KEPPEL, EARL OF ALBEMARLE.
ARNOLD-JOOST VAN KEPPEL, created Earl of Albemarle, was descended of an ancient family in Guelderland, one of the United Provinces, being a younger son of Bernard van Pallant, Lord of Keppel, by Agnes-Charlotte-Elizabetha his wife, daughter to Jacob van Wassenar, Lord of Opdam. His elder brother the Baron Pal∣lant, and Lord of Keppel, was killed at the battle of Eckeren, June 30th, N.S. 1703, unmarried: and his younger brother Rabo, who was Lieutenant General in the service of the States-general, Colonel of a regiment of foot, Postmaster-general of the province of Guelderland, Bailiff of Boisleduc, and one of the Nobles of the province of Over-Issel, died in 1733, leaving issue one son, Arnold-Joost.
The said Arnold Joost, who was created Earl of Albemarle, attended King Wil∣liam into England, in the year 1688 (being then page of honour to his Highness) and was afterwards made one of the Grooms of his bed-chamber, and Master of the robes. On March 25th (N. S.) 1691, being one of the Grooms of the Kings Bed∣chamber, he was sent from the Hague to compliment the Elector of Bavaria, on his arrival in Flanders; and attending on his Majesty in several campaigns, wherein he distinguished himself by his courage and fidelity, he was by letters-patent, bear∣ing date Feb. 10th, 1695-6, 8 William III. created Baron Ashford, of Ashford in Kent, Viscount Bury, in com' pal. Lanc. and Earl of Albemarle. He was a Major-general, before the year 1697; when his Majesty, in his camp at Pamelles, June 17th, ordered, the Earl of Albemarle, with a considerable detachment, to cover the left wing of the army which foraged towards Louvain.
In the year 1699, on the resignation of the Earl of Scarborough, he was constituted Colonel of the first troop of horse-guards. On July 14, 1699, he introduced the Sieur Galesky, Envoy from the King of Poland, to a private audience of his Majes∣ty, in his bed-chamber at Loo, in Holland; which fine seat that King afterwards made him a present of. On May 14th, 1700, he was elected one of the Knights Page 111companions of the most noble order of the Garter, being then one of the Lords of the bed-chamber to his Majesty, and was installed at Windsor on June 5th following.
King William held his Lordship in the highest esteem, and bequeathed to him, in a codicil annexed to his last will and testament, the Lordship of Breevost, and 200,000 guilders, the only legacy he gave from the Prince of Nassaw Friezland, whom his Majesty made his heir. In September, 1701, his Lordship, with the Earl of Galway, reviewed the forces encamped on the Moerdike, near Nimeguen, and continuing there, and at the Hague, set out from thence, in March 1701-2, to view the frontier places against the French. And receiving there the melancholy news of the King's decease, he arrived in England June 26, 1702.
His Lordship having waited on the Queen, and being deeply affected with the death of his royal master, retired to his native country, and on his arrival in Holland, took his place, as a member of the Nobles, in the Assembly of the States-general. In 1702, he was declared General of the Dutch forces; and taking his leave of the States-general at the Hague, August 3d, joined the army on the 7th.
