before noon, we found ourselves closely blocked up in the ice, and could see it all round us in a solid body, to a great distance. At the same time we saw the Resolution bearing N. E. ½ E. some miles off, which was the last sight we had of her during the whole day. In this horrid situation we handed all our sails, unbent our fore-top-sail, and moored ship with both our ice anchors, one to each bow.

We now began to reflect on our condition; the winter drawing on apace; our provisions short, and what we had but very indifferent, and no re|lief to be expected; our people's spirits began to sink, and it was with difficulty that they were per|suaded to exert themselves for their own deliver|ance. Fortunately for us, we had, in the evening, a shift of wind from W. N. W. with a steady breeze, when our Captain, looking over our star|board quarter, discerned the ice to the southward, seemingly to leave the ship, and soon heard a crash, as if a thousand rocks had been rent from their foundations; which we afterwards perceived to be the parting of the ice in different directions, and soon after found ourselves released. We in|stantly Page  338 got up our ice-anchors, and shaped our course from S. E. to E. S. E. but were frequently stopped by large pieces, which carried away great part of our sheathing forward, and damaged our stern, so that the ship made water at the rate of three inches and a half an hour; and at the same time had 37 inches in her well.

On the 24th we continued our course E. S. E. and came in fight of the Resolution, which had likewise received much damage about her bows. We were now clear of the ice, and, till three in the afternoon, sailed in company, till we came up with a solid body of ice, on which we saw a num|ber of amphibious animals, some of them very large. We instantly got out and manned our boats, and in three hours returned with eleven of the largest, about which all hands were employed the next day in skinning and cutting them up for blubber.

On the 25th we passed several fields of ice. We steered N. E. one-half E. and at noon was at the extreme of the easternmost land in sight, being then in lat. 69.12. and, by lunar obser|vation, in long. 187.16. East of London. It was now excessive cold; the snow froze as it fell. The blocks were choaked up, and the ropes increased by the frost to double their real size. In this con|dition it is easy to conceive, the fatigues to which the poor sailors were exposed; yet by a little en|couragement, increasing their allowance of grog, and giving them plenty of provisions, they con|tinued their labour with cheerfulness and astonish|ing perseverance.

On the 27th we found ourselves involved again among the loose ice, some of which it was out of our power to escape; and the leak still continuing rather to increase than abate, our Captain, with Page  339 Mr. Bailey the astronomer, and Mr. Burney, our first Lieutenant, went on board the Resolution, to report our situation to the Commodore, whom they found so ill as to be past all hopes of reco|very. Upon calling a council of officers, it was unanimously agreed, that we should proceed as fast as possible to some port, where we might repair our damages, and Kamshatska was appointed our place of rendezvous. We were now in lat. 68.10. and in long. 188. shaping our course S. E. with a light breeze from W. S. W.

On the 28th, at two in the morning we came in sight of the Asiatic shore, very high and covered with snow, distance about 7 or 8 leagues, we made sail and stood to the southward. About noon we found ourselves in lat. 67.11. by double altitudes, and in long. 188.10. E. the extreme of the east|ernmost end of the ice distant about 6 leagues. At ten at night we saw a great number of ducks, geese, and sea-parrots very near us, by which we judged land could not be far off.

On the 29th at noon we were in lat. 66.50. and long. 188.27. but no land in sight.

On the 30th we steered till noon to the S. E. with a steady breeze, and came in sight of two islands right a-head, distant about five or six leagues. The weather then became thick and hazy, and though we were certain that the main land of Asia and America were at no great dis|tance, we could see neither till about four o'clock in the afternoon; when the weather clearing up, we saw a passage or streight, to which we bore away, and found the two continents at seven o'clock on each side of us. Lat. 66. thirteen leagues asunder, beyond which they diverge to N. E. by E. and W. N. W. so as, in lat. 69. to be 300 miles asunder. This streight we called Page  340 North streight, the entrance of which we found the same as has been already described; and the current at this time setting to the N. W. very strong, made our passage not only difficult but dangerous. We shaped our course S. S. W. and continued the same the whole night, sounding from 22 to 26 fathom, grey sand and small shells.

On the 31st we passed Tschutuskoi-noss, called by the sailors Tuskan-noss, and soon came in sight of Cook's town, which we visited the last season, as has already been mentioned, and which we now passed with regret.

On the 1st of August we were in lat. 64.23. long. 189.15. the coast of Asia extending from N. W. by W. distant about 12 leagues.

Nothing remarkable till August the 5th, when we had an observation, and found ourselves in lat. 63.37.

On the 7th at noon we were by observation in lat. 59.38. and in long. 183.45. and at no great distance from the land. At four o'clock having a dead calm, the companies of both ships em|ployed themselves in fishing, and very fortunately caught a great number of large cod, which were equally distributed among the crews. To this place we gave the name of the bank of Good Pro|vidence; and as soon as the breeze sprung up, we made sail and stood to S. W.

On the 9th at noon, we were by observation in lat. 57. and long. 183.36.14. The weather being more moderate than it had been for several days, the signal was made to speak with the Resolution, when on enquiry, we were informed that the Captain was past recovery, and that the crew be|gan to grow sickly. At this time we had not one man on the sick list on board the Discovery.

Page  341On the 10th we continued our course S. W. by W. and on the 12th at noon having had contrary winds, we were in lat. 56.37. with the ship's head to the S. W.

In the evening of the 13th we had the Reso|lution's boat on board, to compare time, who brought the disagreeable news of the Captain's being given over by the surgeon.

On the 15th being in soundings, and the wea|ther calm, we hove to, in order to get some fish for the sick, and a few cod were caught and sent on board the Resolution to be distributed ac|cordingly.

On the 17th the wind that had been against us for some days past shifted in our favour; and at nine in the morning the man at the mast-head called out land to the N. W. which was found to be the island of Mednor, laid down to the S. E. of Beering Island, lat. at noon. 54.50.

Nothing remarkable till the 21st, when early in the morning the man at the mast-head again came in sight of land. It was then at a very great distance, and upon our starboard bow, but before night we were only distant from the mouth of Kamshatska bay, 12 or 13 leagues.

On the 22d at nine in the morning we had the Resolution's boat on board, to acquaint our Cap|tain with the death of our Commodore. We were then within sight of the flag, at the mouth of Kamshatska-bay, of which mention has already been made; and the wind being favourable, we continued our course for the entrance of the har|bour, which then bore from us W. S. W. lat. at noon 52.24.

On the 23d a little before midnight, we came to anchor within the light-house.

