The London adviser and guide: containing every instruction and information useful and necessary to persons living in London, and coming to reside there; ... By the Rev. Dr. Trusler. ...
Trusler, John, 1735-1820.
Page  [unnumbered]

THE LONDON ADVISER.

HOUSES.

1. HOUSES and lodgings in London are let either furnished or unfurnished, and their prices are according to their size, their situation, and their man|ner of fitting up. In the central parts of London and Westminster, such as the neighbourhood of St. James's, Charing-Cross, the squares, Covent-Garden, the thea|tres, St. Paul's Church-yard, Cheapside, the Royal Ex|change, &c. they are high rented; in more distant parts they are cheaper, and in by-streets, courts, lanes, alleys, and such obscure places, cheaper still.

A private house 24 feet in front, and about seventy deep, two or three rooms on a floor, unfurnished, in the best streets, will let from 100 guineas a-year to 150; such a house, in other places, may be had from 80 to 100 guineas: unfurnished lodgings in such houses are seldom to be met with.

In less central places, but in good streets, unfurnish|ed houses of twenty feet in front, two rooms and a light closet on a floor, may be had for sixty or seventy guineas a-year; and houses of eighteen feet in front for forty or thirty guineas, according to the situation and conveniencies. Unfurnished lodgings in such houses let proportionably. The first floor generally goes at half the net rent of the house without taxes; the parlour floor, or second floor, at one fourth.

Page  22. Houses about twenty-one feet in front will let from four guineas a week furnished to eight guineas, according to the season of the year and the time they are engaged for. The dearest season is from Christmas to June, when families are in town and the parliament sitting; the cheapest, when families are out of town, and the parliament prorogued. In the winter season, such a house as I have mentioned, taken for four or five months, may possibly be had for seven guineas a-week. Thus taken, the tenant pays no taxes, the goods are delivered on inventory, and whatever is destroyed is paid for. Furnished lodgings, that is, the first floor with a servant's room, &c. in such a house, will let for from two guineas a-week to three and a half, in pro|portion to the goodness of the furniture, the conveni|encies wanted, the trouble given, the time they are engaged for, and the season of the year.

Houses of fifty guineas a-year rent will let furnished for from two guineas weekly to five, and the first floor furnished will let for, from one guinea a week to two guineas; second floors two thirds of the rent of first floors, and parlour floors at the price of second floors.

3. It is generally estimated, that in lodging-houses the rent of the first floor furnished, with other conve|niencies, such as kitchen, cellars, garret, &c. shall pay the rent and taxes of the whole house unfurnished.

4. Shops, when let separate, will fetch from 20 l. a-year to 60 l. free of taxes, according to their size, situ|ation, trade of the street, and shew of window.

5. Landlords have now got into a method of making tenants pay guineas for rent instead of pounds, and also land-tax and repairs; but all these outgoings should be considered when the agreement is made, as well as the taxes on the house, for in some parishes the poor-rates and land-tax are lower than in others. Persons who have money may often get the remnant of a lease cheap, provided they will pay down a certain sum of money for such lease; for there are always distressed house-keepers in London, trying to procure money by every possible means; for which reason, such as pur|chase a lease should examine the covenants of that lease, and the state of the building, and particularly take care Page  3 that the rent and taxes are paid up to the time they take possession of it, and also the ground-rent, by see|ing the receipts; otherwise the tenant may have the arrears of such rent or taxes to pay, and the seller of the lease may not be found, or, if found, not able to repay.

6. The general conditions of a lease are, to leave such fixtures at the end of the term as are given in with the lease on schedule, and to leave it in such a state as it was in when taken, the wear from time only excepted; to pay the rent half-yearly, under a forfei|ture of the lease, but with a liberty of assigning it dur|ing the term.

7. If a tenant purchases or takes a lease of another tenant, during its term, by assignment, he is no longer bound for the rent than whilst it is in his possession; he may assign it to another, and, this done, is no longer answerable for the rent; but the first tenant, assigning it without the consent of his landlord, is held bound for the rent during the whole term, if the occupier does not pay it.

Page  48. TABLE, shewing how many Years Purchase an An|nuity or Lease is worth, so as to make 4, 5, 6, 7, or 8 per cent. of Money. Y. M. D. Years, Months, Days.

Y. P. 4 per cent. 5 per cent. 6 per cent. 7 per cent. 8 per cent.
  Y. M. D. Y. M. D. Y. M. D. Y. M. D. Y. M. D.
1 0 11 15 0 11 12 0 11 9 0 11 6 0 11 3
2 1 10 18 1 10 9 1 10 0 1 9 21 1 9 18
3 2 9 9 2 8 18 2 8 3 2 7 15 2 6 27
4 3 7 15 3 6 15 3 5 18 3 5 8 3 3 21
5 4 5 12 4 4 0 4 2 15 4 1 6 3 11 24
6 5 2 27 5 0 27 4 11 0 4 9 6 4 7 15
7 6 0 0 5 9 12 5 7 0 5 4 21 5 2 1
8 6 8 24 6 5 15 6 2 15 5 11 18 5 9 0
9 7 5 6 7 1 9 6 9 18 6 6 6 6 3 0
10 8 1 9 7 8 18 7 4 9 7 0 9 6 8 17
11 8 9 3 8 3 18 7 10 18 7 5 27 7 1 18
12 9 4 0 8 10 9 8 4 18 7 11 9 7 6 12
13 9 11 24 9 4 21 8 10 6 8 4 9 7 10 24
14 10 6 21 9 10 21 9 3 15 8 8 27 8 2 27
15 11 1 12 10 4 15 9 8 15 9 1 9 8 6 21
16 11 7 24 10 10 0 10 1 6 9 5 9 8 10 6
17 12 2 0 11 3 6 10 5 21 9 9 6 9 1 15
18 12 7 27 11 8 6 10 9 27 10 0 21 9 4 15
19 13 1 18 12 1 0 11 1 27 10 4 0 9 7 6
20 13 7 3 12 5 15 11 5 18 10 7 3 9 9 24
21 14 0 9 12 9 24 11 9 3 10 10 0 10 0 0
22 14 5 12 13 1 27 12 0 12 11 0 21 10 2 12
23 14 10 6 13 5 24 12 3 18 11 3 9 10 4 12
24 15 2 27 13 9 15 12 6 15 11 5 18 10 6 9
25 15 7 12 14 1 3 12 9 9 11 7 24 10 8 3
26 15 11 21 14 4 1 13 0 0 11 9 27 10 9 21
27 16 3 27 14 7 21 13 2 1 11 11 21 10 11
28 16 7 27 14 10 21 13 4 24 12 1 18 11 0 18
29 16 11 21 15 1 18 13 7 6 12 3 9 11 3 27
30 17 3 15 15 4 12 13 9 6 12 4 27 11 3
31 7 7 0 15 7 3 13 11 3 12 6 12 11 4 6
E 3 4 0 25 0 0 20 0 0 16 18 0 14 3

Note, F. S. or the Fee Simple, is the Perpetuity.

Page  59. In purchasing a lease of a tenant, it is often ex|pected that the purchaser should also buy the fixtures at a fair appraisement; in doing this, he should exa|mine the lease, and see that he does not give money for those fixtures which belong to the house; for land|lords will often fit up a house with every necessary fix|ture, and put the tenant to no expence in this matter. But if the fixtures have been put up by the tenant, he has a liberty to remove or sell all such as are not fixed to the freehold.

Fixtures removeable are locks, bells, cisterns, grates fixed, coppers, dressers, shelves, counters, &c. Paper pasted to the wall, buildings erected, new windows, chimney-pieces, &c. or things to beautify the house, &c. and fixed to the freehold, must go with the house, at the end of the term, and cannot be removed.

When goods or fixtures are appraised, the seller and the buyer each appoints one appraiser, and the price is fixed between them; if they cannot agree, a third is called in by the other two, and his decision is final.— If six or eight hours is taken up in this business, each appraiser expects a guinea for his trouble; if a few fix|tures only are to be appraised, the appraiser will expect only half-a-guinea. However, if you employ him in removing your furniture, repairing it, &c. and you make a prior agreement with him, he will probably not charge you for the appraising of a few fixtures. Be careful to have an honest man for an appraiser, for his voice has been known to have been bought over on the other side. When goods are appraised to a buyer, a greater value is put upon them than they would fetch at a sale; and if immediately sold, they would not fetch the appraised price by thirty per|cent.

10. In taking a house of its owner, take care that it is in thorough repair, and give a rent accordingly.

11. It is very dangerous to take unfurnished lodg|ings in London; for should the tenant of the house not pay his rent, your goods will be liable to be seized for it; so will your carriage and horses standing at livery, for the rent of the stables, if that rent is in arrear.— To avoid this, enquire into the circumstances of the Page  6 house-keeper, and if you cannot get the landlord of the house to give you an agreement in writing, that he will not seize your goods for any arrears that may become due by his tenant, ask to see the landlord's receipt for the last half-year, before you pay your own rent.

12. Such house-keepers who have troublesome lodg|ers, may remove them, if they will not quit otherwise, by raising the rent weekly upon them; and if they re|fuse to pay, suing them for the same; if the lodgings are furnished, and they do not pay, an opportunity may be taken, when the lodger and all persons be|longing to him are out of the apartments, to lock the door, and keep him from re-entering; if any thing is owing, any effects of the lodger may be detained.

13. If a tenant of an unfurnished house gives notice to his landlord to quit, and does not quit at the time given in such notice; or if he will not quit the pre|mises on a legal notice from his landlord, but holds possession beyond his term, if the landlord has ac|quainted him in writing that he expects double rent for his so doing, he is obliged to pay double the rent first agreed on. 11 Geo. 2. c. 19. s. 18. 4 Geo. 2. c. 28. s. 1.

If a tenant cannot be removed by any of these means, he must be ejected out by a course of law.

Notice of warning must be in writing, directed to the tenant.

14. It is a late determination of the courts, that if it be necessary to give a tenant at will half-a-year's notice to quit, the said notice must be given half-a-year be|fore the expiration of his year; that is to say, his year and the notice must expire at the same time; for if the enant enters upon another year, he may keep posses|sion the whole of that year, and no ejectment to put him out before will stand good.

15. For every dwelling-house inhabited, rented from 5 l. to 20 l. the occupier must pay 6 d. in the pound, 18 Geo. 3. c. 26.19 Geo. 3. c. 59.

At 20 l. and upwards to any sum under 40 l. 9 d. in the pound. Ibid.

All at 40 l. and upwards, 1 s. in the pound. Ibid.

Page  7The offices, yards, gardens, coach-houses, brew-houses, wood-houses, wash-houses, &c. provided they all stand within the compass of one acre, belonging to the dwelling-house, must be valued with the dwelling-house, and shall be charged with the same duties. Ibid

Shops and warehouses, if attached to the dwelling-houses, shall also be liable to be reckoned in with the rent, except the warehouses of wharfingers. Ibid.

But no warehouse that is a distinct building shall be liable. Ibid.

No house shall be deemed inhabited, where only one person is lest in charge of it. Ibid.

Where houses are let out in tenements, the landlords shall pay the duty. Ibid.

Halls and offices that pay other taxes are liable to this. Ibid.

Penalties for refusing or neglect, to be sued for in the courts of Westminster, and the prosecutor shall have full costs if he recovers.

SHOPS.

16. Every occupier of a house, part of which shall be used as a shop, publickly kept open for carrying on trade, or selling any goods by retail; and every build|ing or place used as a shop only shall pay a yearly duty as under.

  l. l. s. d.
Yearly rent of 5 and under 10   4 in the pound.
  10 15   8
  15 20 1 0
  20 25 1 3
  25 30 1 9
  30 & upwards   2  

25 Geo. 3. c. 30. s. 1.

To be paid by the occupier only, notwithstanding any agreement with the landlord to the contrary. Ibid. s. 5.

The rent of the house to be ascertained by the as|sessment of the house-tax of 19 Geo. 3. c. 59. Ibid. s. 6.

Page  8No warehouse for lodging goods, distinct from the public shop, or adjoining to it, if used only as a whole|sale shop, shall be charged with the duty. Ibid. s. 7.

Nor shall bakers or venders of flour, meal, bran or rubbles, be liable to this duty. Ibid. s. 8.

Where houses are divided into different apartments amongst several occupiers, the same shall be assessed as one house, and the duty paid by the landlord. Ibid. s. 9.

The duties shall be assessed, levied and collected in such manner, and with such allowances, and under such forfeitures, and according to such rules as are pre|scribed for assessing, collecting, and levying the win|dow-tax. Ibid. s. 10. See Windows.

Assessors are to estimate the rent of such houses, and may examine the parish rate-books for that purpose.— And persons refusing them shall forfeit 40 s. Ibid. s. 20, 28.

Houses not to be assessed at any less value yearly than as they stand rated to other public taxes. Ibid. s. 29.

Persons overcharged may appeal to the commission|ers (without expence) and from them to any justice of the King's-Bench in England and Wales Ib. s. 32, 35.

Penalties not exceeding 20 l. to be recovered before a justice; upwards of that sum in a court of law. Ibid. s. 36, 37.

Persons aggrieved by a justice, may appeal to the quarter-sessions. Ibid. s. 38.

Persons summoned by a justice to attend as a wit|ness, and not attending, forfeit 40 s. Ibid.

All prosecutions to be commenced within one year of the offence; and persons sued for any thing done in virtue of their office, may plead the general issue, and if acquitted shall have treble costs. Ibid. s 42.

17. Persons who have no furniture, and to whom it may be inconvenient to purchase it, may hire it of bro|kers, at the rate of from 15 l. to 30 l. for every hun|dred pounds worth of goods, according to the time it is wanted. If hired for one year, they will expect 30 l. per cent. if two years, about 25 l. per cent. if Page  9 for three or four years, about 20 l. per cent. and so on in proportion; at 30l. per cent. if taken for four or five years, upholders will lend new furniture, and make it up to the taste of the borrower.

18. But if house-keepers can make shift and furnish a house by degrees, they may for ready money, if they are acquainted with the value of things, purchase ar|ticles at sales, frequently at less than half their first cost, and often at a third, provided they attend such respectable sales, as are advertised some days before in all the newspapers.

19. If you mean to purchase any thing of consequence at an auction, such as an estate, a house, &c. it is ad|viseable to take some intelligent person with you, as a witness of the transaction; you may ask the auctioneer what questions you please concerning it, and whatever he assures you on the subject, he is obliged to make good, or the purchase is void.

The principal auctioneers in London, whose terms generally, for selling goods seven and an half per cent. paying all expences except the King's duty, which is 6 d. in the pound, are,

    For Houses, Estates, Furniture, &c.
  • Mr. Alderman Skinner and Co. Aldersgate-street.
  • Mr. Christie, Pall-Mall.
  • Mr. Robins, Covent-Garden.
  • Mr. Ansel, Spring-Gardens.
  • Mr. Spurrier, Copthall-court, Throgmorton-street.
  • Mr. Denew, Charles-street, Berkley-square.
  • Mr. Ridgeway, Fechurch-street.
  • Mr. Barford, Leicester-square.
    For Horses, Carriages, &c.
  • Mess. Tattersall, Hyde-Park Corner.
  • Mr. Langhorn, Barbican.
  • Mr. Aldridge, St. Martin's-lane.
  • Mr. Hopkins, Holborn.
  • Mr. Mackenzie, Park-street, Grosvenor-square.
    Page  10For Books.
  • Messrs. Leigh and Sotheby, York-street, Covent-garden.
  • Mr. Patterson, King-street, ditto.
  • Mess. Egerton, Whitehall.
    For Hosiery, Linen-drapery, Woollen-drapery, Haberdashery, &c.
  • Mr. Elderton, Bow-church yard.
But there are a variety of lesser ones, perhaps equally respectable.

INSURANCE-OFFICES FROM FIRE.

20. When your house is furnished, the next pre|caution to be taken is, to insure it from fire: this may be done at several public insurance-offices, and at a very small annual premium. The landlord generally insures the building.

1. The Sun-Fire Office, near the Royal Exchange, and in Craig's-court, Charing-cross, has been esteemed the most eligible, because the proprietors act liberally to the insur|ed, and pay the amount of any loss with little trouble to the supplicant. They expect you to give in the best estimate you can of the loss sustained, swear to the amount, and then they immediately pay; they used to deduct three per cent. on the payment, but have lately altered their plan, and pay now the full sum insured, if the goods lost amount to that sum. The clerks ex|pect some small fees to the amount of a few guineas.

The Sun-Fire Office, besides 7 s. 6d. for the policy and mark, has the following annual premiums:—

Sums insured.Common Insurance.Hazardous Insurances.Double Hazar Insurance.
Any sum Not exceeding 200 l.4s. per annum.6s. per annum.10s. per ann.
From 200l. to 1000l.2s. per cent. per annum.3s. per cent. per annum.5s. per cent. per ann.
From 1000l. to 2000l.2s. 6d. do. do.4s. do. do.7s. 6d. do. do
From 2000l. to 3000l.3s. 6d. do. do.5s. do. do. 

Page  11The common insurances comprehend all brick and stone buildings not occupied by hazardous trades or goods; hazardous insurances are on timber-buildings and goods, and merchandizes in them called hazard|ous; as distillers, chemists, apothecaries, colour-men, tallow-chandlers, oil-men, inn-holders, &c. The double-hazardous are thatched, timber, or plaster build|ings. If there is any part of the building wood or plaster on the outside, hazardous insurance must be paid.

2. The London Assurance, Birchin-lane, established by a royal charter, assures houses and other buildings, goods, wares and merchandise, being the property of the assured, on commission or in trust, household goods, furniture, wearing apparel, and printed books, (except writings, books of accompts, notes, bills, bonds, money, jewels, pictures, gun-powder, cattle, hay, straw, and corn nthrashed,) from loss or damage by fire, upon the fol|lowing terms and conditions:

Sum assured.Com. Insur.Hazard. Ins.Doub. Haz. In.
Any sum Not exceeding 1000l.2s. percent. per annum.3s. percent. per annum.5s. per cent. per ann.
From 1000l. to 2000l.2s. 6d. do. do.4s. do. do.7s. 6d. do. do.
From 2000l. to 3000l.2s. 6d. do. do.5s. do. do. 

All brick or stone buildings, covered with slate, tile or lead, wherein no hazardous goods are deposited, nor any hazardous trades carried on, will be assured at the premiums under common insurance; so will all goods nd wares in such buildings.

Timber or plaster buildings covered with slate, tile or lead, wherein no hazardous goods are deposited, or any hazardous trades carried on, are considered as hazardous insurances: so are all goods and wares not hazardous, if deposited in such buildings; and all ha|zardous trades, such as apothecaries, bread and bis|cuit bakers, colourmen, coopers, ship and tallow handlers, inn-holders, malsters, sail-makers and stable eepers, though carried on in brick or stone buildings, overed with slate, tile or lead; also all hazardous Page  12 goods, such as hemp, flax, tow, pitch, tallow, tar and turpentine, deposited in brick or stone buildings, co|vered with slate, tile or lead, wherein no hazardous trades are carried on.

Timber or plaster buildings, covered with slate, tile or lead, wherein hazardous goods are deposited, or any hazardous trades carried on; also thatched buildings, wherein are no hazardous goods or trades carried on, and ship-carpenters and boat-builders are considered as doubly hazardous; also hazardous goods deposited in hazardous buildings, in which hazardous trades are carried on; also goods in thatched buildings, glass, china and earthen wares.

Chemists, distillers, sugar-bakers, and others whose trades are attended with extraordinary hazard, from the nature thereof, or other dangerous circumstances, and also deal yards, will be assured by special agree|ment.

Dwelling-houses, out-houses, and other buildings, goods, wares and merchandise, may be assured in one policy, provided the sum assured on each be particular|ly mentioned.

Persons assuring for seven years will be allowed one year's premium, and the like abatement will be made out of the duty payable to government.

Assurances on buildings and goods are deemed dis|tinct and separate adventures, so that the premium on buildings is not advanced by reason of assuring goods therein, nor the premium on goods by reason of assur|ing the buildings wherein they are kept.

No loss or damage happening to plate will be paid, unless it be expressly mentioned to be assured, and in adjusting losses thereon, the same shall not be valued at more than 6 s. per ounce; and in adjusting losses on houses, no wainscot, sculpture or carved work shall be valued at more than 3s. per yard.

This Office allows all reasonable charges attending the removal of goods in case of fire, and pays the loss of the assured, if the goods shall be destroyed, lost, or damaged by such removal, without any deduction.

3. The Hand-in-Hand Office, opposite St. Sepulchre's church, Snow-hill, insures for seven years at 10 s. de|posit, Page  13 and 2 s. premium per cent. on brick or stone, and double that sum for timber-houses, the sum not exceeding 1500 l. and for any sum from 1500 l. to 2000 l. 4 s. per cent. on brick or stone, and double on timber-houses, for any term of years not exceeding seven. But a sum not exceeding 2000 l. is not to be insured on any building, without the approbation of a general court; and the office insures only three-fourths of the value of each house. This office insures houses only, on the plan of the Union-Office. See the Union-Office.

4. The Union-Office, Maiden-lane, Cheapside, is formed on the same model as that of the Hand-in-Hand, excepting that, instead of houses, this Office only insures goods and merchandise, not exceeding the sum of 6000 l. in any one house, warehouse, yard, &c. at the following rates.

Besides the parliamentary stamp-duties, (and the charge of the policy and mark, which is 9 s. 6 d.) for every 100 l. insured for seven years, shall be paid a certain premium, and a deposit as follows:—

Sums assured.Com. Ins.Half Haz.Haz.H. & H. H.Dou. Ha.
 Pr. Dep.Pr. Dep.Pr. D.Pr. Dep.Pr. Dep.
Any sum not ex|ceeding 1000l.s. d. s. d.s. d. s. d.s. s.s. d. s. d.s. d. s. d
 2 0 10 02 6 12 63 15 9 20 05 0 0
1000l. to 2000l.2 6 12 63 0 15 04 205 6 27 67 6 37 6
2000l. to 3000l.2 6 12 63 6 17 65 256 6 32 68 0 40 0
Above 3000l.3 0 15 04 0 20 05 257 35  

Common Insurances are in houses built on all sides with brick or stone, and covered with state, tiles or lead, and in which no hazardous trades are carried on.

Hazardous insurances are goods, not usually deemed hazardous, in timber or plaster buildings; and hazar|dous goods or trades, such as pitch, tar, tallow, hemp, slax, rosin, &c. apothecaries, coopers, bread or bis|cuit bakers, ship and tallow chandlers, sail and rope-makers, colourmen, inn-holders, &c. in brick or stone buildings.

Double-hazardous insurances are, hazardous goods and trades, in timber or plaster buildings: and also Page  14 chemists, ship-carpenters, boat-builders, china, glass and earthen ware, hay and straw, &c.

Particular cases, and other insurances more hazar|dous still, are subject to the orders and discretion of the directors.

The insurance takes place from the time the charge is paid, and the deed subscribed by the insurer. If any alteration is made on the premises where the goods, &c. are insured, notice must be given at the office, and such alteration approved by the directors, or the poli|cy is void.

The deposit-money is returned on the expiration of the policy; that is, at the end of the seven years, with a proportionable dividend of profits (after deduction of losses and incidental charges only).

Every member or insurer shall pay a due proportion of all losses and charges; and if such proportion shall at any time, beyond the deposit-money, be more than equal to the sum at first deposited, then any member or insurer, who by insurance becomes a member, shall be at liberty to quit the society, paying his proportion due at that time.

Any member may transfer his policy; and the exe|cutors or administrators of every member dying, shall, within three months, give notice at the office, and have such transfer or draft indorsed upon his policy, in which case, the assignee, executor, or administrator, shall be entitled to the same benefit the original insurer was; that is, if the directors think proper: if not, they shall only have the proportionable profits up to the time of transfer or death.

Members may attend general meetings, which are held twice a year, and may at any time see the orders and proceedings of the directions, books of accounts, &c.

5. The Westminster Fire-Office, Bedford-street, Co|vent-garden, insures houses only, and on the following terms:—

Every person insuring for one year shall pay for such insurance, for every hundred pounds. two shillings for brick, and four shillings for timber buildings, exclu|sive of all present and future Parliamentary impositi|ons, Page  15 provided the premises are situate within ten miles from the office.

Persons insuring for seven years become proprietors of the office; and in consideration of their payment for the whole term in advance, will be allowed one year's insurance in seven. They are to pay a pre|mium at the rate of two shillings per cent. and a depo|sit of ten shillings per cent. on brick, and double those sums on timber buildings within five miles from the office.

All septennial insurers shall contribute to making good the losses in proportion to their insurance; but none to be charged above ten shillings per cent. for brick, and double for timber houses, &c. which if any loss shall ever require, any member, first paying his said share, and remitting the deposit-money, may sur|render his policy, and be discharged.

The deposit-money to be returned to every insurer at the expiration of his policy, together with the yearly dividends of profit, except what shall be necessary to defray incident charges and losses by fire, which shall be first deducted out of the same.

Houses and buildings having the fronts and back fronts built with brick or stone, and having also suffi|cient brick party-walls, are to be deemed brick; and others not so built, to be deemed timber.

All buildings insured to be viewed by the surveyor of the office, who is to determine their quality, whe|ther brick or timber.

Every policy to be charged four-pence, and every mark to fix on the house one shilling and four-pence.

This office insures to the full value on all houses.

Gilding, caring, and history painting, are not in|cluded in the insurance; nor will more than 75 l. be allowed for any marble chimney-piece; nor more than 75 l. for an ornamental eling; nor more than two shillings and six pence per foot running for stucco cor|mices and entablature; nor more than sixpence per yard running for papering.

Page  166 The Phoenix Company, or New Fire-Office, in ombard-street, insures houses, goods, and merchan|dise, to any amount, on the following terms:—

Sums insured.Com. Insur.Hazard. Ins.Very Haz. Ins.
Any sum   
Not exceeding 100l.2s. per annum.3s. per annum.5s. per annum.
From 200l. to 1000l.2s. percent. per annum.3s. percent. per annum.5s. percent. per annum.
From 1000l. to 2000l.*2s. 6d. do. do.4s. do. do.7s. 6d. do. do.
From 2000l. to 3000l.*2s. 6d. do. do.5s. do. do. 

Buildings and goods are here considered as separate risks, and therefore the premium or money paid annu|ally will not increase, as set forth in the above table, unless the property insured is in one risk, and shall exceed 1000l.

Large sums may be insured by special agreement.

The price of the policy and mark is 8 s. 6 d.

On death the policy may be continued to the heir, provided the policy is brought to the office to be in|dorsed. Persons changing their habitations may have their policies indorsed, which keeps them in force.

This office, in case of loss, pays the full value for chimney-pieces, carving, stucco-work, and other de|corations.

Persons insuring for seven years will be charged for six years only, and if they insure for a number of years more or less than seven, will be allowed a rea|sonable discount, both in the premium and insurance tax.

7. The Royal Exchange Assurance Office, over the Ex|change, established by royal charter, insures from loss or damage by fire, houses and other buildings, house-hold furniture, wearing apparel, printed books, goods, wares and merchandises, being the property of the as|sured or on commission, (except all manner of writing books of accompts, notes, bills, bonds, tallies, ready money, and gun-powder) upon the following terms and conditions: Page  17

TABLE of Annual Premiums.
Sums assured.Com. Assur.Hazard. Assur.Doub. Haz. As.
Any sum above 100l. not exceeding 1000l.2s. per cent. per ann.3s. percent. per annum.5s. percent. per annum.
From 1000l. to 2000l.s. 6d. do. do.4s. do. do.7s. 6d. do. do.
From 2000l. to 3000l.s. 6d. do. do.5s. do. do. 

Any larger sums may be assured by special agree|ment.

Assurances on jewels, plate, medals, watches, prints not in trade, pictures, drawings, and statuary-work; also assurances to chemists, distillers, and sugar-refiners; or any other assurances more than ordinarily hazardous, by reason of the trade, nature of the goods, narrowness of the place, or other dangerous circumstances, must be particularly specified, and may be made by special agreement.

Any number of dwelling-houses, and the out-houses thereunto belonging, together with the goods therein, may be assured in one policy, provided the sum to be assured on each is particularly mentioned.

Assurances on buildings and goods are deemed dis|tinct and separate adventures, so that the premium on goods is not advanced by reason of any assurance on the building wherein the goods are kept, nor the pre|mium on the building by reason of any assurance on the goods.

For accommodation of such persons as are desirous of being assured for more than one year. a discount of 5 l. per cent. per annum, on the yearly premium will be allowed for all years except the first, and persons so assured are not subject to any calls or contribution to make good losses.

Every person upon application to be assured with this Company, is to deposit 2 s. and 6 d. for the mark, and 6 s. for the Policy, on sums not exceeding 1000 l. and 11 s. for the Policy, on sums exceeding 1000 l. Page  18 which money is to be returned, if the assurance pro|posed is not agreed to. No Policy is to be of any force till the premium for one year is paid.

In adjusting losses, no plate is to be valued at more than six shillings per ounce, except by special agree|ment.

Persons assured by this corporation do not depend upon an uncertain fund or contribution, nor are they subject to any covenants or calls to make good losses which may happen to themselves or others; the capital stock of this corporation being an unquestionable se|curity to the assured, in case of loss or damage by fire. And in case of dispute, the assureds have a more ready and effectual method of recovery, than can be had a|gainst any societies who do not act under a common seal.

This corporation will, in case of fire, allow all rea|sonable charges attending the removal of goods, and pay the sufferer's loss, whether the goods are destroyed, lost, or damaged by such removal, without any deduction.

9 As an addition to the expence of insurance, go|vernment has laid a tax of 1 s. 6 d. on every 100 l. insured, which must be paid at the time you pay your insurance, which is always a year in advance.

10. It is customary for these offices to have insert|ed in the body of the policy the particular articles you insure, and how much upon each; as for example: Cloaths 50 l. books 30 l. furniture 150 l. plate 70 l. &c. and though you were to insure to the amount of 1000 l. they never pay more than you can make ap|pear you have lost. If insuring as above, you have lost 100 l. of cloaths, they will pay no more than 50 l. the sum insured, and the same in other articles. It is folly, therefore, to insure beyond the value of your real property. If your property increases at any |ture time, and you wish to insure more, you can have a new policy for 6 s. 6 d.

11. In case of removal, the same policy will do, with the addition of an indorsement, for which they charge one shilling.

12. All these offices pay for the removal of goods, in case of an adjoining fire.

Page  19

Cautions against Fire.

13. To guard against fire, every master or mistress of a family should be particularly attentive, that ser|vants put every fire out before they go to bed, and that they put out the candles in their own room; for if a fire does not begin in your own house, as watchmen are always about to give notice, there is sufficient time to escape. But if families should be so unfortunate as to be surprised by fire, and cannot escape at the door, they should by all means endeavour to be cool, and not be too much alarmed—fear overcomes reason, and will prevent studying our safety. If there be no way out at the top of the house; from the first floor win|dows, or even from the second, a person might escape by tying the blankets and sheets together, fastening one end to a chair, with the window half down, and throwing the other end out, and lowering himself down by the blankets, &c. the window will prevent the chair following you.

14. The law enjoins, that the parish-officers shall pay as a reward to the turn-cock, whose water first reaches the place where any fire breaks out, a sum not exceeding ten shillings; to the first engine brought complete, a sum not exceeding thirty shillings; to the second a sum not exceeding twenty shillings; and to the third a sum not exceeding ten shillings: and to make persons careful of fire, whenever a chimney takes fire, and the house is not burnt, or wherever any mis|chief is done to a house by fire beginning in a chim|ney, and the parish-officers pay the rewards as above, the tenant or lodger, whose chimney is thus set on fire, shall re-pay the church-wardens the said sums, or such part of them as a justice shall direct, if the matter is referred to him. 14 Geo. 3. c. 78.

15. But as a preservative against fires, every pa|rish is furnished with long ladders: these are kept at certain places, and every family should know where they are kept, and write it down, and fix the writing n some conspicuous part of the house, as also in what tuation the fire-plugs are; by doing this, people can lways have recourse to them.

Page  2016. If families have any thing to preserve more than ordinary; for example, shop-books, books of account, writings, bank-notes, cash, &c. as these things take but little room, it would be adviseable for those who have no other secure place, to put them every night into a bag, and place them in their chamber by their cloaths; they can thus be readily carried off.

17. Some families have stone-closets, others have iron chests, but the above method would be almost equally as secure.

18. Tradesmen would do well to keep duplicates of their books, and lodge one set in the house of a friend; the occurrences of a week might be transcribed at the week's end.

19. Those who have bank-notes should always en|ter the number, date and sum of each note, in a book, as soon as received, in which case, if destroyed, on giving the bank security to re-pay the money, in case the note ever appears against them, they will give the loser the cash. If they receive them of bankers, and can remember where they received them, and on whose account, such bankers will furnish them with the particulars, as they always enter them in their books.

20. If a neighbouring house is on fire, preserve your temper, be cool and wary; don't be in haste to open your doors and let in the rabble, be they as impatient as they may; for in fires, thieves are always ready to plunder a house, and you may lose more that way than any other. The insurance-offices always retain in their service a number of men to attend at fires; these may be known by their dress and badge; and if you admit any into your house to assist you in removing your property, let these be the only people. The master of the house should stand at the door himself for that purpose, and the goods, as removed, should be carried to the house of some friend in the neighbourhood, on the opposite side of the street.

21. The taxes of a house in London are nearly half the rent, and are as follow:

1. Land-tax, a tax on the ground, paid by the te|nant, half-yearly, but generally allowed by the land|lord in the rent, if no agreement to the contrary.— Page  21 This is generally four shillings in the pound, but in some parishes less than others.

2. A house-tax paid to Government, by the tenant, of six-pence, nine-pence, or one shilling in the pound according to the rent. The rent, in this tax, is rated to the full. See Houses, 15.

3. If the house has a retail-shop belonging to it, it pays an additional tax of from four shillings to two shillings in the pound, according to the rent of the house. This to be paid also by the tenant. See Houses, 16.

4. The poor's-rate is another tax, but a parochial one, paid by the tenant to the overseers of the parish, for the maintenance of the poor. This is collected every half-year, and the assessment is from one to six shillings in the pound, or more, according to the num|ber of poor in the parish. This assessment is made by the parish officers, and ratified by a bench of justices. The book, with this ratification, and the sums each house-keeper is to pay, is brought round to every house, when the money is collected, and each inhabi|tant may see how much others pay, then or at any other time, on paying six-pence or a shilling. The rent of each house is generally estimated in the parish-book at two-thirds of the real rent paid; and if any person finds that he pays more in proportion than the rest of the parish, he may obtain redress, by an appli|cation to the quarter-sessions, at a very little expence.

Any person occupying any house, &c. out of which any other person assessed has removed, or which, at the making the rate was empty, every person so removing, and the person so coming into and occupying the same, shall pay to such rate in proportion to the time he oc|cupied the same. In case of dispute, the proportion to be ascertained by two justices. 17 Geo. 2. c. 38. s. 12.

5. Another tax is the window-tax, paid by the te|nant to Government, and collected half-yearly.

Page  22This is assessed in the following manner:—

 s.d.
Every house pays in the first place, per an.30 each
And also for 7 windows, and no more,02
806
908
10010
1110
1212
1314
14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19,16
2017
2118
2219
23110
24111
25, and upwards,20

Windows of out-houses are to be reckoned into the number.

Windows lighting two rooms to be reckoned as two.

Two or more windows, not twelve inches apart from each other, are reckoned but as one.

No windows deemed stopped, unless with stones, brick, or plaster.

Opening a window, without notice to the assessor, forfeits twenty shillings.

Glass doors, and lights over doors, do not pay ac|cording to this act.

6. But, in addition to the above, windows pay a second duty, in lieu of the duty on tea taken off; this is as follows:—

 L.s.d.
Every house under 7 windows, per ann.030
7060
8080
90106
100130
110156
120180
13110
14150

Page  23After this, 5 s. a window for the rest, to the num|ber of 50.

  L. s. d.
50 windows pay per ann. 6 10 0

After this, 2 s. 6 d. a window for the rest, to 100.

