Instructions for collecting and preserving various subjects of natural history; as animals, birds, reptiles, shells, corals, plants, &c. Together with A treatise on the management of insects in their several states; selected from the best authorities. By E. Donovan,:
Donovan, E. (Edward), 1768-1837.
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PUPA.

WE have before observed, that Insects taken in this state are most likely to be perfect and vigorous, and are therefore more generally fought for by Aurelians than even when in the Caterpillar state. Some Chrysalides are buried in the earth; some penetrate into rotten wood; and some lie concealed underneath the bark of trees.

An instrument after the form of a hoe or trowel is used when you search for those of the first kind; and the only places worthy atten∣tion are at the roots of trees, as oaks, elms, &c. or beneath the un∣derwood: open the earth close to the tree and search to the depth of several inches.

Such as penetrate into wood, require more care lest they be de∣stroyed when the attempt is made to extricate them; sound on the bark with a stick and you will discover hollows where no external signs are visible; tear off the bark, and with a knife cut away the wood that surrounds the orifice of the cavity to enlarge it, and take out the Chrysalis as carefully as possible.

Whether found in the wood, or adhering to the inside of the bark, it should be preserved with the same substance in the breed∣ing boxes; and if found spun up on the branches of trees, or in the mould, manage to adjust them in a similar manner in the boxes. —They must be handled as little as possible, and be very careful Page  31not to press on any part; as the least rough treatment will either kill or cripple the Insect within.

Swammerdam used to hatch the eggs, feed the larvae, and pre∣serve the pupa of aquatic Insects, in a shallow dish, which he covered with white paper, occasionally moistened, and pierced in several parts for the admission of air.