Page  342On the 24th our Captain, being now Commo|dore, made the signal to get under way by tow|ing; all the boats were accordingly got out, and the Commodore went on board the Resolution, where it was resolved, for the greater convenience of repairing the ships, and for erecting the tents and forge, to go within the upper harbour. And about four in the afternoon both ships came to, and were moored in three fathom and a half wa|ter, muddy bottom.

The old serjeant, who still commanded at the fort, came with a present of berries for Capt. Clerke. He seemed much affected when he was shewn his coffin, and was told it was his particular desire to be buried on shore.

Early next morning the tents were erected, and the sick were put on shore.

From the time we set sail out of this bay in June, till the present day, we had been in no har|bour to refit; and had been driven from island to island among the ice, till our ships had in a man|ner lost their sheathing, and were otherwise in a shattered condition; we were therefore happy in arriving safe.

August 25th, an express was sent to Bolcheritsk, to acquaint the new governor, Capt. Shmaleff, with our arrival, and with the death of our late Commander, at the same time requesting a fresh supply of cattle. Another express was sent to Paratounka, to desire the attendance of the priest, in order to consult with him concerning the interment of Capt. Clerke, whose desire was, to be buried in his church. While we were wait|ing the issue of these messages, the several pro|motions took place that followed in consequence of the Commander's death. Mr. Gore went on board the Resolution, and Mr. King, first Lieut. Page  343 of the Resolution, took the command of the Discovery. Other promotions took place, which the reader will remark by the sequel. The first care of the commanders of both ships was to provide for the recovery of the sick, and the repairs of the ships; and for that purpose a house was procured for the reception of the for|mer, and a contrivance made for having the latter dry.

The weather being now temperate and the coun|try delightful, the officers and gentlemen chose to sleep in their marquees on shore. It was how|ever thought expedient to shew every mark of respect to the Russian officers, who, though not of the first rank, were notwithstanding the only people with whom we had any concern, or with whom we could have any communication; they were therefore frequently invited to dinner, and they often attended.

On the 26th the priest arrived, when Capt. Gore acquainted him with the death of our com|mander, and of his desire to be buried in his church. The good old gentleman seemed much concerned, but started several difficulties, and appeared very unwilling to comply with the dy|ing request of the deceased. He urged several reasons to shew the impropriety of it; those of most weight were, that the church was soon to be pulled down; that it was every winter three feet deep in water; and that in a few years no vestige of it would remain, as the new church was to be erected near the town of Awatska, upon a drier and more convenient spot. He therefore advised the remains of the Comman|der to be deposited at the foot of a tree, the scite of which was to be included in the body of the new church, where the Captain's bones might Page  344 probably rest for ages undisturbed. These rea|sons, whether real or fictitious, the officers who had charge of the funeral could not disprove, and therefore people were sent to dig the grave where the priest should direct.

All hands were now busy at work on their dif|ferent employments. The Discovery, on being examined, was found to be in a most wretched condition; many of her timbers beneath the wale shaken, and some of her planks rotten, and for want of others to supply their places, were forced to be shifted.

The 29th was appointed for the interment; and to make the funeral the more solemn, every officer was desired to appear in his uniform; the marines to be drawn up under arms, and the com|mon men to be dressed as nearly alike as possible, in order to attend the corpse from the water-side to the grave. All this was readily complied with, and the procession began about ten in the morn|ing, when minute guns from the ships were fired, and the drums, muffled as usual, beat the dead march. When the corpse arrived at the grave, it was deposited under the triple discharge of the marines; and, the grave being covered, it was fenced in by piles driven deep in the ground, and the inside afterwards filled up with stones and earth, to preserve the body from being devoured in the winter by bears or other wild beasts, who are remarkable for their sagacity in scenting out the bodies of dead passengers, when they happen to perish and are buried near the roads.

This ceremony over, an escutcheon was pre|pared and neatly painted by Mr. Webber, with the Captain's coat of arms properly emblazon'd, and placed in the church of Paratounka, and un|derneath the following inscription:

Page  345

There lies interred at the Foot of a Tree,
near the Ostrog of St. PETER, and PAUL,
The BODY of
CHARLES CLERKE, ESQUIRE,
COMMANDER of his Britannic Majesty's
Ships the Resolution and Discovery;
To which he succeeded on the Death of
JAMES COOK, Esquire,
Who was killed by the Natives of an Island he
discovered in the South Sea, after having ex
plored the Coast of America, from 42 deg.
27 min. to 70 deg. 40 min. 57 sec. N.
in search of a North-west Passage
from EUROPE to the
EAST-INDIES.

The Second Attempt being made by
CAPTAIN CLERKE, who sailed within some few
Leagues of Captain Cook; but was brought
up by a solid Body of Ice, which he found
from the American to the Asia shore,
and almost trended due East and
West.—He died at Sea,
on his Return to the
Southward, on the
22d Day of
AUGUST, 1779.
AGED, 38 Years.

Page  346Another inscription was fixed upon the tree under which he was interred. This tree was at some distance from the town, and near the hos|pital, round which several people had already been buried; but none so high upon the hill as the spot pointed out for the grave of Capt. Clerke. The inscription placed on this tree was nearly the same as that in the church of Paratounka, and was as follows:

Beneath this Tree lies the BODY of
CAPTAIN CHARLES CLERKE,
COMMANDER of his Britannic Majesty's
Ships the Resolution and Discovery,
Which Command he succeeded to on the 14th
of February, 1779, on the Death of
Captain JAMES COOK,
Who was killed by the Natives of some
Islands he discovered in the SOUTH
SEA, on the Date above.

CAPTAIN CLERKE died at Sea,
of a lingering Illness, on the 22d Day of
AUGUST, 1779,
In the 38th year of his AGE.
And was INFERRED on the 30th following.

Page  347On this occasion the inhabitants of both towns, and those of the whole country for many miles round, attended; and the crews of both ships were suffered to continue ashore, and to divert themselves, each as he liked best. It was the Captain's desire that they should have double allowance for three days successively, and all that while to be excused from other duty than what the ordinary attendance in the ships required; but the season being far advanced, and a long track of unknown sea to pass before we could reach China, the officers representing the hardships and inconveniencies that so much lost time might bring upon themselves, they very readily gave up that part of the Captain's bequest, and re|turned to their respective employments early the next day.

On the 4th of September, an Ensign arrived with a letter from the Governor to Capt. Gore, acquainting him, that orders had been given a|bout the cattle; that the bearer was to remain, to take care that nothing should be wanted that the garrison could supply; and that on the arrival of a sloop from Okotzk, which was daily expected, he would himself supply his place.