100 to 109 per ann.1200
109 to 1201300
120 to 1301400
130 to 1401500
140 to 1501600
150 to 1601700
160 to 1701800
170 to 1801900
180, upwards2000

Persons are to pay only for two houses, and those containing the greatest number of windows.

Glass-doors, and lights over doors, are here consi|dered as windows.

7. The next tax is the church-wardens rate, for re|pairing the church. The county-rate is generally col|lected with it. This is only collected occasionally, and may be from three-pence in the pound to two or three shillings, according to the exigencies required.

8. Another rate or assessment is the paving-tax, for repairing, cleaning, and lighting the streets. This is one shilling and six-pence in the pound, of two-thirds of the rent or value.

9. Another is for watching them, but this is a trifle.

10. There is a further call on every householder for Easter-offerings, for the rector or vicar of the parish; this is four-pence a-head for every one in each family capable of receiving the sacrament, paid once a year, at Easter. But this seldom is collected; it is generally lest to each family to give what they please; but it is always expected that they give something; perhaps a few shillings.

Once or twice a year the church-wardens generally bring round a book, to make a collection for the lectu|rer or afternoon preacher. At this time a house|keeper generally gives a few shillings, but this is op|tional.

Page  24In some parishes, twenty or thirty shillings a year, more or less, are paid by house-keepers, in proportion to their rent, in lieu of tithes.

11. A further expence to the inhabitants is the river water, with which each house is served, from about twenty-four to thirty shillings a year, according to the time of serving, whether every day or three times a week.

1. The London-bridge water-works supply the city, and the greatest part of its liberties, with Thames wa|ter, at the rate of from twenty-four to thirty shillings (paid half-yearly) according to the distance from Lon|don-bridge. The pipes of this Company spread all over the city to Tower-hill, Snow-hill, Shore-ditch, and St. Dunstan's-church, Fleet-street. Office at Lon|don-bridge.

2. The York-building water-works, (office in Vil|liers-street, attendance from three in the afternoon till seven) supplies Westminster, and the west end of the town, as far as Holborn, with Thames water, and will convey the water, if desired, to the upper-stories of a house, the second or third story, according to their situation. The higher the house stands from the water side, the less height can they convey the water. The prices of the water is the same with the London-bridge water-works; only, if the water is to be conveyed to the second or third story, more money is paid annu|ally, from thirty shillings to five pounds. The Thames water is reckoned softer than that of the new river.— If a fire happens in the night, application for water from this Company, and that of London-bridge, must be made at the respective offices, and it will be some time, half an hour or more, before they can get their engines to work.

3. The New-River Company (office in Dorset-street, Fleet-street) supplies all London on the north side of the Thames, from Mile-end turnpike to Hyde-park corner, with water brought twenty miles from London, to a reservoir at Islington. The terms of this Company are rather higher than those of other water-companies, but the water is generally clearer and better. They serve families from twenty-four shillings a year to five Page  25 pounds, according to the quantity of water they re|quire, which is settled by the collector of the district, whose name may be known, by applying at the office, in Dorset-street. This collector also will furnish fa|milies with the names of the turn-cocks in his district, printed on paper, to whom application is to be made in cases of fire; and in the collector's receipts will be found the place to apply to, in want of water and o|ther complaints. This Company conveys the water to upper stories of houses, without any additional ex|pence than the lead pipes, which are the property of, and must be fixed by, the tenant; the nearer a house stands to the Thames side, that is, the lower it is from the reservoirs, the higher in the houses the water can be conveyed. In the New River Water-works, the water runs from an eminence; in the London-bridge and York Company, it is forced up by fire; of course, the higher it is conveyed, the more money annually is required.

4. There are other water-works, those of Chelsea, Hampstead, Bayswater, Shadwell, Lambeth, &c. that supply other parts of the town, and the Borough of Southwark, with soft water, and on nearly the same terms. Thrale's water-works, that supply part of Southwark, serve so low as 20 s. a-year.

5. The lead pipes from the main, that is, from the middle of the street, are considered as belonging to the house, and must be paid for, and kept in repair by the tenant; other repairs and expences are paid by the se|veral companies.

6. Attendance is always given at the respective offi|ces from morning till night, and complaints immediate|ly redressed. It is proper to send to these offices im|mediately on a fire breaking out, especially those that supply the Thames water.

7. It is adviseable for every house-keeper, on first coming to London, to apply to the offices for the names of the turn-cocks, and where they live; and al|so to fire-offices, for the places where the fire-engines are; also to the vestry-clerks of the different parish|es, for the places where the ladders are kept, and from year to year, who are the constables and other Page  26 parish-officers, and to write these down and stick them up in the kitchen, or other part of the house, that the earliest application, in case of fire, may be made for every necessary assistance.

8. In frosty weather, to secure water to the house is the care and business of the tenant. For this pur|pose, fresh horse-dung should be laid over the pave|ment under which the lead pipes pass, and some should be wound round the pipe as it crosses the area. Dung can be had at any of the stables for a trifle, and the ex|pence of fetching it in a cart is not much.

BAKERS, BREAD AND MILK.

1. EVERY peck loaf shall weigh 17 lb. 6 oz. averdupois weight; every half peck 8 lb. 11 oz. and every quartern loaf 4 lb. 5 oz. and an half; to be weighed within twenty-four hours after baking or being sold, under the penalty of from 1 s. to 5 s. for every ounce deficient, at the discretion of the magis|trate, the bread to be taken and weighed in his pre|sence; for every deficiency of weight under one ounce, the penalty is from 6 d. to 2 s. 6 d. 31 Geo. 2. c. 39. 3 Geo. 3. c. 11.

2. Bread made for sale shall be fairly marked; wheaten-bread with a large Roman W, and household-bread with an H, to ascertain under what denomina|tion it was made, under a penalty not exceeding 20 s. nor under 5 s. Ibid.

3. Any baker or other person demanding or taking a higher price for bread, than what the same shall be set at by the assize, or refusing to sell to any person any of the sorts allowed or ordered to be made; when he shall have more than is necessary for the immediate use of his family or customers, forfeits not exceeding 40 s. nor less than 10 s. Ibid.

4. If a certain weight of wheaten-bread costs 8 d. the same weight of standard wheaten (to be marked S. W.) shall be sold for 7 d. and the same weight of Page  27 household-bread shall be sold for 6 d. on penalty of from 10 s. to 40 s. Ibid.

Bread inferior to wheaten is not to be sold at a higher price than household-bread is set at, on penalty of 20 s. Ibid. Applications to a magistrate.

5. Bakers' men, who carry the bread round to their customers, will sometimes, if families run up a bill, sell a loaf or two by the way, and put the money into their own pockets, telling their masters, that they left them at such houses. The master, of course, charges the customer for bread he never had; and, when the bill comes to be paid, it perhaps occasions a dispute, and the buyer finds himself obliged to pay for it after all. To avoid this, the best method is, never to run a bill with a baker, but pay for the bread as it is left; or, if this be inconvenient, order the bill in every Monday morning, while the occurrences of the week are in the memory: these bills, examined and filed, will prevent your being cheated. Bakers, like milk-women, will sometimes leave tallies, on which they daily chalk what is left, but a mark is easily added, while the servant is inattentive, which robs you of the price of a loaf, or a pint of milk. These marks are sometimes made on the door-post, oftener without the door than within; of course an addition can be made unknown to your servant, as the baker or milk-woman passes the door; or they may be wholly rubbed out, by wanton boys or others, as is frequently the case; and when the score is gone, the baker or milk-woman may charge what they please; and as they can sell a loaf or a pint of milk to those who pay ready money, and se|crete that money; to conceal this fraud from their mas|ters, they will score it up to their customers on credit.

6. With respect to milk, though sold at 3 d. a quart, it is always mixed with water. There are cows that are driven into the streets, about the west end of the town, from which you may have your milk, and see it milked, at 4 d. a quart, but the milk of these is not very good, as the cows are driven about all the day; yet it is better than what is brought by milk-women.

Page  28

BUTCHERS AND MEAT.

1. IT is by no means adviseable to deal with one butcher, unless you can agree to have all your meat, viz. beef, mutton, veal, lamb and pork, weigh|ed in, at one and the same price, all the year round; which some butchers will do at 5 d. a pound, and occasionally give you, at the same price, a quarter of house-lamb. If you enter into such an agreement, take care to have a bill of the weight always sent home with the meat, and order it to be weighed by your own people.

If you make no such agreement, and deal regularly with one butcher, you will frequently be charged for a joint you never had; and for half a pound, or a quarter of a pound more than the joint weighs: and you will always pay a halfpenny, or a farthing more per pound, than was you to go to market and cheapen it yourself. In buying a joint at market, of seven pounds and an half, you may often deduct the half pound, but when sent home by a butcher who credits you, never. This conduct in a family will occasion a great saving at the year's end. If you pay your butcher but once a quarter, be sure to have a bill of the weight and price sent in with your meat, and a re|gular bill of the week's meat every Monday morning. In this case you will see what you are about, and not be liable to be imposed upon.

2. Good meat should not look lean, dry, or shrivel|led; the fleshy part should be of a bright red, and the fat of a clear white. When the flesh looks pale, and the fat yellow, the meat is not good. Cow beef is worth a penny a pound less than ox beef, except it be the meat of a maiden heiser. In a buttock you may know it by the udder.

3. The average price of beef is from 4d. a pound to 5d. The prime boiling parts are the rump, buttock edge-bone, briskit, thick and thin flank; roasting pie|ces, the surloin and ribs.

Page  29Butchers make a difference in price between pieces of beef to roast and boil; if you take a piece of each, they will sell prime beef for 4d. halfpenny; if a boil|ling piece alone 4d. if roasting alone 5d.

If you want rump-steaks in any quantity, it is cheap|er to give 7d. a pound without bone than 4d. halfpenny for the whole rump. A buttock is the cheapest joint, as it is free from bone; for if you wish it, the butcher will sell it you without the marrow-bone, which is worth its weight for the marrow.

In buying a buttock of beef, be careful you do not buy the mouse-buttock for the prime one. The differ|ence is easily known; the prime buttock is first cut off the leg, and is the thickest; the mouse-buttock is thin|ner, and cut off the legs between the buttock and the leg bone, is coarse meat, and not worth so much by one penny a pound.

A bullock's tongue will sell from 2s. to 4s. 6d. ac|cording to its size and goodness. A good tongue should look plump, clear and bright, not of a blackish hue.

4. The flesh of mutton should be of a bright red, and its fat of a clear white; and unless it is very fat it is worth little. Ewe mutton is not worth so much as weather by a penny in the pound; mutton five years old, if it can be got, is the most delicious; its natural gravy is brown. A leg of ewe mutton may be known by the udder on its skirt. The average price of prime weather mutton is 4d. halfpenny per pound, though it will sell often for 5d. halfpenny.

5. The average price of veal is 6d. though it will often sell for 8d. particularly the fillet. Large veal is seldom good. Veal should be fat and very white, like rabbit or chicken, not red, or look as if it was much blown up.

6. The average price of grass lamb is 6d. a pound, that of pig-pork the same, though pork chops will of|ten sell for 7d. or 8d.

House lamb at Christmas is dear, and if fine and sat will sell for 7s. 6d. a quarter, the leg 5s. At other times it may be bought so low as 3s. 6d. a quarter.

7. If your butcher sends you any tainted meat, he may be fined, by complaining to a magistrate; but the Page  30 readiest and least troublesome method of redress, is 〈◊〉 put up with a trifling loss, and deal with such a butche no more.

8. The best markets in town are, St. James's, New port, Clare-market, Newgate, Honey-lane, and Leaden hall, for meat; for vegetables, Covent-Garden and Leaden-hall; for fresh butter, Leaden-hall, particular+ly for Epping butter and cream cheese.

POULTRY.

1. POULTRY of all sorts may be purchased cheape of the higlers at the several markets, than at the Poulterer's shops; but of the higlers you must take care what you buy: fowls and chickens should be fat plump and white, particularly white legged. Chicken may be known by their size, and fowls are young, if they have no spurs.

By the same marks you may judge of turkeys. A large cock-turkey at Christmas cannot be bought for less than 6s. or 7s. at other times 5s.; a hen turkey from 4s. to 5s. 6d. Fat crammed chickens, about ten weeks old, on or about Lady-day, are worth about 3s. 6d. each, and a fine fowl at Midsummer is worth 3s. 6d. at other times chicken may be bought of higlers for 3s. or 4s. a couple, and fowls at the same price.

Ducks and geese should look white, very plump, and broad over the breast. A fat goose, weight about 10 lb. on Michaelmas-day, is worth 5 s. at other times about 3 s. 6 d. A green goose in May is worth 4 s. The price of ducks is from 3 s. a couple to 5 s. Wild ducks, in frosty weather, may be bought in Fleet-market for 2 s. 6 d. a couple; at other times they are worth 2 s. each. If they smell fishy they are of little value; to know this, take one of the pen-feathers from the wing, and put it down the throat; if it smells fishy in draw|ing it out, the bird will taste so. Dove-house pidge|ons, in May or June, may be bought for 3 s. 6 d. or 4 s. a dozen. In winter time, poulterers will ask 1 s. 6 d. a piece. Larks, in hard weather, may be Page  31 had for 1 s. 6 d. a dozen. They are best soon after harvest. Guinea fowls are best in Spring, when they get fat without feeding. At this time they are worth from 7 s. to 10 s. each; at other times they are worth little: these last can be bought only of the poulterers, of whom quails also may be had after harvest, at 2 s. 6d. each. Woodcocks are from 2 s. to 4 s. each, accord|ing to the plenty or scarcity.

2. Eggs are from three a groat to eight, according to the time of the year; they are dearest in winter: but such as wish for new-laid eggs may frequently get them at the livery-stables, for one penny or three-half|pence each.

FISH.

FISH is generally dearest and best, when in sea|son.

1. Fish-mongers charge a price for fish according to their customers; to deal with one man regularly, and pay him once or twice a year, is as bad as dealing with butchers in the same way. A fish-monger near the squares will charge 2 s. 6 d. for a mackrell, which may be bought for half the money at Charing-cross; and for one-third of the money from those who cry them about.

To such as live convenient, Billingsgate is the place to buy sea-fish at, whether you want little or much.— Market-days there are Mondays, Wednesdays, and Fridays; but market-days are the dearest days.— You may often buy them fresh, and forty per cent. cheaper, on the intermediate days. By purchasing at Billingsgate, you may buy at one-third of the price which fish-mongers charge, and if you lay out a few shillings, it will pay for a person to carry them home: fish-mongers, at this market, purchase at break of day; and, when the market is not glutted, they will, at those times, buy up all the largest fish, but there is always suf|ficient lest to serve private families. There is an act of parliament to oblige fish-mongers to sell brill, bret, or mall turbot, not exceeding 16 inches from eye to tail, Page  32 for 6 d. a pound, under a penalty of 20 s. to the in|former; for asking more or refusing to weigh or mea|sure it, any person may seize the fish-monger, and deliver him to a constable, to carry him before a jus|tice, who will not only fine him, but make him return the money. 33 Geo. 2. c. 27. But when turbit is in season, as in May and June, one of 6 lb. weight may be bought at Billingsgate for 3 s. 6 d. or 4 s. other fish in proportion.

3. Mackrell, in June and July, are in great plenty, and may be bought at Billingsgate by the quarter of a hundred, for 2 d. or 3 d. a piece. Mackrell and her|rings, if fresh, will look bright, their gills red, and their eyes clear. Mackrell are reckoned cheap at 4 d. or 5 d. each. If fish is firm, not flabby or slimy, the gills ruddy or bleeding, and the eyes bright, you may depend on it it is fresh; but if otherwise, not so. Sal|mon, when cut, should look red and bleeding fresh.— But, put your nose to the gills, and you will soon find if it is stale.

Thames salmon is always double the price of other salmon; not that it is better tasted, but being later out of the water, it can be crimped, which gives it a firm|ness. The price of sea-salmon is from 9 d. to 3 s. a pound.

Lobsters and crabs should always be bought alive.— Those of the middling size are always the best. No overgrown animal food is delicious.

The average price of soals is about 1 s. a pound, though they are not sold by the pound, but the pair. Herrings are bought for about 1 s. a dozen; whitings 2 s. a dozen; haddocks according to their size, for about 6 d. a pound. Large cod, at the dearest time, may be purchased for about 1 s. or 1 s. 3 d. a pound; at the cheapest for one-third of the money. Skate at about 6 d. a pound, and barrel cod, in Lent, for about 6 d. a pound. If a family could dispense with a quan|tity of salt fish, dried cod may be bought at the dry fish-mongers, in Thames-street, in winter, for about 5 s. for 28 lb. and barrel cod, or pickled salmon by the kit, at a very reasonable price. The price of a barrel of the best oysters, Colchester or Milton, is Page  33 3s. 6 d. Dutch eels 4 d. or 6 d. a pound. Smelts from 2 s. a hundred to 5 s. Prawns from 1 s. 6 d. to 3 s. a hundred.

Fresh-water fish is in price as follows: Eels, jack, carp and perch, 1 s. a pound; trout and tench 1 s. 6 d. gudgeons 6 d. or 9 d. a dozen; flounders from 9 d. to 3 d. a piece, according to their size. Fresh-water fish are kept by fish-mongers, in cisterns, and should be bought alive.

Small turbots are easily distinguished from Dutch plaice; for plaice have many yellow spots on their back, turbots have none.

Haddock may be known from small cod, by two black spots, one on each shoulder. Small cod is a bad fish, but the haddock is a good one.

Half a kit of pickled salmon, neat weight about 16 lb. may be purchased at the dry fish-mongers, in Thames-street, in summer time, May, June, July, &c. for 9 s. and in September, &c. when it is equally good, for 5 s. In winter-time it will keep a long while.

BUTTER AND CHEESE.

1. FOR fresh butter, Leadenhall market is the best and cheapest in London. The best fresh lump butter, in summer, may be bought for 9 d. halfpenny or 10 d. a pound; in winter for 11 d. or 12 d. Ep|ping butter, which is the finest in flavour, may be there bought for 2 d. a pound more than lump butter. Butter-shops sell this for 1 s. 6 d. a pound.

2. In winter time, Cambridge and Dorsetshire salt but|ter arrives fresh in London twice a week, and is with|in one penny or a halfpenny a pound as dear as fresh; but the best way for a family is to buy a half firkin, which weighs 28 lb. of the best Yorkshire butter — This may be bought for 17 s. or 18 s. the half firkin, less than 8 d. a pound, and may be bought agreeable to the palate of the buyer; but when you taste it, taste a piece on the outside, next the tub; if this is good, and free from any rankness, you may be certain the Page  34 middle is. But the middle shall often be sweet, when the outsides are rank; and butter-men, knowing this, always give a taste out of the middle. The Dorsetshire butter, in tubs with broad hoops, weight about 80 lb. rather fetches the best price, but for keeping it is the best butter.

3. Bad butter is not to be mixed with good, on pain of forfeiting double the value. Buyers of butter should set their mark on the tub, &c. and if the sellers open the tubs, or put in other butter, after the tubs are thus marked, they are liable to a penalty of 10 s. for every hundred weight. Application to a magistrate. 13 & 14 Car. 2. c. 16. 4 and 5 W. & M. c. 7.

4. Every firkin of butter shall weigh 56 lb. without the cask.

5. Cheese is always the better for keeping two or three years, provided it be kept dry. Families who like good old cheese should buy it one year under ano|ther, as they do their wine, &c. Old cheese good for any thing can seldom be met with; and if it is, cheese-mongers ask a large price for it. Cheese, a year and a half old, of the best dairies, (and the best is always the most delicious, and in the end the cheapest) can be bought from 4 d. halfpenny a pound to 6 d. In buy|ing of this, every house-keeper should please his own palate. Though decayed cheese will please many pa|lates best, it may be bought a halfpenny, and some|times a penny a pound under the price of sound cheese. Glocester cheese is generally a penny a pound under the price of Cheshire.

6. In buying of bacon, the Wiltshire is reckoned the best, and may be bought at capital shops for 6 d. halfpenny or 7 d. a pound, by the flitch: small bacon, such as weighs about 40 lb. the slitch, is the most deli|cate. In buying it, have the flitch cut through, and if the fat looks red, and the skin is thin, it will pro|bably turn out well, and boil firm; but if you make an agreement, the seller will change it, if you dislike it. Rusty bacon looks brown when cut, particularly at the inside edge.

7. You may judge of hams by running a knife into the body of them, and smelling them. Yorkshire Page  35 hams are sold for about 7 d. a pound, and Westmore|land hams for 7 d. halfpenny. Westmoreland hams are the highest flavoured. Dried and pickled tongues may be bought from 3 s. 6 d. to 4 s. 6 d. a piece, ac|cording to the size, at the oil and pickle-shops.

Weights and Measures.

8. All weights and measures belonging to persons dealing by weight and measure, within the city of Westminster and its liberties, shall be sealed and mark|ed by the proper officers; such as are not so, may be destroyed by the jury of annoyance, and the owners shall be fined 40 s. 31 Geo. 2. c. 17.

9. The constable shall also search for false weights and measures, and destroy such as he finds. 22 C. 2. c. 8.

Whoever shall sell by any other than a stamped weight, measure or yard, or keep any such whereby any thing is bought or sold, shall forfeit 5 s. on con|viction before a justice, on oath of one witness. 16 C. c. 19.

10. If you buy of a barrow-woman, always pur|chase by your own weights and scales, or you will be cheated.

VEGETABLES.

PERSONS used to the country will not relish the vegetables and fruits generally sold in London; such persons as wish for delicates of this kind; namely, young peas and beans, half-grown cucumbers, &c. and fruit with the bloom on, must not purchase the gene|ral run of the market, but either apply to a fruiterer in Covent-garden, or some of the gardeners there, a day or two before they are wanted; and then, by pay|ing a little extra price, they may have such things as they wish for.

Page  36

BREWERS AND BEER.

1. SMALL beer may be bought of different qualitie and prices, from 10 s. a barrel to 16 s. each bar+rel 36 gallons; 14 s. a barrel is the general run; an brewers, if applied to for the purpose, will lay in th quantity a family may use throughout the year, in th winter, and engage it shall keep good and fresh th year round; if it turns four, they will take it back an change it for such as is not so; this is the best method of having good beer.

2. The only caution necessary on this head, is to tak care that the barrels are full, and that you have you quantity for your money, as it often works out and i spilt in the carriage.

3. The servants of all these tradesmen expect, and will call on you at Christmas for a Christmas-box, (which is a bad custom and ought to be abolished) as will the scavengers, dust-men, post-man, watch-man, and beadle of the parish. To the watch-man it may not be a shilling ill disposed of, as it may make him more at|tentive to see that your out-side shutters are fast, keep noisy women and others from your door, &c. but drink-money to others, or the servants of those who will give nothing to yours, is money in my opinion ill bestowed.

WINE.

1. MERCHANTS selling wines, who shall adulte|rate the same, or utter any adulterated wines, are liable to the penalty of 100 l. and retailers of mixed adulterated wine forfeit 50 l. 12 Car. 2. c. 25. 1 W. & M. c. 84. And yet this is constantly done.

2. Two hundred and thirty-one cubical inches shall be a wine gallon; 63 gallons a hogshead, 126 gallons a butt or pipe, and 252 gallons a tun. 5 Ann. c. 27, 231.

Page  373. Private families, not dealing in foreign wine, must have a permit, as with spirits, with every quantity sent to them above three gallons, specifying the kind of wine, quantity, where bought, and the time allowed for con|veying it, otherwise it is liable to be seized; but if your wine merchant omits to send such permit with the wine, the loss will be his. 26 Geo. 3. c. 59.

4. Private families, wishing to remove wine exceed|ing three gallons from one place to another, must ap|ply to the exciseman of their district (by a note in writing) from whence such wines are to be removed, and on proving to the satisfaction of the collector or supervisor of the said district that the duties of the said wines have been paid, (for which purpose it will be necessary to keep the permits and produce them) and at the same time specifying the quantity of each sort of foreign wine to be removed; saying whether it be French red wine or French white wine, or foreign white wine not French, or foreign red wine not French; also the number and contents of casks, bottles, or vessels containing the same; and likewise whether it is to be removed by water or by land, and by what mode of con|veyance. Doing this, the supervisor &c. shall grant a permit to remove the same without fee or reward, but limiting and expressing in that permit, the time within which it shall be removed, and delivered at the place where it is to be sent. Wine sent without such permit is liable to be seized, as also the machine conveying it, and the horses &c. drawing such machine. Ibid.

5. And in case such wine permitted to be removed, is not sent away and actually delivered within the time expressed and limited in the permit, it shall be deemed to be removed without a permit, unless pro|ved to the satisfaction of the commissioners of excise that such wine, through unavoidable accidents, could not have been so delivered.

6. And should any wine be seized, in consequence of it's not being removed and delivered in time, the same shall be restored to the owner or person who had charge of it by the officer who seized it, if such person shall enter into recognizance before a justice of the peace, residing near the place where it was seized, with Page  38 one sufficient surety, engaging to prove within one month, to the satisfaction of the commissioners of excise, that such wine, through unavoidable accident, could not have been so delivered; in which case the justice shall indorse the permit and allow further time for the removal.

7. Where any permit is granted for the removal of wine, and the wine not sent away in consequence of it, the permit must be returned within the time limited for the removal of the wine, to the officer who granted it, on pain of forfeiting treble the value of the wine so de|signed to be removed, according to the best price it will fell for in London.

8. Forging a justice's certificate of a recognizance and indorsement, as before specified, is a penalty of 500 l.

9. Licensed auctioneers may sell wine by auction, with leave of the commissioners of excise, on their proving, that all the duties for such wine have been paid.

COALS AND OTHER FUEL.

1. THE price of coals in London is from 32 s. a chaldron to 50 s. In long frosts, they have ri|sen so high as 5 l. but, on an average, they may be bought in summer time at 33 s. or 34 s. a chaldron.— House-keepers should endeavour to lay them in at the cheapest time: there are advertising coal-merchants, who, for ready money, will sell 39 bushels for two or three shillings under the price that others sell 38 bushels for; but in dealing with these, and indeed with other sellers, it is prudent to see the coals at the wharf, be|fore they are sent in; and when they are sent in, to take care you have your measure, otherwise you may have your year's coals that will not burn, or pay a larger price for them than you expected. Good coals are generally large, black and shining: the Pontops are the best. If you trust to your coal-merchant, with re|spect to the measurement, it will however be necessary Page  39 that the number of sacks are counted when the coals are shot. Advertising coal-sellers go often by fictitious names, to avoid the penalties for short measure: it is proper, therefore, to be on your guard, particularly against those.

2. By the several coal-acts passed this year, 1786, for the cities of London and Westminster, and the Bo|rough of Southwark, coal-meters are appointed to measure coals when first carted, and re-measure them afterwards, if the buyer requests it: the coal-meters office for the city of London and its liberties, is in Earl-street, Blackfriar's-bridge; that for Westminster and its liberties at the bottom of Northumberland-street, in the Strand; and those for the Borough of Southwark and its districts at Marigold-stairs, Surry-side of Blackfriar's-bridge, and at the Sun and Hat-Block, in the Maize, Tooley-street. These offices are open all day, to hear complaints and give redress.

3. Coals, when taken out of the barge, and sold as wharf-measure, are to be measured in the presence of a coal-meter. The seller to pay 4 d. a chaldron for measuring, which the buyer is to re-pay, on a ticket of such measurement being produced by the carman, under the penalty of 10 s. for the carter not delivering such ticket. But when brought in, if the buyer de|clares himself dissatisfied with the measure, the driver of the cart shall not depart, till a coal-meter can be procured from the above offices to re-measure them, on pain of his forfeiting 20 s. and the owner of the cart 5 l.

4. The carman shall be paid 2 s. 6 d. an hour for the time he waits, and the measurer shall be paid 6 d. for measuring each chaldron, by the buyer; but if, on re-measuring, they are found deficient, the seller shall pay the expences of re-measuring, and also forfeit 5 l. a bushel for every bushel deficient, and forfeit the chaldron of coals to the poor; the meter shall forfeit 5 l. a bushel, and the coal-porter that measured them 2 s. 6 d. a bushel.

5. But to save the half-crown an hour paid for waiting, it is best to appoint a meter to attend at the time you expect the coals. If families would keep a Page  40 bushel-measure, and one may be bought for 7 s. 6 d. a sack or two of the coals might be measured without much trouble.

6. A labouring coal-meter, delivering tickets for coals which he was not present at the measuring of, shall forfeit 40s. and be incapacitated, and the principal shall forfeit 5 l. if the 40s. penalty is not paid by the labour|ing meter in one month.

7. A carter fraudulently delivering, or suffering coals to be taken from his cart, shall forfeit 40 s. or be whipped and imprisoned from one to three months.

8. To punish offences, application must be made to a magistrate.

9. All contracts for coals, not being less than five chaldrons, shall be for pool-measure, including the in|grain or addition of one chaldron in twenty, though the term of pool-measure shall not be mentioned in the contract; that is, nine bushels or three sacks shall be given in with every five chaldrons, (though sellers now, if you buy but one chaldron, will profess to give you 38 bushels). 19 Geo. 2. c. 35.

10. Wharfingers bribing a coal-meter shall forfeit 50 l.

11. Sacks shall be, when empty, four feet long, and two feet wide; and none other shall be used, on pain of the wharfinger's forfeiting 5 l. and the coal-meter 40 s.

12. Scotch coal is always in large pieces, and is bought by the wt. at about 40 s. a ton. This burns free, and to a white ash, of course clean burning, but is not so durable as Newcastle coals.

13. Charcoal is sold retail at 1 s. 4 d. a bushel, or 3 s. a sack, that is three bushels; but if had from the country, by the load, which is 60 sacks, it may be bought for 2 s. 6 d. a sack.

14. Billet-wood may be bought at the wharfs for 40 s. or two guineas a load, delivered home any where on the stones; a load consists of 300 pieces or billets.

Billet-wood, (except beech-wood) shall be three feet four inches long, and measure seven inches in circumference, in the smallest girth, on pain of for|feiting them to the poor. 9 Ann. c. 18.

Page  4115. All faggots to be sold, shall contain in compass, besides the knot of the bond, 24 inches of assize; and every faggot-stick, within the bond, shall be three feet long, except one stick of one foot in length, to harden the binding. 43 Eliz. c. 14.

CANDLES.

1. THE average price of dipped candles are 8 s. 4 d. a dozen; of mould candles, 9 s. 4 d. But there are tallow-chandlers, that, on taking a box of candles half one and half the other, will sell the whole at 8 s. 4 d. and for ready money will allow five per cent. discount.

2. To be white they should be one year old; but if they are older, they will gutter.

3. The best wax-candles are to be bought for 2 s. 10 d. a pound. There are people who advertise them at 2 s. 6 d. but such are mixed with tallow.

4. Train-oil, for out-door lamps, is 3 s. a gallon; and spermaceti-oil for chambers 4 s. a gallon: to be bought of the oil-men.—Note, One lamp burns about a halfpenny worth of spermaceti-oil in an hour.

HAIR-DRESSERS

MAY be had at all prices, from 7 s. a month to one guinea, attendance daily; and frequently those at 7 s. will dress better, and more expeditiously, than others who demand a larger price.

TAYLORS.

ADvertising taylors always make up your cloaths scanty, piece them, and make them of inferior materials; of course they can afford them cheaper.

Page  422. No person shall use or wear on any cloaths (velvet excepted) any buttons or button-holes covered of the stuff that the cloaths are made of, on pain of 40 s. a dozen, on conviction, on the oath of one witness, in one month after the offence, half to the informer.— But persons aggrieved may appeal to the next quarter-sessions, giving eight day's notice. 7 Geo. st. 1. c. 12.

3. No person shall use or wear, in any apparel, any foreign printed or dyed callicoe, except such as is dyed all blue, on pain of forfeiting 5 l. to the informer, nor use any in household-furniture, on pain of 20 l. 7 G. st. 1. c. 7.

SHOE-MAKERS.

BEST bespoke shoes, if not bound, and the heels not stitched, may be had for 8 s. a pair; if bound and stitched, 8 s. 6 d. Best made boots, from 27 s. to a guinea and a half a pair.

Women's bespoke calimanco shoes from 5 s. 6 d. to 6 s. 6 d. a pair; Morocco leather 7 s. 6 d. sattin 10 s. 6 d. though some will charge 15 s.

LEATHER-BREECHES MAKERS.

THE best makers, according to their customers, charge from 1 l. 11 s. 6 d. to two guineas a pair. Those who make for less money, make them of bad skins, rough and full of shot-holes, which, when brought home, the eye will not perceive.

STAY-MAKERS

CHARGE from one guinea and a half, for women's stays, to two guineas and a half, according to their customers.

Page  48

LAUNDRESSES,

IN London, charge as reasonably for washing, as in the country; and families who put out their linen would do well to employ a laundress living a little way out of town. Such persons are to be found, who will send for the linen once a week, and bring it home again; for where there are good conveniencies for drying, the linen must certainly be better got up. See Pawn-brokers.

MARKETING TABLES.

A TABLE to shew if so much per YARD, OUNCE, &c. how much for any Number of the same.

1 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12.
f. d. f. d. f. d. f. d. f. d. f. d. f. d. f. d. f. d. f. d. f. d. f.
1 0 2 0 3 1 0 1 1 1 2 1 3 2 0 2 1 2 2 2 3 3 0
2 1 0 1 2 2 0 2 2 3 0 3 2 4 0 4 2 5 0 5 2 6 0
3 1 2 2 1 3 0 3 3 4 2 5 1 6 0 6 3 7 2 8 1 9 0
1 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 28.
f. d. f. d. f. d. f. s. d. f. s. d. f. s. d. f. s. d. f. s. d. f. s. d. f.
1 3 1 3 2 3 3 0 4 0 0 4 1 0 4 2 0 4 3 0 5 0 0 7 0
2 6 2 7 0 7 2 0 8 0 0 8 2 0 9 0 0 9 2 0 10 0 1 2 0
3 9 3 10 2 11 1 1 0 0 1 0 3 1 1 2 1 2 1 1 3 0 1 9 0

Page  44

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6 *. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 28. 112.
d. s. d. s. d. s. d. s. d. s. d. s. d. s. d. s. d. s. d. s. d. s. d. s. d. l. s. d. l. s. d. l. s. d.
1 0 2 0 3 0 4 0 5 0 6 1 1 1 2 1 3 1 4 1 5 1 6 1 7 0 1 8 0 2 4 0 9 4
2 0 4 0 6 0 8 0 10 1 0 2 2 2 4 2 6 2 8 2 10 3 0 3 2 0 3 4 0 4 8 0 18 8
3 0 6 0 9 1 0 1 3 1 6 3 3 3 6 3 9 4 0 4 3 4 6 4 9 0 5 0 0 7 0 1 8 0
4 0 8 1 0 1 4 1 8 2 0 4 4 4 8 5 0 5 4 5 8 6 0 6 4 0 6 8 0 9 4 1 17 4
5 0 10 1 3 1 8 2 1 2 6 5 5 5 10 6 3 6 8 7 1 7 6 7 11 0 8 4 0 11 8 2 6 8
6 1 0 1 6 2 0 2 6 3 0 6 6 7 0 7 6 8 0 8 6 9 0 9 6 0 10 0 0 14 0 2 16 0
7 1 2 1 9 2 4 2 11 3 6 7 7 8 2 8 9 9 4 9 11 10 6 11 1 0 11 8 0 16 4 3 5 4
8 1 4 2 0 2 8 3 4 4 0 8 8 9 4 10 0 10 8 11 4 12 0 12 8 0 13 4 0 18 8 3 14 8
9 1 6 2 3 3 0 3 9 4 6 9 9 10 6 11 3 12 0 12 9 13 6 14 3 0 15 0 1 1 0 4 4 0
10 1 8 2 6 3 4 4 2 5 0 10 10 11 8 12 6 13 4 14 2 15 0 15 10 0 16 8 1 3 4 4 13 4
11 1 10 2 9 3 8 4 7 5 6 11 11 12 10 13 9 14 8 15 7 16 6 17 5 0 18 4 1 5 8 5 2 8
12 2 0 3 0 4 0 5 0 6 0 13 0 14 0 15 0 16 0 17 0 18 0 19 0 1 0 0 1 8 0 5 12 0

Page  45A TABLE to shew, if so much per pound, how much per stone, &c.—The Stone 8 lb.