In 1705, he came into England, and attending on the Queen, when she visited the University of Cambridge, he was, on April 16th created Doctor of Laws there. He returned to Holland soon after; and on June 11th, left the Hague to join the army under Monsieur Aberquerque; being also that year at the forcing of the French lines near Tirlemont, July 18th, N. S. He was at the battle of Ramellies, May 23d, N. S. next year, and took up his winter quarters at Brussels. On April 20th, 1708, the States-general declared his Lordship General of Horse; and on July 11th, that year, he was in the memorable battle of Oudenard; and soon after, Augustus King of Poland, and the Landgrave of Hesse-Cassel, arriving in the camp at Hel∣chin, the Duke of Marlborough entertained them, August, 19th, with the review of the first line of his army; after which they dined with the Earl of Albemarle. At the siege of Lisle, the Duke of Marlborough having advice that thirty of the enemy's squadrons were marched through Tournary to intercept a convoy of ammunition, sent out from Brussels for the siege, the Earl of Albemarle was immediately or∣dered to march with the like number of squadrons towards Gramont, for secu∣rity of that convoy, and to take 1000 horse more from Oudenard, if necessary. And accordingly his Lordship brought the convoy safe to Menin, and joined the army, September 12th. After which the French investing Brussels during the siege Page 112of Lisle, the Duke of Marlborough having passed the Scheld to its relief, raised the siege: but encountering with a party of the enemy, under M. de Hautefort, Nov. 28th, 1708, his Lordship's horse was shot under him. In 1710, he had her Majes∣ty's leave to dispose of his troop of horse-guards, which by her favour, he had hi∣therto kept; and accordingly (for a valuable consideration) by agreement between him and the Earl of Portland, the Queen conferred it on that Earl, who was after∣wards created Duke of Portland. On August 27th, 1711, the Earl of Albemarle, with nine battalions and 1100 horse, conducted the second convoy of ammunition and artillery to the siege of Bouchain: and commanding at the battle of Denain, July 24th, 1712, N. S. was made prisoner, but soon released. Prince Eugene, arriving at the Hague, on November 2d following, toop up his abode in his Lordship's house, till one he had taken was fitted up, for the winter season. On the demise of Queen Anne, August 1st, 1714, his Lordship was sent by the States-general to Hanover, to congratulate her successor on his happy accession to the crown of these realms: and, after his return, was one of those Noblemen deputed by their High Mightinesses, to receive the King, and his Royal Highness the Prince, in September, on the fron∣tiers of the United Provinces. His Lordship had also the honour to entertain them at his fine seat at Voorst; and in October, that year, when the Princess of Wales (the late Queen Caroline) came from Hanover, she was received and attended by his Lordship to Rotterdam, where she embarked for England. In 1716, his Lordship continuing his instances in favour of such of the Swiss, in the Dutch service, who were not on the foot of stipulation, with any of the Cantons, they were, by his endeavours, kept in their service, the battalion, of which he was Colonel, being of that number. In 1717, he was nominated by the Nobles of Holland, to compliment the Czar Peter on his arrival: and he was received and complimented by his Lord-ship, at Amsterdam, August 2d, 1717.
His Lordship was a member of the Nobles of Holland, as also Deputy-Forester of that province, General of the horse, and of Swissers, in the service of the States-general, Governor of Boisleduc, Colonel of a regiment of Carabiniers, and of a regi∣ment of Swissers; and departed this life, very much regretted, in the 48th year of his age, at the Hague, on May 30th, N. S. 1718. He married, in Holland, in the year 1701, Isabella, second daughter of S. Gravemoor, General of the forces of the States-general; who, surviving his Lordship, died at the Hague, December 2d, Page [unnumbered]
At the SIEGE of LISLE when his LORDSHIP'S HORSE was SHOT under him.
NE CEDE MALIS [blazon or coat of arms]
WILLIAM-ANNE, SECOND EARL OF ALBEMARLE, having been edu∣cated in Holland, returned into England in the 16th year of his age; and was, by George 1. on August 25th, 1717, constituted Captain of a company, with the rank of Lieutenant-colonel, in the first regiment of foot-guards. In January 1722, he went back to his patrimony in Holland; and on June 13, that year, was visited at his fine seat at Voorst, in Guelderland, by the Bishop of Munster. In October, 1722, his Lordship was declared one of the Lords of the bedchamber to the Prince of Wales. In 1725, he was made one of the Knights-companions of the most ho∣nourable order of the Bath. And on March 31st, 1727, was appointed Aid de Camp to the King. On his late Majesty's accession to the throne, June 11th, 1727, he was continued in his place of Lord of the bedchamber; and on November 22d, 1731, the command of the 29th regiment of foot, then at Gibraltar, was conferred on him. On December 8th, the same year, his Lordship, (with