The Ensign farther informed Capt. Gore, that the sloop was laden with provisions and stores of all sorts for the use of the ships; but expressed some apprehensions for her safety, as the boats had been looking out for her several days. This news was of too much importance to be slighted. Accordingly,

On the 3d the pinnaces and beats from both ships were sent to the entrance of the bay, to assist, in case she should be in sight, in towing her 〈◊〉 but it was

Page  348The 11th before she arrived. She was a bark of about 80 tons, and had two guns mounted, which she fired as a salute, when she dropt an|chor, and was answered by a volley from the gar|rison, which consisted of a subaltern and twenty-five soldiers. She was no sooner moored, than we received a visit from a Put-parochich, or Sub-Lieutenant, who was to take the command of the fort. He was introduced to the Commodore, to whom he delivered the invoice of his lading; among which were wearing apparel and tobacco, two articles that were above all others acceptable to the ships companies.

As soon as the Lieutenant had executed his commission, and delivered up the stores to the Commodore, he took his leave, and returned to Bolcheritsk; and the ships being lightened afore, and their bows heaved up dry, so that the car|penters could get at the leaks, the Captains and principal officers finding little else to amuse them, made a party to scour the woods for game; but this proved the worst season in the year for hunting. They had been told, that rein-deer, wolves, foxes, beavers, and stone-rams, every where abounded in the forests of this country; and they had promised themselves great sport in pursuing them; but after staying out full two days and nights, during which time they had been exposed to several severe storms, they re|turned much fatigued, without having been able to kill a single creature. The parties who had been sent out to wood and water had succeeded much better. As soon as the ships were ready to launch, they were ready to compleat the hold. In short, the utmost dispatch was made to hasten our de|parture, so that by the latter end of September Page  349 we were in readiness to put to sea. The cattle with which we were now supplied, one would have thought, had dropt from another region, It is among the wonders of nature, with what celerity every vegetable and every animal changes its appearance in this climate.

On the 12th of June, when we left the harbour of Kamshatska, the spring had but just begun to announce the approach of summer, by the bud|ding of the trees, and the springing of the grass; but now, on our return, it was matter of surprize to find the fruits ripe, and the harvest in full perfection. The cattle were mere skin and bone, which we were glad to accept at first coming; but those that were now sent us were fine and fat, and would have made no bad figure in Smithfield-market. The grass was in many places as high as our knees, and the corn, where any grew, bore the promising appearance of a fine crop. In short, from the most dreary, barren, and desolate aspect, that any habitable country could present, this was become one of the most delightful. Mr. Nelson reaped a rich harvest of rare plants, and had the additional pleasure of gathering them in their most exalted state.

In this interval of idle time, between compleat|ing our repairs and clearing the harbour, we had leisure to take a view of the town near the shore, where we first moored, and that of Paratounka, where the priest lived, and where the church was situated. These towns have received some im|provement since they became subject to the Rus+sians, but are still most wretched dwellings. The houses are built (if we may call that building, which is half dug out of the earth, and half 〈◊〉 upon poles) in two different forms, one for their Page  350 summer, and the other for their winter resi|dence.

Their winter habitation is made by digging a square hole in the earth, about five or six feet deep, the length and breadth being proportioned to the number of people that are to live in it. At each corner of this square hole they set up a thick post, and in the intermediate space between these corner posts, they place other posts at cer|tain distances, and over these they lay balks, fastening them together with strong cords, which they make of nettles prepared in the manner of hemp. Across these they place other balks, in the manner of a bridge, then cover the whole with thatch, leaving a square opening in the middle, which serves at once for door, window, and chimney. On one side of this square is their fire-place, and on the opposite side is ranged their kitchen-furniture. On the two other sides are a kind of broad benches made with earth, on which each family lie, and in one of these huts or houses there live several families. To enter these huts by the only opening at top, they use a ladder, not made with rounds between two sides, like ours, but consisting only of narrow slips of wood fastened to a plank. This ladder the women mount with great agility, with children at their backs; and though the smoke would blind and suffocate those who are not used to it, yet the Kamshatskadales find no inconvenience from it.

Their summer huts, called balagans, are made by fixing up posts about fourteen feet above ground, and laying balks over them as before. On these they make a floor, and then raise a roof, which they thatch with grass. To these balagans they have two doors, which they ascend by the same kind of ladder.

Page  351In the winter they use the balagans for maga|zines, the thatch secures what they lay up in them from rain, and by taking away the ladder, it be|comes inaccessible to wild beasts and vermin.

It being summer, we had no access to their winter dwellings, which were all shut up, and they were not over fond of exposing their poverty; for though they have little to boast of, they are not without pride. The whole furniture of the commonality consists of dishes, bowls, troughs, and cans; their cans are made of birch bark, their other utensils of wood, which till the Russians in|troduced iron among them, they hollowed with instruments made of stone or bone; but with these tools their work was tedious and difficult. In these bowls they dress their food, though, be|ing wood, they will not bear the fire.

In the winter the men are employed in hunting, making sledges, and fetching wood; and the wo|men in weaving nets, and spinning thread.

In the spring the rivers begin to thaw, and the fish that wintered in them to go towards the sea; the men therefore in this season are busied in fishing, and the women in curing what they catch.

They chiefly catch the salmon, which are very plenty and very delicious, by spearing, at which they are as aukward as at shooting.

In the summer the men build both their winter and summer huts, train their dogs, and make their houshold utensils and warlike instruments; but the women make all the clothing, even to the shoes. Their clothes, for the most part, are made of the skins of land and sea-animals, parti|cularly deer, dogs, and seals; but sometimes they use the skins of birds, and frequently those of dif|ferent animals in the same garments. They com|monly Page  352 wear two coats; the under one with the hair inwards, and the upper one with the hair out|wards. The women have besides, an under gar|ment, not unlike Dutch trowsers, divided and drawn round the knees with strings.

They are filthy beyond imagination. They never wash their hands or faces, nor pare their nails. They eat out of the same dish with the dogs, which they never wash. Both men and women plait their hair in two locks, which they never comb; and those who have short hair, supply the locks with false. This is said of the Kamshatska|dales, who live more to the North; those in the towns which we saw, had learnt of the Russians to be more cleanly.