Lb. Stone. Quarter. Cwt.
d. f. s. d. l. s. d. l. s. d.
0 1 0 2 0 0 7 0 2 4
0 2 0 4 0 1 2 0 4 8
0 3 0 6 0 1 9 0 7 0
1 0 0 8 0 2 4 0 9 4
2 0 1 4 0 4 8 0 18 8
3 0 2 0 0 7 0 1 8 0
4 0 2 8 0 9 4 1 17 4
5 0 3 4 0 11 8 2 6 8
6 0 4 0 0 14 0 2 16 0
7 0 4 8 0 16 4 3 5 4
8 0 5 4 0 18 8 3 14 8
9 0 6 0 1 1 0 4 4 0
10 0 6 8 1 3 4 4 13 4
11 0 7 4 1 5 8 5 2 8
12 0 8 0 1 8 0 5 12 0

By Addition and Multiplication, you may make these an|swer any Price from 1 s. to 5 l. and upwards.

Page  46A TABLE to shew, if so much per 12 lb. how muc per quarter, stone, &c.—The Stone 14 lb.

Sh. Quarter. Stone. Half St. Lb.
s. l. s. d. s. d. f s. d. f. d. f.
1 0 0 3 0 1 2 0 0 3  
2 0 0 6 0 3 0 0 1 2  
3 0 0 9 0 4 2 0 2 1 0 1
4 0 1 0 0 6 0 0 3 0 0 1
5 0 1 3 0 7 2 0 3 3 0 2
6 0 1 6 0 9 0 0 4 2 0 2
7 0 1 9 0 10 2 0 5 1 0 3
8 0 2 0 1 0 0 0 6 0 0 3
9 0 2 3 1 1 2 0 6 3 1 0
10 0 2 6 1 3 0 0 7 2 1 0
20 0 5 0 2 6 0 1 3 0 2 0
30 0 7 6 3 9 0 1 10 2 3 0
40 0 10 0 5 0 0 2 6 0 4 2
50 0 12 6 6 3 0 3 1 2 5 1
60 0 15 0 7 6 0 3 9 0 6 1
70 0 17 6 8 9 0 4 4 2 7 2
80 1 0 0 10 0 0 5 0 0 8 2
90 1 2 6 11 3 0 5 7 2 9 2
100 1 5 0 12 6 0 6 3 0 10 2

Fractions are here unnecessary.

Page  47

SERVANTS.

1. IN the choice of servants, a house-keeper cannot be too particular. London is so much the sink of vice, that the lower class of people are very much corrupted. Those brought from the country are soon infected with the dissolute manners of town-servants, and become equally bad with them. To expect at|tachment from a servant is idle, and betrays an igno|rance of the world. Servants will now and then af|fect it, in order to gain the confidence of their em|ployers, and thus forward their own interest; but, if we suppose them in our interest, it is because we do not thoroughly know them. Economy in a family, ser|vants do not like. The more extravagant a master or mistress is, the better they live, and the more they can purloin; and should, what they call, a generous master or mistress fail in the world, owing to a waste or an in|attention to domestic concerns, they will cry to their fellow-servants, "It is a pity! he was a good-natured generous man!—Come, let us go look for another place!" This being considered, we are to expect no|thing from them but a performance of their duty, keep them whilst they do it, and discharge them when they neglect it.

2. The first thing, then, is to endeavour to get good ones, if we do not bring them out of the country with us. There are, in different parts of the town, register-offices, or places where servants of all denominations attend at certain hours, and where a master may see them, at the expence of one shilling, and hire them; or, by sending a shilling to the keepers of such offices, and a description of the servant wanted, they will send you one, day after day, till you are suited; but as it is the refuse of servants in general that apply to these offices, you must not take the recommendation of the office-keeper, who is paid also by the servant for pro|curing the place; nor any written character; for such hings in London are procured from friends, and often orged; nay servants of bad character will often go fur|ther, Page  48 they will refer you to persons seemingly of cre|dit, who perhaps know little of them. It is proper therefore, that the master or mistress should apply for the character themselves, make some enquiry concern|ing the person they apply to, and ask all those questi|ons they think necessary. There are few servant-maids in London, or indeed in the country, but what are whores; it is perhaps an uncharitable supposition, but it is nevertheless true. To expect, therefore, to meet with an innocent virtuous girl, is next to impossible; it is sufficient if she is orderly, and conducts herself with decorum. If a house-keeper cannot get a servant recommended by a friend, or some tradesman with whom he deals, such as the baker, butcher, poulterer, green-grocer, tallow-chandler, publican, or the like, I would recommend papers describing the servant want|ed, and where to apply, being sent or left at the chandler's shops in the neighbourhood, which seldom fails of success; others will have recourse to advertise|ments in the public newspapers, an insertion for which, once, costs 3 s. 6 d. If this mode is adopted, the best paper to advertise in is the Daily Advertiser in Fleet-street, which is taken in by almost all the publi|cans in London. Such an advertisement will bring you scores of servants; and here you must be very careful in your choice, and particular as to charac|ter; for an advertisement will bring with the good a number of disreputable people.

3. The general wages of servants are as follow:— Steward, valet, butler, 30 l. a-year; women-cooks, 1 l. lady's-maids, from 12 l. to 20 l. inferior women servants, from 7 l. to 9 l. foot-men 14 l. and a livery: women-servants to provide their own tea and sugar.— Board-wages of an upper servant 10 s. 6 d. a week, with fire and candle, and 7 s. a week to an under-ser|vant.

4. They generally agree for a month's wages, or a month's warning, which is a bad method; as there are few servants, when warning is given, but will be very impertinent and untractable, it is far the best, when you mean to part with them, to get rid of them at once, be it ever so inconvenient: by enquiry an honest chair|woman, Page  49 to supply the place of a woman-servant, may be procured for 1 s. a day. If such are hired to wash, their wages are larger: 1 s. 6 d. with tea and a dram twice a day, and strong beer at dinner and sup|per; but for this they slave hard, will begin work at two in the morning, and continue it till nine the next evening. If such a person is wanted, employ none of your own servant's recommending, but apply for their character to those house-keepers who have employed them, and on whom you can better rely.

5. Women cooks, and servants of all work, when they hire themselves, will endeavour to get the kitch|en-stuff allowed them as a perquisite; if you would not be robbed, never comply with this; nor allow your coachman the old wheels; for as the one will, to serve herself, strip your meat of its fat, melt more but|ter than necessary, and convey the ends of candles, &c. into the grease-pot, to increase its weight; so will the other often injure the wheels, if they are likely to last too long.

6. If you deliver into the custody of servants, plate, china, linen, &c. to keep; and tell them, before wit|ness, they must be responsible for it; if they lose any part of it, the law will oblige them, as far as they are able, to make it good; but not else: to enable them, therefore, to pay for any thing missing, it is advise|able to keep part of their wages in hand. As they are hired by the year, they should always be paid one half year under another, reserving half-a-year in hand. As to breaking of china, &c. you cannot compel a servant to pay for it, unless it was so agreed on the hiring, or done designedly.

7. To avoid disputes respecting wages, it is prudent to have the agreement in writing, and a receipt for what you pay; for (sorry am I to say it) this class of people make as little ceremony of taking a false oath, where there is no proof to the contrary, as of telling a lie.

Disputes with servants, about wages under 0 l. and other things, if they cannot amicably be settled, should be referred to a neighbouring magistrate, who is autho|rised to hear the complaint and redress it; the expence Page  50 but trifling; but the wages of coachmen, grooms, and the like, magistrates can take no cognizance of.

8. Where servants are hired for a year, they cannot be put away before the expiration of that term, with|out some reasonable cause to be allowed by one justice; nor after the end of the term, without a quarter's warn|ing given before witness; if a master discharges a ser|vant otherwise, he is liable to a penalty of 40 s.— 5 Eliz. c. 4.

If a servant refuse to serve his term, he may be com|mitted till he give security to serve the time; or he may be sent to the house of correction, and punished there as a disorderly person. 5 Eliz. c. 4. 7 Jac. c. 4.

A yearly servant is not to be discharged by reason of sickness, or any other disability by the act of God; not may his wages for those causes be abated. Dalt. 129. All hiring without stipulation of time is, strictly speak|ing, hiring for a year, and the law so construes it.

Both master and servant may however part by mu|tual consent, and then the allowance of the cause by a justice of peace is not necessary. A master's detaining wages, or not allowing sufficient meat, drink, &c. is good cause for a servant's departure; but it must be al|lowed by a justice. Dalt.

If a servant, hired for a term, quits his service be|fore the end of his term, he loses all his wages; but if the master puts him away, he shall be paid to the time he served.

A woman-servant who marries is obliged to serve out her time; and if both man and wife agree to serve, they must perform the agreement. Dalt. 92.

If a servant be retained for a year, according to the statute 5 Eliz. c. 4, and the master die within that time, the executor must pay the wages; but not so if the retainer was not for a year.

A servant hired at a month's wages, or a month's warning, cannot quit his place, nor be discharged, a day before the expiration of the month, without the whole month's wages be paid, unless by the authority of a justice, for some reasonable complaint. If a ser|vant, after warning given, is insolent, or refuses to do his duty, a magistrate, on complaint, will commit him Page  51 to prison, for the time he has to serve; but the master will be ordered to pay him his wages whilst there.

9. If a servant or workman assault his master or mistress, or any other having charge over them, he may be bound to his good behaviour, or be committed for a year, or less, at the discretion of two magistrates. 5 Eliz. c. 4. s. 21.

10. If any servant shall purloin, or make away with his master's goods, to the value of 40 s. it is felony.— 12 Ann. c. 7.

11. Should a woman with child procure herself to be retained with a master for a term, who knows no|thing thereof, this is good cause to discharge her from her service; if she prove with child during her service it is the same; but if he does not discharge her before a magistrate, when he knows of it, and keeps her on, he must provide for her till her delivery, and one month after, and then she is to be sent to her place of settle|ment. Dalt.

12. A servant setting fire carelessly to a house, is liable to pay, on the oath of one witness, a hundred pounds to the sufferer, or be committed to hard labour for 18 months. 14 Geo. 3. c. 78.

13. By the 25th of Geo. 3. c. 43, every person keeping one male-servant, shall pay annually for him

 £. 15
Keeping 2 men-servants shall pay15 each.
3 or 4 ditto,110 ditto.
5, 6, and 7,115 ditto.
8, 9, and 10,20 ditto.
11 and upwards,30 ditto.

Every man aged 21 and upwards, and a batchelor, shall pay an additional one pound five shillings for eve|ry male servant he keeps. Ibid. s. 3.

These duties are to extend to servants of the follow|ing descriptions, viz. maitre d'hotel, house steward, master of the horse, groom of the chamber, valet de chambre, butler, under butler, clerk of the kitchen, confectioner, cook, house porter, footman, running footman, coachman, groom, postilion, stable boy, help|ers in stables, gardeners not being day labourers, park-keepers, gamekeeper, huntsman, whipper-in, waiters Page  52 at taverns, coffeehouses, inns, alehouses, or any other houses licensed to sell wine, beer, ale, or other liquors, by retail, (other than occasional waiters) or by what|ever name or names male servants acting in any of said capacities shall be called. Ibid. s. 4.

Every person keeping a woman servant, shall pay annually, for one, 2s. 6d. for two, 5s. each, for three or more, 10s. each. Ibid.

A batchelor in all cases pays double these duties. Ib.

Servants employed bona fide for the purposes of hus|bandry, farming, dairy, or manufacture, or of any trade by which the master or mistress gain a livelihood, ex|cepted. Ibid. s. 6.

Such persons as shall have living in their houses two or more lawful children, or grand-children, under 14 years of age, shall be allowed one woman servant duty free; such as have four children shall be allowed two women servants, and such as have six, three women servants. Thus, he who has four children pays but 2s. 6d. for the third servant, if he keeps three; if he has four servants, he pays 5s. each for two. Ib. s. 13.

Female servants under the age of 14, or above 60, are not to be assessed; parish certificates of the age to be produced. Ibid. s. 14.

No duty is to be paid for any servant employed for the purpose of husbandry, manufactures or trade.

Parish apprentices imposed on masters or mistresses to the number of two, shall be allowed, unless they are employed as livery servants, or in the capacity of other servants. Ibid. s. 8.

Coachmen, grooms, postilions, or helpers, let out to hire by way of job, shall be paid for by those who em|ploy them. Gardeners also, who shall contract for keeping any garden in order, shall be paid for by those who employ them. Ibid. s. 7.

Every officer of horse under the rank and not receiv|ing the pay of a field-officer, is to be allowed one man servant, whether such servant is a private soldier in his regiment or not. Ibid. s. 11.

Every officer without distinction in the land service, of every description, including marines, who employs some soldier of the regiment or company to which he Page  53 belongs as a servant, and every officer in the navy un|der the rank of a master and commander, in actual ser|vice, who employs one sailor as a servant, that is actu|ally born upon the books of the ship to which such officer belongs, are for such servants exempt from this duty. Ibid.

Disabled officers on half-pay are to be allowed one servant on application to the commissioners and proof given. Ibid. s. 12.

The window and house-tax collectors to collect these duties, and the duties to be paid quarterly. Ibid.

Assessors shall give or leave notice in writing yearly, at the dwelling-houses of all masters and mistresses within their district, requiring them to prepare and produce, within 14 days from such notice, separate lists in writing of all their men and women servants, their christian and sirnames, and the capacity in which they are employed, such list to contain the greatest number of servants, male and female, retained by such master or mistress, at any one time in the year, ending on the 5th of April preceding such notice, to be signed by the master or mistress, and to be delivered to the assessors who is to call for it; and if such list be refused or ne|glected to be delivered, then the assessors are to pro|ceed to make out, from the information they can get, an assessment of their own, from which there shall be no appeal, unless the person to assessed shall prove that they were not at home from the time of notice to the day for the delivery of the lists to the assessors, or shall assign some other substantial cause satisfactory to the commissioners, Ibid. s. 26.

All masters or mistresses must accompany their lists with a declaration, whether they mean to pay for any, and how many servants, in any other place or parish, and to specify in what place or places. S. 28.

As this is an annual tax, if a person keeps at any one time two servants, for example, and enters these two, that is, asserts in his written notice that he had two before the 5th of April, should one of these ser|vants quit his service a month afterwards, he must pay for the two, till 5th April following.

Page  54If assessors discover any deficiency in the lists deli+vered to them, they may surcharge or add to those lists S. 29.

Persons refusing or neglecting to furnish the lists and declarations required as above, forfeit 10 l. S. 32.

All servants omitted in the said lists, and added in the surcharge, are to be rated double; one half of which shall go to the assessor or surveyor so surcharging them, S. 33.

Every person having a lodger in his house keeping a servant or servants, must on a week's notice deliver lists similar to those required of housekeepers, with the addition of the christian and sirname of the lodger, as well as of his servants, under the penalty of 10 l. Ib. s. 34.

Appeals for redress must be made to the commission|ers; and persons dissatisfied with their decisions may resort to a judge of the court of King's-Bench, as in the act on Windows, which see. S. 35, 39.

14. If you never deal with tradesmen upon credit, should your servants to whom you give money to pur|chase things, put the money in their pockets, and order them to be set down to you, you are not obliged to pay for them; but if you sometimes send money, and some|times deal upon credit, though you should send the money for any article, if your servant does not pay it, you will be obliged to pay it again; for your tradesman cannot be supposed to know whether the money was sent or not.

15. If you would avoid being robbed, never suffer your servants to take acquaintances down into the kit|chen with them. Many instances have occurred where villains have made acquaintance with incautious ser|vants, purposely to find a method of breaking into the house, and learning what there is worth coming for.

16. To save trouble to the master and servants, where many are not kept, it is a good method to have in your sitting room, near the bell, a paper posted, with the ne|cessary articles on it, in divisions, that are chiefly want|ed, such as, Coals, Candles, Beer, Water, Broom, Lay the Cloth, Go to the Door, &c. with a pin, to Page  55 which a line is fixed with a lead going down into the kitchen to a similar paper fixed there; then, by fixing this pin in a hole in either of the divisions above, the weight will drop or rise to the same division below. Do this before you ring your bell, and order your ser|vant to look at the index; she will then know what is wanted before she comes, and bring it with her. The expence of this index is trifling.

17. It may also in some families be worth while to have a line from the parlour to the street door, to open it without going out of the parlour. This, where there is but one servant, saves a great deal of trouble.

Page  56A TABLE to shew, if so much per Year, how much per Month.

Per Year.   Per Month. Per Week. Per Day.
£.   l. s. d. l. s. d. f. l. s. d. f.
1 is 0 1 8 0 0 4 2 0 0 0 3
2 0 3 4 0 0 9 1 0 0 1 1
3 0 5 0 0 1 1 3 0 0 2 0
4 0 6 8 0 1 6 2 0 0 2 3
5 0 8 4 0 1 11 0 0 0 3 1
6 0 10 0 0 2 3 2 0 0 4 0
7 0 11 8 0 2 8 2 0 0 4 3
8 0 13 4 0 3 1 2 0 0 5 1
9 0 15 0 0 3 5 2 0 0 6 2
10 0 16 8 0 3 10 0 0 0 6 0
20 1 13 4 0 7 8 0 0 1 1 0
30 2 10 0 0 11 6 0 0 1 7 0
40 3 6 8 0 15 4 0 0 2 2 2
50 4 3 4 0 19 2 0 0 2 8 1
60 5 0 0 1 3 0 0 0 3 3 2
70 5 16 8 1 6 10 0 0 3 10 2
80 6 13 4 1 10 8 0 0 4 4 0
90 7 10 0 1 14 6 0 0 4 11 1
100 8 6 8 1 18 4 0 0 5 5 0
200 16 13 4 3 16 8 0 0 10 11 3
300 25 0 0 5 15 0 0 0 16 5 3
400 33 6 8 7 13 4 0 1 1 11 2
500 41 13 4 9 11 8 0 1 7 4 1
600 50 0 0 11 10 0 0 1 12 10 0
700 58 6 8 13 8 4 0 1 18 4 2
800 66 13 4 15 6 8 0 2 3 10 1
900 75 0 0 17 5 0 0 2 9 3 0
1000 83 6 8 19 3 4 0 2 14 9 2

Page  57A TABLE to shew, if so much per Day, how much per Week, &c.

Per Day.   Per Week. Per Month. Per Year.
l. s. d. l. s. d. l. s. d. l. s. d.
0 0 1 is 0 0 7 0 2 4 1 10 5
0 0 2 0 1 2 0 4 8 3 0 10
0 0 3 0 1 9 0 7 0 4 11 3
0 0 4 0 2 4 0 9 4 6 1 8
0 0 5 0 2 11 0 11 8 7 12 1
0 0 6 0 3 6 0 14 0 9 2 6
0 0 7 0 4 1 0 16 4 10 12 1
0 0 8 0 4 8 0 18 8 12 3 4
0 0 9 0 5 3 1 1 0 13 13 9
0 0 10 0 5 10 1 3 4 15 4 4
0 0 11 0 6 5 1 5 4 16 14 7
0 1 0 0 7 0 1 8 0 18 5 0
0 2 0 0 14 0 2 16 0 36 10 0
0 3 0 1 1 0 4 4 0 54 15 0
0 4 0 1 8 0 5 12 0 73 0 0
0 5 0 1 15 0 7 0 0 91 5 0
0 6 0 2 2 0 8 8 0 109 10 0
0 7 0 2 9 0 9 16 0 127 15 0
0 8 0 2 16 0 11 4 0 146 0 0
0 9 0 3 3 0 12 12 0 164 5 0
0 10 0 3 10 0 14 0 0 182 10 0
1 0 0 7 0 0 28 0 0 365 0 0

Page  58

PARISH-OFFICERS, JURYMEN, AND MILITIA

Parish-Officers.

1. EVERY substantial house-keeper, living in the parish, is liable to be chosen church-warden, a a vestry in Easter-week, except peers, members of par|liament, the clergy, counsellors, attornies, apotheca|ries who have served seven years, freemen of the cor|poration of surgeons in London, dissenting teachers and preachers, and private men personally serving for themselves in the militia, during the time of such ser|vice. 6 W. c. 4. 18 Geo. 2. c. 15. 1 W. sess. 1. c. 18. 10 & 11 W. c. 22. 2 Geo. 3. c. 20. 2 Roll's Abr. 272. No woman can serve. E. 10 Ann. Vin. Tit. Poor. A.

2. All persons who have prosecuted a felon to con|viction, shall be exempted from the office of church-warden or overseer in the parish where the offence was committed; and the judge's certificate of having done this may be once assigned over; and the assignee shall have the same privilege. 10 & 11 W. c. 23. This is called a Tyburn ticket.

3. In most parishes, such as object to serve the office may get off for a fine of about 10 l. as they may from that of overseer or constable.

4. Every substantial housekeeper is also liable to be chosen overseer for the poor, except the peers, the cler|gy, freemen of the corporation of surgeons in London, persons prosecuting a felon to conviction (in the parish where the felony was committed) or his assignee, and a private militia-man during the time he serves.

5. Every male housekeeper resident in the parish is liable to serve the office of constable, except the clergy, counsellors, and captains of the king's guard, members of parliament and their servants, justices of peace, physicians and surgeons, apothecaries, aldermen of London, prosecutors of felons, militia-men, idiots, poor, old and rich persons. Persons unwilling to act may appoint a deputy.

Page  596. Constables of London are obliged to place the king's arms and the arms of the city over their doors, and if they reside in alleys, at the end of each alley to|ward the street, to testify that a constable lives there.

7. Persons refusing to serve the office of constable in Westminster forfeit 81. and no person is to serve more than once in seven years. 29 Geo. 2. c. 25.

8. Constables in the city of London misbehaving, shall forfeit 20 s. the Lord Mayor or two city magi|strates may hear complaints. 10 Geo. 2. c. 22.

Jury-men.

9. In the courts of London and city of Westmin|ster, jurors shall be householders within the city, and have lands, tenements, or personal estates, to the va|lue of 100 l. 3 Geo. 2. c. 25.

Leaseholders in the county of Middlesex, where the improved rent or value shall amount to 50 l. a-year, over and above the ground-rent or other reservations, shall be liable to serve on juries. 4 Geo. 2. c. 7.

In towns corporate, trials of felons shall be by men worth 40 l. in goods, though they have no freehold. 23 Hen. 8. c. 23.

10. Persons under 21 years of age, old men above 70, persons continually sick or diseased at the time of summons, or not dwelling in the county; surgeons, freemen of the company in London; apothecaries free of the company, clergymen, dissenting teachers, and quakers, are by several acts exempt from serving,

11. Constables are to return lists of proper persons qualified to serve on juries, under the penalty of 5 l. If they wilfully omit persons properly qualified, they forfeit 20 s. 3 Geo. 2. c. 25. These lists to be fixed on the parish church-doors and chapels, twenty days before Michaelmas, on two or more Sundays, and a du|plicate left with the church-warden or overseer, to be perused by the parishioners, without fee. 3 Geo. 2. c. 25.

12. And if any person not qualified finds his name mentioned in such list, and the person required to make such list shall refuse to erase it, or think it doubt|ful, whether it should be omitted or not, the justices Page  60 at the sessions, to which the lists shall be returned, or satisfaction from the oath of the party complaining, o other proof that he is not qualified, may order hi name to be struck out. Ibid.

13. Every summons of a juror shall be made by the sheriff or his officer, six days before he is to attend▪ shewing the person so summoned the warrant, under the seal of the office; and if such juror be absent from home, notice of the summons shall be left in writing, 7 & 8 W. c. 32.

14. No persons shall be returned as jurors, at the county of Middlesex, at any sessions of nisi prius, who hath been returned in the two terms or vacations next before, on pain of the sheriff being fined 5 l. 4 G. 2. c. 7.

15. The inhabitants of the city and liberty of West|minster shall be exempted from serving on any jury, at the sessions for Middlesex, by reason of their attend|ance at Westminster-hall. 7 & 8 W. c. 32.

16. Special jury-men are allowed one guinea for their attendance. 24 Geo. 2. c. 18.

17. If a jury-man be called, and (being present) re|fuse to appear, or, having appeared, withdraw himself before he be sworn, the court may fine him at discre|tion. 35 H. 8. c. 6.

A jury-man summoned and not appearing, and ser|ving in any court of record in the city of London, af|ter being openly called three times, shall (without rea|sonable excuse) on oath, be fined from 20 s. to 40 s. 29 Geo. 2. c. 19.

18. If a jury-man eats or drinks after the evidence given, before the verdict is given in, without leave of the court, he is fineable. 1 Inst. 227.

19. No juror shall cast lot for his verdict, on pain of being fined, and the verdict set aside. 3 Keb. 805▪ 2 Jones, 83.

Militia.

20. Constables are to give in proper lists of persons fit to serve in the militia, without partiality, on pain of forfeiting from 40 s. to 5 l. and one month's im|prisonment. 2 Geo. 3. c. 20.

Page  6121. Persons endeavouring to prevail on any consta|ble or other officer, by gratuity or otherwise, to leave out of a list any name that ought to be returned, forfeit for every offence 50 l.; and any person refusing to tell his christian name and sirname, or that of any man lodging within his or her house, to the officer autho|rized to demand the same, forfeits 10 l. Ibid.

22. All men from eighteen to forty-five years of age are to be returned. Ibid.

23. Persons exempted from serving and providing substitutes, are peers of the realm, commissioned offi|cers in his Majesty's service, non-commissioned officers and private men serving his Majesty, commissioned of|ficers serving, or who have served four years in the militia, members of either of the universities, clergy|men, licensed teachers of any separate congregations, constables or other such parish officers, articled clerks, apprentices, seamen or sea-faring men, persons muster|ing and doing duty in any of his Majesty's dock-yards, persons free of the watermen's company. persons em|ployed and mustered at the Tower of London, Wool|wich Warren, and at the Gun wharfs; at the several royal docks, or at the powder mills or magazines, or houses under the direction of the Board of Ordnance, and poor men who have three children born in wed|lock. Ibid.

24. Persons returned and described in the list as ap|prentices being fraudulently bound out, in order to co|ver them from serving, are liable on conviction to serve immediately for the parish such list was returned for, or upon the first vacancy, if there be none at that time, that shall happen therein; and the master shall forfeit 10 l. Ibid.

25. Persons balloted, that refuse to serve or find a substitute, shall forfeit 10 l. and at the end of three years be liable to serve again in person or by substi|tute. Ibid.

26. No person having served personally or by substi|tute three years, shall be liable to serve again, till by rotation it comes to his turn. 2 G. 3. s. 20.

Page  62

VESTRIES.

1. THE church-wardens rate must be made with the consent of the major part of the parishioners, house-keepers, or occupiers of land. In order to which public notice of a vestry ought to be given the Sunday before, either in the church, after divine service is end|ed, or at the church-door, as the parishioners come out, both of the calling of the said meeting, and also of the time and place of its assembling. And it is usu|al, that for half an hour before it begins, one of the church-bells be tolled, to give the parishioners notice when they are met. Par. L. 54.

2. The major part of them that appear, shall bind the parish. But in large populous parishes, a custom has obtained of yearly chusing a certain number of the most respectable men to represent all the rest, who are called a select vestry. Such a vestry exists at Mary-le|bone, St. George's, Hanover-square, St. Mary Hill, &c. and no parishioner who does not pay to the church-rates has a vote, except the parson or vicar.

3. If any person finds himself aggrieved at the irre|gularity of the church-wardens assessment for the re|pairs of the church, his appeal must be to the ecclesias|tical judge. Degge 172.

4. And if any refuse to pay the rates, they are to be sued for in the ecclesiastical courts. Degge 171. A Quakers may be prosecuted before the justices of the peace. Burn.

5. The poor's-rate is made by the church-wardens and overseers, and allowed by the justices. 43 Eliz. c. 2.

6. Any inhabitant may inspect the poor's-rate book, at all seasonable times, paying 1 s. and the church-war|dens shall give copies on demand, being paid 8 d. for every 24 names, on pain of 20 l. to the party grieved. 17 Geo. 2. c. 3.

7. Parties aggrieved by an assessment may, by giving notice to the church-wardens, appeal to the next sessi|ons of the peace, 17 Geo. 2. c. 38.

Page  638. The goods of any person assessed, and refusing to pay, may be distrained by a justice's warrant; but the mode is to summon the party first, before a magistrate, to shew cause why he will not pay. Ibid.

9. The vestry clerk and beadles are chosen by the vestry, and all complaints against them must there be made.

10. There is always a vestry held in or about Eas|ter week, for chusing parish-officers; and at other times it may be known when vestries meet, by enquir|ing of the vestry-clerk, who is their register and secre|tary, or of the beadle, who is their messenger.

PAWN-BROKERS

ARE useful men in their way, but they are properly under certain restrictions.

1. Whoever shall pawn goods or property they are entrusted with, without the consent of the owner, shall, on conviction of one witness, or on confession, forfeit 20 s. or be committed to hard labour for four|teen days; and if the money is not paid within three days of the expiration of the fourteen days, on appli|cation of the prosecutor, the justice shall order the of|fender to be publickly whipped; the said 20 s. to be applied towards making satisfaction to the party in|jured.

2. And any pawn-broker knowingly taking in, as a pledge, any linen or apparel entrusted to any one, to wash, mend, or make up, shall, on the oath of one wit|ness, forfeit double the sum given or lent on the same to the poor; and the owner, proving his property, on the oath of one witness, shall have them again; and a search-warrant may be procured, to search any pawn-brokers house for this purpose. 30 Geo. 2. c. 24.

Page  64

ASSURANCES FOR LIVES.

1. THE terms of the Laudable Society for the bene fit of widows; office at No. 1, Surry-street Strand, open every day except holidays.

This Society consisted, at Lady-day, 1785, of 45 members, each of whom pays five guineas per annum by half-yearly payments; this sum amounts to

 L. 2409150
They have a capital stock of 45,450 l. in the four per cents. the interest of which is
 181800
 4227150
There were at Lady-day 165 widows, to whom were paid pensions to the amount of
 L. 3723150   
One year's expences,25360   
    397710
Which leaves a clear yearly income of2501311

But as at last Michaelmas there were seven widows more added to the list, amounting to 240 l. a year, i reduces the clear income of the Society to 10 l. 13 s. 11 d.

The widow of each member, during her widow|hood, is entitled to an annuity payable half-yearly at Lady-day and Michaelmas, as follows:—

If her husband has been a memberYears.Day.L.per annum
3 and110
7120
13130
20140

The general price of admission is 5 l. 5 s. paid down, and 5 l. 5 s. a year, paid quarterly, during the life of the husband.

No victualler can be admitted, nor any one who has not had the small pox; and every member now ad|mitted must pay two guineas on admission, for every year, above two, that his age exceeds that of his wife; if above five years, three guineas for each year; and no person shall be admitted a member who shall be more than ten years older than his wise.

Page  65To become a member, the person, or some friend for him, must enter his name at the office above, with his age, place of abode, title or profession; the age of his wife, with her christian and sirname before mar|riage, and pay 7 s. 6 d. and when the person is ap|proved, he will have the proper affidavit, &c. sent to him to be signed. If he is not approved, the 7 s. 6 d. will be returned.

Each member, in default of paying his half-yearly payment, at Lady-day and Michaelmas, or within 14 days after each day, shall forfeit to the joint stock, for the first half-year's neglect 5 s. 3 d. for 28 days after every Lady-day or Michaelmas 10 s. 6 d. after two suc|cessive half-year's negligence 21 s. and in case he is in arrears two successive half years, and does not pay his arrears, together with his forfeits, within 28 days after the second of the two successive half-years, he shall be then excluded from the Society, and his widow have no advantage therefrom.

Widows of members guilty of suicide shall receive no benefit from the Society.

As an encouragement to widows to marry again, if her second husband shall, within one month after the second marriage, pay to the joint stock half-a-year's annuity, which the widow was entitled to, then the woman, if she survives her husband, shall be entitled to the same annuity as she enjoyed before her second marriage.

In fifteen trustees of this Society, chosen by the general body, the capital stock, divided into three parts, is vested. Each part in the name of five trus|tees.

2. The Royal Exchange Assurance Office, whose office is over the Change (where attendance is daily given from eleven to two, and from five to seven, Saturday in the afternoon excepted) assures lives on the follow|ing terms:—

On single lives, this corporation will pay 100 l. for the following premiums, paid yearly, for one year, seven years, or the whole life of the person assured, according to his age at the time of assuring. From the age of ten to fourteen, the premium is the same.

Page  66

Age. For one Year. 7 Years. Whole Life.
  l. s. d. l. s. d. l. s. d.
14 1 9 6 1 10 6 2 12 0
15 1 10 0 1 12 6 2 13 0
16 1 11 6 1 15 0 2 14 6
17 1 14 0 1 17 0 2 16 0
18 1 17 0 1 19 0 2 17 6
19 1 19 6 2 0 6 2 19 0
20 2 2 6 2 3 0 3 0 0
21 2 4 6 2 5 0 3 1 6
22 2 5 0 2 5 6 3 2 6
23 2 6 0 2 6 6 3 4 0
24 2 6 6 2 7 0 3 5 0
25 2 7 0 2 7 6 3 6 6
26 2 8 0 2 8 6 3 7 6
27 2 8 6 2 9 0 3 9 0
28 2 9 0 2 10 0 3 10 6
29 2 10 0 2 10 6 3 12 0
30 2 11 0 2 11 6 3 13 6
31 2 11 6 2 12 6 3 15 6
32 2 12 6 2 13 0 3 17 0
33 2 13 6 2 14 0 3 19 0
34 2 14 0 2 15 0 4 0 6
35 2 15 0 2 16 0 4 2 6
36 2 16 0 2 17 0 4 4 6
37 2 17 0 2 18 0 4 7 0
38 2 18 0 2 19 0 4 9 0
39 2 19 0 3 0 0 4 11 6
40 3 1 0 3 2 0 4 14 0
41 3 3 0 3 3 6 4 16 6
42 3 5 0 3 5 6 4 19 0
43 3 6 6 4 7 0 5 2 0
44 3 8 0 3 9 0 5 5 0
45 3 9 6 3 11 0 5 7 6
46 3 11 0 3 13 6 5 10 6
47 3 12 6 3 16 0 5 14 0
48 3 14 6 3 19 0 5 17 6
49 3 17 0 4 2 0 6 1 0
50 4 1 0 4 5 0 6 5 0
51 4 4 0 4 7 6 6 9 0
52 4 6 6 4 10 6 6 13 0
53 4 9 0 4 13 6 6 17 6
54 4 12 0 4 17 0 7 2 0
55 4 14 6 5 0 0 7 7 0
56 4 18 0 5 4 0 7 12 0
57 5 1 0 5 8 0 7 18 0
58 5 5 0 5 12 0 8 3 0
59 5 9 0 5 16 6 8 9 0
60 5 13 0 6 1 0 8 16 0
61 5 17 6    
62 6 1 0    
63 6 6 0    
64 6 10 0    
65 6 16 6    
66 7 3 0    

Page  67They will also pay 100 l. on the death of one person named out of two, for the following premiums, set a|gainst the respective ages assured.