other Peers) attended Frances-Stephen, Duke of Lorrain (the present Emperor of Germany) to Greenwich, where he embarked, in the Fubbs yacht, for Holland, after residing some time at our court. On June 4th, 1733, he was constituted Captain and Colonel of the third troop of horse-guards; and Governor of Virginia, on September 26th, 1737. On July 2d, 1739, he was made a Brigadier-general, and on February 20th, 1741, he was consti∣tuted Major-general of his Majesty's forces. On April 14th, 1742, his Lordship was appointed commander of those forces then ordered to the Netherlands, whereof John Earl of Stair, Field-marshal, was to take the command; and they arrived safely at Ostend, on May 21st following. On August 29th, the same year, his Lordship again commanding the troops sent to the Netherlands, got into Ostend, with most of the ships, though with great difficulty, being in a violent gale of wind. On Fe∣bruary 26th, 1742-3, he was promoted to the rank of Lieutenant-general, and in that command, behaved with great gallantry at the Battle of Dettingen, June 27th, N. S. 1743. His Lordship made the campaign in 1744, with Marshal Wade: and in 1745, when his Royal Highness the Duke commanded, was in the Battle of Fonte∣noy, Page 114where he was wounded. On April 16th, 1746, he had the command of the right wing at the battle of Culloden; and on his Royal Highness's leaving Scotland, he was constituted General and Commander in chief of all his Majesty's forces there, August 23d, 1746; on which day his Lordship arrived at Edinburgh, having marched with the troops under his command from Fort Augustus, on the 13th before, and settled them in their quarters at Perth and Stirling. On July 2d, N. S. 1747, he was with his Royal Highness in the battle of Vall; in the account whereof, pub∣lished in our Gazettes, it is recited, that the Earl of Albemarle did all that could be expected from an officer, as the behaviour of the British infantry (then under his command) shewed. In 1748, he again went over with his Royal Highness; and soon after the conclusion of the peace, his Lordship was appointed Ambassador and Plenipotentiary to the French court; being then General in chief of the forces in Scotland. On July 12th, 1750, he was installed, at Windsor, a Knight of the most noble order of the Garter, by his proxy, Sir Charles Eggleton, Knight; and after∣wards coming into England, was, July 12th, 1751, sworn of his Majesty's most honorable Privy-council, and took his place at the board accordingly, being then Groom of the Stole to his Majesty. On March 30th, 1752, he was appointed one of the Lords Justices, during his Majesty's abode in his German dominions.
His Lordship, whilst Ambassador at the French court, lived very magnificently; but being suddenly taken ill, departed this life at Paris, December 22d, 1754, and his body being landed at the Tower, on Monday, February 19th, 1755, was on Wednes∣day following privately buried in South-Audley-street chapel, near Grosvenor-square.
The French King shewed his esteem for his Lordship, by sending to Mons. Ru∣vigni de Cosne, Secretary of the embassy from England, at Paris, his picture set with diamonds, to be presented to the Earl of Albemarle, which he intended for the late Earl, had not death carried him off before he had finished his embassy.
His Lordship on February 21st, 1722-3, was married at Caversham (a seat of the Earl of Cadogan) near Reading, to the Lady Anne, daughter of Charles Lennox, first Duke of Richmond, Lennox, and Aubigny; and by her Ladyship (who was one of the Ladies of the bedchamber to her late Majesty) had issue 8 sons and 7 daughters.
1. George, Lord Viscount Bury, afterwards Earl of Albemarle.
2. Augustus, born April 2d, 1725, was brought up in the sea-service, and went with Commodore Anson to the South Seas; and at the taking of the town of Paita, where Page 115he was in great danger, having on a jockey cap, one side of the peak was shaved off close to his temple by a cannon ball, which however did him no other injury. On December 11th, 1744, hewas made Captain of one of his Majesty's ships, and during the remainder of the war, took several of the enemy's privateers. In 1751, he was Commodore of a squadron in the Mediterranean; and on May 1st, that year, sailed from fort St. Philip's in the Island of Minorca, to settle the differences between the English Merchants and the Dey of Algiers. On his arrival, the Dey acknowledged to him, "That one of his officers had been guilty of a very great fault, which tended to embroil him with his chiefest and best friends; wherefore he should never more serve him by sea or land; and hoped the King, his master, would look on it as the ac∣tion of a fool or a madman, and he would take care nothing should happen again in the like nature, that they may be better friends than ever." Which declaration was sent to England, and published by order of the Lords of the Admiralty, May 22d, 1751. He also concluded treaties with the states of Tripoly, and Tunis; and before the end of the year 1752, he arrived at Portsmouth, from the Mediterranean, with all the ships under his command, having been upwards of three years on that station.