They are very superstitious: and the women in particular pretend to avert misfortunes, cure dis|eases, and foretel future events, by muttering in|cantations over the fins of fishes, mingled with a certain herb, which they gather from the woods with much labour. They pretend also to judge of good and bad fortune, by the lines of the hands, and by their dreams, which they relate to each other as soon as they awake. They dread going near the burning mountains, lest the invisible beings that inhabit them should hurt them; and think it a sin to drink or to bathe in the hot springs, with which their country abounds, because they suppose those springs to be heated by the evil spirits that produce them. They are said never to bury their dead; but, binding a strap round the neck of the corpse, drag it to the next forest, where they leave it to be eaten by the bears, wolves, or other wild inhabitants. They have a notion that they who are eaten with dogs will drive with fine dogs in another world. They throw away all the Page  353 clothes of the deceased, because they believe that they who wear them will die before their time.

The country is said to abound with wild beasts, which constitute the principal riches of the inha|bitants; particularly foxes, sables, stone-foxes, and hares, marmots, ermins, weasles, bears, wolves, rein-deer, and stone-rams; but our gentlemen were much disappointed, who went in pursuit of them. The only game they killed was a she-bear, though they diverted themselves in hunting with the natives for several days: nor were they much more successful in shooting; even the sea-fowl were hardly to be come at, they were so watchful. They have a species of weasle, called the glutton, whose fur is so much more esteemed than all others, that they say the good spirits are clothed with it. The paws of this animal are white as snow, but the hair of the body is yellow. Sixty rubles (about 12 guineas nearly) have been given for a skin, and a sea-beaver for a single paw.

Of the bears, the inhabitants make good use; of their skins they make their beds, coverings, caps, collars, and gloves; and of their flesh and fat, their most delicious food; but their manner of hunting them, is attended with much danger and little profit. They watch their haunts, and follow their tracks to the lakes where they resort. They then choose some convenient place to con|ceal themselves, to be in readiness to watch their prey. They then plant their rests (for no Kamt|shatskadale ever shoots without a rest) and when the bear comes within distance, they point their guns, and let fly. If they kill or maim, so that the bear cannot pursue, 'tis well; but if they miss, as they frequently do, 'tis happy for the hunter if he escapes. The enraged beast makes at the place whence the report is heard, and, if Page  354 not received on the hunter's spear, which he al|ways has in reserve, the combat becomes so un|equal, that the bear is generally the conqueror.

The Kamshatskadales, all along the Northern coasts, have a particular manner of dressing their food, which is the very reverse of that of the In|dians in the South. There they roast or stew with stones made hot and buried, as it were, in the earth with their meat, by which its relish is said to be much improved. But here they boil it with hot stones immersed in water, by which its flavour is rendered more insipid. The same necessity, however, seems to have pointed out the same means to the people of the torrid and the frigid zones; for both being equally unacquainted with iron, and wood being incapable of resisting fire, when brought in contact with it, though the prin|ciple was obvious, the application was difficult; those, therefore, of the torrid zone, would natu|rally be led to call the warmth of the earth to their aid; whilst those in the frozen climates, would think water a more ready assistant: add to this, that the colder regions abound with hot springs; some in Kamshatska, in particular, are so hot, as to approach nearly to the degree of boiling water; but these they think it sinful to use, as we have al|ready observed.

The dogs of this country are like our village curs, and are of different colours. They feed chiefly on fish; and their masters use them, instead of horses or rein-deer, to draw sledges.

The seas and lakes abound with a variety of amphibious animals, of which seals and sea-horses and sea-cows, are the most numerous and the most profitable. Of the skins of the seal they make their canoes, and on their flesh and fat they feed Page  355 deliciously. Whales are sometimes cast upon the shores, but very seldom, unless wounded.

With the teeth and bones of the sea-horse and sea-cow, they point their arrows and weapons of war; and of their fat and blubber they make their oil. They have otters in their lakes, but their skins bear a great price.

They have birds of various kinds in great abun|dance. Among the sea-fowl, they have the puffin, the sea-crow, the Greenland pigeon, and the cor|morant. They have swans, geese, and eleven species of ducks; and they have plovers, snipes, and small birds without number. They have likewise four kinds of eagles; the black eagle, with a white head; the white eagle; the spotted eagle, and the brown eagle. They have vultures also, and hawks innumerable.

This country swarms with insects in the sum|mer, which are very troublesome; but they have neither frog, toad, nor serpent. Lizards are not rare; but they believe these creatures to be spies, sent from the infernal powers to inspect their lives and foretel their deaths; and therefore whenever they see one, they kill it, and cut it into small pieces, that it may not carry back any intelligence to their hurt.

But what is most remarkable, and deserves the attention of the curious, is the general conformity between the Kamshatskadales towards the East, and of the Americans, that live on the opposite coast, just over against them, in their persons, ha|bits, customs, and food; both dress exactly in the same manner; both cut holes in their faces in the manner already described, in which they put bones like false teeth, by way of ornament; and both make their canoes exactly on the same con|struction. These are about twelve feet long and two Page  356 broad, sharp at the head and stern, and flat at the bottom; they consist of flat pieces of wood, joined at both ends, and kept apart in the middle by a transverse piece, through which there is a round hole, just large enough for the man to insert his legs, and to seat himself on a bench made on pur|pose; this skeleton is covered with seal-skin, dyed of a kind of purple colour, and the whole is skirted with loose skin, which, when the man is seated, he draws close round him, like the mouth of a purse; and, with a coat and a cap of the same skin, which covers his whole body, makes the man and his boat appear like one piece; and thus clad, and thus seated and surrounded, he fears neither the roughest sea, nor the severest weather. But here it is necessary to distinguish between the native Kamshatskadales and the Rus|sians who live at Kamtshatska, who preserve the Russian language and the Russian manners.

And now we have had occasion to mention this similiarity between the inhabitants on the opposite shores of Asia and America, we shall em|brace this opportunity to correct a very material error in our account of our last year's voyage, where, speaking of the Russian Discoveries, we took notice, after examining Beering's Straits, though the Russians supposed that the lands were parted, here we found the continent to join, by which the Reader will, no doubt, imagine, that we have asserted, that the two continents of Asia and America join, which they do not; but are se|parated by a strait between two promontories, which in clear weather are so near as to be seen in sailing through with the naked eye. But what is meant is this. When Beering made his dis|covery, in coasting along the American shore, he discovered a sound or strait, which having sur|mounted, Page  357 he found himself in a great bay, which he imagined was another sea; and that the land which he had passed was not the American con|tinent, but a great island separated from the con|tinent by the sound or strait just mentioned. This sound therefore, and this bay, we examined; and sound that what the Russians had mistaken for an island, is actually a part of the American conti|nent. Hence it appears, that notwithstanding all that was written against it, Beering is justly en|titled to the honour of having discovered all that part of the N. W. continent of America that has been hitherto marked in our maps as parts un|known.