If one is aged, And the other aged, The annual Sum to be paid is,
    l. s. d.
10 10 2 0 0
  20 2 1 0
  30 1 19 6
  40 1 18 6
  50 1 17 6
  60 1 16 0
  70 1 14 6
  80 1 12 6
20 10 2 10 6
  20 2 11 0
  30 2 9 6
  40 2 8 0
  50 2 6 6
  60 2 4 6
  70 2 2 0
  80 1 19 0
30 10 3 3 0
  20 3 4 0
  30 3 2 6
  40 2 19 6
  50 2 16 6
  60 2 13 6
  70 2 11 0
  80 2 6 6
40 10 4 2 0
  20 4 3 0
  30 4 1 0
  40 3 17 0
  50 3 13 0
  60 3 8 6
  70 3 3 0
  80 2 18 0
50 10 5 12 0
  20 5 13 0
  30 5 10 6
  40 5 7 6
  50 5 2 0
  60 4 13 6
  70 4 5 0
  80 3 16 0
60 10 8 1 6
  20 8 3 6
  30 8 1 0
  40 7 17 6
  50 7 13 0
  60 7 1 6
  70 6 4 0
  80 5 7 6

Page  68

If one is aged, And the other aged, The annual Sum to be paid is,
    l. s. d.
10 10 3 19 0
  15 4 4 6
  20 4 10 0
  25 4 15 0
  30 5 2 0
  35 5 9 6
  40 6 0 0
  45 6 12 6
  50 7 9 0
  55 8 9 6
  60 9 17 0
15 15 4 10 0
  20 4 16 0
  25 5 1 0
  30 5 7 0
  35 5 14 6
  40 6 5 0
  45 6 17 0
  50 7 13 6
  55 8 14 0
  60 10 1 6
20 20 5 2 0
  25 5 7 0
  30 5 13 0
  35 6 0 0
  40 6 10 0
  45 7 3 0
  50 7 19 0
  55 8 19 6
  60 10 7 0
25 25 5 11 6
  30 5 17 6
  35 6 4 6
  40 6 14 6
  45 7 6 6
  50 8 2 6
  55 9 3 0
  60 10 10 0
30 30 6 2 6
  35 6 10 0
  40 6 19 0
  45 7 11 0
  50 8 7 0
  55 9 7 0
  60 10 14 0
35 35 6 16 6
  40 7 5 6
  45 7 17 0
  50 8 12 6
  55 9 12 0
  60 10 19 0
40 40 7 14 0
  45 8 5 6
  50 9 0 0
  55 9 19 6
  60 11 5 6
45 45 8 16 0
  50 9 10 0
  55 10 8 6
  60 11 14 0
50 50 10 3 6
  55 11 1 6
  60 12 6 0
55 55 11 17 6
  60 13 1 0
60 60 14 3 0

Page  69The conditions of the policy and agreement are, that the assurance shall be void, if the person whose life is assured shall depart the kingdom of Great Bri|tain, or enter into the army or navy, without the pre|vious consent of the company, or shall die by suicide, duelling, or the hand of justice.—This corporation does not grant any annuities on lives.

3. The terms of assurance at the Amicable Society, Ser|jeant's-inn, Fleet-street, are as follow:—

July 25, 1706, Queen Anne incorporated William, then Lord Bishop of Oxon, Sir Thomas Aleyn, Bart. and others, and every other person who should be then after admitted a subscriber, (not exceeding 2000 in the whole) by the name of the Amicable Society, with power to purchase and alien lands, not exceeding the yearly value of 2000 l. to acquire any goods and chat|tels whatsoever, to sue, and be sued, and to have a com|mon seal.

Every person afterwards admitted, is to be esteemed a member of the corporation, and is to pay on his and her own life 6 l. 4 s. per annum, in such manner as the directors of the said corporation, for the time be|ing, shall think fit; on whose decease the nominee, &c. is to be entitled to an equal share of 10,000 l. when there are 2000 subscribers, or of a sum in proportion, if the Society shall consist of a lesser number.

Twelve persons were appointed directors, with power for any seven, or more of them, to hold courts; and the major part of them assembled were to manage the affairs of the corporation according to the charter, and to the by-laws to be made by the major part of the members in a general court, which court may not con|sist of less than twenty members; and for a succession of directors, twelve members (living within the bills of mortality) were to be chosen yearly, within forty days after Lady-day, to be directors for one year, and until others should be chosen in their places; and one of the members of the corporation was appointed re|gister, to be succeeded, from time to time, by another member.

January 16, 1729, George II. granted additional Page  70 powers and authorities as were not contained in the original charter.

No person can be admitted a member under the age of twelve, or above the age of forty-five years, (except in exchange) and persons above the age of forty-three are required to procure authentic certificates of their ages.

Persons in London, or within fifteen miles thereof, must appear before a court of directors, and there vo|luntarily make oath, "That he or she is in a good state of health, and hath no distemper, which, accord|ing to the best of his or her knowledge, judgement or belief, may tend to the shortening of his or her days."

Persons living above fifteen miles from London, and not appearing before a court of directors, may be ad|mitted members (after they are upon enquiry other|wise approved of) by certificates and affidavits.

Not more than three numbers or shares can be had upon any one life.

Every person, on admission, is to pay a premium of 7 l. 10 s. for each number or share, together with 7 s. 6 d. for the policy.

A dividend of 1 l. 4 s. is allowed to each member, out of the profits of the corporation, whereby the char|ter payment of 6 l. 4 s. is reduced to 5 l. per annum, which 5 l. is to be paid quarterly, under certain pe|nalties for every share.

The death of every member must be proved by cer|tificate of burial; together with an affidavit of his or her death, and identity.

If a member dies out of England, security must be given to indemnify the corporation, before any claim is paid.

Any person above the age of forty-five, if in good health, may be admitted in exchange for a member who is older than himself.

By a resolution of the general court, the 10th day of May, 1770, the claims are not to be less than 150 l. upon each number or share; but they have been con|siderably larger, as will appear by the following ac|count: Page  71

 L.s.d.
177325929
17742061510
17751791310
177619479
177715594
1778207121
1779207711
178019300
178122200
178220000
1783188100
178418500

N. B. Upon application to become a member, each person is required to leave in writing. at the office, his or her name, place of abode, profession and age; and likewise the names of at least two persons of repute liv|ing within the cities of London or Westminster, to whom such person is, and for some time past hath been well known, in order that satisfactory enquiries may be made as to his or her state of health; but those who live at a distance from London are required (if they can) to give the names of at least two reputable persons living in London or Westminster, to whom they are well known; but if they have no such ac|quaintances in London or Westminster, they must give such as live near their places of abode, and who know them well; and if upon enquiry they are approved of, they may then be admitted members by certificates and affidavits, the forms of which are to be had at the office.

{inverted ⁂} Persons in the Army or Navy, whose business requires them to reside in foreign parts, tavern-keepers and inn-keepers, and those whose occupations or em|ployments are attended with danger or injury to their constitutions, are not admitted members.

As this society is confined to a certain number, per|ons must frequently wait some time before they can be admitted.

4. Blackfriar's Assurance-Office, at Blackfriar's-bridge, where attendance is daily given from nine till three.

Assurances may be made for any sum from 20 l. 2000 l. for any certain time, or for the whole con|nuance of the life, on payment of a gross sum, or an nnual premium proportionable to the hazard of the ge at which the life begins to be assured, and to the me the assurance is to continue, on the following rms:—

Page  72TABLE of PREMIUMS for assuring 100 l. upon the Li of any healthy Person, from Eight to Sixty-Seve

Age. One Year. Seven Years at an annual pay|ment of For the whole Life at an an|nual payment of
8 1 9 2 1 10 7 2 2 10
9 1 9 3 1 10 8 2 2 11
10 1 9 6 1 10 8 2 3 2
11 1 9 7 1 11 1 2 3 6
12 1 9 10 1 11 5 2 3 11
13 1 10 1 1 21 7 2 4 6
14 1 10 3 1 11 9 2 5 5
15 1 11 0 1 12 7 2 6 6
16 1 11 3 1 12 11 2 7 9
17 1 11 9 1 13 8 2 8 11
18 1 12 5 1 14 3 2 10 2
19 1 13 4 1 15 1 2 12 6
20 1 13 11 1 16 0 2 12 10
21 1 14 7 1 16 9 2 14 3
22 1 15 4 1 17 7 2 15 9
23 1 16 0 1 18 5 2 16 5
24 1 16 9 1 19 3 2 18 11
25 1 17 7 2 — 2 3 — 6
26 1 18 5 2 1 3 3 2 2
27 1 19 4 2 2 3 3 4 0
28 2 — 4 2 3 6 3 5 6
29 2 1 3 2 4 7 3 7 2
30 2 2 6 2 6 0 3 8 11
31 2 3 7 2 7 5 3 10 8
32 2 4 10 2 8 10 3 12 6
33 2 6 3 2 10 6 3 14 2
34 2 7 9 2 12 3 3 16 0
35 2 8 7 2 14 2 3 17 9
36 2 11 3 2 16 3 3 19 9
37 2 13 1 2 18 3 4 1 9
38 2 14 11 3 — 6 4 3 10
39 2 17 0 3 2 9 4 5 10
40 2 19 2 3 5 1 4 7 11
41 3 1 5 3 7 8 4 10 2
42 3 3 7 3 10 3 4 12 6
43 3 6 1 3 13 1 4 14 11
44 3 8 6 3 16 0 4 17 5

Page  73A TABLE of PREMIUMS for assuring the sum of One Hundred Pounds upon the Life of any healthy Per|son, from the age of Eight to Sixty-Seven, conti|nued.

Age. One Year. Seven Years at an annual pay|ment of For the whole Life at an an|nual payment of
45 3 11 0 3 18 6 5 — 0
46 3 13 6 4 1 3 5 2 4
47 3 16 2 4 4 1 5 4 10
48 3 18 10 4 6 10 5 7 5
49 4 1 8 4 10 0 5 10 2
50 4 4 8 4 13 2 5 12 11
51 4 7 8 4 16 8 5 15 9
52 4 10 9 5 0 0 5 18 8
43 4 14 0 5 4 0 6 1 9
54 4 17 4 5 7 1 6 5 3
55 5 — 9 5 11 7 6 9 3
56 5 4 3 5 16 0 6 12 10
57 5 8 0 6 — 6 6 18 11
58 5 11 6 6 5 3 7 4 6
59 5 15 2 6 10 8 7 10 9
60 5 19 1 6 16 10 7 17 7
61 6 3 1 7 2 7 8 5 3
62 6 7 5 7 9 1 8 13 8
63 6 11 8 7 16 1 9 2 10
64 6 16 3 8 4 11 9 12 11
65 7 — 11 8 13 0 10 3 9
66 7 6 0 9 2 1 10 15 3
67 7 10 10 9 12 0 11 7 0

Page  74An addition of twenty-two per cent. computed up|on the premium, is charged upon military persons; and the small addition of eleven per cent. upon per|sons not having had the small-pox.

The court of directors have a discretionary power of fixing the premium, when any peculiar hazard attends the life upon which the assurance is made.

Persons preferring the payment of a gross sum or single premium upon an assurance for any certain term, are chargeable in a due proportion to the annual premium for such term.

Every person making any assurance with the society pays five shillings in the name of entrance-money; and if the sum assured exceed one hundred pounds, the en|trance-money is charged after the rate of five shillings for every hundred pounds.

Also, every person proposing any assurance, is re|quired to make a deposit of five shillings, and in case the sum proposed to be assured shall exceed one hun|dred pounds, the deposit will be increased after the rate of two shillings and sixpence for every hundred; which deposit, if the party afterwards, or neglects to com|plete the same, for the space of twenty-eight days, is forfeited to the use of the society; but if the court of directors refuse making such assurance, the money de|posited is returned.

Every policy becomes void, upon the party, whose life is assured, going beyond the limits of Europe, (without leave of the directors) or dying upon the seas, or dying by their own hands, or the hands of justice.

Page  75TABLE of Annual Premiums payable during the joint continuance of the Lives of the Expectant and Pos|sessor for insuring One Hundred Pounds*, if the Life in Expectation shall survive the Life in Possession.

Age of Poss. Age of Exp. Premium.
    l. s. d.
10 20 1 12 10
20 10 2 2 7
10 30 1 12 10
30 10 2 17 9
10 40 1 13 3
40 10 3 17 5
10 50 1 12 10
50 10 5 2 7
10 60 1 11 7
60 10 6 14 7
10 70 1 9 3
70 10 9 10 6
20 20 2 2 7
20 30 2 2 7
30 20 2 16 10
20 40 2 2 0
40 20 3 16 5
20 50 2 1 6
50 20 5 2 0
20 60 1 19 7
60 20 6 16 10
20 70 1 16 0
70 20 9 8 0
20 30 2 14 8
30 40 2 14 0
40 30 3 12 7
30 50 2 12 5
50 30 4 17 3
30 60 2 10 0
60 30 6 12 6
30 70 2 5 0
70 30 9 6 10
40 40 3 8 7
40 50 3 5 3
50 40 4 11 0
40 60 3 1 6
60 40 6 6 10
40 70 2 15 0
70 40 9 1 0
50 50 4 5 7
50 60 3 18 6
60 50 5 19 8
50 70 3 9 7
70 50 8 15 7
60 60 5 10 0
60 70 4 14 0
70 60 8 5 7
70 70 7 6 10

Page  76A TABLE of ANNUAL PREMIUMS payable during the continuance of two joint Lives, for assuring One Hundred Pounds, to be paid when either of the Lives shall drop.

Age Age l. s. d.
10 20 3 15 8
  30 4 10 6
  40 5 10 10
  50 6 13 4
  60 8 10 7
  70 10 19 8
15 20 4 — 2
  30 4 15 3
  40 5 15 3
  50 7 1 2
  60 8 14 3
  70 11 3 5
20 30 4 18 10
  40 5 18 3
  50 7 3 0
  60 8 16 7
  70 11 3 6
25 30 5 2 7
  40 6 1 6
  50 7 5 3
  60 8 19 5
  70 11 7 6
30 40 6 6 3
  50 7 9 8
  60 9 2 6
  70 11 12 0
35 40 6 11 7
  50 7 19
  60 9 5 6
  70 11 16 0
40 50 7 16 5
  60 9 8 6
  70 11 16 0
45 50 8 3 8
45 60 9 14 7
  70 12 — 6
50 60 9 18
  70 12 5 0
55 60 10 4 1
  70 12 10 0
60 70 13 — 0
65 70 13 16 0

N. B. From the above specimen, which shews the premium for every tenth year, the reader will easi|ly judge of the proportional premium for any in|termediate age.

Every person desiring to make assurance with the so|ciety, must sign a declaration by himself or agent, set|ting forth the age, state of health, profession, occupa|tion, and other circumstances of the persons whose lives are proposed to be assured: and also, in case such assurance is made upon the life of another person, that the interest which he has in such life is equal to the sum assured. This declaration is the basis of the con|tract between the society and the person desirous to make such assurance: and if any artful, false, or frau|dulent representation shall be used therein, all claim, on account of any policy so obtained, shall cease, de|termine, and be void, and the monies which shall Page  77 have been paid upon account of such assurance, shall be forfeited to the use of the society.

Every person making assurance with the society be|comes a member, and enters into a covenant that he will conform to, observe, and keep the statutes, bye-laws, rules, orders, and ordinances of the society.— But no member has a right to vote at a general court, who is not assured in the sum of 100 l. or upwards, upon a life or lives, for the whole continuance there|of.

The business of the society is conducted and carried on by fifteen directors, annually chosen out of those members, who are assured with the society in the sum of 300 l. or upwards, upon a life or lives, for the whole continuance thereof.

Four general courts are held every year, on the first Thursday of March, June, September and December, or as often as nine members qualified to vote shall think proper, at which times the accounts and state of the society are laid before the persons present.

If at any time it shall appear to a General Court of the Society, that the premiums received, and to be received, will not be sufficient to pay the claims, then the General Court are to direct a call to be made upon the several members of the Society, in proportion to the sums by them assured, for making good the defi|ciency; for which call credit is to be given, and the call afterwards to be repaid; with interest, at the rate of 3 per cent.

If a call should at any time be requisite, (which is highly improbable) the members assured for a single year will be rated towards such call in the proportion of one sixth part, and the members assured for a number of years certain, in the proportion of two third parts of the sum charged upon the members assured for the whole continuance of life, for every 100 l. by them respectively assured.

As often as it shall appear to a General Court, that the stock of the Society is more than sufficient to pay the claims liable to be made, then the General Court is to declare a dividend of the surplus, or of such part thereof as shall be judged convenient, amongst the Page  78 members of the society liable to contribute towards a call in proportion to the sums in which they are assu|red, and to the number of years of their standing in the society.

The court of directors are impowered to assure either a gross sum, or an annuity, to be paid to children after they shall have attained an age assigned.

The court of directors are impowered to assure an|nuities for a life or lives, on the payment of a gross sum.

So as the amount of any annuity or annuities to be granted upon any one life do not exceed one hundred pounds:

And towards securing the payment of the several annuities, a fund is reserved of two-thirds of the sums originally paid for the purchase.

There are two or three other societies for assurance on lives, that pay annuities to widows and children, but they are not sufficiently established to put any great dependence on them, of course they are not here no|ticed.

GENERAL POST-OFFICE, LOMBARD-STREET.

1. ALL letters and newspapers must be put into the receiving-houses in different parts of the town, before five in the evening, or they cannot be forward|ed by that day's post. After five these offices are shut. Bell-men then go about the streets till six, who carry such letters as they collect, to the General Post-Office in Lombard-street, for which they expect one penny each letter. If a letter be carried by your own ser|vant, this penny may be saved: the General Post-Of|fice will take them in any time before seven. After seven, till eight, a letter will be taken in for 6 d. ex|traordinary.

2. All persons about the Post-Office shall take an oath not to embezzle or delay any letters, nor to open any, except by an express warrant from one of the se|cretaries of state, for that purpose; or except in such Page  79 cases where the parties to whom they are addressed re|fuse payment for the same; or except such letters are returned for want of true directions; or when the party to whom the same is directed cannot be found.— 9 Ann. c. 10.

    In ENGLAND.
  • From any post-office in England, to any place not exceeding one stage from such office, Postage of a Single Letter. d. 2
  • From any post-office in England, to any place above one, and not exceeding two stages from such office, and not passing through London, Postage of a Single Letter. d. 3
  • From any post-office in England, to any place above two stages, and not exceeding 80 miles, and not passing through London, Postage of a Single Letter. d. 4
  • From any post-office in England, to any place above 80, and not exceeding 150 miles, and not passing through London, Postage of a Single Letter. d. 5
  • From any post-office in England, to any place above 150 miles, not passing through London, Postage of a Single Letter. d. 6
    SCOTLAND.
  • Between London and Edinburgh, Dumfries or Cockburnspeth, Postage of a Single Letter. d. 7
  • From any post-office in Scotland, to any place not exceeding one stage from such office, Postage of a Single Letter. d. 2
  • From any post-office in Scotland, to any place in the same kingdom above one stage, and not exceeding 50 miles, and not passing through Edinburgh, Postage of a Single Letter. d. 3
  • From any post-office in Scotland, to any place in the same kingdom above 50, and not exceeding 80 miles, and not passing through Edinburgh, Postage of a Single Letter. d. 4
  • From any post-office in Scotland, to any place in the same kingdom above 80, and not exceeding 150 miles, and not passing through Edinburgh, Postage of a Single Letter. d. 5
  • From any post-office in Scotland, to any place above 150 miles, and not passing through Edin|burgh, Postage of a Single Letter. d. 6
  • Between Port-Patrick in Scotland, and Donagha|dee in Ireland, by packet-boats, over and above all other rates, Postage of a Single Letter. d. 2
  • Page  80Letters to and from any part of England and any part of Scotland, not passing through London, Edinburgh, Dumfries or Cockburnspeth, are not chargeable, if single, higher than Postage of a Single Letter. d. 7
  • Letters to and from Glasgow, or the intermediate places by Carlisle, are not to pay a higher rate of postage, than if sent through Edinburgh.
    IRELAND.
  • Between London and Dublin, by way of Holy-head. Postage of a Single Letter. d. 6
  • Between London and Donaghadee, by way of Carlisle and Port-Patrick, Postage of a Single Letter. d. 12
    ISLE OF MAN.
  • Between Great Britain and the Isle of Man, by packet-boats, over and above all other rates, Postage of a Single Letter. d. 2
    SHIP-LETTERS.
  • For the port of every letter or packet of letters in any part of his Majesty's dominions directed to, or coming from, on board of any ship, over and above the rates before mentioned, Postage of a Single Letter. d. 1
  • For every letter or packet coming from on ship|board for the town where landed, or the deli|very thereof, one penny, with the penny paid to the master, mariner, or passenger bringing the same, being for every such letter or pac|ket, Postage of a Single Letter. d. 2
    His Majesty's WEST-INDIA Islands, and NORTH-AMERICA.
  • For letters conveyed by packet-boats, between London and any port in his Majesty's West-India islands, or North-America, Postage of a Single Letter. d. 12
  • For letters conveyed by packet-boats from any port in the West-India islands, or his Majesty's dominions in North-America, to any other port thereof, Postage of a Single Letter. d. 4
  • For the inland conveyance of letters in the said dominions between any office and any place, not exceeding 60 English miles, Postage of a Single Letter. d. 4
  • For any distance above 60 English miles, and not exceeding 100 miles, Postage of a Single Letter. d. 6
  • Page  81For any distance above 100, and not exceeding 200 English miles, Postage of a Single Letter. d. 8
  • And so in proportion, the postage increasing two-pence a single letter, for any distance above eve|ry 100 miles.
    FOREIGN LETTERS.
  • Letters from London to any part of Holland, France or Flanders, pay no foreign postage.
  • From any part of Holland, France or Flanders, to London, Postage of a Single Letter. d. 10
  • Between London and any part of Spain or Portu|gal, through France, or by Lisbon, Postage of a Single Letter. d. 18
  • Between London and any part of Italy, Sicily, Turkey and Switzerland, through France, Postage of a Single Letter. d. 15
  • Between London and any part of Italy, Sicily, Turkey, Germany, Switzerland, Denmark, Sweden, Russia, and all parts of the North, through Holland and Flanders, Postage of a Single Letter. d. 12

5. Letters and packets from any part of Great Bri|tain or Ireland, for any of the places under the title Foreign Letters, before mentioned, and for North-Ame|rica, are, besides the said foreign rates and packet-postage to North-America, to pay at the office where they are put in, the full port to London, without which they cannot be forwarded; therefore, all per|sons are to take particular notice thereof, to prevent the necessity of their letters being opened and returned for the postage.

6. All merchants accompts, not exceeding one sheet of paper, and all bills of exchange, invoices, and bills of lading, to or from any of the foreign parts or pla|ces before mentioned, and the covers of letters to or from Turkey, not exceeding one quarter of a sheet of paper, are allowed to pass without payment of the fo|reign postage, but are to pay the full inland port to and from London.

7. All double, treble, and other letters and packets whatever (except by the penny-post) pay in proportion to the respective rates of single letters before specified; but no letter or packet to and from places within the king|dom Page  82 of Great Britain, together with the contents thereof, shall be charged more than as a treble letter, unless the same shall weigh an ounce, when it is to be rated as four single letters, and so in proportion for every quarter of an ounce above that weight, reckon|ing each quarter as a single letter.

8. Letters to all parts of Europe are dispatched from London every Tuesday and Friday, except those to Portugal, which are forwarded by the Lisbon mails on Tuesdays only.

9. Letters to the West-Indies and to North-Ame|rica are dispatched from London the first Wednesday in every month.

10. No letter, under one ounce, to be charged high|er than as a treble letter.

11. All masters of vessels bringing letters from a|broad, shall deliver the same (except in the case of quarentine) at the post-office where they break bulk, for which the post-master shall receive 1 d. extra for each letter. 5 Geo. 3. c. 25, s. 3, 4.

12. Bills of exchange, written on the same piece of paper with a letter, and several letters to several per|sons, written on the same piece of paper, shall pay as so many distinct letters. 26 G. c. 21. s. 51.

13. Writs, and other proceedings at law, inclosed or written on the same piece of paper with a letter, shall pay as so many distinct letters. 26 G. 2. c. 13. s. 6.

14. But merchants accompts not exceeding one sheet, bills of exchange, invoices, bills of lading (sent or brought over sea; 6 G. c. 21. s. 52), shall be allow|ed without rate in the price of the letters. 9 Ann. c. 10. s. 13.

15. But patterns or samples of goods, or pieces of any thing, though not paper, inclosed in a letter, of affixed thereto, if under an ounce weight, shall pay as a double letter. 26 G. 2. c. 13. s. 7.

16. No letters or packets shall be exempted from postage, except such as shall be sent to the king; and such as not exceeding the weight of two ounces, shall be sent during the sitting of parliament, or within 40 days before or after any summons or prorogation, Page  83 which shall be signed on the outside thereof, by any member, and by whom the whole superscription shall be written; and also the name of the post-town from which the same is intended to be sent, and the day, month and year, when the same shall be put into the post-office (the day of the month to be in words at length)—or directed to any member at the place where he shall actually be at the time of the delivery thereof, or at his usual place of residence in London, or at the lobby of the house of parliament of which he is a member; or to the offices of the Treasury, Admiralty, War-office, General Post-office, secretaries of state, paymaster-general of the forces, clerk of the parlia|ments, clerk of the House of Commons; or upon his Majesty's service (indorsed by the proper officer).— 4 Geo. 3. c. 24. s. 1, 4. 5 Geo. 3. c. 25. s. 26. 25 Geo. 3.

17. Counterfeiting the superscription of any letters to evade the postage, is transportation for seven years. 25 Geo. 3.

18. Printed votes or proceedings in parliament, or printed newspapers sent without cover, or in covers open at the ends, signed on the outside by any member of parliament, or directed to a member at any place, whereof he shall have given notice to the Postmaster-General, shall be exempted from postage in England; 4 G. 3. c. 24. s. 5. and shall pass from Great Britain and Ireland at the rate of 1 d. only for each printed vote, proceeding in parliament, or newspaper. 25 Geo. 3.

19. If any person entrusted to take in letters and re|ceive the postage thereof, should embezzle the money, burn or destroy the letters, or advance the rates and not duly account for such advanced rates, he shall be guilty of felony. 5 Geo. 3. c. 25. s. 19.

20. All sums not exceeding 5 l. due for postage may e recovered before justices of the peace, in the same manner as small tithes. 9 An. c. 10. s. 30.

21. All sums overcharged for letters will be returned 〈◊〉 the Post-Office, Lombard-street. If on good terms with your postman, he will get this done for you; on Page  84 this account it may not be impolitic to give him a shil|ling at Christmas.

22. Any complaint made of misconduct to the Secre|tary of the Post-Office, by letter or otherwise, will be immediately attended to.

23. No one is obliged to receive a letter from the postman, though directed to him, unless he thinks pro|per.

THE PENNY-POST

1. HAS five principal offices; viz. the chief Penny-post office in Throgmorton-street; the West|minster, in Coventry-street; St. Clements, in Black|moor-street, Clare-market; the Hermitage, in Queen-street, Little Tower-hill; the Southwark, St. Saviour's Church-yard, Borough.

2. Letters to be sent out of town must be put into these offices before ten at night, to be forwarded by the first delivery the next day.

3. To prevent the frequent delays of Penny-post let|ters, the public are requested to be particularly careful to send them to the Penny-post receiving-houses, from whence they are collected every four hours, and deli|vered four times a day to all parts of London; for when they are put by mistake into the General Post-office, or the receiving-houses for general-post letters, they cannot be collected till late in the evening, and besides the delay thereby, the penny which ought to have been paid with them must of necessity be charged to the per|sons they are directed to.

4. Letters are much accelerated by being put in at any of the five principal offices, instead of the receiv|ing-houses, from whence they must be collected and sent to those offices.

5. For the port of every letter or packet, passing or repassing within the cities of London or Westminster, the Borough of Southwark and their suburbs, (which letter or packet is not to exceed the weight of 4 ounces▪ Page  85 unless coming from or passing to the General-Post) one penny upon putting in the same, as also a penny upon the delivery of such as are directed to any place beyond the said cities, borough, or suburbs, within the district of the penny-post delivery.

6. The triangular stamp on all Penny-post letters shews the day they are brought to one of these princi|pal offices; and the round stamp the hour they are gi|ven to the letter carriers.

7. This post carries parcels under four ounces to most places within ten miles of London.

8. To expedite the delivery, it is adviseable to write on the outside, the day of the week, and the hour the letter is put into the office.

9. If you send any thing of value by the post, it is proper that the person who delivers it at the office should be able to prove the contents; but the office has given the following directions concerning this mat|ter. Unless letters containing things of value be left open, to be so carried to one of the five principal offi|ces above-mentioned, there to be seen and entered, the letter-carrier will no ways be made answerable for their miscarriage.

10. Those who send bank-notes by the post, are ad|vised by the post-office to cut them in two pieces, ob|liquely, so as to have the words on the left, as below, in one piece, and those on the right in the other, and send them at two different times, one half at one time and one at another, as a security, in case the mail is robbed.

No. 5515.

I promise to pay to Mr. Abraham Newland, or bearer, on demand, the sum of TEN Pounds. L. TEN.

Entd. J. Fleetwood.

For the Gov. and Comp. of the Bank of England, J. GREENWAY.

London, May 5. 1786.

In case of loss the Bank will pay the money, on producing one half of the note.

11. With respect to the Penny-post. the public are de|sired to be very distinct in their directions, particularly to lodgers, by mentioning their landlord's sign and Page  86 name, for want of which many cannot be delivered. And as a check on the letter-carrier, those that he re|turns after three days enquiry will be sent to the writer gratis, if their residence can be discovered.

12. Nothing above four ounces will be conveyed by the penny-post, except passing to or from the general post-office.

13. Those who wish to find persons in London, not having their directions, may often find them out by enquiring at the post-office among the letter-carriers, at the time the letters are delivered to them.

MAIL COACHES.

THE following (exclusive of those on the cross post roads) are the Mail Coaches already established.

1. To Bath and Bristol, from the Swan with Two Necks, Lad-lane, and the Gloucester Coffee-house, Piccadilly

2. To Bath and Bristol, through Andover and Devi|zes, from ditto, ditto.

3. To Carlisle, by way of Manchester, from the Swan with Two Necks, Lad-lane.

4. To Chester and Holyhead, from ditto.

5. To Dover, from the George and Blue Boar, Hol|born, and the Gloucester Coffee-house, Piccadilly, to York House, Dover.

6. To Exeter, through Salisbury, Blandford, and Dorchester, from the Swan with Two Necks, Lad-lane, and the Gloucester Coffee-house, Piccadilly.

7. To Exeter, through Marlborough, Devizes, Froom, Wells, Bridgewater and Taunton, from the Swan with Two Necks, Lad-lane.

8. To Gloucester, Swansea, and Carmarthen, from the Angel Inn, behind St. Clement's Church, and the Gloucester Coffee-house, Piccadilly.

9. To Hereford, recknock, Carmarthen, and Milford Haven, from ditto, ditto.

Page  8710. To Liverpool, through Coventry and Litchfield, from the Swan with Two Necks, Lad-lane.

11. To Manchester, through Derby, from ditto.

12. To Nottingham and Leeds, from the Bull and Mouth, in Bull and Mouth Street.

13. To Norwich and Yarmouth, through Newmarket and Thetford, from the White Horse, Fetter-lane.

14. To Norwich, through Colchester and Ipswich, from ditto.

15. To Portsmouth, from the Angel Inn, behind St. Clement's Church.

16. To Shrewsbury, and to Birmingham, Kidderminster, and Bewdley, from the Bull and Mouth, Bull and Mouth Street.

17. To Southampton and Poole, from the Bell and Crown, Holborn, and the Gloucester Coffee-house, Piccadilly.

18. To Windsor, from the Three Cups, Bread-street, and the Gloucester Coffee-house, Piccadilly.

19. To Worcester and Ludlow, from the George and Blue Boar, Holborn, and the Gloucester Coffee-house, Piccadilly.

These coaches set off every night at eight o'clock, with a guard, and go at the rate of seven miles an hour, with a pair of horses. The fare for each passenger about 4 d. a mile, 14 lb. of luggage allowed.

STAGE COACHES

1. GO from different parts of London to all parts of the kingdom, almost every day. The places they set out from, and the days they go, may be found in a book printed for that purpose. This book also gives an account of the Waggons and Hoys.

The general run of stage-coaches is 3 d. halfpenny per mile each inside passenger, who is allowed 14 lb. of luggage, all above is paid extra for.

2. Most of these coaches have a guard, and go as expe|ditiously as the mail coaches. The proprietors of stage coaches and waggons now advertise, that they will pay Page  88 for no luggage worth more than 5 l. unless first mad acquainted with its value, and paid for accordingly This is idle, for if they take in the parcel without ex+ceptions, and it is lost, and the contents can be proved they will be obliged to make it good. See CAUTION 3, 4.

HORSES AND CARRIAGES.

1. FOR every saddle-horse, mare or gelding, use for riding or drawing any carriage for which a excise-duty is payable, shall be paid annually 10 s. Geo. 3. c. 31.

2. Horses belonging to non-commissioned office: and soldiers of cavalry, also horses belonging to dealer kept for sale only, and all horses let to hire by post masters for travelling post, are exempted from th duty. Ibid.

3. For every coach, chariot, chaise, &c. with fo wheels, kept by any person for his own use, or to b let out for hire, (except hackney-coaches) shall be pa the yearly sum of seven pounds; and for every chais chair, gig, whiskey, &c. having two or three wheel drawn by one or more horses, the annual sum 〈◊〉 3 l. 10 s. Ibid.

4. Assessors shall give notice in writing to pe keeping horses and carriages, to produce, in 〈◊〉 days after such notice, lists of the numbers kept 〈◊〉 them, on pain of forfeiting 10 l. to be recovered 〈◊〉 sore two justices; and in case such lists are not +vered when called for, the assessor shall, from the e information he can obtain, make an assessment on s person so refusing, which shall be final, unless th person assessed shall prove a sufficient excuse before th commissioners; and in case the list delivered to the a+sessors shall be deficient, they may surcharge the same and the persons giving in such defective lists shall 〈◊〉 double duty for all deficient, one-half of which the |sessor Page  89 or surveyor shall have for surcharging the same. Ibid.

5. Householders shall deliver lists of lodgers who keep horses or carriages, containing the names of such lodgers, on pain of forfeiting 10 l. to be recovered before two justices. Ibid.

6. Persons over-rated may appeal to the commis|sioners, but they must then deliver their lists upon oath. Ibid.

7. Surveyor or assessor making a false surcharge, shall be fined as in the window-act, from 40 s. to 5 l. Ibid.

8. The annual payment of the duty to take place always from the 5th of April in each year; so that if a person has a horse and carriage on the 6th of April, and sells it the 7th, he must pay a whole year's tax, it being an annual tax. Ibid.

9. By the custom of London, if a horse stands at an inn, till he eat out his value, the inn-keeper may take him as his own, upon the reasonable appraisement of four of his neighbours; provided the horse was never out of his possession from the time the debt com|menced. A horse cannot be detained on his coming again, for what was due before. Bac. Abr. Inn. D. Strange, 556.

HACKNEY COACHES.

1. HACKNEY coaches are not to stand nearer to each other than twelve yards, leaving a passage for carriages between them; nor within twelve yards of any cross street, on pain of the coachman's forfeit|ing 10 s.

2. No more than the following number of coaches shall stand in the places specified, on pain of the coach|man's forfeiting 10 s. for each offence: Eight coaches shall stand in Cornhill; viz. Seven between the end of Gracechurch-street and Finch-lane, and one be|tween the end of Freeman's-court and Finch-lane.

Page  90In Leadenhall-street, three coaches between the west end of the India-house and the passage leading to the green-market, Leaden-hall.

In Cheapside, between the end of Bucklersbury and the end of Ironmonger-lane, three coaches.

In King-street, Guildhall, five coaches, viz. Three beginning at the end of Trump-street, towards Catea|ton-street, and two on the other side of Trump-street, towards Cheapside.

In Aldermanbury, four coaches, viz. Two in the broad part, near the church, and two at the east end of the church.

Two coaches only in that part of Fleet-street between Temple-bar and Chancery-lane, and not more than one coach between the said lane and the west end of Dun|stan's-church.

An ADMEASUREMENT of the most common ONE SHILLING and EIGHTEEN-PENNY FARES, to be taken by HACKNEY COACHMEN for their HIRE, in and about the Cities of LONDON and WESTMINSTER, and Places adjoining, measured from the respective Stands.