This gallant seaman having further signalized himself by his courage and conduct upon every occasion, after the rupture with France in 1755, was pitched upon to con∣duct the second expedition against the island of Gorée, on the western coast of Africa, being at the same invested with the command of the land forces destined for that enterprize, consisting of the second battalion of George Lord Forbes's regi∣ment (76th) of foot on the Irish establishment: and, after several delays and mis∣fortunes, arriving off the said island on December, 28th, 1758, employed his time so well, that Mr. St. Jean, the French Governor, with the garrison, surrendered at discretion the next day. Commodore Keppel, having sent off the French captives, and placed a sufficient number of British troops for the defence of the Island, under Major Newton, departed, on January 12th, 1759, for Senegal (which had been reduced by Commodore Marsh, and Major Mason, in May preceding, before their unsuccessful attempt upon Gorée) and there reinforced the garrison, leaving Lieutenant-colonel Richad Worge (who had come out with him) Governor, in the place of Major Mason. When Mr. Keppel had sufficiently provided for the security of these African conquests, he set sail for England, on January 23d, and arriving at Spithead on March 3d, proceeded to London, where he was most graciously received by his Page 116Majesty. After that, he was employed in the bay of Biscay, under Sir Edward Hawke, and was with that brave officer, when he defeated the French fleet, command∣ed by M. Conflans, on November 20th, 1759, off Belleisle; on which occasion Mr. Keppel, in the Torbay of 74 guns, engaged and sunk the Theseus, carrying the same number of guns, but of a greater caliber. In February 1760, he was nominated Co∣lonel of the Plymouth division of marines. The conquest of Belleisle being con∣certed, Commodore Keppel had the command of the squadron appointed for the cover of the siege; and sailing from Spithead on March 29th, 1761, contributed, by his prudence and bravery, not only to making good the landing of the troops in that month, but also to the reduction of the citadel fo Palais, the capital of that island, on June 7th following; the military operations at which did infinite honour to the be∣siegers and besieged. When the British ministry, after the declaration of war against Spain, on January 4th, 1762, resolved on the conquest of the city of Havan∣nah, in the island of Cuba, Mr. Keppel was nominated to act as Commodore, in that important service, under that experienced and gallant officer Sir George Pococke, Knight of the Bath; who sailed from St. Helen's on March 5th, 1762. When the British fleet arrived off that island, on June 6th, Sir George appointed Mr. Keppel to remain eastward of the Havannah, with seven sail of the line, and some small fri∣gates, to protect and conduct the debarkation of the forces: and in his letters to the Lords of the Admiralty, dated July 14th, and August the 19th, acquainted their Lordships, that Commodore Keppel executed the duty entrusted to him with an ac∣tivity, judgment, and diligence, no one man could surpass. After that place surren∣dered to the British Arms on August 13th, he was promoted to the rank of Rear Ad∣miral of the Blue, in November that year, and was very successful in taking many va∣luable prizes, both French and Spanish. At the general election, in 1761, he was returned one of the members for Windsor, having served in the former parliament for Chichester, in the room of his brother, when he succeeded to the Peerage, then one of the Grooms of his Majesty's bedchamber.
At the commencement of the last war with France, he was appointed Admiral of the British fleet, and cruising in the Channel, he met with the French fleet off Ushent, under the command of the Duke de Chartres; an engagement took place in the afternoon; but night coming on soon after, hostilities ceased, to be renewed on the morning with redoubled vigour; but in the dead of the night, the French availed themselves of its Page 117darkness, and retreated with such precipitation, that on the break of day very few of their ships could be discovered. When intelligence arrived in England of their escape from the superior fleet under his command, it created much clamour and dis∣content, and great blame was imputed to him: however, on his return, he spiritedly demanded a trial, by court martial, which being acceeded to, it accordingly took place, and, after a full hearing, he was honourably acquitted. The citizens of Lon∣don, as a testimony of their approbation, voted and presented him with the freedom of the city in a gold box; and further, to shew the respect they bore him for the pro∣tection of their homeward bound merchant ships, ordered a sumptuous entertainment to be provided at the London Tavern in honour of him, to which he and several other naval officers of distinction were invited; and on his entering the city, the horses were taken from the carriage, and he was drawn by his seamen through the streets, amidst the acclamations of a vast multitude of people who had assembled on the occasion.
On the 22d of April, 1782, he was advanced to the Peerage by the title of Vis∣count Keppel, of Elveden, in the county of Suffolk, but dying without issue the title became extinct.
3. James, who died young.
4. William, Gentleman of the horse to his late Majesty; on December 21st, 1752, was made a Captain in the first regiment of foot-guards, with the rank of Lieu∣tenant-colonel. On July 21st, 1760, he was nominated 2d Major of that regiment, with the rank of Colonel of foot; and in January, 1762, had the command of the 56th regiment of infantry, with which he embarked in March following in the fleet fitted out against the Havannah, having the rank of Major-general in that expedition. On August 14th, the day after the capitulation for the surrendering of the Havannah, he took possession of the fort La Punta; and being left commander, after his eldest brother sailed for Europe, re-delivered the possession of the city of Havannah to the Spanish troops, on July 7th, 1763, according to the articles of peace, concluded at Paris, February 10th preceding; soon after which, he embarked for England, and, after a short voyage landed at Portsmouth. He died unmarried in March 1782, being then a Lieutenant-general in the army, and Colonel of the Prince of Wales's regiment of light dragoons.