It remains now only to give a short description of the bay and harbour where we repaired, which at the entrance is between two very high bluff rocks. On the starboard as we enter is the light-house, of which mention has already been made; and at the distance of about twenty miles the vol|cano, from whence flames and ashes are sometimes emitted; and these eruptions are carried by the wind to a great distance, and to the great terror of the inhabitants. The bay is about eight leagues deep, and lies from S. E. to N. W. and from N. E. to S. W. it is about four leagues. It is in|accessible during the winter, by reason of the ice, but very safe and convenient during the summer. There are in it three excellent harbours.

The harbour where we lay to careen and re|pair, would contain about twenty ships of the line in perfect safety, being closely surrounded with high hills, except at the entrance. The people are civil, and in their way very obliging; but their manner of living affords nothing very enchanting for sailors.

Page  358Our ships being now in as good repair as we had reason to expect from the length of the voy|age they had passed, the rigorous weather to which they had been exposed, the boisterous seas they had shipped, and, above all, from the violent con|cussions of the ice that had shaken their very frames, and had stript them of their sheathing: and being likewise plentifully provided with pro|visions and stores, by the generosity of her Impe|rial Majesty of Russia, and by the care and bene|volence of her Governors and officers.

On the 9th of October, 1779, we weighed, and soon were without the light-house, shaping our course to the southward, and

On the 10th were in lat. 52.36. when we had a dead calm, and went to fishing for cod, with good success. Thermometer 52.

On the 11th we pursued our course, and by noon were in lat. 51.1.

On the 12th we stood S. W. and at night sounded at sixty-two fathom, having in the after|noon passed three small islands to the westward of us, and Cape Lopatka, the southernmost extremity of Kamtshatska. Lat. 50.19. Thermometer 48.52½.

On the 13th we were in lat. 50. long. 157. Course as before.

On the 14th we still continued the same course, full in view, and passed Paramousin, the largest of the Kurile Islands. Lat. 48.30.

The 15th we altered our course in search of some islands, which the Russians said were inha|bited by people of a gigantic size, who were co|vered with hair; but who notwithstanding were very civil, and would supply us with cattle and hogs, with which their islands abounded. These islands, however, we never found, nor the land of Page  359 De Gama, though we continued searching for them till

The 19th, when a storm came on, and we lost sight of the Discovery; but next day were in company, and resumed our course; the gale con|tinuing till

The 22d, when we found ourselves in lat. 41. and long. E. from London 149.20. The wind which had abated in the day, freshened again about nine at night, and soon increased to a gale, when we were obliged to lie-to; as we imagined, from the usual signs and soundings at eighty fathoms, that we must be near land.

In the morning of the 23d we stood N. N. W. in search of land, but found none. At noon, by double al. lat 4.48. long. 146.17. E. About ten at night we altered our course W. N. W. and so continued till

The 25th, when we were in lat. 40.18. long. 144.29. E. and continued our course with an easy sail. At three in the afternoon, a large piece of timber passed us to the northward. And

On the 26th, early in the morning, the man at the mast-head called out land, distant about seven or eight leagues, bearing E. by N. to N. W. We then found ourselves within sight of Japan. The country is of a moderate heigth, consists of a double chain of mountains, abounds with wood, and has a pleasing appearance, being chequered with hills and vallies, and well stored with houses, villages, and cites. Here being only in ten fa|thom off the shore, we cast our fishing-lines over|board, but without success. Lat. 40.56. long. E. Thermometer 52.55.

Early in the morning of the 27th we saw 2 sail, seemingly very large, making towards us from the shore. We cleared ship, and made the signal to Page  360 the Discovery to do the same. One was a square-rigged vessel, though she had but one mast, ap|peared to be higher at each end than in the mid|ship, very shor, and built much in the manner of the Chinese junks. We hoisted English colours. She looked at us, but made sail to the westward, and we continued our course.

On the 28th we saw land bearing W. N. W. to S. half W. distant about six leagues. We then sounded sixty-four fathom, and stood from S. to S. E. by E. Lat. 38.16. long. 142.10. Thermo|meter fifty nine and a half.

On the 29th we again stood S. half W. and in the morning observed another vessel making 〈◊〉 the eastward at a great distance. We again hoisted English colours, but she paid no attention to them, and we pursued our course

On the 30th we were in lat. 36.41. steering S. W. Thermometer sixty-four and a half.

On the 31st saw land very high, from W. half N. to N. W. at a great distance. Saw several birds of a brown plumage hovering about the ships, driven from the land by the storm of light+ning and rain, which blew in heavy squalls.

November , steered all day from S. to S. W. saw a high mountain, which seemed to be a vol+cano, but at a great distance. Lat. at noon 35. ••. Tacked and stood to the northward.

On the 2d we again tacked, and stood E. half S. and, finding the water of a milky colour, sounded, but had no ground at 150 fathoms. Lat. 36.30. long. 140.26. Thermometer •• and a half.

The 3d, the wind ••om the S. S. E. we now continued working to the eastward, to clear the land, but made little way, though a storm came on, which lasted till next day.

Page  361The 4th, the wind being against us, we ad|vanced but slowly, being at noon in 35.49. only; with a great swell from the S. W. Thermometer 72 and a half.

The 5th we had only advanced 2 min.

On the 6th, the wind shifted to the N. E. made sail, and stood all day S. by W. to S. S. W. Lat. 35.15.

The 7th, the sea all round was covered with pumice stones floating to the Northward, several pieces of which being taken up, weighed from one ounce to three pounds. We now approached the climate where bonettoes, albatrosses, sharks, dolphins, porpusses, and flying-fish are seen to play their frolics.

On the 8th we saw sea-weed, pieces of timber, great quantities of pumice, and other signs of land; but no land came in fight. At night we shortened sail.

On the 9th, we stood the whole day S. W. Lat. 32.48. Thermometer 71 and a half.

The 10th, blew a heavy gale from N. N. W. hauled out wind to N. E.

On the 11th, bore away again S. by W. but, the gale increasing towards night, hauled our wind to the Northward.

The 12th, the gale continued, lay-to, with the ships heads to the Westward. Shipped many heavy seas, and the rain fell in torrents.

The 13th, the storm abated. Stood S. S. W. all day; we still continued to pass prodigious quan|tities of pumice-stones, which almost cover the sea between Japan and the Basha Islands, which indicate some great convulsion in nature. Our officers were of opinion, that the Company's land and Staten Island had disappeared in this convulsion; but our philosophers were of another mind. Lat. at noon 25.56. long. 143.18. E.