Page  91 Page  92 Page  93 Page  94
ONE SHILLING FARES, The distance not exceeding One Mile and Two Fur|longs, or One Mile and a Quarter.
  M. F. P.
From Westminster-hall gate, to the first coach at St. Clement's, Strand, 1 1 29
From ditto to the end of St. James's-street, Piccadilly, 1 1 26
From the center of the Horse-Guards to Wa|ter-lane, Fleet-street, 1 1 20
From ditto to the end of Engine-street, Pic|cadilly, 1 1 2
From the Golden-cross, Charing-cross, to Hamilton-street, Piccadilly, 1 1 22
From ditto to the Old Bailey, on Ludgate-hill, 1 1 31
From the Strand, Catharine-street end, to Bow-church yard, Cheapside, 1 1 32
From the west side of Temple-bar to Derby-street, Parliament-street, 1 1 21
From ditto to Birchen-lane, Cornhill, 1 1 33
From the first coach, Bridge-street, Fleet-street, to Cree-church-lane, Leadenhall-street, 1 1 26
From ditto to opposite Craig's-court, Cha|ring-cross, 1 1 25
From the first coach, St. Paul's church-yard, to Hungerford-market, Strand, 1 1 32
From ditto to opposite the Blue Boar, White-chapel, 1 1 28
From Gutter-lane end, Cheapside, to South|ampton-street, Holborn, 1 1 28
From ditto to Church-lane, Whitechapel-road, 1 1 22
From the center of the Royal Exchange, Corn|hill, to Greyhound-lane, Whitechapel, 1 1 26
From ditto to opposite Palsgrave-Head-court, Strand, 1 1 26
From ditto to opposite Gray's-Inn gate, Hol|born, 1 1 26
From the first coach near the Three Nuns, Whitechapel, to the first White Horse Lane, Mile-End Road, 1 1 26
From ditto to the end of Avemary-lane, Lud|gate-hill, 1 1 26
From the end of Hatton-garden, Holborn, to Lime-street, Leadenhall-street, 1 1 30
From ditto to the end of Dean-street, Ox|ford-street, 1 1 27
From the end of Southampton-buildings, Hol|born, to Johnson's-court, Charing-cross, 1 1 31
From ditto to the centre of the Royal Ex|change, Cornhill, 1 1 29
From the end of Red Lion-street, Holborn, to the center of the Horse-guards, Whitehall, 1 1 33
From the Vine-tavern, Holborn, to Bow-church-yard, Cheapside, 1 1 30
From ditto to the end of Shepherd-street, Oxford-street, 1 1 29
From the end of Rathbone-Place, Oxford-road, to the end of Paddington-road, 1 1 26
From ditto to the end of Shoe-lane, Holborn, 1 1 31
From the end of Bond-street, Oxford-road, to the end of Little Queen-street, Holborn, 1 1 27
From the end of Park-street, Oxford street, to the end of Denmark-street, St. Giles's, 1 1 28
From the Golden Lion, Piccadilly, to Chan|dos-street, St. Martin's-lane, 1 1 32
From ditto to the Mews-gate, Charing-cross, 1 1 30
From the end of St. James's-street, Piccadilly, to Somerset coffee-house, Strand, 1 1 28
From ditto to the Ordnance-office, St. Mar|garet's-street, Westminster, 1 1 34
From the coach next the Haymarket, Picca|dilly, to Vine-street, Milbank-street, 1 1 31
From the first coach, Tower-hill, to the Bell Savage, Ludgate-hill, 1 1 28
From Cateaton-street end, King-street, to Sur|ry-street, Strand, 1 1 32
From ditto to opposite Featherstone-build|ings, Holborn, 1 1 27
From opposite the Close, Clerkenwell green, to the Mansion-house, 1 1 23
From opposite Buckingham-gate, to the gate of Northumberland-house, Strand, 1 1 25
From ditto to the end of Turk's-row, in Bur|ton's-row, Chelsea, 1 1 21
EIGHTEEN-PENNY FARES. The distance not exceeding Two Miles.
From Westminster-hall gate to Watling-street, St. Paul's church-yard, 1 7 32
From ditto to opposite the Horse-guards, at Knightsbridge, 1 7 28
From the center of the Horse-guards to Mer|cer's chapel, Cheapside, 1 7 28
From ditto to the end of Bear-court, Knights|bridge, 1 7 28
From the Golden Cross, Charing-cross, to Smith's Manufactory, Knightsbridge, 1 7 4
From the Golden-Cross, Charing-Cross, to Bank-street, Corn-hill, 1 7 27
From the Strand, Catharine-street end, to Poor Jury-street, Aldgate, 1 7 30
From the west side of Temple-bar to Grosve|nor House, Milbank-row, Westminster, 1 6 13
From ditto to the Red Lion and Spread Eagle, Whitechapel, 1 7 16
From the first coach Bridge-street, Fleet-street, to the New-road, Whitechapel-road, 1 7 21
From ditto to the turning to Queen-square, Westminster, 1 7 33
From the first coach St. Paul's Church-yard, to St. James's Palace-gate, 1 6 25
From ditto to the Lond. Hospital, Whitechapel, 1 7 34
From Cheapside, Gutter-lane end, to the end of Poland-street, Oxford-street, 1 7 34
From ditto to the end of Mutton-lane, Mile-end road, 1 7 20
From the center of the Royal Exchange, Corn|hill, to the Rose and Crown. Mile-end road, 1 7 36
From ditto to the end of St. Martin's-lane, 1 7 21
From ditto to the end of Denmark-street, St. Giles's, 1 7 21
From the first coach near the Three Nuns, Whitechapel, to the road leading to Bow-common, 1 6 25
From ditto to Somerset-house, 1 7 33
From the end of Hatton-garden, Holborn, to the end of Garden-street, Whitechapel-road, 1 7 25
From ditto to the end of Duke-street, Ox|ford-street, 1 7 31
From the end of Southampton-buildings, Hol|born, to the end of Dartmouth-street, Tot|hill-street, Westminster, 1 7 28
From ditto to the Red Lion and Spread Eagle, Whitechapel, 1 7 28
From the end of Red Lion-street, Holborn, to the King's-head, Lambeth-marsh, 1 7 33
From the Vine-tavern, Holborn, to the end of Poor Jury-street, Aldgate, 1 7 30
From the Vine-tavern, Holborn, to Tyburn-turnpike, 1 7 28
From the end of Rathbone-Place, Oxford-road, to the end of Bigg's-lane, in the road to Bayswater, 1 7 16
From ditto to the end of the Old Jury, Poultry, 1 7 21
From the end of Bond-street, Oxford-road, to the end of Cow-lane, Snow-hill, 1 7 26
From the end of Park-street, Oxford-road, to Gray's-inn gate, Holborn, 1 7 25
From the Golden Lion, Piccadilly, to Pals|grave Head-court, Temple-bar, 1 7 28
From ditto to the end of Wood-street, Mil|bank-street, Westminster, 1 7 33
From the end of St. James's-street, Piccadilly, to the first coach in St. Paul's church-yard, 1 7 28
From the first coach, Tower-hill, to the cen|ter of Exeter-Change, Strand, 1 7 31
From Cateaton-street end, King-street, to the end of Suffolk-street, Cockspur-street, 1 7 25
From do. to the Boar & Castle, Oxford-street, 1 7 15
From opposite the close, Clerkenwell-green, to the Talbot-inn, Whitechapel, 1 7 29
From opposite Buckingham-gate to the end of Essex-street, Strand, 1 7 22
From ditto to the Magpye, China-row, Chelsea, 1 7 27

N. B. These distances are measured from one specific point of ground to another, as above; but, upon a question, there will be added the call of the coach, together with any other necessary departure from the right line.

From the 1st of August, 1786, coachmen will be en|titled to the following rates:—

Page  95
  L. s. d.
For one mile and a quarter, or under, 0 1 0
For two miles of ground, 0 1 6
For every further distance within half-a-mile beyond the first two miles, 0 0 6
By Time.      
For any time not exceeding three quarters of an hour, 0 1 0
For any time not exceeding one hour, 0 1 6
For any time not exceeding twenty minutes, from the end of the first hour, 0 0 6
For a day's work, reckoning twelve hours to the day, 0 14 6

By order of the Commissioners, EDWARD MOORE, Register.

HACKNEY-COACH-OFFICE, Somerset-House,July 21, 1786.

3. Coachmen, if left to themselves, can charge only for the nearest way, go which way they will, unless the nearest road is stopped.

4. Coachmen may chuse whether they will be paid for the time or the ground; the ground they go is to be measured from the stand from whence they are called.

5. If a coach is on the stand, the driver is obliged to go with his fare at any hour, not exceeding ten miles from London, under the penalty of 40 s.

6. No coachman need take in more than four; but if he takes five without making terms, he can take no more than his usual fare.

7. If he is insolent, he will be fined from 10 s. to 40 s. but generally 40 s.

8. Every coachman is obliged to have a check string, which he is to hold in his hand as he drives, and to en|ter the coach, so as to stop him without calling, or for|feit 5 s.

9. Coachmen are obliged to trot their horses, except up hill.

10. If a coachman takes more than his fare, he for|feits 10 s.

11. If a coach breaks down with you, you may re|fuse to pay the fare.

12. If you think, when paying him, he asks too much, tender what he asks, and bid him, at his peril, take more than his fare; then take his number, which is fixed on the coach-door, and, on application to a justice of peace, or to the commissioners of the Hack|ney-coach office, who sit every Friday, at twelve, at the office in Somerset-place, you may obtain redress. The latter is the best place to appl to, as the coach-office is acquainted with the measur of all the streets: and when you have made your complaint, if he has Page  96 taken more than his fare, they will summon him to meet you there on the next day of sitting, and on your swearing to the offence, he will be fined, and the com|missioners will give you half the penalty; if he has taken no more than his fare you will be told so, when you call again, and that he is not summoned; but this is not attended with any expence. Note, Half the pe|nalties are given to the informer.

HACKNEY CHAIRS. The Rates or Fares are as follow:
  s.d.
13.For the first mile,10
 For every half-mile afterwards,06
 If paid by the hours, the first hour is,16
 Every hour they wait afterwards,10

14. Chairmen may chuse whether they will be paid for the ground or the time.

15. If a chair is on the stand, the men are obliged to go any where on the stones, or forfeit 40 s. They are not obliged to carry goods on wooden horses, but will on the chair fares; however bargain with them first.

16. If they take more than their fare, the penalty is 40 s.

17. If they insult you, the penalty is 40 s.

18. Act as with coachmen, take the number of the chair, which is fixed just under the the top, near the hinge, and complain at the hackney-coach office, as above: if they are fined, half the fine will be given to you. No expence to you if they are not fined.

19. At the hackney-coach office they are well ac|quainted with the measure of all the streets; but 〈◊〉 there is any doubt, they will have the ground measur|ed: in this case they expect the complainant to dep six or eight shillings. If on measuring the ground the chairman is sound right, the complainant pays the ex|pence of measuring; if wrong, they pay the expence, and are fined.

20. Any one may measure the ground they go accu|rately enough to ascertain the fare by a good map of London, and a pair of compasses.

Page  97

PORTERS.

AT the west end of the town there are no regula|tions among porters; chairmen are chiefly em|ployed in carrying goods and going of errands. See CHAIRMEN, No. 18. Chairmen are very unreasonable in their demands, they will not go a hundred yards with a letter for less than sixpence, and if they go a mile they expect a shilling. But in the city they are under very good regulations.

The city porters are divided into brotherhoods, and consist of four sorts, viz. Ticket Porters, Fellowship Porters, Tackle Porters, and Companies Porters.

1. Ticket Porters are all freemen, and their business is to land and ship off goods, exported or imported, to all parts of America, &c. also to house all merchants goods, metals, &c. go of messages, &c. They give a hundred pounds security for their fidelity and honesty, and such as employ them need only take notice of the names stamped on the ticket that hangs to their girdle, and on complaint made to their Governor at Founders Hall, Lothbury, satisfaction will be made to such as they have injured.

2. Fellowship Porters are employed also as ticket porters. Their chief Governor is the Alderman of Billingsgate Ward, to whom complaint is to be made.

3. Tackle Porters, or such ticket porters as are fur|nished with weights, scales, &c. and their business is to weigh goods, &c.

4. The Companies Porters land and ship off all goods and merchandise exported and imported to and from all ports near the west side of the Sound in the Baltic, Holland, France, Spain, Italy, Germany, Turkey, and all towards and beyond the Cape of Good Hope.

Rates taken by Porters.

  • Sugar, the hogshead, 3 d.—for weighing, 4 d.
  • ierce, or barrel, 2 d.—for weighing, 3 d.
  • — butt, 6 d.—for weighing, 8 d.
  • Cotton, wool, the bag, 3 d.—the same for weighing.
  • Ginger, the bag, 1 d.—the same for weighing.
  • Page  98Melasses, the hogshead, 3 d.—for weighing, 4 d.
  • Logwood, the ton, 1 s.—the same for weighing.
  • Fustick, the ton, 1 s.—the same for weighing.
  • Young Fustick, the ton, 1 s. 6 d.—the same for weighing.
  • Lignum Rhodium, the ton, 1 s.—the same for weighing.
  • Lignum Vitae, the ton, 1 s.—the same for weighing.
  • Tobacco, the hogshead, 2 d.—the same for weighing.
  • — the bundle, 1 d.—the same for weighing.
  • Danish or Swedish iron, the ton, 1 s.—the same for weighing.
  • Narva and Riga Hemp, the bundle, 6 d.—the same for weighing.

CARMEN AND CARTS.

1. IF the empty cart of any carman shall be set or found standing in any other place of the city or liberties thereof, than those appointed for the standing thereof (unless while loading or unloading goods into or from the same), or if the number of carts, in the pla|ces already or hereafter to be appointed, shall, at any time, be found to exceed the number allowed by the court of Lord Mayor and Aldermen, or by the sessions in London, for the standing thereof, the owner of eve|ry cart offending shall, for the first offence, forfeit 5 s. for the second 10 s. and for the third and every other offence, 20 s. And the beadles and constables, or any of the inhabitants of this city, on seeing any carts stand|ing in any places in the city or liberties thereof not ap|pointed for their stands, or a greater number of carts at any stand than what are or shall be allowed of in that behalf, may take any such cart, and the horses thereunto belonging, or any or either of them, to the Greenyard, and shall there have the same impounded and kept, until the owner thereof shall have paid the penalty incurred, and the charges of impounding and detaining every such cart or horses.

2. No driver of any cart shall hereafter come into Thames-street by St. Magnus Church, eastward, with Page  99 his or their empty cart, before such time as he or they shall be hired to come into the same street, for lading or carrying goods, but that the lanes and passages here|after mentioned shall be used only for such empty carts to pass and take their way through into the said Thames-street, and no other, that is to say, the lane leading down to Tower-dock, Bear-lane, Harp-lane, Botolph-lane, Pudding-lane, St. Michael's-lane, Lawrence Poult|ney-lane, Bush-lane, Trinity-lane, and all other lanes westward, except the lanes and passages herein after limited for loaded carts to pass through from the said Thames-street, under the penalty of 5 s. for the first offence, and for the second and every other offence 10 s.

3. The commissioners of the hackney-coach office are empowered to punish the misbehaviour of carmen. See HACKNEY-COACHES, No. 11.

Rates to be paid for Cartage.

Note, An addition of one seventh part of the follow|ing charges is allowed since to be taken, over and above the undermentioned rates.

Every parcel of dry goods, such as indigo, argol, cheese and all other goods (not hazardous) of the like bulk or weight, whether in one or many casks above 19 cwt. not exceeding 25 cwt. to be deemed a load.

Ditto above 15, not exceeding 19 cwt. a small load.

Ditto, not exceeding 15 cwt. an half load.

Each of the parcels of Grocery next hereafter mention|ed are to be deemed as follows:

For or as a full load. Two hogsheads of sugar, light or heavy. Three tierces of ditto, not exceeding 25 cwt. One butt and one caroteel, currants. Fifty bas|kets malaga, or Denta raisins. Thirty frails or pieces of Alexeias. Twenty barrels Belvideras or Leporas.— Twenty barrels or eighty tapness sigs. One butt and a small cask Smyrna's. Five barrels of rice. Three bales of annifeed. Six barrels of almonds.

For or as a small load. One butt currants or Smyrna's. One butt and one role currants. Two quarter barrels, Page  100 or fifty jars of raisins of the sun. Three puncheons of prunes.

One hogshead of sugar, or any parcel of grocery not exceeding 15 cwt. to be deemed an half load.

Pot or pearl ashes weighing from 19 cwt. to 25 cwt. to be deemed a load.

One ditto, not less than 15 cwt. a small load.

Two hogsheads of tallow, a load.

Fish oil, 10 barrels to be a load.

From any of the keys below the bridge to any part of lower Thames-street, up Fish-street hill to the Monument, up Pudding-lane, Botolph-lane, St. Mary's hill, St. Dunstan's hill, or any of the lanes leading from Thames-street, Pudding-lane, Botolph-lane, and that part of upper Thames-street, from the bridge foot to St. Martin's-lane, St. Miles's-lane, and Old Swan.

For every load, as abovementioned, 2 s.—For every small or half load, 1 s. 6 d.

From any of the wharfs between the Tower and London-Bridge, to Dyers-hall, Cold-harbour, Steel-yard, Doublehood-warehouse, Lawrence Poultney-lane, Three Cranes, Queenhith, Queen-street hill, Cellege-hill, Dowgate-hill, that part of Fish-street hill above the Monument, or any of the lanes as high as both Eastcheaps, leading from Lower Thames-street to Tower-street. Mark-lane, Lime-street, Billiter-lane, Leadenhall-street, Duke's-place, St. Mary Ax, Bi|shopgate-street within, Cornhill, Finch-lane, Lombard-street, Birchin-lane, Abchurch-lane, Clement's-lane, Gracechurch-street, both Eastcheaps, Philpot-lane, Rood-lane, and places of the like distance.

For a load, 2 s. 6 d.—For a small load, 2 s.—For an half load, 1 s. 6 d.

From the keys to Broad-street, Threadneedle-street, Lothbury, Bartholomew-lane, London-wall, Coleman-street, Basinghall-street, Old-jewry, St. Lawrence-lane, Ironmonger-lane, Milk-street, Aldermanbury, Wood-street, Cheapside, Poultry, St. Martin's-le-grand, New|gate-street, Pater-noster-row, St. Paul's-Church-yard, Doctors-commons, Old-change, Friday-street, Bread-street, Bow-lane, Watling-street, Basing-lane, Bread-street-hill, Trinity-lane, Old-fish-street, or any part of Page  101 Thames-street from Queenhith to Puddle-dock, or places of the like distance within the gates, and also to Bishopgate without, not exceeding the London Workhouse, Aldgate High-street within Whitechapel bars, Houndsditch, and the Minories.

For a load, 3 s.—For a small load, 2 s. 6 d.— For an half load, 1 s. 6 d.

From the keys to all places between the Gates and Bars (the above-mentioned articles otherwise ascertain|ed before excepted.)

For a load, 3 s. 6 d.—For a small load, 2 s. 10 d.— For an half load, 2 s. 6 d.—For Yorkshire packs, to all places within the Gates, per pack, 2 s. 6 d.—For ditto, to all places between the Gates and Bars, per pack, 3 s. —For Spanish wool, to any place within the Gates, per bag, 4 d.—And from all other warehouses to Black-well-hall, and all Inns within the Gates, per bag, 3 d. For ditto to all places between the Gates and Bars, per bag, 5 d.—N. B. To carry nine bags of Spanish wool in a load, and no more.

Several kinds of goods, next herein after mentioned, being either not weighable, hazardous, or cumbersome, are to be carried at the rates next herein after specified, viz.

East India goods, weighable, as tea, coffee, &c. to any of the company's warehouses in Fenchurch-street, Lime-street, the Exchange, &c. 2 s. 2 d. per ton, and 2 d. per C. the over-weight.

All pieces of Arrack, containing about 150 gallons, at 2 s. 2 d. each, or a greater quantity in two or more smaller casks, 2 s. 6 d.

Hamburgh, Amsterdam, Rotterdam, Scotch and Irish linens in chests, vats, bales, and packings of various weights and sizes, from 6 d. to 3 s. per chest, bale, &c.

Tobacco to the respective merchants warehouses, per hogshead, 1 s.—And from all warehouses to the water side, per hogshead, 8 d.—Smyrna cotton per bag, sacks of goats hair, wool, or of galls, or silk nuts, or spunges, or colloquintida, or bales of cotton yarn, or chests of drugs, or pistachia, each 4 d.—Cyprus cotton, per bag, 9 d.—Turkey silk, per bale, 6 d.— bales of carpets, Page  102 each 1 s.—fangotts or sacks of mohair yarn, or Fangott of silk, each 3 d.

For Cartage of Wine, Oil, Brandy, Rum, &c.

Two pipes, two butts, or four hogsheads of wine; two pipes, two small butts, one great butt, four hogs|heads, or any quantity of oil, whether in one or more casks above 200, not exceeding 300 gallons, to be ac|counted a load.

One pipe and one hogshead, or three hogsheads of wine, three hogsheads or any quantity of oil above 150, and not exceeding 200 gallons, to be esteemed a small load.

One pipe, one butt, or two hogsheads of wine; one small butt, two hogsheads, or any quantity of oil not exceeding 150 gallons, to be deemed an half load.

From any of the keys below the bridge, to any part of Lower Thames-street, or any part of Upper Thames-street, as far as the Three Cranes, or to any of the lanes or hills leading from or to the above places, to Tower-street, Mark-lane, Mincing-lane, Seething-lane, Crutched-friars, Poor Jewry-lane, Fenchurch-street, Lime-street, Billiter-lane, Leadenhall-street, Duke's-place, St. Mary Ax, Bishopsgate-street within, Corn|hill, Finch-lane, Lombard-street, and any of the lanes leading from thence, Cannon-street, Walbrook, Budge|row, Gracechurch-street, both Eastcheaps, Philpot-lane, Rood-lane, and places of the like distance.

For a load, 2 s. 6 d.—For a small load, 2 s.—For an half load, 1 s. 6 d.

From the keys to Broad-street, Threadneedle-street, othbury, Bartholomew-lane, Coleman-street, Old-jewry, St. Lawrence lane, Ironmonger-lane, Milk-street, Aldermanbury, Wood-street, Cheapside, Bow-lane, Bucklersbury, Poultry, the back of the Exchange, Friday-street, Bread-street, Basing-lane, Bread-street-hill, Trinity-lane, Old Fish-street-hill, and part of Thames-street westward of the Three Cranes, and places of the like distance.

For a load. 3 s.—For a small load, 2 s. 6 d.—For an half load, 2 s.

From the keys to London-wall, St. Martin's-le-grand, St. Paul's Church-yard, Doctors-commons, Pater-nos|ter-w, Newgate-street, Blow-bladder-street, Bull Page  103 and Mouth-street, Foster-lane, and places; of the like distance within the gates; as also to Bishopsgate with|out, Aldgate High-street within Whitechappel bars, Houndsditch, and the Minories.

For a load, 3 s.—For a small load, 2 s. 6 d.—For an half load, 2 s.

From the keys to Ludgate hill, Fleet-market, Old-bailey, Snow-hill, Holborn-bridge, Smithfield, Alders|gate-street, Barbican, Redcross-street, Fore-street, and places of the like distance.

For a load, 3 s. 6 d—For a small load, 3 s.—For an half load, 2 s.

From the keys to Fleet-street, Temple-bar, Fetter-lane, Holborn-hill, and places of the like distance.

For a load 4 s.—For a small load, 3 s.—For an half load, 2 s. 6 d.

N. B. One piece and one puncheon of brandy, or two pucheons of rum, to be accounted a load.

One piece of brandy, or any quantity of rum above 150, not exceeding 200 gallons, to be esteemed a small load.

One pipe or one puncheon of brandy, one puncheon or any quantity of rum not exceeding 50 gallons, to be esteemed a half load.

For cartage of goods from the wharfs, &c. westward of the bridge, the same parcels of goods to be account|ed a load—a small load—an half load—as from the kays below the bridge.

From any of the wharfs, between London Bridge and Puddle-dock to any part of Upper Thames-street, or any of the halls or lanes leading directly out of it.

For a load 2 s—For a small load, 1 s. 6 d.—For an half load, 1 s. 6 d.

From any of the wharfs between London-bridge and Queenhithe, or any the warehouses in or adjoining to that part of Upper Thames street, to all places above excepted within the gates.

For a load, 2 s. 6 d.—For a small load, 2 s.—For an half load, 1 s. 6 d.

To all places between the Gates and Bars.

For a load, 3 s. 4 d.—Fr a small load, 2 s. 6 d.—For an half load, 2 s. 2 d.

Page  104From any of the wharfs between Queenhithe and Puddle-dock, or any of the warehouses in or adjoin|ing to that part of Thames street, to Old Fish street, Carter-lane, Doctors-commons, Basing-lane, St. Paul's Church-yard, Newgate street, Cornhill, and all places within the the gates, westward of the streets leading from Bishopsgate to London Bridge up the hill.

For a load, 2 s. 6 d.—For a small load, 2 s.—For an half load, 1 s. 6 d.

To Little Eastcheap, Tower-street, Fenchurch-street, Lower Thames-street, Crutched-friars, and all places within the gates, eastward of the streets leading from Bishopsgate to London Bridge, as also to Ludgate-hill, Old-bailey, Fleet-market, Holborn-bridge, Snow-hill, Smithfield, Aldersgate-street, Barbican, and all other places westward of Cripplegate within the bars

For a load, 3 s.—For a small load, 2 s. 6 d.—For an half load, 2 s.

To Fore-street, Whitecross-street, Bishopsgate-street without, Houndsditch, and all other places eastward of Cripplegate within the bars.

For a load, 3 s 6d.—For a small load, 2 s. 10 d.—For an half load, 2 s. 2 d.

For the cartage of goods from London to the city of Westminster, the Borough of Southwark, and the other outparts and Suburbs of London, and all places adjacent, from the kays.

One hogshead of sugar, or any parcel of grocery not exceeding 15 hundred weight, to be deemed half a load.

Pot or pearl ashes, weighing from 19 to 25 hundred weight, one load.

One cask, not less than 15 hundred weight, half a load.

Two hogsheads of tallow, one load.

Wine, Olive Oil, Brandy, Rum, &c. as follows, viz.

Two pipes, two butts, or four hogsheads of wine; one piece and one puncheon, two puncheons or pipes of brandy, two puncheons of rum; two pipes, two small butts, one great butt, four hogsheads, or any quantity of oil, whether in one or more casks, above 200, not exceeding 300 gallons, to be accounted a load.

Page  105One pipe and one hogshead, or three hogsheads of wine, one pipe or one puncheon of brandy; three hogsheads or any quantity of oil, rum, &c. above 150, not exceeding 200 gallons, to be esteemed a small load.

One pipe, one butt, or two hogsheads of wine; one pipe or one puncheon of brandy; one puncheon of rum; one pipe, one small butt, two hogsheads, or any quantity of oil not exceeding 150 gallons, an half load.

Fish oil, ten barrels to be (and not hazardous) a load.

From any of the keys below the bridge, or from Cannon-street, Lombard-street, Leadenhall-street, and places of the like distance, not exceeding Cornhill, Bishopsgate-street within, Walbrook, Budge-row, Queen-street hill, and Queenhithe, to any part of the High-street in the Borough of Southwark as far as St. George's church, to any of the wharfs in Tooley-street not exceeding Symond's wharf, and places adjacent of the like distance.

For every load of dry goods and grocery, as above mentioned, 2 s. 6 d.—For a small load of ditto, 2 s. — For an half load of ditto, 1 s. 6 d.

Wine, Olive Oil, Rum, &c. from and to the above mentioned places.

For a load, 3 s.—For a small load, 2 s. 6 d.—For an half load, 2 s.

From any of the above-mentioned keys and above-mentioned places to the Bank-side, Gravel-lane, Dead|man's-place, Blackman-street, Kent-street, White-street, Long-lane, Bermondsey-street, St. Saviour's-dock, or Dock-head, Shad-Thames, Black's-fields, or any of the wharfs in Tooley-street below Symond's-wharf, and all places adjacent of the like distance.

For every load of dry goods and grocery, as above-mentioned, 3 s.—For every small load of ditto, 2 s. 6 d. —For an half load of ditto, 2 s.

Wine, Oil, Brandy, Rum, &c. to the above men|tioned places.

For a load, 4 s.—For a small load, 3 s.—For an half load, 2 s. 6 d.

Page  106The bridge and bridge-yard toll to be paid by the merchants.

From any of the kays below the bridge, any of the hills or lanes leading from Lower Thames-street, from Tower-street, Fenchurch-street, Leadenhall-street, Gracechurch-street, Bishopsgate-street within, and all places adjacent on the east side of the streets leading from Bishopsgate to the bridge, to Chancery-lane, the Strand from Temple-bar as far as the New Church, the Butcher-row, and places adjacent of the like distance.

For every load of dry goods or grocery, 4 s.—For a small load of ditto, 3 s.—For an half load, 2 s.

Wine, Olive, Oil, Brandy, Rum, &c. from and to the above places.

For a load, 4 s. 6 d.—For a small load, 3 s. 6 d.— For an half load, 3 s.

To that part of the Strand beyond the New Church, St. Martin's-lane, Long-acre, Drury-lane, Covent-gar|den, Seven-dials, Monmouth-street, Lincoln's-inn-fields, Clare-market, High-holborn, St. Giles's, as far as the church, Gray's-inn-lane, Red-lion-street, Blooms|bury, and places adjacent of the like distance.

For a load of dry goods or grocery, 5 s.—For a small load, 4 s.—For an half load, 3 s.

Wine, Olive Oil, Brandy, Rum, &c. to the above places.

For a load, 5 s. 6 d.—For a small load, 4 s. 6 d.— For an half load, 4 s.

To Charing-cross, Whitehall, or any part of West|minster as far as Buckingham-gate, St. James's-street, Piccadilly to the end of Dover-street, Old Bond-street, Conduit-street, Newport-market, Soho, Oxford-road to the end of Great Swallow-street, and places adjacent of the like distance.

For a load of dry goods or grocery, 6 s.—For a small load, 4 s. 6 d.—For an half load, 4 s.

Wine, Olive Oil, Brandy, Rum, &c. to the above places.

For a load, 7 s.—For a small load, 5 s. 6 d.—For an half load, 4 s. 6 d.

To Grosvenor-square, May-fair, Berkeley-square, Page  107 Hanover-square, New Bond-street, Cavendish-square, and places of the like distance.

For every load of dry goods or grocery, 7 s.—For a small load of ditto, 5 s. 6 d.—For an half load of ditto, 4 s. 6 d.

Wine, Olive Oil, Brandy, Rum, &c. to the afore|said places.

For a load, 8 s.—For a small load, 6 s. 6 d.—For an half load, 5 s.

From the keys to Goodman's-fields, East Smithfield, the Hermitage, Whitechapel without the bars as far as George-yard, not exceeding Dirty-lane, and places adjacent of the like distance.

For every load of dry goods or grocery, 3 s.—For a small load of ditto, 2 s. 6 d.—For an half load of ditto, 2 s.

Pot or Pearl Ashes, weight as before described.

For a load, 3 s. 6 d.—For a small load, 2 s. 6 d.— For an half load, 2 s.

Fish oil, for a load, 3 s.

Wine, Olive Oil, Brandy, Rum, &c. to the afore|said places.

For a load, 3 s.—For a small load, 2 s. 6 d.—For an half load, 2 s.

To Whitechapel, Church-lane, Field-gate, Night|ingale-lane, Virginia-street, Wellclose-square, and places of the like distance.

For every load of dry goods or grocery, 3 s. 6 d.— For a small load of ditto, 2 s. 10 d.—For an half load of ditto, 2 s. 3 d.

Wine, Olive Oil, Brandy, Rum, &c. to the afore|said places.

For a load, 4 s.—For a small load, 3 s.—For an half load, 2 s. 6 d.

To Ratcliff-highway, Wapping, Old Gravel-lane, Cock-hill, Shadwell, and places adjacent of the like distance.

For a load of dry goods or grocery, 4 s.—For a small load of ditto, 3 s.—For an half load of ditto, 2 s. 6 d.

Page  108Wine, Olive Oil, Brandy, Rum, &c. to the above places.

For a load, 5 s.—For a small load, 4 s.—For an half load, 3 s. 6 d.

To Ratcliff-cross, Stephney-causeway, Limehouse, Bell-wharf, Shadwell-dock, and all places adjacent of the like distance.

For a load of dry goods or grocery, 5 s.—For a small load of ditto 4 s.—For an half load of ditto, 3 s. 6 d.

Wine, Brandy, Rum, Olive Oil, &c. to the above places.

For a load, 6 s.—For a small load, 5 s.—For an half load, 4 s.

From the keys to Spitalfields, Shoreditch, Moor|fields, Windmill-hill, Chiswell-street, and places adja|cent of the like distance,

For a load of dry goods and grocery, 4 s.—For a small load of ditto, 3 s.—For an half load of ditto, 2 s. 6 d.

Wine, Oil, Brandy, Rum, &c. to the above places.

For a load, 4 s. 6 d.—For a small load, 3 s. 6 d.— For an half load, 2 s. 6 d.

To Old-street, that part of Whitecross-street out of the freedom of the city, Golden-lane, Goswell-street, St. John-street beyond the bars, Clerkenwell, Leather-lane, Saffron-hill, Hockley in the Hole, and all places adjacent of the like distance.

For every load of dry goods or grocery, 4 s.—For a small load of ditto, 3 s.—For an half load of ditto, 2 s. 6 d.

Wine, Olive Oil, Brandy, Rum, &c. to the afore|mentioned places.

For a load, 4 s. 6 d.—For a small load, 3 s. 6 d.— For an half load, 2 s. 6 d.

And as to all other places and goods not before par|ticularly mentioned, the same are to be carried and paid for in the manner following; that is to say,

All goods, wares, and merchandizes whatsoever, weighing 14 cwt. or under, shall be deemed half a load; and from 14 cwt. to 26 cwt. shall be deemed a load from any part of the city; and the rates for car|rying thereof shall be as follows:

Page  109For any way not exceeding half a mile, for half a load, 1 s. 6 d. not above a load, 2 s. 6 d.

For any way to the extension of a mile, for half a load, 2 s. not exceeding a load, 3 s.

For any way to the extension of one mile and a half, for half a load, 2 s. 6 d. and not exceeding a load, 3 s. 6 d.

For any way to the extension of two miles, for half a load, 3 s. and not exceeding a load, 4 s.

For any way within two miles and an half, for half a load, 3 s. 6 d. and not exceeding a load, 5 s.

For any way within three miles, for half a load, 4 s. and not exceeding a load, 5 s.

For any way within three miles and an half, for half a load, 4 s. 6 d. and not exceeding a load, 5 s. 6 d.

For any way within four miles, for half a load, 5 s. and not exceeding a load, 6 s.

And so after the same rate, to the extent of ground limited by act of parliament.

And for all merchandizes and commodities that can|not be divided, weighing above 26 cwt. the carman shall, over and above the rates above mentioned, re|ceive and be paid after the rate of 2 d. per cwt. for every cwt. exceeding 26 cwt. and so in proportion for less than a cwt.

4. If any dispute arise between the employer and the carman about the distance of ground that goods have been carried, or the weight of the goods, either party is to apply to the Lord Mayor, or any justice of the peace of the city; and the ground shall be measur|ed by some person to be appointed for that purpose by the Lord Mayor, and any such justice to whom such application shall be made. And if a dispute arises con|cerning the weight of the goods carried, the same shall be weighed, if it can conveniently be done, and the party in default shall pay all such expences as shall be ascertained to be reasonable by the magistrate before whom the parties shall have been heard.