5. Frederick, who was appointed Canon of Windsor, on April 23d, 1754; offi∣ciated as one of the Chaplains in ordinary to their late and present Majesties; and Page 118in October 1762, was promoted to the Bishoprick of Exeter. His Lordship was also Dean of Windsor, and Register of the most noble order of the Garter. In Septem∣ber 1758, he married Laura, one of the natural daughters of Sir Edward Walpole, Knight of the Bath, and dying 27th December, 1777, left issue by her, one son and three daughters.
6. Thomas; and, 7. Edward, who both died young. 8. Henry, an officer in the army, who died in Scotland, without issue.
His Lordship's daughters were,
- 1. Lady Sophia;
- 2. Lady Eliza-Mary;
- 3. Lady Anne-Susan;
- 4. Lady Nassau, who all died infants;
- 5. Lady Caroline, who mar∣ried to Robert Adair, Esq.
- 6. Lady Elizabeth, wife of the late Marquis of Tavis∣tock, and mother of the present Duke of Bedford; and
- 7. Lady Emilia, who died an infant.
GEORGE, THE ELDEST SON, THIRD EARL OF ALBEMARLE, was born on April 5th, 1724; and betaking himself to a military life, was after he had been some time in the army, appointed Captain-lieutenant in the 3d or royal regiment of dragoons. On April 7th, 1743, his Lordship was promoted to the same office in the 2d regiment of foot-guards, with the rank of Lieutenant-colonel of infantry; and on June 4, 1745, was advaneed to the command of a company in the same regiment, with the rank of Colonel. He served as Aid-de-Camp to the Duke of Cumberland, at the battle of Fontenoy, May 11th, N. S. that year; and being with his Highness at the battle of Culloden, on April 16/27, 1745, was sent express with the news of that affair to the King, who, on that occasion, made him an handsome present, and after∣wards constituted him one of his Aid-de-Camps His Lordship was at that time, and continued, one of the Lords of the Bedchamber to the Duke of Cumberland; and on November 1st, 1749, got the command of the 20th regiment of foot, which he kept, till he obtained that of the 3d regiment of dragoons, soon after his succession to the Peerage. Being appointed a member of the Privy-council, and Governor of the island of Jersey, he took the usual oath, and his seat at the Council-board, on January 28th, 1761, and at the same time had the oaths administered to him, as Governor of the said island. on February 1st, 1756, his Lordship was advanced to the rank of Major-general, and to that of Lieutenant-general, on April 1st, 1759. His Lordship, in 1762, was Commander in chief of the land-forces, at the reduction of the Havannah, where he acquired laurels and an increase of Page 119fortune. Having settled every thing to his mind at that conquest, he embarked for England on board the Rippon man of war, and arriving at Portsmouth on Febru∣ary 20th, 1763, took post to Windsor, where he visited his Royal Highness the Duke of Cumberland; and proceeding thence to London, waited on their Majesties on the 23d, at St. James's, and was graciously received. He was installed Knight of the Garter, July 25th, 1771, and died October 13th, 1772, leaving issue by his Lady Anne, daughter of Sir John Miller, of Chichester in Sussex, Baronet, only one son.
WILLIAM-CHARLES, FOURTH AND PRESENT EARL OF ALBE∣MARLE, born May 14th, 1772. His Lordship married, 9th April, 1792, Eliza∣beth, fourth daughter of Edward Southwell, late Baron of Clifford, by whom he has issue, one son William, born March 1st, 1793.
TITLES.] The Right Honourable William-Charles Keppel, Earl of Albemarle, Viscount Bury, and Baron Ashford, of Ashford.
CREATIONS.] Baron Ashford, of Ashford, in Kent, Viscount Bury, in Lanca∣shire, and Earl of Albemarle, February 10th, (1696) 8 Will. III.
ARMS.] Gules, three Escallop-shells, Argent.
CREST.] In a ducal Coronet, Or, a Demi Swan close, proper.
SUPPORTERS.] Two Lions, ducally crowned, Or.
MOTTO.] NE CEDE MALIS.—Don't yield to misfortune.
CHIEF-SEATS.] At Bagshot, in Surry; and at Voorst, and Loo, in Holland.