Page  362On the 14th made sail, W. S. W. At 11 A. M. the Discovery made the signal for land, which we answered. It then bore S. W. distant seven or eight leagues, and appeared like a burn|ing mountain, from whence proceeded, as was supposed on better grounds, all the pumice we had seen. In the night saw volumes of flame proceeding from it, very awful.

On the 15th lost sight of the volcano; but in the evening another made a still more awful ap|pearance, and the volcanic crater was clearly de|scernible by our glasses on board the ship. This was confirmed, by the strong sulphureous smell which they omitted, as we approached them. To the southernmost, our Captain gave the name of Sulphur Island. Lat. 24.48. long. 141.12. We were now in lat. 24.50. long. 140.20. E. Thermometer 72½.

On the 16th we bore away W. half S. Wind fresh from E. N. E. At noon found ourselves in lat. 24.25. having, by the variation and setting of the current, gone 20 miles to the Northward. Long. 138.16.20.″ E. Thermometer 75 and a half.

Early on the 17th, being near the tropic, and expecting the weather to continue fine, we shifted our canvas and running-rigging, and bent our old ones, knowing what we had still to expect before we reached our native shores; and we made the signal for the Discovery to go on our hull-beam in search of land, but found none. Lat. at noon 23.46.

On the 18th we stood the whole day W. S. W. with a stiff breeze. And

On the 19th were in lat. 22.30.

The 20th continued our course without any thing material.

Page  363The 21st we were in lat. 21.42. a hard gale and heavy rain.

The 22d we kept our course the whole day. Lat. at noon 20.46.

The 23d altered our course, and stood W. by S. Lat. 21. long. 123.20.

The 24th hauled our wind, and stood N. N. W. Hard gale from N. E.

The 25th the gale increasing, we lay-to, with the ships heads to the Northward. During the night there was an eclipse of the moon, but could not be observed because of the violent rain. At the time of the greatest darkness, a sailor on board the Discovery, in stowing the main top-mast-stay-sail of the Discovery, fell over board; but fortunately laying hold of a rope hanging from the fore-chains into the water, he was got on board, with|out any other hurt than a slight bruise on one shoulder. Lat. at noon 21.29.

The 26th we again bore away W. S. W. and so continued all day.

The 27th continued the same course all day. At night shortened sail, and hauled up to N. N. W.

Early on the 28th we were surprised by break|ers close under our bows. Made the signal to the Discovery, and immediately tacked to the South|ward. At seven we wore ship, and again stood to the N. W. At ten saw breakers from N. E. by E. to W. by S. the nearest distant about a mile. We sounded at fifty-four fathom, and bore away W. S. W. keeping a proper distance from the reefs, and coasting along till we passed them. About noon the S. W. end bore from us N. N. W. distant about two miles, lat. 21.30. long. 116.45, the island of Prata distant 3 or 4 Page  364 leagues. We then made sail N. N. W. which course we continued all night.

On the 29th, about eight, A. M. we came in sight of a whole fleet of small craft, which we took to be fshing-vessels. They were at a great distance, and not one of them left their employ|ment to come near us. Lat. 21.58. We were now only distant from Macao, the port to which we were bound, about twenty-six leagues.

On the 30th we wore ship, and stood to the Southward, and about eleven in the morning, the man at the mast-head called out, Land, bearing W. ½ S. distant about three leagues. This proved one of the northernmost of the Ladrone Islands. As soon as we came within distance, we fired two guns for a pilot, and one came presently along-side, and our Captain agreed for thirty-five dol|lars to carry us into Macao.

December 1st, about two in the afternoon, after a passage of one-and-twenty days, we cast anchor within four miles of the harbour, where we were met by two Chinese gentlemen, who told us of the French war, and of his Majesty's ship the Seahorse having left that place about the time we left Kamshatska. About eight in the evening our boats were manned, and our third Lieutenant went to the English factory there for news, and about ten returned with the magazines and news-papers for 1776, 1777, 1778, being the latest they had received. He likewise brought a confirmation of the French war, and of the continuance of the American war; and that five sail of English ships were now at Vampo, near Canton, in China.

On the 2d, early in the morning, we made sail, and anchored a-breast of the island, and saluted the Governor with thirteen guns, which were an|swered Page  365 with an equal number from the fort. We had scarce dropt anchor, when we were visited by two English gentlemen, who, after learning who we were, and what we had been upon, per|suaded the Commodore to leave our then situa|tion, and to moor the ships in a safer birth to the leeward of a small island about two miles distant, where they might remain without danger.

It was now three years since we had been in any port, where we could converse any otherwise than by signs; and before any one was suffered to go ashore, the Commodore called all hands aft, and ordered them to deliver up their jour|nals, and every writing, remark, or memoran|dum that any of them had made of any particu|lar respecting the voyage, on pain of the se|verest punishment in case of concealment, in or|der that all those journals, writings, remarks, or memorandums, respecting the voyage, might be sealed up, and directed to the Lords of the Ad|miralty. At the same time requiring that every chart of the coasts, or of any part of any of the coasts where we had been, or draught of any thing curious might be delivered up in like man|ner, in order to accompany the journals, &c. all which was complied with; and the papers were made up and sealed accordingly in sight of the whole crew, the papers of the commissioned offi|cers by themselves, the papers of the non-com|missioned officers by themselves, and the papers of the marines and common men by themselves. The boats were then ordered out, and sent to Macao for fresh provisions, which next day were dealt out to the ships companies at full allowance. But before these could return, there came from the town boats with beef, veal, pork, ducks, geese, turnips, carrots, lemons, oranges, and every other Page  366 article of provisions which the island produced; some as presents to the Captains and officers; but by far the greatest part to make their market.

Being now safely moored, the first thing that claimed the attention of the Commodore, was to provide as well as he could for the safety of the crews in their return home. The news of a French war, without letting us know at the same time the order issued by the French king in our favour, gave us much concern. Our ships were ill fitted for war; the decks fore and aft being finished flush, had no covering for men or officers; it was therefore thought necessary to strengthen the stanchions and rails, and to raise a kind of parapet, musket-proof on both decks; and likewise to strengthen the cabins as much as possible, in case of action. And as it was agreed that both ships could carry more guns, if any were to be purchased, the Commo|dore was for taking the ships to Canton, till per|suaded from it by some gentlemen belonging to the English factory, who undertook to negociate the business without giving umbrage to the Chi|nese, who certainly would, they said, be offended at the appearance of ships of war in their river, and would oppose their progress; reminding him at the same time, of the disagreeable dispute in which Commodore Anson was formerly involved on a similar occasion; and how hurtful it was to the Company's commerce for several years after. Upon these representations the Commodore re|linquished his design, and Capt. King, with other officers, were sent in a Company's ship, assisted by one or two gentlemen belonging to the fac|tory, to Canton, to purchase cannon and such other stores as were not to be had at Macao.