5. Any person may chuse what cart he pleases to em|ploy in his work (except such as stand for wharf-work, tackle-work, and crane-work, which are to stand in order, and to be taken in turn). And that every car|man Page  110 who stands with his empty cart next to any goods that are to be laden, being first in turn, shall, on the first demand, load the same without any delay, or bar|gaining for any other pay than is hereby appointed. And if the first, or any other cart, shall refuse to work, or delay to load any goods, upon request made for that purpose, every person so refusing or delaying shall for|feit for every such offence the sum of 10 s. and the driver of the next cart in order, who will carry the goods, shall be at liberty to take the same: and if any carman shall refuse so to do, he or they so refusing shall forfeit and pay, for every time he or they shall so of|fend, the sum of 10 s. And if any employer shall re|fuse to employ the next cart in order at wharf-work, tackle-work, and crane-work, he shall forfeit and lose the sum of 10 s.

6. All the wharfs between London-Bridge and the Temple to be used in turn-keeping, as the custom is below bridge.

7. The carman who is first in the morning at any of the said wharfs shall have the first load, he having his horse in the cart, and giving attendance for his la|bour; and if absent, then to take the other whose turn is next; and whosoever refuseth to load, shall forfeit and pay, for every time he shall so offend, 10 s.

8. No carman shall come to any of the wharfs be|tween the Bridge and Tower-wharf before four in the morning in summer, and seven in winter, unless a mer|chant has extraordinary occasion for his coming sooner, under the penalty of 5 s.

9. No owner or driver of any cart for hire in Lon|don, &c. shall demand or take for his fare, for the car|riage of any goods within the distance prescribed by the act of parliament, more money than by the above rates are limited for the same, or as shall be appointed by any subsequent rules made in pursuance of the said act of parliament. And if any such owner or driver of any cart or car shall misbehave himself therein, or shall refuse to come with his car when called to be hir|ed, or to take in loading into his car or cart, or shall utter any abusive language, or offer any insult to his employer or employers, their servants or agents, he or Page  111 they so offending in any of the cases aforesaid, shall forfeit, for every time he offends, 20 s.

10. The driver of every cart within the distance be|fore mentioned, shall assist in loading and unloading the goods, wares and merchandises into and out of the same; and if he shall refuse so to do, his employers may retain out of his fare what any other person shall be reasonably paid for assisting in his stead to load or unload the same, and the sum of 2 s. 6 d. besides, by way of penalty; and in case of any difference about the same, some justice of peace within the said limits shall ascertain the sum to be so paid.

11. Every owner of a cart, which shall be worked for hire within the distances before mentioned, shall have his name placed in full length, painted in large capital letters, not less than three inches long, and broad in proportion, on some conspicuous part of the front of his cart or car; and shall from time to time take care to continue and keep the same there, so as always to appear plain and legible. And on the alteration of the property of any cart, the new owner is, in like man|ner, to cause his name to be forthwith put and kept thereon. And if any owner shall omit to have his name on his cart, in manner aforesaid, or any one shall drive for hire a cart in London, &c. without the real owner's name in manner aforesaid thereon, or if any one shall wilfully obliterate or alter the figure or num|ber of any cart, or the name of any carman, which shall have been painted on his cart or car, every person on being convicted thereof before the Lord Mayor or any justice of the peace in London, shall, for every such offence, forfeit 20 s.

12. All carts, during the time of loading and un|loading thereof, within the streets of the city of Lon|don, and the liberties thereof, shall stand sideways the long way of the street, and not cross the same, and as close to the side of the street where they are loading and unloading as they can, so as passengers and coaches, and other carts may pass by, if the street is of sufficient width to allow two carriages to pass to|gether therein (except where the situation of the place, or the package of the goods, makes it necessary Page  112 to load or strike directly.) And if any carman shall stand in any street with his cart, not being loading o unloading goods, every such carman shall draw away immediately at the request of any person, to let such person or any carriage pass by, if the street will allow thereof, under the penalty that every one offending in the premisses shall, for every time he or they shall so offend therein, in any of the cases in this order men|tioned, forfeit 10 s.

13. No person under the age of 16 years shall be employed to drive or manage horses in carts, under the penalty of 20 s. to be paid by the owners of every such cart or car, every time any person under the age of 16 shall be convicted before any justice in London, of driving any horse in any cart in London.

14. Every cart shall be allowed to contain in length, between the tug-hole and the fore-ear breadth, six feet six inches, and no more; and in breadth, between the two raves in the body of the cart, four feet ten inches of assize, and no more; and in length, from the fore-ear breadth to the end of the cart, seven feet and one inch, and no more. And if any cart shall at any time be worked in London of greater length or breadth, the same may be seized and sent to the green-yard, and the owner thereof shall, for every such offence, forfeit 20 s.

15. If the driver of any cart shall leave his cart in the street or common passage of the city by night, he shall forfeit for every time 5 s. besides making such re|compence to the party who shall sustain damage there|by, as any justice of the peace in London shall direct.

16. If the driver of any cart shall feed his horses in the street, save with oats out of a bag, or with such hay as he shall hold in his hands, or in a basket, or leave his cart and horses in the street, without some person to look after the same, the owner of every cart shall, for every such offence, forfeit 5 s.

17. If the driver of any cart or car shall suffer the horses in his cart to trot in the street, or shall drive them in a speedier course than his cart is usually drove when loaded, he shall forfeit, for every such offence. 10 s.

Page  11318. If the driver of any cart for hire in London, or the liberties thereof, shall not, from time to time, lead his thill-horse by the head, with an halter not longer than five feet, he shall forfeit and pay, for every time he shall offend, 5 s.

19. The driver of every empty cart in London shall, from time to time, give way to a loaded carriage, and to a coach, &c. under the penalty of 20 s. for every offence.

20. The driver of any cart who shall wilfully mis|behave himself, or who shall designedly hinder or in|terrupt the free passage of any of his Majesty's subjects, or their coaches or other carriages, in any of the pub|lic streets or passages in the city of London, or the li|berties thereof, during the time he is not loading nor unloading his cart, shall, on being convicted thereof before any justice of the peace in London, forfeit and pay, for every time he shall so offend, the sum of 20 s.

21. If any one shall refuse to pay the owner or dri|ver of the cart employed the money justly due for his fare, or shall in any wise abuse the carman, or misbe|have towards him, the Lord Mayor, or any justice in London, on application of the carman to him, shall cause the parties to come before him, and examine, from time to time, into the matter complained of, and thereupon make such order of payment of the 〈◊〉 and recompensing the carman for his loss of time, and for any injury he shall have sustained, and any expen|ces he shall have been at, as shall be just; and the par+ty found in default shall thereupon forthwith pay the money ordered to be paid by such magistrate, under the penalty of 5 l.

22. If any one shall cause the driver of any cart to wait above half an hour for the loading of any goods into the same, or unloading of goods thereout (the car|man being willing to help to load or unload the same) he or they so offending shall pay for the same forth|with to the carman, after the rate of 6 d. for every half hour, from the expiration of the first half hour, which the cart shall be detained.

23. No carman shall be compellable to carry any load of goods above three miles from the city and li|berties Page  114 thereof, after two of the clock in the after|noon, from Michaelmas to Lady-day, or after four from Lady-day to Michaelmas.

24. In case the owner of any cart worked in Lon|don for hire shall not deliver up, to be brought before a magistrate, any driver thereof, charged with any of|fence against any of the rules or orders aforesaid, with|in seven days after complaint made to any magistrate against any such driver, and notice thereof given or left at the usual place of abode of the owner of any such cart, then the owner of every such cart shall be liable to answer and pay the penalty incurred by any such driver; and if the driver shall be afterwards found, and shall not make satisfaction forthwith to his master, for what he shall have paid for any such dri|ver's misbehaviour, neglect or default, every such dri|ver shall forfeit 5 l. for every such default.

25. The Lord Mayor of the city, or any justice of the peace of the said city, before whom any offender shall be brought, and be convicted, may lessen, miti|gate, or remit, any of the said penalties, so as not to remit above one-half of the penalty inflicted for the offence.

26. All penalties by these orders, or any of them inflicted, shall be levied by distress and sale of the of|fender's goods, by warrant under the hand and seal of the justices of the peace. One moiety of all penalties and forfeitures is to be paid to the person who shall prosecute to conviction any person who shall break the said orders, and the other moiety to the overseers of the poor, if there shall be any, of the parish or place in which the offence shall be so committed, or the of|fender shall have been apprehended.

27. Magistrates of the city of London are to settle the rates of carrying goods between London and West|minster. 30 Geo. 2. c. 22.

Page  115

ON WALKING LONDON STREETS.

1. IN walking through London, you may always find your way, if, before you set out, you will con|sult a map of London, and attend to the names of the streets and courts, which are always painted on a board against the houses, at the corner of each street or court.

2. If you wish to walk safe, never pass under any goods, &c. that are drawing up to the top of a house by a crane, nor pass a house where the bricklayers are at work, lest any thing should fall on your head; it is adviseable, on such occasions, to cross the way: and if you would save your clothes, never pass under a lamp, whilst the lamp-lighter is triming it, nor go near any rails, &c. fresh painted; or contest the way with a baker, barber, chimney-sweeper, barrow-woman, &c.

3. If the wall or houses are on your right hand, keep the wall and you will have no interruption, every one will give way.

4. But don't dispute the wall with a cart or carriage, lest you should be crushed.

5. Never stop in a crowd, or to look at the windows of a print-shop or shew-glass, if you would not have your pocket picked.

6. Do not walk under a pent-house, lest persons watering flower-pots, or other slops, should drop upon your head.

7. Be careful, if you meet a porter carrying a load upon his head, that you do not get a blow that may be fatal.

8. If you walk with an umbrella, and meet a similar machine, lower yours in time, lest you either break it, or get entangled with the other.

9 One side of the way is generally shady; it is not necessary perhaps to recommend crossing to the shady side in sultry weather, or keeping to windward when the dust flies.

10. In wet weather look where you step; if you would not be splashed, don't tread on a loose stone.

Page  11611. Don't hastily cross a street when a coach is com|ing up, lest your foot should slip and you be run over.

12. In frosty weather it is adviseable to walk in the coach-ways, which are not so slippery as the foot-paths; and to bind a piece of cloth-list round one of your shoes, it will save you many a fall.

13. It is very dangerous walking in a thick fog, as you cannot see the danger before you; people who walk in London should always look before them, both above and below.

14. It would be prudent for the men to have their coat-pockets open in the lining within; this will often prevent them from being picked. At least every one should attend to his pocket at night, or as he passes a crowd.

WATERMEN's RATES.

  Oars. Scull. Comp.
  s. d. s. d. d.
FROM London to Gravesend, 6 0 9
— Grays, 5 0 8
From London to Greenhithe, 4 0 8
— Purfleet, 4 6 8
From London-Bridge to Erith, 4 0 8
From London to Woolwich, 3 0 5
— Blackwall, 2 6 1 0 4
— Greenwich, 2 0 1 3 4
— Deptford, 1 6 1 0 3
— Limehouse, 1 0 0 6
— Wapping Dock, 0 8 0 4
— Rotherhithe Church, 0 6 0 3
From St. Olaves to ditto, 0 8 0 4
Billingsgate to St. Olaves or St. Swiny, 0 6 0 3
Across the water, 0 0 0 2
London Bridge to Somerset-stairs, or opposite, 0 6 0 3
— to Westminster, 1 0 0 6

Page  117

  s. d. s. d. s. d.
Below Somerset-stairs to Westminster Bridge, 0 8 0 4
London Bridge, or below Somerset-stairs to Lambeth or Vauxhall, 1 6 0 9
Whitehall or Westminster Bridge to ditto, 0 8 0 4
Somerset-stairs and above to Vauxhall, 1 0 0 6
Blackfryars Bridge to Lambeth, 0 8 0 4
London to Wandsworth, 2 0 1 0 0 4
— Barnelms, 2 6 0 5
— Mortlake, 3 0 0 6
— Brentford, 3 6 0 6
— Isleworth, 4 0 0 8
— Richmond, 5 6 0 8
— Teddington, 5 0 0 9
— Kingston, 6 0 0 9
— Hampton-Court, 6 0 1 0
— Town, 7 0 1 0
— Wey-Bridge or Chester, 10 0 1 0
— Staines, 12 0 1 0
— Windsor, 14 0 2 0

2. No more than six persons to be taken in for one fare.

3. If a waterman plys you, he is obliged to carry you; but as his number is on his boat and out of sight, don't tell him where you are going till you are in the boat; if he refuses to carry you after this, he forfeits 20 s. to the waterman's company. If he takes more than his fare, or insults you, the penalty is 40 s. Any complaint to be made at Waterman's Hall, near London Bridge: here you attend twice, once to sum|mon him, and again to have the complaint heard. The best method is to have him before the Lord Mayor, who will fine him, or perhaps commit him to prison, according to the offence. As he will be found out by his number, which is painted on the side of the boat within, be sure to examine this, and remember it.

4. No waterman, if you take the boat to yourself, can take any other person in without your leave, or on pain of being fined.

5. No waterman shall use his boat on the Thames on Sundays, without a licence from a justice, under the Page  118 penalty of 5 s. 11 & 12 W. c. 21. except ferrymen b+tween Vauxhall and Limehouse.

6. No tilt-boat, row-barge, or wherry, to take at o time more than thirty-seven passengers, and three mo by the way; nor in any other boat or wherry mo than eight, and two more by the way; nor in any fe+ry-boat or wherry, allowed to work on Sundays, an more than eight passengers, on pain of forfeiting f the first offence 5 l. for the second offence 10 l. an for the third offence to be disfranchised for twelv months from working on the river, and from enjoyin the privileges of the company: and in case any perso shall be drowned, where a greater number of passenge is taken in than is allowed, the watermen shall 〈◊〉 deemed guilty of felony, and transported as felons.

7. Any waterman or wherryman, who wilfully o negligently lose their tide from Billingsgate to Grave send, or from thence to Billingsgate, by putting ashor for other passengers, or by waiting or loitering by th way, so that the first passengers shall be set on shor two miles short of the place to which they are bound such passengers shall be discharged from paying an thing for their passage.

8. Any waterman who sets up a sail between Lam+beth and London-bridge, upon complaining, as befor mentioned, forfeits, for each offence, 5 s.

POST-HORSES, as far as relates to Travellers.

1. EVERY person letting horses for travelling post, shall take, for the King, three halfpence for every mile each horse is to travel; for which he shall deliver a ticket to the traveller, specifying the number of horses employed, and the miles they are to go, sign|ed by the master of the house: if hired by the day, the words, "for a day," and the amount of the duty paid, to be on the ticket, which is 1 s. 9 d. for each horse. 25 Geo. 3. c. 51.

Page  1192. Travellers are to deliver such tickets at the first turnpike they pass through, or pay 1 s. 9 d. for each horse; if the horse and carriage be hired for the day, the turnpike keeper shall give the traveller a ticket in exchange, with the words "received day-ticket" on it, which ticket shall be shewn at every gate the traveller passes through that day, or he shall pay 1 s. 9 d. for each horse, which the toll gatherer shall have to his own use. Ibid.

3. If the horses, &c. be hired for two or more days, no duty is paid for them, but the innkeeper, &c. must deliver the traveller a certificate, with the words

hir|ed for two or more days
on it, and signed with his name, the day of the month, and place of his abode; and the person travelling in such carriage, or the driver, shall deliver such certificate at the first turnpike, for which the gate-keeper shall give a check ticket in re|turn, with the words on it, "certificate delivered." This ticket to be shewn at every turnpike gate through which the carriage passes, or the traveller shall pay 1 s. 9 d. for each horse, which the gate-keeper shall have for himself. Penalty on persons issuing false or erroneous certificates to evade the duty, 20 l. Ibid.

4. No traveller shall pay for more miles than speci|fied on the ticket. Filling up tickets falsely subjects the filler to a penalty of 10 l. Ibid.

5. Horses hired for less time than two days, are deemed hired for the day. Ibid. s. 25.

6. No person at whose house any traveller shall change horses, shall let them otherwise than by the mile or stage, on pain of 10 l. Ibid.

7. Where innkeepers, &c. cannot furnish horses to travellers, and they go on with the same horses, they shall nevertheless give the traveller a fresh ticket, pro|perly filled up, and receive the duty thereon. Ibid.

8. All horses hired by a mile or stage shall be deem|ed hired to travel post. Ibid. s. 42.

9. Postmasters shall furnish horses to travel post, and shall charge 3 d. a mile for each horse riding post *, and Page  120 4 d. a mile for the person riding as guide, and shall not charge for any bundle of goods not exceeding eighty pounds weight, to be laid on the horse rid by the guide, and shall not be obliged to carry above that weight, 9 Ann. c. 10. s. 14.

10. If any post-master doth not or cannot furnish persons riding post with horses in half an hour after demand, such persons may furnish themselves elsewhere, and the postmaster shall forfeit 5 l. half to the king, and half to him that shall sue, with full costs. Ibid. s. 20, 21, 28.

11. The price of post-chaises in London is generally 1 s. a mile, exclusive of the duty, and they generally charge a mile or two more, the first stage, than the ground measures, under a pretence of the ground on the stones. By the day a post-chaise may be hired for to go fifteen or eighteen miles, and back, for a guinea, independent of the duty; if let for more than one day they will sometimes take less, perhaps 18 s. or even less, if taken for a longer time.

12. The hire of a one-horse chaise, with the horse, is half-a-guinea, including the duty; without a horse, 3 s. 6 d. or 4 s. The hire of a saddle-horse, including the duty, 6 s. or 7 s. according to the distance he is to go.

13. The hire of two chairmen by the week, is 24s. and they are always at your command.

CONVENIENCES IN LONDON.

A Man may live like a gentleman in London at a very easy rate, and have every indulgence he can wish for.

1. If he does not keep a carriage, he may hire one by the month, or week, or even by the day. A genteel coach, with glass windows, may be hired for the day, of those who keep hackney-coaches, if bespoke, at the price of a hackney-coach, and if you have a great-coat Page  121 and hat for the coachman to put on, it will be equally the same as if he was your own servant.

2. Hackney-chairs may be had at a moment's notice, paying them either for the time or ground they go, ac|cording to the customary rates, or by the week; and if you have two great coats and hats to lend the men for the time, they may be always well equipped. For la|dies, a lady's chair should be kept in the hall, it pays no duty. These chairmen in constant pay will call three or four times a day for orders, and will go on mes|sages also.

3. Good wine may be had of the wine-merchants, red or white, at 26 s. a dozen, or 2 s. 3 d. a bottle; other wines in proportion. Good bottled beer or cy|der can always be bought.

4. There are booksellers who lend books to read by the quarter. The principal Circulating Libraries in town are,

  • Hookham, in Bond-street. Here are most foreign books.
  • Bell, opposite Catherine-street in the Strand.
  • Noble, Middle-row, Holborn.
  • Vernon, Birchin-lane.
  • Boozey, King-street, Cheapside.
  • Desbrow, St. Martin's Court, St. Martin's-lane.

At these libraries you may have new publications, if volumes, to read at 3 d. a volume, have the reading of all new books, and that of their whole library, of which they have catalogues at 6 d. each, for 12 s. a year, or 4 s. a quarter, and have two books at a time, and change them every day; but at Bll's, for one guinea a year, you may read all the new pamphlets and books of any value.

5. The Library of the British Museum, in Great Russel-street, Bloomsbury, is open to the public from eleven to three, where the books may be read, and any part of them copied, in a good reading-room, with fires in winter, without any expence. Apply for ad|mission to any of the trustees, by giving in your name, and if approved of, you will receive an answer for that purpose at the next committee-day.

Page  1226. The Library at Sion-College, by London-wall, is a public one, but confined to the clergy of the city of London only.

7. The London Library, Ludgate-hill, is an institu|tion of late date, but likely to be a very valuable one. It consists at present of 140 subscribers, twelve of whom are a committee, and sit once a week, on Tues|days, to determine on the purchase of books, &c. which any subscriber may recommend to their consi|deration. They do not buy all the trash that is pub|lished, but books of character, and such as are worth reading, French or English, with the foreign Reviews, &c. it being the design of this Library to contain all those great works of science which it is difficult for in|dividuals to procure, and every other work of taste and entertainment.

Any person paying one guinea entrance, and one guinea per annum, becomes a member of the society, and has an interest in the property of the whole.

Any person paying ten guineas si a member for life.

The Library is opened every day, Sundays ex|cepted, from March 25, to September 29, from eleven to four, and from five to eight; and from Sep|tember 29 to March 25, from eleven to four only; du|ring which time the members may consult any books, or send for them to their own houses. A reading-room and a fire in winter.

Every member may have two books at a time, in his or her possession; the time of keeping which is regu|lated by the committee, as follows:—A folio six weeks, a quarto one month, and an octavo a week; keeping them beyond the time is a forfeit of a trifle to the fund.

If any books be lost or damaged, that book, or the set, if it belongs to a set, must be re-placed by the per|son to whom it was delivered.

Subscribers to this Library will have the pleasure of reading clean books, which is seldom the case at cir|culating libraries.

8. The French booksellers are,

  • Becket, in Pall-mall;
  • Elmsley, opposite Southampton-street, Strand;
  • Hookham, in Bond-street.

Page  1239. Law-books, in great variety, are to be found at Brooke's, in Bell-yard, Temple-bar, where copies of private acts of parliament may be met with which cannot be had at other places.

10. Persons fond of whist will find, on enquiry among their friends, a number of card-clubs in diffe|rent parts of London, that meet on an evening, where, if properly introduced, they may be admitted; as also to many respectable billiard-tables: there are three at No. 30, Charing-cross.

11. If he is fond of discussion, by subscribing two guineas a year, he may be admitted as a member of the Arts and Sciences, whose assembly-room is in the Adel|phi, (but he must be ballotted in) where there is a ge|neral meeting every Wednesday evening, from the first Wednesday in October to the last in June, and where gentlemen give their opinion publicly, on the various inventions and improvements in husbandry, &c. that are brought before them. A member must be proposed by three subscribers, one Wednesday, and ballotted for the next: two-thirds of those who ballot must be in his favour. Twenty guineas constitutes a member for life: each member is entitled to a volume of the Transactions.

12. When the parliament is sitting. 2 s. 6 d. will admit a person into the gallery to hear the debates.

13. But there are debating societies, where a man may be amused for an hour or two, occasionally: but as the price of admission is but 6 d. the company is in general none of the best; and of course, what is there heard to a sensible man will not prove the most inte|resting or entertaining.

14. If a man is fond of music, he may subscribe to a variety of concerts, as set forth under the head of AMUSEMENTS; and in fine weather he may be agree|ably entertained between ten and twelve every morn|ing at the Horse-Guards in St. James's Park, where the wind-music of the Guards play many good pieces. Musical instruments may be hired by the week; the price of a Spine is 5 s. a month, of a Piano Forte or Harpsichord 10 s. other instruments in proportion.

Page  12415. For his health there are hot-baths, at 3 s. 6 d. a time, and cold-baths at 1 s. in many parts of the town; and for his recreation, in summer, there are bathing-basons of fine water—one at the Dog and Duck, in St. George's-fields—and another at Peerless-pool, Old street; the subscription but one guinea for the season.

A LIST of the NEWS-PAPERS published in LONDON.

DAILY MORNING PAPERS.

THE Daily Advertiser, price two-pence halfpenny; a paper calculated for advertisements of all kinds, being taken in by all the public houses in London. Published near Temple-bar, Fleet-street. This paper has not the debates in Parliament, nor contains any letters or matter of entertainment.

The Morning Post, price three-pence, in savour of Administration. Published in Blake-court, Catherine-street, Strand. This paper is very extensive in its circulation, and is received in all the fashionable circles.

The Herald, an Opposition paper, price three-pence. Published in Catherine-street, Strand.

The General Advertiser, ditto, price three-pence.— Published near St. Dunstan's-church, Fleet-street.

The Morning Chronicle, price three-pence. Published in Dorset-street, Salisbury-square, Fleet-street.

The Public Ledger, price three-pence. Published by Blythe, Paternoster-row. This paper is chiefly circu|lated below bridge, among the shipping.

The Gazetteer, an opposition paper, price 3 d. pub|lished in Ave-Maria-lane.

The Public Advertiser, price 3 d. published in Pater|noster-row.

The Universal Register, price 3 d. published in Print|ing-house-square, Blackfriars.

Page  125

EVENING PAPERS, three Times a Week.

  • The St. James's Chronicle, price 3 d. published Tuesday, Thursday, and Saturday, at four in the afternoon, by Baldwin, in Fleet-street, near Fleet-market.
  • The General Evening Post, price 3 d. published ditto, by Bew, Pater-noster-row.
  • The London Chronicle, price 3 d. published ditto, by Wilkie. St. Paul's Church-yard.
  • The English Chronicle, an opposition paper, price 3 d. published ditto, opposite Norfolk-street in the Strand.
  • The London Evening Post, an opposition paper, price 3 d. published ditto, in the Old Bailey.
  • The Middlesex Journal, price 3 d. published ditto, by Ayre, Bridges-street, Covent-Garden.
  • The London Pacquet, price 3 d. published Monday, Wednesday, and Friday, at four o'clock afternoon, by Blythe, Pater-noster-row.
  • Lloyd's Evening Post, price 3 d. published ditto, by Bla|don, Pater-noster-row.

MORNING PAPERS published on Sunday only.

  • The Sunday Monitor, price 3 d. published by Johnson, Ludgate-hill
  • The Sunday Recorder, price 3 d. published by Pope, Ludgate-hill.
  • The Sunday Gazette, price 3 d. published by Ayr, Bridges-street, Covent-Garden.

Note, These papers contain the week's news, and are circulated only in London. Advertisements in these papers are 5 s. 6 d. for 18 lines, and 2 d. a line after|wards.

The following are published on Friday evening only, and are circulated through the country as well as Lon|don, and contain the week's news.

  • Baldwin's Journal, price 3 d. published by Baldwin in Fleet-street.
  • Say's Craftsman, price 3 d. published in Ave-Maria-lane.
  • British Spy,blished at Redmain's, Creed-lane.
  • Owen's Chronicle, ditto.
  • Page  126Bingley's Journal, published at Ayre's, Bridges-street, Covent-Garden.
  • Miller's Mercury, ditto.

Besides the above, there is a paper called The Gazette, published by Government, in Warwick-lane, price 3 d. a sheet, for as many sheets as it contains. This con|tains only foreign news, and very little of it. An ad|vertisement in this paper is 12 s. 6 d. for about 112 words; if it exceeds that number, and under 212, the price is 10 s. more, and so in proportion.

Of the several morning papers those most in circu|lation are, the Daily Advertiser, Gazetteer, and Ledger, chiefly in the city; and the Morning Post, Morning Chronicle, and Herald, at the west end of the town, among the gentry.

The evening papers are circulated chiefly in the country, and those most in circulation are the St. James's Chronicle, and the General Evening Post. The Ga|zette travels throughout all Europe.

There is also a French paper, circulated much abroad, and published in London twice a week, Tuesday and Friday, price 4 d. by Cox in Great Queen-street, Lin|colns-inn-fields, where short advertisements of 18 lines are taken in.

The several news-papers are brought to your door regularly by news-carriers, for the prices above-men|ioned, of which the state has three halfpence each.

Advertisements in the front of the morning papers are inserted, if not above 18 lines in length, for 5s. 6d. in other parts of the paper for 3s. 6d. In the evening papers the price is 4 s. each time. The price increases in proportion to the length, generally about a penny or three halfpence a line. Out of every advertisement Government has 2s. 6d. An advertisement in the Ga|zette, let it be ever so short, is 10s 6d.

Letters, or essays, set up in the larger letter of news|papers, are generally paid for according to their length, at the rate of one guinea a column.

Page  127

ON GOING TO PUBLICK WORSHIP.

I Believe, in this degenerate age, the best method of inducing people to attend the service of the church, is to point out to them the penalties they are liable to for non-attendance, and to shew them how much they lie at the mercy of an ill-natured neighbour or a mer|cenary informer.

1. All persons, having no lawful or reasonable ex|cuse for being absent, shall resort to their parish church or chapel, or, upon reasonable let thereof, to some usual place where divine service shall be performed, according to the liturgy and practice of the church of England, upon every Sunday and holiday, on pain of punishment by the censures of the church, or of for|feiting 1 s. for every offence to the poor, to be levied by the churchwardens by distress. 1 Eliz. c. 2. Ex|cept Dissenters tolerated. 1 W. c. 18. Prosecution to be in one month after default. 3 J. c. 4.

2. And he who is absent from his own parish church shall be put to prove, where he went to church. 1 Haw 13.

3. Every person above the age of sixteen years, who shall not repair to some church, chapel, or usual place of common prayer, on conviction, shall fofeit 20 l. a month, one third to him who shall sue. 23 Eliz. c. 1.

4. And this penalty of 20 l. a month dispenseth not with the forfeiture of 12 d. a Sunday. 1 Haw. 13.

5. And every offender in not repairing to divine service, having been once convicted (and not conform|ing) shall pay 20 l. a month into the Exchequer, in the term of Easter or Michaelmas, next after such convic|tion, and also shall, without any other indictment or conviction, for every month after such conviction, so long as he shall not conform, pay as much as shall then remain unpaid, after such rate of 20 l. a month; and, in default of any part of such payments, the King may by process seize all the goods and two parts of the land of such offender. 29 Eliz. c. 6. 3 J. c. 4.

6. Or the King may refuse the 20 l. a month, though Page  128 duly tendered, and seize two parts of the lands at his option. 3 Jac. c. 4.

7. But copyhold lands are not within the statute, 1 Haw. 14.

8. And every person who shall usually on Sundays have in his hose divine service as established by law, and be thereat himself usually present, and shall four times a year go to the parish church, or other common church or chapel, shall not incur any penalty for not repairing to church. 23 Eliz c. 1.

9. But this shall not extend to alified Protestant dissenters, who resort to some place of religious wor|ship allowed by the act of toleration. 1 W c. 18.

10. Every person who shall retain in service, or shall relieve, keep, or harbour in his hose, any ser|vant, sojourner, or stranger, who shall n repair to church, but shall forbear for a month together, not ha|ving reasonable excuse, shall forfeit 10 l. for every month he shall continue in his house such person so for|bearing. 3 J. c. 4.

11. No recusant convict (that is a person once con|victed and not conforming) shall practice law or phy|sic, nor shall be judge or minister of any court, or have any military office by sea or land, and shall forfeit for every offence 100 l. 3 J. c. 5.

12. And the church-wardens and constables shall (on pain of 20 l.) present at the quarter-sessions, once a year, the monthly absence from church of all reusants, and the names and ages of their children above nine years of age, and the names of their servants. And if the party presented shall be indicted and convicted, such church-warden or constable shall have a reward of 40s. to be levied on the recusant's goods. 3 J. c. 4.

13. It is difficult for new comers in to any parish to obtain a pew in the parish church: but churches are seldom so full but they may find a seat in the pew, of others. Indeed the pew openers, for a shilling now and then given them, will sea a person commodiously.

14. But at the private chapels about town, a pew to hold six may be rented for about 5 l. or 6 l. a year, or one person may be seated agreeable to his wishes for Page  129 20 s. a year, and at these places there are generally ce|lebrated preachers.

15. In order to obtain a pew in any of the parish churches, application must be made to the church-war|dens for the time being.

NUSANCES.

1. IF the driver of any cart, car, dray or waggon, shall ride upon any carriage in a street or high|way, not having some person on foot or horseback to guide the same (such carriages excepted, as are con|ducted by some person holding the reins of the horses drawing the same); or if the driver of such carriage shall, by negligence or wilful misbehaviour, cause any hurt or damage to any person or carriage, in such street or highway, or shall wilfully be at such a distance, or in such a situation, whilst it shall be passing on the highway, that he cannot have the government of his horses, or shall wilfully or negligently obstruct the free passage of any other carriage; or if the driver of any empty or unloaded waggon, cart or carriage, shall re|fuse to make way for any coach, chariot, chaise, load|ed waggon, cart or loaded carriage; or if any person shall drive any coach, post-chaise, or carriage let for hire, or waggon, wain or cart, not having the owner's name, as required, painted thereon, or shall refuse to discover the christian and sirname of the owner, every such offender shall forfeit a sum not exceeding 10 s. (or not exceeding 20 s. if the driver of the said car|riage be the owner); and in default of payment, the offender shall be committed to the house of correction, for a time not exceeding one month, unless such for|feiture be sooner paid. And any person may appre|hend such driver, without a warrant, and deliver him to a constable, to be conveyed before a magistrate; and if such driver shall refuse to tell his name, the justice may commit him for a time not exceeding three months, and may proceed against him for the penalty nevertheless. 13 Geo. 3. c. 84.

Page  1302. Drivers of hackney-coaches are to give way to gentlemen's carriages, under the penalty of 10 s.— 1 Geo. 1. c. 57.

3. The penalty may be recovered before a justice, Ibid.

4. Assaulting in the street or highway, with intent to spoil people's clothes, and so spoiling them, is fe|lony and transportation. 6 Geo. c. 23.

5. A person may justify an assault in defence of his person, his wife, his master, parent or child, within age, and even a wounding in defence of his person, but not of his possession. 3 Salk. 46.

6. A person may justify an assault of another who menaces him, or assaults him, and attempts to beat him from his lawful water-course or highway. Pult. 48.

7. Likewise, if a person comes into my house, and will not go out, I may justify laying hold of him and turning him out. Nels. Assault.

8. Where a man is assaulted, and hath not witnesses to prove the same, the party assaulted may bring an in|formation in the Crown-office, in which case, the of|fence being indicted at the suit of the king, the party grieved may be admitted an evidence. 4 & 5 W. & M. c. 18.

But by this mode of process, the party grieved can only punish the offender corporally, he cannot recover damages

9. If a man strikes you, the most summary method of punishing him, is to have a warrant for him, and take him before a magistrate, where he must make sa|tisfaction, or be bound over to the sessions.

10. No words whatever can amount to an assault, but any injury done to the person of a man, in an an|gry insolent manner, be it ever so small, is actionable; for example, spitting in his face, jostling him, treading on his toes, or any way touching him in anger. Ibid. Even offering to strike, or threatening with any staff or weapon, is an assault in law. Lamb libel.

11. Where a man is threatened to be beaten, or can swear that he goes in fear of his life, he may, before a justice, bind his advetsary over to keep the peace.— 1 Haw. 126. Crom. 118.

Page  13112. Porters, chairmen, chimney-sweepers, barbers, butchers, bakers, &c. jostling people in the streets, and throwing down children and infirm people, if known, may be taken before a magistrate by a war|rant, and punished, by obliging them to satisfy the in|jured party, or be committed. If not known, they may be found out by following them home.

13. The constable of the district, on the information in writing, of two inhabitants paying scot and lot, of any body keeping a bawdy-house, gaming-house, or any other disorderly house in such parish, must go forthwith, with such inhabitants, before a justice, and on their making oath that they believe the same to be true, &c. and entering into a recognizance of 20 l. each, to produce evidence against such person for such offence, the constable must enter into a recognizance of 30 l. to prosecute, on pain of forfeiting 20 l. to such inhabitant as gave him the notice. He shall be paid all expences attending the same by the overseers of the poor. 28 Geo. 2.

14. Persons appearing and acting as the master and mistress of such a house, shall be deemed the keeper. Ibid.

15. Every person shall apprehend, or cause to be apprehended, such beggars as he shall see come to his house to beg, and shall cause them to be carried to the next constable, on pain of forfeiting 10 s. If the con|stable does not take charge of them he forfeits 5 l.— 1 Jac. 1. c. 7. 39 Eliz. c 4.

16. Persons affecting infirmities, to excite compas|sion, and begging, may be indicted and fined. Co. Lit. 127.

17. Night-walkers of ill fame may be taken up by a constable, imprisoned in the watch-house, and taken the next morning before a magistrate; 5 Edw. 3. c. 14. and shall be bound to their good behaviour. Hawk. P. C. 132.

But though they may arrest night-walkers by the 5th Edw. 3. c. 14. yet it has been held, that it is not law|ful for a constable to take up any woman upon bare suspicion of being of ill fame, unless she be guilty of a breach of the peace, or some unlawful act, or be found by him misdoing. 2 Hale's Pil. 89.

Page  13218. If constables do not do their duty, magistrates, on complaint, will punish them.

19. All nusances, not otherwise punishable, if pub|lic, are indictable at the quarter-sessions; if private, are actionable.

20. Public nusances are noises, such as blowing of horns, &c. and offensive trades. Private nusances are pidgeons, pigs, foul drains, privies, overflowing cis|terns, rotten water-pipes, decayed vegetables thrown out in foot-ways, obstructions in foot-ways, flower-pots dropping on people's heads, &c. &c. Stoppage of streets, by coaches standing at places of entertainment, &c. &c. are public nusances, and indictable. In smells, it is not necessary that they should be unwhole|some, to make them a nusance, so that they render the enjoyment of life and property uncomfortable.

21. A master is indictable for a nusance done by his servant. Ld. Raymond, 264.

22. Furniture or other things, if lest an unreason able time on footways, so as to obstruct the passage may be shoved into the street.

23. Barrows standing before the door, if not remo|ved when directed, may be overthrown.

24. Pidgeons, or poultry, if kept in the neighbour|hood, and trespass on your premises, may be shot.

25. Strange dogs coming on your premises may b killed.

26. Pigs, if they trespass on your premises, may b pounded in your own premises; in which case th owner must be made acquainted with it, and must ei+ther pay the damage or replevy them.

27. The owner of a mastiff going in the street un+muzzled, (which is a nusance from his ferocity) may be indicted. Burn, Dog.

28. If a mastiss falls on another dog, the owner o that dog cannot justify the killing him, unless there w no other way to save his dog. 1 Saund. 84. 3 Salk.

29. Deserted children left at people's doors should b taken to the parish officers, who are bound to provid for them; if they refuse to receive them, apply to 〈◊〉 magistrate, who will give an order for that purpose and the person that deserts them is liable to be punish+ed. Page  133 Cro. Eliz. 217. Owen. 98. He or she should be delivered into the charge of a constable.

30. Throwing things out of a window on a person's head is actionable.

31. Ballad-singers may be taken up by any man, as idle disorderly persons, and the apprehender will be entitled to 10 s. by order of a justice, for every vagrant so brought before him. And if they escape from the person apprehending them, they shall be punished as rogues and vagabonds. Beggars may be committed to hard labour for a month, and rogues shall be whipped and imprisoned. 7 Jac. c. 4.

31. Coaches or carts obstructing a footway, or a way to a man's door, the driver of them, by having him before a magistrate, may be fined 10 s. 13 Geo. 3. c. 78. And any person may apprehend such offender, without a warrant, and deliver him to a constable. 30 Geo. 2. c. 22.

32. A proper number of constables, beadles, and watchmen, are to be appointed yearly, on the 1st day of October, by the court of Common Council for the city of London and it's liberties, and the aldermen and common-council of wards are to make assessments on the inhabitants to bear the charge thereof. 10 G. 2.

33. Persons aggrieved by such assessment may appeal to the Lord Mayor, &c. 11 Geo. 1. c. 18.

3. Any neglect of duty to be complained of to the sitting Alderman.

35. These constables are to watch the city, from the 10th of September to the 10th of March, frome nine o'clock in the evening to seven in the morning, and the rest of the year from ten o'clock at night till five in the morning; and are to use their best endeavours to prevent fires, robberies, and disorders; they are to go twice, or oftener, each night about their ward.

36. In the parishes of St. James, Westminster, St. Martin in the fields, St. Paul, Covent-Garden, St. Margaret, St. John, St. Anne, Westminster, and St. Andrew, Holborn; vestries are authorized to appoint beadles and watchmen, to watch the parishes by night, as in the city; and the housekeepers in their said parishes are to defray the charges, so as the assess|ment Page  134 yearly does not exceed 4 d. in the pound. 8 G. 2. c. 15. 9 G. 2. c. 8, 13, 17, and 19. 10 G. 2. c. 25. If these men are remiss in their duty, complain to the vestries, and when these meet, may be learned of the vestry-clerks.

37. A power of paving, lighting and cleansing the streets of London is given, in a variety of paving acts, to the vestries of the several parishes, which vestries appoint a committee of the inhabitants to carry the same into execution.

1. Householders making complaints of bad pave|ments, &c. in writing to the surveyor appointed by the committee, he shall give an order to the pavier or o|ther person contracting to do the business, to repair it, and if he does not in the appointed time, he shall for|feit 20 s. a day for every day's neglect, half to the com|plainant.

2. Persons removing lamp-irons, or breaking up pavements, except in cases of fires, without the consent of the committee, shall forfeit from 10 s. to 40 s.

3. The committee may order houses to be numbered, and persons defacing them shall forfeit 5 s.

4. Persons breaking the public lamps designedly, shall make good the damage and forfeit 20 s. half to the apprehender and half to the contracter, or be com|mitted from seven days to one month, at the discretion of the justice. Persons accidentally breaking them shall make them good.

5. The committee may order signs to be fixed flat on the houses, and the water to be conveyed from the roof in trunks down the house; if not done, may em|ploy people to do it, and charge the owner with the expence.

6. Persons placing obstructions or filth in the streets, such as coal-ashes, dirt, rubbish, &c. or any stall-boards, basket-wares, or merchandise of any kind; persons washing barrels in the carriage or footways, or placing any carriage so as to obstruct, except during the time of washing such carriage, where they used to be washed before the act took place, and not removing the same immediately on the complaint of any one, or placing any carriage in the crossing of the foot-ways Page  135 for loading or unloading, and continuing so longer than necessary; or any materials for building, unless inclo|sed with boards, shall forfeit from 5 s. to 10 s. And any of the committee may seize such obstructions, re|move and retain them, till the penalty and expences are paid, and if not claimed or paid in five days, may sell the same, pay such expences, and return the overplus to the owner.

7. Any one may apprehend a person without a war|rant, whom they see laying any filth or rubbish in the streets, and take him before a justice, who shall fine him as above, or commit him on the oath of the ap|prehender, for a time not less than seven days, or more than one month, to hard labour, unless the fine is sooner paid.

8. No board or hoards, to repair houses, shall be erected without the consent of the surveyor of the com|mittee.

9. No person shall drive or draw any wheel-barrow or other carriage on the foot-ways, nor lead or ride any horse, ass, &c. on them.

10. No scavenger shall leave any rubbish or dirt in the streets, &c. and no other person than a scavenger of the committee shall go about to carry away dirt, &c. If any one does, he may be apprehended and taken before a magistrate, who shall fine him from 5 s. to 20 s. half to the apprehender; and in case any person so carrying the dust cannot be apprehended, the owner of the cart that carried it shall pay the fine. Owners may however carry away their own dust, &c.

11. No night-soil shall be moved before twelve, and after four in summer, and five in winter, on pain of commitment to hard labour, for a term from ten days to one month. The apprehender shall be rewarded by the committee, from 10 s. to 20 s.

12. Scavengers shall attend once a week in every street, to cleanse it, giving notice to the surveyor of the day; and the surveyor shall attend to see it pro|perly done, and shall, at the desire of the inhabitant, look and see that the dust, &c. is carried clean off, on pain of the scavenger forfeiting from 5 s. to 20 s. for every neglect, half to the inhabitant complaining.

Page  13613. No bow-window or projection beyond the line of the street shall be added to any house, without leave of the committee. If it be, they may pull it down.

38. All persons within the weekly bills are to sweep the streets before their doors every Wednesday and Sa|turday, on pain of forfeiting 3 s. 4 d. and persons lay|ing dirt, ashes, &c. before their houses, incur a forfei|ture of 5 s. 2 W. c. 2. Complaints to be made to a magi|strate. Ibid. Snow, ice, decayed vegetables, &c. ly|ing before doors, are equally punishable as dirt or ashes.

39. The Lord Mayor or any alderman may present upon view any offence of the above kind in the city of London, and assess fines not exceeding 20 s. to be paid to the chamberlain for the use of the city, &c. 1 G. 1. c. 48.

40. Chairmen carrying empty chairs shall not go on the foot pavement. Complaint to be made to the hack|ney-coach office, Somerset-place.

41. It shall not be lawful for any person to make▪ sell or fire squibs, rockets, serpents, or other fire-works, or permit the same to be fired from his house, into any public street or road, or to throw or fire, or be aiding in the same, in any public street, house, shop, &c. and such offence shall be deemed a common nusance. 9 & 10 W. c. 7.

Makers or sellers of fire-works shall, on conviction, on the oath of two witnesses, forfeit 5 l. half to the poor and half to the prosecutor. Ibid. And whoever casts or fires them, or permits them to be fired from his premises, into any public street or road, or any other house or place, or aiding in the firing and casting, shall forfeit 20 s. in like manner, or be committed for a time, not exceeding a month. Ibid. But this shall not ex|tend to the officers of the ordnance or artillery com|panies.

42. If any publican do suffer any person to continue drinking at his house, (except such as shall be invited by any traveller, and shall accompany him only during his necessary abode there, and except labouring and handicraftsmen in cities, &c. upon the usual working days, for one hour at dinner time, to take their diet in Page  137 an alehouse, and except labourers and workmen, which for the following of their work by the day or by the great, shall for the time of their continuance on work in the neighbourhood, lodge and victual in any public house, and except for any urgent and necessary occa|sions, to be allowed by two justices) he shall, on con|viction thereof before a magistrate, on the oath of one witness, forfeit 10 s. to the poor, and such alehouse-keeper shall be disabled, for the space of three years, to keep any such alehouse. 1 Jac. c. 9. 1 Car. c. 4. 21 Jac. c. 7.

If any alehouse-keeper shall be convicted of being drunk, on the oath of one witness, he shall be disabled to keep any such alehouse for the space of three years. 7 Jac. c. 10. 1 Car. c. 4.

If any publican shall knowingly suffer any gaming in his house or ground, with cards, dice, draughts, shuffle-boards, Mississippi, or billiard-tables, skittles, nine-pins, or with any other implement of gaming, by any journeymen, labourers, servants, or apprentices, he shall, on the oath of one witness, before a justice, with|in six days of the offence, forfeit for the first time 40s. and for every other offence 10 l. one fourth to the in|former. 30 Geo. 2. c. 24. And the persons so gam|ing, on complaint to a justice, shall be apprehended, and forfeit from 5 s. to 20 s. one fourth to the inform|er, or be committed to hard labour for a time, not ex|ceeding a month, unless the penalty is sooner paid. Ibid.

Now as all alehouse-keepers offend in one or other of the above points, if you are annoyed by such ale|house, or by any persons tippling there, you have only to send the master of such house a copy of the above abstract of the law, with notice, that if you are offend|ed in like manner again, you will inform against him, and the nusance will in all likelihood cease.

43. All open lewdness, grossly scandalous, is punish|able by fine, imprisonment, &c. upon indictment at common law. 1 Haw. 7.

A wife may be indicted together with her husband, and condemned to the pillory with him, for keeping a bawdy-house. 1 Haw. 2.

Page  13844. Common scolds may be indicted. 1 Haw. 198.

45. Every person who shall be drunk, and thereof convicted before one justice, on the oath of one wit|ness, shall forfeit to the poor 5 s. for the first offence, or be set in the stocks for six hours; for the second offence shall be bound in 10 l. with two sureties, not to commit the same again: the offence to be prosecuted in six months. 4 J. c. 5. 21 J. c. 7.

46. Drovers inhumanly treating cattle in their way to or from market, and thus, or by negligence, occa|sioning mischief, shall be taken by a constable, on com|plaint to him, before a magistrate, who, on the oath of one person, shall fine him from 5 s. to 20 s. at his dis|cretion, to be paid to the informer, and, in default of payment, he shall be committed for a month, and pub|licly whipped: prosecution in twenty-four days. 14 Geo. 3. c. 87.

47. Milk and mackrell are allowed to be cried about the streets on Sundays, before nine in the morning and after four in the afternoon, but at no other time of the day, on pain of forfeiting the things so cried. Also, no other person shall cry, or expose to sale, any fruit, herbs, wares, &c. on any part of the Lord's day, on pain of forfeiting them. 10 & 11 W. c. 24.

48. If any person shall curse or swear, and be con|victed on the oath of one witness, before one justice, within eight days of the offence, he shall forfeit as fol|lows: Every day-labourer, common soldier, or seaman, 1 s. every other person under the degree of a gentle|man, 2 s. and every gentleman 5 s. for the first offence, to the poor, and all charges; double the sums for the second, after conviction, and treble for every offence after a second conviction, or be committed to hard la|bour for ten days. Soldiers and seamen, instead of being committed, shall be set in the stocks one hour for a single offence, and two hours for more offences than one. 19 Geo. 2. c. 21.

Page  139

ROTATION OFFICES.

THERE are several Rotation Offices in London, where two or more magistrates sit daily, in the morning, from ten to three, to hear complaints, but where the fees of office must be paid. They are in the following streets:

  • For Westmister and the County of Middlesex:
    • Bow-Street, Covent-Garden;
    • Litchfield-Street;
    • Clerkenwell;
    • Hyde-Street, Bloomsbury;
    • St. Martin's-Street, Leicester-fields.
  • For the City.
    • Guildhall;
    • The Mansion-house.
  • For Southwark.
    • Union-Hall, Union-street, Borough.
  • For the Tower District, and below.
    • Tower-Hill.

The expences of hearing at these offices is seldom above a few shillings.

STAMPS USED ON SUNDRY OCCASIONS.

1. Gloves.

WITH every pair of gloves or mittens sold above the price of 4 d. and not exceeding 10 d. must be given a stamp of 1 d. for which the buyer is to pay. 25 Geo. 3. c. 55.

All above 10 d. and not exceeding 1 s. 4 d. a stamp of 2 d. Ibid.

Above 1 s. 4 d. a stamp of 4 d. Ibid.

Page  140The penalty of selling without these stamps, 5 l. Ibid.

Tickets to be placed, as the commissioners shall di|rect, on the inside of the right-hand glove of each pair. Using a ticket twice forfeits 20 l. Ibid.

Buyer or seller may inform against each other. Half the penalty, if sued for in six months, to go to the in|former; if after six months, the whole to the king. Ibid.

Any neighbouring justice may determine the penal|ties, and mitigate them to half; and compel payment, or commit the offender for three months, if the penalty is not sooner paid. Ibid.

2. Hats.

To every man's hat of 4 s. value, or under, the sel|ler must affix a three-penny stamp. 24 Geo. 3. c. 6.

Above 4 s. and not exceeding 7 s. a six-penny stamp. Ibid.

Above 7 s. and not exceeding 12 s. a shilling stamp. Ibid.

Above 12 s. value, a two shilling stamp. Ibid.

Stamp-tickets to be stuck in the inside of the crown of each hat; the penalty to buyer or seller is 10l. Ibid.

3. Apprentices.

Indentures (except parish-ones) must be on a 6 s. stamp, and the master or mistress must pay to the Stamp-office, within one month, 6 d. in the pound for every apprentice-fee (paid in money or value) under 51 l. and 1 s. above 50 l. or the indentures are void, and the master forfeits 50 l. and treble the apprentice-fee. 8 Ann. c. 9.

The full sum given must be set down in the inden|tures, or the penalty is double the amount of the pre|mium.

If double duty is paid within two years after the end of the apprenticeship, and before any information is lodged, the master shall be exempt from the penalties.

If apprentices behave ill, redress may be had by ap|plying Page  141 to a magistrate. 5 Eliz. c. 4. 20 Geo. 2. c. 19.

4. Inventories of Goods.

All inventories or catalogues of furniture, with re|ference to any agreement, must be written on a half crown stamp.

5. Notes and Bills of Exchange.

1. Bills of exchange, promissory-notes, and drafts, under the value of 10 l. must be written on a three-penny stamp, or they are not valid. 23 Geo. 3. c. 49.

For 10 l. and under 50l. on a six-penny stamp. Ibid.

Fifty, pounds, and upwards, on a shilling stamp. Ibid.

Bank-notes are excepted. Ibid.

2. Drafts on bankers, if not payable to bearer and on demand, and the person drawing such draft does not reside within ten miles of such banker, must be on a three-penny stamp, if the sum drawn for be under 10 l.; a sixpenny stamp, if for 10 l. and under 50 l.; if 50 l. and upwards, on a shilling stamp. Ibid. 24 G. 3. c. 7.

But if your banker will pay it, as all will, and the person you pay it to will take it, you may date it at a place within the ten miles.

3. Bills of exchange, and notes under 40 s. value, are exempted from the stamp-duty. 24 Geo. 3. c. 7.

4. Persons drawing bills or notes, that ought to be stamped on unstamped paper, are liable to pay 5l. if prosecuted within twelve months. Ibid.

5. The person drawing any bill of exchange or draft, or giving any promissory-note, must pay the price of the stamp. Ibid.

6. Notes of hand or inland bills of exchange, under 5 l. must be signed by one witness, and they must be payable within 21 days of the date, and the chris|tian and sirname of the person to whom they are made payable, with his place of abode, must be added in the notes, or such notes are of no value, and the person Page  142 who issues them is liable to pay from 5 l. to 20 l. or, in default of payment, to suffer three months imprison|ment. 17 Geo. 3. c. 30. This law, if not continued, will expire in 1787.

The following is a proper note of hand under 5 l.

LONDON, May 1, 1786.

Twenty-one days after date, I promise to pay to Mr. James Webb, of Devizes, or order, the sum of four pounds fifteen shillings, value received.

Witness, JAMES BURNS. J. PEARSON.

The indorser, on paying such a note away, must write on the back, "Pay the contents to A. B. or his order," and sign it, or be liable to the same penalties, Ibid.

6. Receipts.

1. Receipts for any sum amounting to 40 s. and un|der 20 l. must be written on a two-penny stamp; for 20 l. and upwards on a four-penny stamp, or they are of no value; except bankers' receipts, or receipts on the back of any stamped note of hand or bill or ex|change, or worded as a letter, acknowledging the ar|rival of any remittance, or any receipt indorsed or con|tained on the body of a stamped deed; or any re|ceipt given for any dividend on stock, or for any pay or pension paid by government. 23 Geo. 3. c. 49.

Receipts in which the sum mentioned shall be in full or as a satisfaction of all demands, and all general ac+knowledgements of debts or demands being discharged shall be deemed and taken to be receipts for above the sum of 20 l. and must be on a four-penny stamp. Ib

2. The person requiring the receipt shall pay th price of the stamp. Ibid.

3. Unstamped receipts for a sum under 40 s. may b produced as evidence of payment, for 40 s. but for n full discharge, even though the words "in full of al demands," be inserted in it. So may receipts unde 20 l. on two-penny stamps, for the sum expressed, bu not as a receipt in full, unless written on a four-penny stamp. Ibid.

Page  1434. The whole sum for which any receipt shall be given, shall be, bona fide, inserted in such receipt; and every per|son who shall give, or accept any receipt or acquittance, in which a less sum shall be expressed therein than the sum actually received, with an intent to evade the du|ty, or shall separate or divide the sums into divers re|ceipts, in order to evade the stamp, or shall be guilty of, or concerned in, any fraudulent contrivance or de|vice whatever, with intent to evade the duty, shall forfeit 20 l. half to the king and half to the suer. Ib.

5. Any person who shall write or sign, or cause to be written or signed, any receipt not stamped, where it ought to be stamped, shall forfeit 5 l. if convicted before any neighbouring justice. 24 Geo. 3. c. 17.

6. Receipts for legacies, or shares of personal estates, not exceeding 20 l. must be on a five shilling stamp; if exceeding 20 l. and under 100 l. on a ten shilling stamp; for 100 l. on a forty shilling stamp; and an additional 20 s. for every further hundred pounds. 20 Geo. 3. c. 28.

Wives, children, and grand-children, pay but half these legacy duties; nor do they pay any part of the 20s. for every additional or further hundred pounds. Ibid.

7. Agreements and Bonds.

1. Agreements (except where the matter of agreement shall not exceed 20 l. and also except those for lease at rack-rent of messuages under five pounds, those for hire of a labourer, artificer, manufacturer, or menial servant, and those relating to the sale of goods, &c.) must be on a six-shilling stamp. 23 Geo. 3. c. 58.

2. Bonds (except such as are given for security of money) letter of attorney, lease, and release, must be on a six-shilling stamp. Ibid.

Bonds given as a security for the payment of money, if not above 100 l. must be on a five shillings stamp; if above 100 l. and under 500l. on a ten-shillings stamp; if above 500l. on a fifteen-shillings stamp.

Page  144TABLE, shewing the Interest of Money at 5 per Cent

 12 Mon.3 Mon.1 Mon.1 Week.1 Day.
l.l. s.s. d.s. d.d. f.d. f.
10 10 30 10 10 0
20 20 60 20 20 0
30 30 90 30 30 0
40 41 00 41 00 0
50 51 30 51 10 0
60 61 60 61 20 0
70 71 90 71 30 1
80 82 00 82 00 1
90 92 30 92 10 1
100 102 60 102 20 1
201 05 01 85 00 3
301 107 62 67 21 0
402 010 03 410 01 2
502 1012 64 212 21 3

Note. The interest for one day is stated so nearly as to make fractions unnecessary:—for the interest of 100 l. at 3.3 and a half, 4, and 5 per cent. for any number o days. See the next table page, 145.

Page  145A TABLE shewing the Interest of 100 l. from 100 Days to one Day, at different Interests.

Days. 3 per Cent. 3 1-h. p. C. 4 per Cent. 5 per Cent.
  l. s. d. f. l. s. d. f. l. s. d. f. l. s. d. f.
100 0 16 5 1 0 19 2 0 1 1 11 0 1 7 4 0
90 0 14 9 2 0 17 3 0 0 19 8 2 1 4 7 0
80 0 13 1 3 0 15 4 0 0 17 6 1 1 1 11 0
70 0 11 6 0 0 13 5 0 0 15 4 0 0 19 2 0
60 0 9 10 1 0 11 6 0 0 13 1 1 0 16 5 0
50 0 8 2 2 0 9 7 0 0 10 11 2 0 13 8 0
40 0 6 6 3 0 7 8 0 0 8 9 0 0 10 11 0
30 0 4 11 0 0 5 9 0 0 6 6 3 0 8 2 0
20 0 3 3 2 0 3 10 0 0 4 4 2 0 5 5 0
10 0 1 7 3 0 1 11 0 0 2 2 1 0 2 8 0
9 0 1 5 3 0 1 8 2 0 1 11 2 0 2 5 0
8 0 1 3 3 0 1 6 1 0 1 9 0 0 2 2 0
7 0 1 1 3 0 1 4 0 0 1 6 1 0 1 11 0
6 0 0 11 3 0 1 1 3 0 1 3 3 0 1 7 0
5 0 0 9 3 0 0 11 2 0 1 1 0 0 1 4 0
4 0 0 7 3 0 0 9 0 0 0 10 2 0 1 1 0
3 0 0 5 3 0 0 6 3 0 0 7 3 0 0 9 0
2 0 0 3 3 0 0 4 2 0 0 5 1 0 0 6 0
1 0 0 1 3 0 0 2 1 0 0 2 2 0 0 3 1
Months        
3 0 15 0 0 0 17 6 0 1 0 0 0 1 5 0 0
6 1 10 0 0 1 15 0 0 2 0 0 0 2 10 0 0
9 2 5 0 0 2 12 6 0 3 0 0 0 3 15 0 0
12 3 0 0 0 3 10 0 0 4 0 0 0 5 0 0 0

The interest of 4 and a half may be known by ad|ding that of 3 per cent. and half 3 per cent. together.

Page  146

Sundry CAUTIONS against ROBBERIES, FRAUDS, IMPOSITIONS and INSULTS.

1. PERSONS travelling to or from London should be careful not to take too much money with them. Bank post-bills, made payable to the holder or order, is the safest conveyance; for these are of no va|lue till indorsed by the person they are made payable to; and if lost, as the bank does not pay them till seven days after sight, there is time to give notice of the loss.

2. Trunks, &c. should not be fastened behind car|riages, unless with chains, or unless servants ride be|hind, and will attend to them till they are ten or twelve miles from the metropolis; for there are thieves fre|quently waiting at the outskirts of the town, particular|ly in the evening, to cut such luggage from behind.

3. If trunks, boxes, or packages are to be sent by coaches or waggons into the country, it is prudent to let some person be present at the packing up, as a wit|ness of the contents, and to take a list of what the trunk, &c. contains. This person should then take it to the warehouse of the coach or waggon himself, and deliver it to the book-keeper, see it booked, and pay for the booking, which is 2 d. In this case, if it be lost, you will be able to prove the contents, and reco|ver the value from the owner of the coach or waggon. See STAGE-COACHES, 2.

4. But let your servant be very careful not to leave the trunk, &c. with any person standing at the door of the inn, or in the inn-yard; but to enquire for the book-keeper, and not part with his load till he can de|liver it into the custody of the book-keeper, and see it booked. On this account the porter should be able to read writing, to know what he is about. Rogues are very often about inn-yards, to case such messengers of their loads.

5. Such persons as you send with parcels from one part of the town to another, should be cautioned not to be led into a public house by the way, to drink with any supposed countryman, nor to suffer any good-na|tured Page  147 person in the street, to give them a hand and help them on the way with their bundle or load; for there are many of these obliging people in London streets, that when they get possession of the bundle, &c. will run away with it.

6. If you hire a basket-woman at market, or a porter to carry any thing for you home, which you may have bought, tell such person where they are to carry it, and make them walk before you all the way. Your eye will then be upon them, and if they slip away from you it will he your own fault. If it be inconvenient to attend them, employ no such person but whom you know, or is known to the person with whom you deal. But if you buy of a shop-keeper, they will always send the goods home.

7. Never stop in a crowd in the streets, to see what occasions it: if you do, it is two to one but you either lose your watch or your pocket-handkerchief. There are fellows who create disturbances for this purpose.

8. Never carry any bank-notes or bills about you, without first entering, in some book at home, the num|ber and date, and particulars of such notes, that in case you lose them, or your pocket is picked of your book, you stand some chance of recovering them, or stop the payment.

9. Also enter, in some book at home, the number, maker's name, &c. and description of your watch, and whatever else of value you carry about you, that you may know how to describe it, if lost.

10. Never part with such articles out of your hands, to persons you are unacquainted with.

11. If you would walk safe, you would always avoid crowds, stopping to look at the pictures in a print-shop, &c. See p. 115, No. 5, 14.

12. If by chance you should drop any thing of va|lue in the street, whilst you are looking for it, you will have many ask you what you have lost, and offer to assist you in the search. Tell them it is nothing of any consequence: if you acquaint them, you are likely never to find it, as they will probably find it for you and keep it.

Page  14813. Give directions to your servants, on no condi|tion to deliver any thing from your house to a stranger, under a pretence of your having sent for it; for in|stance, a great coat or any other thing: there are al|ways villains ready to take advantage of their igno|rance.

14. For the same reason, never let them take in a parcel for you, under an idea that it came by such a carriage, if they are to pay any thing for it; for such packages have been sound to contain nothing but brick|bats, &c. In short, never let them pay any thing without your knowledge or order so to do, to any one. Persons bringing things will often take the money be|fore hand, and ask for it again at the house they carry it to.

15. Before you get into a hackney-coach or chair, always take the number, as, if you leave any thing therein, you may then, by summoning the coachman, or chairman, to the Hackney-coach office, probably re|cover it. They may say they never saw it, and pos|sibly their next fare might find it and take it: possibly so. This is a lie, for they always look, when they set down a fare, before they shut the door. To be truly safe in this matter, every one should look round the coach or chair before they quit it.

16. Thieves have lately made a practice of knock|ing at doors in an evening, under a pretence of deli|vering a letter, and, when the door is open, if in a retired place, have rushed in, in numbers, and robbed the family. To avoid this, a chain should be always put across the door within, (so as to admit the door to open a little way) before dusk, and the door not open|ed to a stranger, but the letter, if any, taken in.

17. If you do not sit in your front-parlour in an evening, take care the windows are fastened down, for men have been known to enter a house this way, secrete themselves till the family is asleep, and then rob the house; or they have robbed that room only, while the family have been backwards, and decamped the same way.

18. If the house next door to you is empty, be cau|ous and fasten your back-doors, and inside-shutters of Page  149 the upper windows; for villains will now and then se|crete themselves in such empty houses, and, in the night, get into the adjoining house, by the back-doors or windows, or from the leads. Your garret-windows therefore should always be secured, and trap-doors opening to the leads well bolted.

19. Before you come out of any play-house, or place of public entertainment, take care to secure your watch and your pockets, for pick-pockets are always about at such places.

20. Never suffer any beggars to be begging at your door, particularly if you live in any retired place, for, under a pretence of begging, if they see no one in the way, they will be sure to rob you of something.

21. Do not suffer yourself to be imposed on by beg|gars in the streets, for they have all their arts, and will affect distress to excite your humanity; if you have any thing to give, it would be best bestowed to poor dis|tressed families; it is a mistaken charity to give to beg|gars in the streets, whom the laws have provided for.

22. Auctions in great thorough-fares, in the day-time, where men stand at the door and invite passen|gers, are great impositions. Slight ill-made goods are made up for such auctions, and if you buy, it is ten to one but you are cheated, and give twice the value of the article purchased. Never buy at an auction, but where the auctioneer is known to be a reputable man. At auctions of linen-drapery, they will put, perhaps, sufficient painted muslin for a gown, and a piece of dowlas, worth 7 d. a yard, and sell the two at one price per yard; from an opinion that there may not be above thirty yards of dowlas, you bid accordingly, but, when measured, there shall be sixty, of course you are deceived and cheated.

23. For the same reason, never buy at a pawn-brokers such articles as they display at their windows; for a notion of buying things cheap, has drawn many to buy at these places; and this has led the pawn-bro|kers to get things made up purposely for sale, in a slight manner. Half the things at their windows are new, and sold as second-hand.

Page  15024. Indeed, in purchasing, it will be always sound best to purchase of, and employ people of credit, though you pay rather a greater price, for they have a cha|racter at stake, and will use you well, in hopes of hav|ing your custom in future; but if you buy in general of those who undersell the fair trader, and advertise things at a very low price, depend upon it, unless you are a very good judge of the articles you buy, and take especial care, you will be taken in.

25. People in distress are always wanting to borrow money, and hold out advantageous terms in advertise|ments to lenders. Be ever on your guard in this mat|ter, and also against those who publicly, by adver|tisement, offer to raise money on securities. They will get the securities into their hands, such as bonds, notes, &c. and will frequently shuffle you out of them. To these the public have given the denomination of swindlers. If you are in trade, be cautious how you are taken in by customers you are a stranger to. There are a number of people in town, who live by getting goods on credit, and taking in the incautious shop-keeper.

26. Be very circumspect and cautious of having any thing to do with notes of hand or accepted drafts, drawn by people you are unacquainted with, for it is by such modes that the unwary are duped and robbed of their property.

27. If you keep an open shop, never suffer a stran|ger to leave a parcel in your shop, (under a pretence of having further to go, and wishing it to be taken care of till his return) unless you know the contents of the parcel. Men have been known to leave contraband goods, in this manner, and go and inform against the shop-keeper, in order to get the penalty. In like manner, a sack of unroasted coffee has been left at a grocer's, and he has been exchequered in consequence of it.

28. Never step in between persons quarrelling in the street, unless you chuse to have your pocket picked. These are often sham-quarrels, to collect people toge|ther for the opportunity of plundering them.

Page  15129. Any one may arrest a felon, even without a warrant.

30. Where persons, by fraud in gaming, win above 10 l. they shall forfeit five times the value, and suffer such corporal punishment as in cases of wilful perjury. 9 Ann. c. 14.

31. Shop-keepers should be on their guard against persons coming in and looking over a great quantity of goods, without purchasing. Sharpers often, making a genteel appearance, will take an opportunity, on these occasions, when the shop-keeper's back is turned, to pilser and purloin.

32. In return, buyers should always be careful that they are not imposed on by shop-keepers, for they will often survey you from head to foot, and ask a price ac|cording to their customer. They will often ask 10 s. for an article at a coach-side, which they will sell for, to a person on foot, for half the money.

33. Shop-keepers who have the reputation of sel|ling cheap, will evidently do so, in some small articles, the price of which every buyer is acquainted with; but they take care to bring up the lee-way, as the sea|man's phrase is, and make you pay handsomely in other things. In short, every tradesman must live, and there are such numbers of the same profession in Lon|don, that they are obliged to make use of a variety of artifices to get custom; and the buyer, with all his cle|verness and care, shall not often be able to avoid being taken in.

34. It often happens, that if a parcel is sent in from the country, by a waggon, and ordered to be left till called for, and you send for it, that they will tell you no such thing is brought, and then the porter of the inn will bring it, in order to get a shilling or two: in this case give him nothing, but before you give him to un|derstand so, take possession of it, otherwise he will take it back again: should this fellow, by way of re|venge, if any game is sent you, and not ordered to be delivered, not bring it, and it spoils, and the master of the waggon does not discharge him, summon the mas|ter to the Court of Conscience, for the value of the thing spoilt, and you will be never served so again. Page  152 Porters of inns are in general very exorbitant in their demands, and very insolent. If they ask too much for bringing a thing, never pay it, but tell them they may take it back again, and you will send for it.

35. Persons would do well to be careful of their hats in public companies; for want of such care, many a person has brought home an old hat for a new one. There are well-looking men who will take an oppor|tunity to exchange with you. I knew a gentleman who always preserved his hat, by pasting a paper n the inside the crown, on which he wrote his name, and the words Stolen from over it. Canes and great coats are at times in similar danger.

See TAYLORS, page 41, and WALKING LONDON STREETS, page 115 *.

There is a Society of Tradesmen, &c. instituted in 1767, for the protection of their property against the inroads of felons, forgers, cheats, &c. and to save the charges of prosecutions, rewards and advertisements, which are paid out of the public stock, raised annually at five shillings each member; which subscription, tho' small, has not only been found sufficient for the pur|poses intended, but has enabled the Society to vest a sum in the funds, besides leaving a considerable balance in the treasurer's hands.

The intent of this Society, is to prevent, as far as possible, the losses which tradesmen and others frequent|ly suffer from the depredations of those miscreants, who get their infamous livelihoods by robbing, plundering, and defrauding the honest and industrious part of man|kind; Page  153 and to pursue the most vigorous and effectual methods to bring such offenders to justice; as they fre|quently escape the punishment their crimes deserve, through the inability, timidity, avarice, or indolence of those they injure, which encourages them to con|tinue their mal-practices; although such persons ought in duty to themselves and the public in general, to use their utmost endeavours to put a stop to the career of such villains, as otherwise they are, in some measure, by their omission, the cause of the next robbery or fraud they commit.

The secretary, who is a Mr. J. Leigh, of Shepherd's-court, Upper Brook-street, Grosvenor-square, is im|powered to receive subscriptions.

Where there are two or more partners in trade, if five shillings only be subscribed, they are intitled to the benefit of this Society, when goods, the joint property of the partners, are stolen or obtained from them by fraud; but not in cases of robbery on the highway, or other robberies of their separate private property, un|less each partner subscribes five shillings.

When any of the Society is robbed or defrauded, he is immediately to apply to one of the committee whose names are given in a printed list, and who will take such steps to pursue, advertise, or otherwise, as shall be thought proper on the occasion.

COURTS OF CONSCIENCE

ARE established in different parts of the town, for the recovery of debts under 40 s.

1. There is one in Vine-street, Piccadilly, for the parishes of St. James's, St. Anne's, and St. George's, Hanover-square. Day of hearing Thursday, after|noon.

2. There is another in Castle-street, Leicester-fields, for the parishes of St. Paul's Covent-garden, St. Mary Le Strand, St. Clement's, St. Martin's, St. Margaret's, St. John's Westminster, and the Duchy of Lancaster. Day of hearing, Thursday, in the afternoon.

Page  154The above offices are open every day, from nine to one, to issue summonses. See No. 13, below.

3. One in Fullwood's-rents, Holborn, for the hun|dred of Ossulton, in the county of Middlesex, within ten miles of London, St. Giles's in the Fields, St. An|drew's Holborn, Marybone, Pancras, St. John's Clerk|enwell, and all those out of the city, which the courts of Vine-street and Castle-street do not comprehend. The office open from nine to three, to issue summon|ses. See No. 14, below.

4. One at Guildhall, for the city of London and its liberties. Days of hearing are Wednesdays and Satur|days, at eleven in the morning.