Page  367On the 18th they set sail, and at the same time two Portuguese vessels from the harbour of Ma|cao, came and anchored close by us. They were bound to Bengal and Madras, and very readily assisted us with ropes for running rigging, some canvas, and with 60 fathom of cable. They likewise exchanged four small cannon and some shot with the Discovery for a spare anchor.

The 25th, being Christmas-day, was kept, as is usual with English sailors, in jollity and mirth; and what added to the pleasure of the day, there was not a man ill in either ship.

On the 28th the Commodore received a let|ter from Capt. King, with an account of the disasters that had happened in the passage, hav|ing lost two anchors and their boat, and were several times in danger of running ashore; that they did not arrive at Canton till the 24th; but that he hoped soon to return with the cannon and stores, for which he had bargained, though at a great price.

Here they learnt that the skins we had brought with us from the N. W. Continent of America, were of nearly double the value at Canton, as at Kamshatska.

Early on the 29th there came into the harbour of Macao a Spanish galleon from Manilla, said to have more than two millions of treasure on board; and before we left our station, there came in ano|ther worth double that sum. We were unac|quainted with the Spanish war, or these ships, had we been properly commissioned, might easily have been captured. It is astonishing, that none of our cruisers have ever lain in wait for these ships, as their voyage is annual, and their course known.

Page  368The same evening a quarrel happened between a party of our sailors, on shore with leave, and some of the town's people, in which several were dangerously wounded on both sides; and Mr. Bur|ney, first Lieutenant of the Resolution, had a dagger run through his left arm in endeavour|ing to put an end to the fray. For this insult the Governor sent to demand satisfaction; but upon examination, the town's people were found to be the aggressors. The Governor made a very handsome apology for his mistake, and the affair ended without any serious consequences.

We were now visited daily by strangers, who came out of curiosity to see ships that had been so many years upon discovery; and every one was anxious to learn what he could concerning our course, but that we were not at liberty to tell them. Among the rest came two French spies, as we imagined; but not being able to make out any thing criminal against them, they were suffered to depart. The suspicion arose from some of our men, who having particularly marked them, in|sisted that they had formerly sailed with them in the French service. Nothing remarkable till

Jan. the 8th, 1780, when Capt. King, with the officers that accompanied him, arrived in the Com|pany's vessel, with the cannon, ammunition, and stores from Canton. These being shipped, no|thing remained to be done, but to take on board the live stock which the Commodore and officers had purchased for their own use, and nine head of cattle to be killed at sea for the use of the ship's company; the beef and pork which we brought from England, being now scarce eatable. Pro|visions of all kinds were here very dear, and very indifferent; but what made us amends, was the Page  369 price they gave for our furs, on which they set a great value.

On the 11th of January we unmoored, and the wind being fair, came to sail with a pleasant breeze; but the wind dying away in the evening, we cast anchor; and in the night, John Cave, Quarter-master, and Robert Spencer, ran away with the great cutter. And

On the 12th, we were the whole day detained in endeavouring to recover them, but to no pur|pose.

On the 13th, we passed the fort, and saluted the garrison with 13 four pounders, which they answered with an equal number.

We had now nothing but a beaten track to pass, in our way to our long wished-for native country.

On the 20th, we made the little group of islands, known by the name of Pulo Condore, in lat. 8.40. N. at one of which we anchored, and found it inhabited. Here we both wooded and watered, and the carpenters felled some large trees, which were afterwards sawed on board. The trees on these islands are chiefly cedar, iron-wood, man|grove, manchinael, and box. Some nutmeg-trees there were, but of a wild kind, that bear a fruit without taste or smell. In pursuit of game, of which there was plenty, our gentlemen fell in with a party of natives, one of whom accompanied them to the ships. We made him understand that we wanted provisions; and he had not left us long, before a number of boats came round the island, laden with fruits, fowls, ducks, and other provi|sions, which they readily exchanged for any thing we offered them, though they were not wholly un|acquainted with the use of money; for being in|formed that herds of buffaloes were on the island, we purchased seven; three of them, of a large size, Page  370 from four to seven dollars each. These were fierce animals, and were not easily brought on board; but after being subdued, were as gentle and trac|table as the gentlest of our other cattle. What seems surprising is, that the men on the island dare hardly go near them when loose in the woods; but they will suffer little boys to handle and halter them, which is done by passing a rope through a hole made in their nostrils, and round their horns; notwithstanding which, some of them broke the trees down to which they were fastened. Here we found the cabbage-tree, and other succulent greens, with which our people made very free, without asking questions.

On the 28th we unmoored; and on

The 31st, made the island of Banka; and hav|ing passed the Straits,

On the 5th of February, we made the island of Sumatra, where we saw a large ship lying at an|chor; and

On the 7th, passed the island of Java, where we saw two more. We made the signal to the Discovery to prepare for action, and we did the same, hoisting English colours. It was some time before they shewed any, but, at length, they hoisted Dutch colours. We sent our boat on board, and received the first news of a Spanish war. We pursued our course; and

On the 11th, we made the island of Cocoterra. Here, from a healthy ship's company, several of our people fell ill of the flux, and so continued for some time; however, having got plenty of good water on board, we sailed

On the 13th, directing our course to Prince's island.

On the 15th, we entered the bay of Prince's island, where Capt. Cook, when he commanded Page  371 the Endeavour, anchored in his return to Europe. Here we purchased turtles, fowls, and some deer; and here we laid in store of cocoa-nuts, plantains, and other vegetables; and having compleated our stock of water, set sail

On the 18th, directing our course for the Cape of Good Hope. Nothing remarkable till

The 25th of March, when we were attacked by a severe storm, attended with thunder, light|ning and rain, which lasted five days without in|termission.

On the 7th of April, we were alarmed by find|ing our rudder-head almost twisted off. We got the pendants fixed to steer with tackles, it being the carpenter's opinion it could not last till our ar|rival at the next port. However, by proper ap|plication it lasted till we arrived at the Cape.

On the 9th, we fell in with Cape Lagullas, where, about nine in the morning, we saw a small vessel cruising, which proved to be the East India Company's snow, Betsey, looking out for the East India fleet. She left England the 5th of Novem|ber, and False Bay on the 4th instant. She con|firmed the account we had received of the Spanish war. We exchanged some trifles, and soon parted. And

On the 12th, we entered Bay False, came to, and moored the same day, after having saluted the fort with 13 guns, which was answered by the same number. We had scarce dropt anchor, when the Governor came on board, bringing with him a packet of letters for Capt. Cook, which had lain there ever since the beginning of 1779; he had heard of the death of Capt. Cook by a Dutch vessel, and expressed great concern for that unhappy event, asking a thousand questions concerning the particulars.

Page  372The first care of our Commodore was to pro|vide for the sick; and by three in the afternoon they were all landed, and sent to the hospital un|der the care of the Surgeon's mate. All hands were next set to their different employments, some to wood and water, and some to compleat the re|pairs. These they forwarded with the utmost ex|pedition, every one being eager to get to his native country. Of the repairs, the Resolution's rudder was the most material. The first thing, therefore, to be done, was to unhinge it and get it on shore; and though this was immediately put in hand, it was

The 27th before it was restored to its place.

By the 29th, the fick, who were numerous when we arrived at the Cape, we having 16 ill of the flux, were pretty well recovered: the repairs were in forwardness, and the stores ready to be taken on board at a moment's notice, when news was brought us, that an express was arrived at Ta|ble Bay from England, in the Sibbald frigate, which had only been ten weeks from Plymouth, and that she was to return again as soon as she had delivered her dispatches. Both Captains went in|stantly to learn the contents; and, on their return, orders were given to prepare as fast as possible to sail. This was joyful news. The substance of these dispatches related chiefly to the course the East Indiamen were to steer, to fall in with the convoy appointed to meet them; with some in|structions for our Commodore, respecting the pa|pers which were to be transmitted to the Admi|ralty, which were all put on board the frigate; and Mr. Portlock, Master's mate, embarked along with them.

On the 30th, they set sail; but it was

The 7th of May before we were in readiness to follow. About noon, on that day, the signal was Page  373 made for unmooring. We had now 120 live sheep on board, and the Discovery a like propor|tion. We had all other provisions in equal plenty, and we had likewise a healthy crew, in high spi|rits, wishing for nothing but a fair wind to shorten our voyage; but that was not yet to be obtained. We had scarce saluted the garrison on taking leave, when the wind died away, and a great swell ensued, which continued till

The 9th, when the snow came in sight, which e spoke with on the 8th of April. We sent our pinnace for news from sea; but she had seen only 〈◊〉 sail pass since we first spoke with her.

On the 19th of April, the whole crew were near being blown up, by the Snow's taking fire forwards: the ship was much damaged, and they were putting into the Cape to resit, and then were bound for St. Helena.

On the 1th, we made sail, and pursued our course 〈◊〉 without any material occurrence, till

The 10th of June, when the Discovery's boat brought us word, that, in ••••…ising the great guns, the carpenter's mate had his arm shattered in a shocking manner, by part of the wadding be|ing left in after a former discharge; another man was slightly wounded at the same time.

On the 12th, it began to blow very hard, and so continued till next day, when the Discovery sprung her main-top-mast, and we were obliged to lie-to till another was put up.

On the 13th, we crossed the line to the North|ward, and observed a water-spout to the N. W. at no great distance; and for the remainder of the month had fine weather. Thermometer from 80 to 78½.

July the 1st, we had the Discovery's people on Page  374 board, to compare time. Lat. at noon, 20. N. long. 34. W.

On the 13th, the ship's birth-day was celebrated on board, and double allowance given to the whole crew, who were at this time in perfect health.

On the 27th, at day-light, the Discovery made the signal for seeing a sail. We instantly began to clear ship, in case of an enemy, and hoisted English colours; and, on our near approach, 〈◊〉 sail did the same. She was bound to the South|ward, and we pursued our course.

On the 1st of August, just at sun-set, we saw a sail at a great distance to the Westward, but in the morning she was quite out of sight. We were then in lat. 43.56. N.

On the 7th, we were in lat. 48. long. 10.10. W. a heavy gale, with rain.

On the 9th, the wind shifted to the Eastward, when we shaped our course to the North of Ire+land. Blew hard all day

On the 21st, being then in lat. 59.4. N. long. 9.6. saw a sail standing to the Southward, when we made the Discover•…'s signal to chace; but the gale continuing, could not come near enough to 〈…〉. In the evening, the man at the mast|head called out, Land, distant about three leagues.

〈◊〉 on the 22d, made the signal for a pilot, and at eight o'clock a pilot came off, and by the 〈◊〉 we were safely moored in the harbour 〈◊〉 S•…omness, in the North of Scotland. We were soon visited by the gentlemen in the neighbour|hood▪

〈◊〉 the 23d, fresh beef and greens were served in 〈…〉 to both ships companies; and the 〈…〉 passengers went on shore, and set out for 〈…〉 The Captains and officers went like|wise Page  375 on shore, and the men had liberty to divert themselves by turns during our stay.

By the 29th, we had got wood and water enough on board to serve us to London; and at noon, the signal was made to weigh; but the wind coming about, and blowing fresh from the S. E. obliged us not only to relinquish our design for the pre|sent, but detained us till the 19th of September.

On the 20th of September, Capt. King of the Discovery, Mr. Bailey, our astronomer, and Mr. Webber, left the ships, and set out for London; and Mr. Burney, first Lieutenant of the Resolution, took the command of the Discovery in the absence of Capt. King.

During our stay, the ships were visited by gen|tlemen from all the islands round; and by the Apollo frigate and her consort: they brought in a prize, valued at 10,000l. and both Captains came to visit Capt. Gore, on board the Resolution, who now was taken very ill, and so continued to the end of the voyage. The same afternoon, the wind came round in our favour, when the signal was made for unmooring, and both ships got under way. At night we came to an anchor with the tide.

On the 23d, Samuel Johnson, Serjeant of ma|rines, died; and next morning his corpse was committed to the deep.

On the 25th, the wind came again to the Eastward, and continued against us most of our passage.

On the 28th, we passed by Leith, off which we again spoke with his Majesty's ship Apollo.

On the 29th, John Davis, Quarter-master, died. Our detension at Stromness proved unfortunate for these two men, who died in their passage.—Had the ships arrived in a direct course, their Page  376 friends would at least have had the satisfaction of administering all in their power to their recovery, which, to persons who had been so long absent, would have been no small consolation.

On the 30th, we came to an anchor off Yar|mouth, in company with his Majesty's sloops of war, the Fly and Alderney. Our boats were im|mediately sent on shore for provisions; and for a spare cable for our small bower, that we had being near worn out. We lay here till

The 2d of October, when we weighed, and sailed.

On the 4th, we came to at the Nore. And

On the 6th, dropt our anchors at Deptford, having been absent just four years, three months, and two days.

FINIS.