5. One at St. Margaret's-hill, in the Borough, for Southwark. See No. 10, below.

6. One in Wellclose-square, for the Tower-hamlet, the parish of White-chapel, and places lying that way. The proceedings and costs much the same as at other courts.

7. No persons shall act as a commissioner of the Courts of Conscience in London, Westminster, South|wark, or the county of Middlesex, unless they are householders within the district, city or liberty they act for; and they shall also be possessed of a real estate of 20 l. a year, or a personal one of the value of 500l on pain of forfeiting 20 l. Action to be brought with|in six months. 25 Geo. 3. c. 45.

8. Persons committed for debt, by these courts, shal not be imprisoned longer than twenty days, for a deb not exceeding 20 s. nor more than forty days for a deb not exceeding 40 s. and, at the expiration of the time shall be discharged without fee or reward. Ibid.

9. In the city of London, the expence of taking out a summons is 8 d. and the hearing, which must take place the next day of sitting, is attended only with the expence of 4 d.

10. At St. Margaret's-hill, the days of hearing are Tuesdays and Fridays, in the afternoon, and the expence 4 d. The summons, if a common one, is 6 d. if 〈◊〉 special one, 10 d. The difference between a com+mon and a special summons is this: the party need no attend the first day of hearing, after the service oPage  155 a common summons, but he must of a special one. An execution is 2 s. and 8 d. is paid on receiving the debt.

11. When the party has been served with an order, if he does not attend, the court adjudges the debt due to the plaintiff, and an execution is taken out, which seizes either the goods or the person of the debtor, and unless the money is then paid, and the costs, he is car|ried to prison.

12. The summonses for the Borough district are ta|ken out at No. 2, Maze-pond, behind Guy's hospital.

13. At the courts in Vine-street, and Castle-street, the price of a summons is 8 d. of an order 2 s. 2 d. of a hearing, after the delivery of a summons, 2 s. 2 d. of a hearing after the serving of an order, 1 s. 3 d. the cost of an execution is 2 s. 6 d. and the plaintiff's re|ceiving his money 8 d. All the costs, except the last 8 d. the defendant is obliged to re-pay.

14. The day of hearing at the court at Fullwood's Rents is Thursday; the Judge of this court is the County Clerk, who acts by deputy. The cost of a summons is 1 s. 4 d. of an order 2 s. of a hearing 2 s. of an execution 3 s. 4 d. These the defendants pay in the end, and the plaintiff can receive his money with|out a fee.

15. The determinations of the Courts of Conscience are final, but they generally indulge the debtor with time to pay the money, if he requests it. They will suffer him to pay it at a shilling or six-pence a week; this money must be regularly paid into the court, or an attachment against the party issues; and when the time elapses in which the whole debt is paid, the plaintiff applies to the court for his money, and receives it on paying a few pence.

16. The plaintiffs and defendants in these courts are in general people so very low, that a gentleman would sooner lose 40 s. than attend them. If he is a defend|ant, it is best to get some person to attend for him; if plaintiff, and can prove his demand, he may even then get some person to apply for him; but if he cannot prove his debt otherwise than by his own oath, he should attend himself, for if he has no other proof, the plaintiff's oath is always sufficient. Of course, it is Page  156 better in these courts to be plaintiff than defendant, for if the plaintiff swears to his debt, no oath of the defen|dant will avail him.

17. In order to recover in these courts, the debt must be under 40 s. (at least the claim must), and both parties must reside in London. The summons must be taken out in that court in whose district the defendant lives.

18. No oath is required on taking out the summons, nor is it necessary to spell the defendant's name right, or know his christian name; all that is required is to know where he is to be found, that the summons may be left at his place of residence; if the party will not attend by a summons, it is necessary to get the christian name of the defendant, in order to obtain an order, and if he is a housekeeper this is readily got at, by applying to the vestry-clerk of the parish where he lives, and examining the poors-rate book.

THE MARSHALSEA COURT.

WITHIN twelve miles of London, the power of the Marshalsea court in the Borough extends. Here by applying to any of the marshalsea-court at|tornies, who live in Clifford's-inn Fleet-street, you may recover any sum above 40 s. and not exceeding 4 l. very speedily. A writ taken out in this court costs 7s. 6d. with which the defendant is served, and as the return day is every Friday, the cause cannot be put off. It will come to a hearing in the course of a week or two, and the hearing in this court seldom exceeds a few pounds. If your debt is 40 l. you may prosecute in this court, by suing for four pounds and upwards, and the person sued must pay your whole demand.— The costs in this court are paid always in advance, as the process goes on.

Page  157

THE VERGE OF THE COURT

IS that ground about White-hall and St. James's, which belongs to the crown, and which is privi|leged from arrests. This privileged place includes Charing-cross, on the north side of the way, from the' corner of St. Martin's-lane to Hedge-lane, and both the King's meuses. On the south side, from the street leading into Spring-gardens, to the public house beyond the Treasury, and all Spring-gardens; on the opposite side of the way, from Northumberland-house to the end of Privy-garden in Parliament-street, taking in all Scot|land-yard, Whitehall, and Privy-garden. It further includes all the parks, the stable-yard St. James's, Cleveland-court, and all Hyde-park, except the mere crossing from the Green-park to Hyde-park. Most houses in the Verge let lodgings, and I knew an artful fellow once that eluded all his creditors, by residing there; if he wanted to go out of it, he took water at Whitehall-stairs, which place is privileged, and as no writ can be served on the water, without a water-bailiff's warrant, which cannot be immediately procu|red, he would land safely in the city, or on the Surry side: for a Middlesex writ loses its force in the city, and in Surry, unless backed by a city or Surry magis|trate, which requires time and preparation to get done; so that, if he landed in Surry, he might take his horse and ride to the land's-end, or he would occasionally walk through the parks, and order his horse to wait for him on the opposite side. By this means, he con|stantly eluded the sheriff's officers, who could not be in every place, or eternally watching him.

1. To prevent this, in some measure, the Board of Green Cloth, who has the controul of the verge, will, on application to them, at St. James's-palace, summon the debtor to meet the plaintiff, before them; and the gentlemen there presiding will examine into the nature of the complaint, enquire of the person then summoned what prospect he has of paying the debt; and if his proposals of discharging it by instalments, Page  158 or in a limited period, be approved, they will suffer him to continue in the Verge, but if they find him dis|posed to act fraudulently, they will tell him that the Verge shall not shelter him; and if he does not imme|diately quit it, they will order him to be arrested by their own officer; but, let the case be as it will, they always give him notice to quit the place, and give him a reasonable time to do it in; but if he can make in|terest with any of the gentlemen of the Board, he meets with favour there, as a man does in all situations of life.

2. A sheriff's-officer arresting a man in the Verge, will be punished by an application to the Board of Green Cloth, and the person arrested will be dischar|ged. The Board, or those who discharge the office of that Board, sit two or three times a week. Mr. Bray, attorney, Great Russel-street, Bloomsbury, is clerk of the Verge.

3. The Tower is also a privileged place.

HOTELS.

THESE are taverns or inns, under a new name, so called from the hotels in Paris, where you may be rather better accommodated than at the inns in and about London, but at a much greater expence. The inns, and many coffee-houses (for all the coffee-houses are now lodging-houses and taverns) will let you a lodging at one shilling or eighteen-pence a night, where|as these hotels charge 2 s. 6 d. or 5 s. a night, accord|ing to the goodness of the apartment; and 5 s. a day for the use of a parlour or dining-room. Two shillings a day for fire, 1 s. a-head for breakfast, and for your dinner according to what you order, as dear as at the most expensive tavern. Here indeed a gentleman may take his family for a few days, till he can procure a lodging, which he cannot do at a coffee-house, nor so well at an inn, for want of proper accommodations. And the servants of all these houses are very extrava|gant Page  159 in their expectations, which you must accordingly gratify, if you wish to be well attended.—Hair-dressers at these hotels charge 1 s. each time of dressing, out of which the master of the hotel has a profit; whereas, at inns and coffee-houses they will dress for 6 d.

Foreigners and strangers should be aware how they employ taylors, or other tradesmen, recommended by masters of hotels, for they have a feeling in every thing. They expect the persons they recommend to give them poundage, that is, so much in every pound they take; of course the tradesman charges his custo|mer accordingly.

AMUSEMENTS, and PLACES worth a Stranger's No|tice, in LONDON.

1. THE Museum, Great Russel-street, Bloomsbury, a repository of curiosities of every kind; no|thing is here paid in order to obtain admission. All that is necessary is, to apply at the office belonging to the house, (a few days before-hand) for tickets, giving in the names of the company, and their rank in life, and you will obtain an admission-ticket, a day or two after, to see the place, at a certain hour and day, na|med in that ticket.

The Tower, and herein the armory, artillery, the crown and regalia, the King's menagerie for wild beasts, &c. and the grotto work. The expence for one person, for the whole, is 3 s. 10 d. if in company 2 s. 10 d. each.

The monument, erected in memory of the fire of London, 1666, on Fish-street hill, that overlooks Lon|don.

St. Paul's Church. This may be seen gratis, at prayer time, viz. eleven in the morning, and three in the afternoon; but those who desire to see other parts, and go up to the top, must pay for so doing, 2 d. each part; in the whole, 1 s. 2 d. each person.

Page  160Westminster-abbey. Always open. But the wax-work, exhibiting the figures resembling life, of Queen Elizabeth, the Earl of Chatham, and other great per|sonages; as also the tombs of the kings, must be paid for, 6 d. each. The man who shews them will ask for a few halfpence for himself, but this is optional.

The church of St. Stephen, Walbrook, near the Mansion-house; well worth viewing.

The Royal Exchange, Cornhill. This is crouded with merchants, from one to four every day, except Sundays, Mondays, and Saturdays.

The Bank of England, Cornhill. Open every day except holidays.

The Mansion-house, Cornhill; the residence of the Lord Mayor.

Guildhall, King-street, Cheapside, where the busi|ness of the city is done.

The East-India House, Leadenhall-street. This is best seen when a meeting of the proprietors is called by advertisements, to determine on any East-India busi|ness.

The Custom-house, Thames-street, and the long room there; open every day, and crowded all the morning, except on holidays.

The Excise-office, in Broad-street, near the Royal Exchange.

The Navy-office, in Crutched-friars.

Somerset-place, Strand.

Westminster-hall, where are held the courts of jus|tice, in term time.

The Three Bridges, London, Black friars, and West|minster, and the shipping below London bridge.

The Horse-guards, in the Park. The best time to view this is in fine weather, between ten and twelve in the morning, when guard is mounted, and the music is playing.

The Parliament-house, Westminster.

The Hospitals, particularly St. Bartholomew's, New|gate-street; Guy's, in the Borough; and the Found|ling, in Lamb's Conduit-street.

The Squares, particularly Grosvenor-square, and Lincoln's-inn fields.

Page  161The Inns of Court, the residence of the Lawyers, particularly the Temple, in Fleet-street, Lincoln's-inn, and Gray's-inn, in Holborn.

The Queen's Palace, in St. James's-Park, and the Paintings there, called the Cartoons.

St. James's-palace, &c. and the chapel-royal there, on Sundays, at one o'clock; where, in the winter sea|son, the King and the Royal Family attend, and may be seen. The court at St. James's, in winter and spring, is open at three o'clock, Sundays and Thurs|days, where any well-dressed person is admitted; but the best time to go there is on the Queen's birth-day, January 18, or the King's birth-day, June 4.

Sir Ashton Lever's Museum, Leicester-square (a collection of animals, stuffed, &c.) Admittance, 2 s. 6 d. This is going to be removed.

ENTERTAINMENTS and EXHIBITIONS in Town.

2. Winter Season.

The two Theatres, Drury-lane and Covent-garden are open for dramatic pieces, every evening, from the end of September to near the end of June. Admit|tance 5 s. 3 s. 2 s. and 1 s. The Royal Family may be often seen here.

On Wednesdays and Fridays, in Lent, at these theatres, are generally concerts of sacred music, called Oratorios. Admittance 10 s. 6 d. 5 s. and 3 s. 6 d.— A renter's share of either house, for twenty-one years, can often be purchased for about 300 l. which will ad|mit the buyer at all times, before the curtain, any where, and entitle him to 2 s. on each night's perform|ance, which amounts to about 18 l. a year.

The Opera-house, in the Hay-market, for Italian operas, is open from October to June, twice a week, Tuesdays and Saturdays. Sixty performances; the subscription-price for one person, for the sixty nights, twenty guineas, or half-a-guinea a night, in the pit or boxes. Admittance into the galleries, each person, 5 s. and 3 s. 6 d. A renter's-share can be purchased often here, which, if for twenty-one years, may be bought for about 250 l. and will entitle the purchaser Page  162 to 20 l. a year, and free admission to any part of the house, at all times; rehearsals, operas, masquerades, &c. Sometimes the admission-ticket is to be bought, without the annuity, for about eighty guineas.

At this Opera-house are several masquerades, in the winter. Admittance generally one guinea, refresh|ments included.

The Pantheon, Oxford-road, a superb room, is also open at this time, for concerts. Admittance 5 s. tea and coffee included; and occasionally for masqued balls. Admittance to these last as at the Opera-house.

At the end of the month of May, there are three or four grand concerts of sacred music, from the compo|sitions of Handel, in Westminster-abbey, where all the eminent performers in the kingdom play and sing, to the number of 700. This is under the patronage of the King and Queen, who are present, and most of the nobility. Admittance one guinea for each perfor|mance; the money given to charities. On the rehear|sal-days, the admittance is but half-a-guinea; and every thing is the same as on the other days, except that the Royal Family are not present, the company not so well dressed, and not so numerous.

At Gallini's Rooms, in Hanover-square, and at Wil|lis's Rooms, in King-street, St. James's, there are oc|casional concerts and balls, where the first company is generally present. The entertainments here are chiefly by subscription, for a number of nights; but a single ticket for one night may often be procured of Mr. Hookham, bookseller in Bond-street.

There is also a concert of ancient music, in Totten|ham-street, where the King and Royal Family attend. Subscription for six nights, three guineas each.

At Freemason's-hall, in Great Queen-street, Lin|coln's-inn fields, which is a superb room, there is in the winter months, from November to May, a concert of vocal and instrumental music, chiefly sacred, with choral performers, every other Thursday evening.— Subscription four guineas for the winter, which ad|mits a gentleman and two ladies. Subscribers must be ballotted for; and, as the subscribers amount to 200, Page  163 which number crouds the room, persons must wait a va|cancy for admission.

In Easter week, Ranelagh-house always opens; a magnificent room, well frequented by the best compa|ny in an evening. Admittance 2 s. 6 d. each, coffee and tea included. This place is two miles from town.

At this time also opens a theatre for tumbling, rope-dancing, &c. at Sadler's-wells, Islington, and conti|nues all the summer. Admittance 3 s. 6 d. 2 s. and 1 s. Each person has allowed him for this money, a pint of wine or punch.

Also Astley's Amphitheatre, Westminster-bridge, for horsemanship, tumbling, &c. &c. Admittance from 2 s. 6 d. to 6 d.

The Circus, St. George's-fields, for similar amuse|ments. Admittance ditto.

Jones's Amphitheatre, Union-street, White-chapel. Ditto, ditto.

Several curious exhibitions at Exeter Exchange, Strand.

In May, Vauxhall is resorted to; a public garden, illuminated in the evening, with a concert of vocal and instrumental music: open all summer. Admittance 1 s. each. All kinds of refreshments are here sold; and the company seldom leave the place in fine weather, till two in the morning. This is two miles from town, but the road guarded.

In May and June, is an exhibition at the Royal Academy, in Somerset-place, in the Strand, of the works of our most eminent painters and sculptors.— Admittance 1 s.

At this season, also, are one or two persons who give lectures on experimental philosophy, three times a week, at noon. The admittance generally one guinea for twelve lectures, or 2 s. 6 d. for one.

Whilst the parliament is sitting, the debates at the House of Commons are worth attending to, from three to nine in the afternoon: 2 s. 6 d. will here gain ad|mission into the gallery.

The House of Lords is always open to well-dressed people, at a time when any trial is before them; and at other times by favour of a member.

Page  164There are also, in winter, debating societies; at Coachmaker's-hall, Foster-lane, Thursday evening; at the Mitre-tavern, Fleet-street, ditto; and at the Westminster-forum, Spring Garden; where certain ques|tions, political, civil and moral, are discussed, and every one may give his opinion. Admittance 6 d. of course these places are crowded with low people; but what you hear is often entertaining.

Monsieur Texier's readings. This man is a French|man, and reads a French comedy with great humour: his house is much frequented by people of fashion.— Lisle-street, Leicester-square, at eight in the evening. Admittance 10 s. 6 d.

3. In Summer, and fine Weather,

The Theatre in the Hay-market is open, three times a week, for dramatic pieces. Admittance 5 s. 3 s. 2 s. and 1 s. Here renter's shares may now and then be purchased.

St. James's Park is crowded in week days, in May and June, between one and three, with people of fashion, walking there for the air. And on Sundays, about the same hour, and in the evenings, all the sum|mer, the walks are covered with the trading part of the people.

Kensington Gardens, two miles from town, are much crowded in May and June, from twelve to three, with persons of fashion, &c. as is

Hyde Park in April and May, where persons of dis|tinction assemble on horse-back and in carriages, from twelve to three.

There are a number of tea-gardens in the out-skirts of the town, where the common people resort in crowds, in fine evenings, to drink tea, &c. such as

  • The Dog and Duck, St. George's-fields; and
  • Bagnigge-wells, Clerkenwell; these two are much resorted to by women of the town.
  • Islington-spa, Islington;
  • Riley's Gardens, Vauxhall; and
  • Don Saltero's coffee-house, Chelsea, where there is a museum of curiosities, that may be seen by those who spend a shilling, or less.

Page  165

4. Besides the above, the following are worth attending to.

The Temple Gardens in Summer evenings, where genteel people walk.

The procession of the King through the Park to the Parliament-house.

The House of Lords when the King is there, and the Peers robed. Admission is not difficult, by ap|plying to a peer.

The procession on Lord Mayor's day, (November 9,) of the city, through the streets, and up to Westminster by water, and back, in their state-barges.

The Lord Mayor's ball, on Easter Monday, and the feast and ball on November 9. Tickets are not difficult of attainment, by applying to any alderman or common-councilman. They are now and then to be purchased, by apylying to John the waiter, at the Rainbow coffee-house, Cornhill.

The parade of the judges to Westminster-hall, and their etiquette in the hall, on the first days of each term.

The rehearsal of music, at St. Paul's church, in April, for the benefit of the sons of the poor clergy.— Admittance what you please.

The meeting of 2000 charity-children, in St. Paul's church, in May, when they all sing together. Admit|tance free.

The rowing of small boats from London-bridge to Chelsea; a contest among young watermen for a coat and badge, August 1.

The Duke of Cumberland's sailing match, on the Thames, for a silver cup, in summer.

The several reviews of the troops, in the course of the summer, where the King attends.

The festivity and gambols of the lower class of people rolling down Greenwich-park hill, Whitsun-Monday and Tuesday.

Occasional floating through the atmosphere in Bal|loons.

The criminal-law trials at the Old Bailey, every six weeks. Admittance 1 s. into the gallery. And the unhappy executions in Newgate-street at eight in the morning, in consequence of them.

Page  166Covent-Garden market, Tuesdays, Thursdays, and Saturdays, for vegetables, at four o'clock in the morn|ing, in summer time.

Billinsgate market, for fish, near London Bridge, in summer, Mondays, Wednesdays, and Fridays, at four o'clock.

Smithfield market, for cattle, in summer, at seven o'clock, Mondays, Wednesdays, and Fridays, for hor|ses, at two in the afternoon.

Corn market, in Mark-lane, Mondays, Wednesdays and Fridays.

The Asylum, for deserted orphans, St. George's-fields, Sunday mornings, at eleven; and

The Magdalen-house, for penitent prostitutes, ditto, Sunday evenings, at six; at these two places divine service is much frequented by genteel people: any decent person may be admitted, who will throw a shilling or six pence into the plate at the door, for the benefit of the charities.

The steam-mills, for grinding corn, at Blackfriars Bridge.

Tapestry manufactory, near Soho-square.

Tassie's curious seal-compositions, Leicester-square.

Wedgewood's earthen-ware manufactory, Greek-street, Soho.

5. Out of town, but near it.

Greenwich Hospital, for Seamen; six miles distant.

Chelsea Hospital, for Soldiers; two miles.

Woolwich Warren, artillery, eight miles; and the convicts there at work.

Kensington-Palace Gardens, two miles.

The river Thames, up and down, towards Rich|mond, the banks are every where covered with elegant villas.

Richmond-Palace Gardens, particularly on a Sunday evening, are crouded with genteel people from Lon|don; twelve miles.

Richmond Hill, Surrey, a very beautiful prospect; twelve miles.

Hampstead and Highgate, two hills, covered with gentlemen's houses, and commanding very beautiful prospects; four miles.

Hampton-Court Palace, twelve miles; Middlesex.

Page  167Windsor Castle, twenty-one miles; particularly in summer evenings, where the King and Royal Family walk some hours every day, (Friday excepted) on the Terrace, and a band of music plays; at which time the place is crouded with genteel company.

Wanstead House and Gardens, in Epping Forest, Essex; seven miles. The seat of Sir James Long.

Claremont, Esher, Surrey; the seat of Lord Clive. Fifteen miles.

Pain's Hill, Cobham, ditto; the seat of Bond Hop|kins, Esq twenty miles.

Oatlands, Walton, ditto; the seat of the Duke of Newcastle; eighteen miles.

The Ferme Ornée of Mrs. Southcote, near Chert|sey; twenty miles.

Note, These last four are not far from each other.

Sion-House, Isleworth, the seat of the Duke of Northumberland; nine miles.

Chiswick, the seat of the Duke of Devonshire; six miles.

Caen-Wood, Hampstead, the seat of Lord Mans|field; four miles.

Hatfield House, the seat of the Earl of Salisbury; twenty miles.

An ESTIMATE of the Expences attending a Family con|sisting of a Man, his Wife, four Children and two Maid Servants, who conduct their domestic Arrangement with Oeconomy.

  Weekly.
  l. s. d.
BREAD for eight persons, 8 d. per week each, 0 5 4
Butter, 7 lb. on an average, at 9 d. per lb. 0 5 3
Cheese, 3 lb. and a half, at 5 d. per lb. 0 1
Roots, herbs, spices, and the decoraments of the table, 0 3 6
Carry over, 0 15

Page  168

Brought over, 0 15
  Weekly.
Meat, or fish, or fowl, 1 lb. each, at 6 d. per pound, on an average, 1 8 0
Milk and cream, one day with another, 2 d. 0 1 2
Eggs, 4 d. and flour, 1 s. 2 d. 0 1 6
Small-beer, at 14 s. a barrel, 12 gallons, 0 4 8
Tea, 2 s. and sugar, 3 s. 0 5 0
Candles, 4 lb. take the summer and winter together, at 9 d. 0 3 0
Coals, two fires in winter, one only in sum|mer; 3 bushels for parlour fire, for 8 months, 4 ditto for the kitchen all the year, about 8 chaldron and a half, at 34 s. 0 5 6
Soap, starch, blue, and washing at home and abroad, 0 5 0
Thread, needles, pins, tapes, and all sorts of haberdashery, 0 1 9
Sand, fullers earth, whitening, scowering pa|per, brick-dust, small-coal, &c. 0 0 4
Repairs of furniture, table-linen, sheets, and all other utensils, 0 2 0
  3 13
L. 3:13:5 halfpenny per week, is per an|num, 189 18 8
Clothes for the master and mistress, and hair|dressing, 40 0 0
Ditto for the children, 6 l. each, 24 0 0
Lying-inn expences, 12 l. suppose once in two years, 6 0 0
Pocket expences for the master, including letters, 4 s. per week, 10 8 0
Ditto for the mistress and children, 5 4 0
Physic, and occasional illness, 5 0 0
Schooling for the children, on an average, 8 0 0
Wages of two maid-servants and taxes, 14 10 0
Standing rent 50 l. taxes 16 l. 66 0 0
Entertainments for friends, 20 0 0
Sundries for wine, pleasure, &c. suppose, for even money, 10 19 4
  400 0 0

Page  169It is impossible to ascertain the exact expence of every article, as some families may like to indulge in some one thing more than others; but what is saved in one article may be spent on another.

For every child, less than four, may be subtracted from the above 400l. according to the foregoing esti|mate, and for every child, more than four, must be ad|ded, on an average, as follows:

Maintenance for each child, per annum,L. 2000
Clothes,600
 2600

If they keep but one maid-servant, by the foregoing estimate, subtract annually L. 25:5. If three are kept, add, on an average, 26l. as the taxes increase with the number: thus,

Maintenance of a servant,L. 1800
Wages and tax,750
 2550

The difference between a maid-servant and a man-servant, if out of livery, will be only the wages and tax, 5l. or 6l.; if in livery, the addition also of the livery, about 5 l.

2. The expence of keeping a Horse in the stable in summer, and at straw in the winter.

  L. s. d.
A truss of straw, per week, 0 0 9
Two trustes and a half of hay, at L. 3:3 per load, 0 4
Three quarters of a peck of oats per day, at 18 s. per quarter. 0 3
Man to look after him, 0 2 6
  0 10 9

Page  170

  L. s. d.
Thirty-two weeks keep, at 10 s. 9d. per week, is, annually, 17 4 0
Shoeing, 8 sets while in use, at 2 s. 4 d. per set, 0 18 8
Bleeding, &c. 0 5 0
Fourteen weeks straw-yard, at 2s. 6 d. 1 15 0
Six weeks spring grass, at 4 s. 1 4 0
Taking to straw-yard and back, 0 5 0
Sadler, 0 4 0
Rent of a stable, and duty of the horse, 3 10 0
Decline in value of the horse, about 3 0 0
  28 5 8

3. The addition of a one-horse Chaise will be as fol|lows:

Expence of the horse, as above,2858
Duty of the wheels,3100
Wear and tear, with care, about550
Oil and grease, for even money, suppose094
Additional rent of a coach-house,1100
 38100

4. Now, should the person who looks after the horse leave you unprovided, it would be attended with trou|ble and uneasiness, and as the man may possibly cheat you and starve the beast, it would be better, if you can depend on a livery-stable keeper's giving him the corn you order, to keep him at livery. The following then would be the expence.

Thirty-two weeks hay and corn, (three seeds a-day) at 12s. 3 d. per week, 19 12 0
Hostler, 1 1 0
Shoeing, bleeding, straw-yard, grass, &c. va|lue of horse and chaise, grease and duty, 17 6 0
  37 19 0

Page  1715. The expence of keeping a four-wheeled carriage, and a pair of horses, in your own stable.

  Annually.
  l. s. d.
Seven loads and an half of hay: that is 5 trusses a week, and 10 trusses allowed for waste, at 3 l. 10 s. a load, 24 10 0
Two trusses of straw per week, or about 3 loads, at 25 s. 3 15 0
Twenty quarters 2 bushels of oats, at 9 bushels to the quarter. This is allowing each horse a peck a day, at 18 s. per quarter; (beans are not necessary, unless worked very hard), 18 5 0
Rent of stable and coach-house, 6 0 0
Duty of 2 horses, 1 l. and of the carriage, 7 l. 8 0 0
Blacksmith for shoeing, 18 sets, at 2 s. 4 d. per set, 4 4 0
Physic, &c. 0 6 0
Oil and grease. 1 s. per week, 2 12 0
Coachman's wages, 16 l. and duty, 1 l. 5 s. 17 5 0
Board-wages, or board at home, much the same, 18 0 0
Livery, about 8 0 0
Wear and tear of carriage, and repairs of wheels and harness, and painting, once in 2 years, about 20 0 0
Decline in value of horses, about 10 0 0
  140 17 0

6. The same kept at livery, your own servant to see the horses sed with corn.

Hay and corn, four seeds each per day, L. 72 18 0
Hostler, 2 2 0
Other expences, as above, the same, 88 7 0
  163 7 0

Page  172

  l. s. d.
7. The price of a job for a pair of horses and a coachman, is, per month, 14 l. though some will let them for 12 l. a month; 13 months, 156 0 0
If the carriage is hired also, the addition will be 40 s. a month, 26 0 0
Coachman will expect a present of 3 3 0
Ditto great-coat and hat 3 l. and duty 1 l. 5 s. 4 5 0
  189 8 0

If a job-carriage is on the road, the coach-master will expect an addition of 2 s. a night, every night the horses are out, to pay extra expences.

But I know some gentlemen who keep a job, and pay 100 l. a year only for coachman and horses, giving the use of a stable, when in the country. This is the cheapest method of keeping a carriage. Thus,

 Annually.
Job-horses and coachman,10000
Present to coachman,330
Great-coat, hat, and duty,450
Duty of wheels,700
Oil and grease,2120
Wear and tear of carriage, as before,2000
 13700

By this estimate, the expences are less than keeping them in your own stable. To be sure, you have none of the coachman's service but that of driving, but then, on the other hand, you are not liable to lose the use of your carriage by accidents attending the horses. In|deed, to keep a chariot and pair of horses properly, three horses should be kept for the purpose; and this advantage you have by hiring a job. If you will give the coachman his board, you may have all his time.

In the foregoing, and the following estimates, I have not pointed out, what a father of a family ought to lay by annually, as a provision for his wife and children. When he knows what his expences will be, his income will naturally tell him what he can save. Suffice it to say, that 75l. a year, put out to interest at five per Page  173 cent. will, in twenty years, produce 2500l. of course, double the sum will produce 5000l. I have, in the course of this work, given the reader the terms of the different assurance-offices for life, where provision may be made for a family, or a future day, on easier terms.

The principal hay-markets in London are, Smith-field, White-chapel, and the Hay-market, Charing-cross. Market-days are, Tuesdays, Thursdays, and Saturdays.

The average-price of hay, in London, is 3 l. 5 s. a load: and that of straw 1 l. 5 s. Good hay is some|times bought for 2 l. 5 s. and sometimes it reaches 5 l. Straw will sometimes be so low as 18 s. at other times 2 l. 2 s.

A load of hay is thirty-six trusses, each truss to weigh 56 lb. under a penalty; a load of straw thirty-six trus|ses, each truss to weigh 36 lb.

8. The following estimate is given more as a matter of curiosity than any thing else, to shew how much such a family, as in No. 1. may save upon a different plan, and what the expences of housekeeping amount to.

  Annually.
  L. s. d.
Lodging and board for the man and his wife, in a decent family, in town or country, with a table equal to that in No. 1. 60 0 0
Tea and sugar once a day, breakfast being in|cluded in the board, 2 s. 6 d. a week, 6 10 0
Washing abroad, 6 10 0
Coals and candles, 5 0 0
Shoes cleaning and hair-dressing, L. 1: 6 per quarter, 5 4 0
To the servant of the family, 1 1 0
Three children at boarding-school, at 20 l. a year, the whole expences, 60 0 0
Infant at nurse, at 4 s. per week, 10 8 0
Extra expences for ditto, 1 0 0
Clothes for the master and mistress, 32 0 0
Ditto for four children, 6l. each, 24 0 0
Carried over, 211 13 0

Page  174

Brought over, 211 13 0
Pocket expences for the man and his wife, 15 12 0
Apothecary, 5 0 0
Entertainment for friends. None expected. 0 0 0
Lying-in expences, as in No. 1. 6 0 0
Sundries, for wine, pleasure, &c. as in No. 1. 10 19 4
  249 4 4
Saved by this mode of living, 150 15 8
  400 0 0

Now this 150 l. a-year saved would, in twenty years, save 5000 l. that is, 1000 l. for the widow, and 1000 l. for each of the children.

9. An estimate for a man and his wife, living com|fortably, with two servants.

  L. s. d.
House-rent and taxes, or lodging, per annum, 60 0 0
Wages of two maid-servants and tax, 14 10 0
Clothes and pocket-expences for the husband, 15 0 0
Ditto for the wife, 12 0 0
Bread for four persons, 5 14 0
Butter, 3 lb. a week, at 10 d. 6 10 0
Cheese, 2 lb. a week, 2 3 4
Meat, or fish, 4 lb. a-day, at 5 d. 30 8 4
Extra for poultry occasionally, 5 4 0
Vegetables, 2 s. 6 d. a week, 6 10 0
Fruit, if they eat any, 1 s. a week, 2 12 0
The decoraments of the table, as oil, &c. 1 19 0
Tea and sugar, 4 s. 6 d. a week, 11 14 0
Small-beer, at 14 s. a barrel, about 14 gallons a week, 13 13 0
Porter and strong-beer, 7 d. a day, 10 12 11
Milk and cream, 1 s. a week, 2 12 0
Soap and starch, &c. 1 s. 6 d. a week, 3 18 0
Eggs and flour, 2 7 8
Candles, 2 s. 6 d. a week, 6 10 0
Carry over, 213 18 3

Page  175

Brought over, 213 18 3
Coals and other firing, 12 0 0
Shoes cleaning and hair-dressing, 5 4 0
Repair of furniture, &c. 2 0 0
Entertainment of friends, 6 0 0
Sundries, for even money, 10 17 9
  250 0 0

10. A man and his wife, in town, with four chil|dren and one maid-servant, whose trade brings in clear but 200 l. annually, must conform as follows:

 Weekly.
Bread for seven persons,L. 041
Salt butter, 3 lb. at 7½d.0210½
Cheese, 3 lb. at 5 d.013
Meat, 3 joints on an average *,076
Fish and bacon,030
Vegetables, oil, vinegar, &c.020
Milk,012
Flour and eggs,016
Sand, whiting, &c.002
Small beer,013
Tea and sugar,030
Candles,026
Haberdashery, as thread, pins, &c.010
Soap and starch, &c.026
Powder, blacking, &c.003
 113

L. 1:13:0½ per week, is, per annum, 85 18 2
Clothes and pocket-money for the man, 8 0 0
Ditto for the woman, 6 0 0
Ditto for the four children, 16 0 0
Carry forward 115 18 2

Page  176

Brought over, 115 18 2
Maid's wages, 5 0 0
Boy to go on errands, 6 d. a day (not boarded) 7 16 0
Coals, two fires in winter, one in summer, 5 chaldrons, at L. 1. 14:0 8 10 0
Day-schooling for the children, 3 0 0
Entertainments for friends, 4 0 0
Physic for the family, on an average, 2 0 0
Expences of lying-in are chiefly defrayed by the presents of gossips, (suppose 5 l. extra once in two years,) 2 10 0
Rent and taxes, exclusive of lodgers, (though many contrive to live rent free,) 15 0 0
Repair of furniture, utensils, &c. 2 0 0
Expences of trade with customers, travelling charges, Christmas-box money, pens, pa|per, letters, &c. suppose, for even money, 4 5 10
  170 0 0
He may then lay by for the children, or lay out for other purposes, 30 0 0
  200 0 0

It is impossible to give estimates to suit every family, but it will be easy for any one to regulate his expences by these estimates, adding or deducting for a child or a servant, more or less, or for the difference of house-rent, certain indulgences, or the variation in the price of provisions. If every mistress keeps a weekly book, in the manner she will find pointed out to her in the next page, and has an eye upon her servants, should she exceed her expences one week, she may retrench them in another.

I must repeat here, that 15 or 20 per cent. may be saved in many articles, by buying them at the first hand, and paying ready money, where it conveniently can be done, besides preventing things being charged a family never had. However, by no means should a bill be run up, with either butcher, baker, chandler, green-grocer, or milkman.

Page  177Such as wish to see estimates for families living in the country, may find them in a work published some years since, and which has gone through five editions, called, The Way to be rich and respectable; price 2 s.— Wherein is laid down a plan, whereby a gentleman, his wife, four children, and five servants, living in the country, with a few acres of land, may with frugality, save 2500 l. in twenty years, keep two of his children at a boarding-school, drink wine every day at his table, keep a carriage and four horses, and make an appear|ance equal to a man in London that spends 1000 l. a year, for half the money.

HOUSEKEEPER's BOOK.
1786MAY.L.s.d.L.s.d.
 Brought over,59137
1.Bread,16   
 Butter, 2 lb.16   
2.Cheese, 12 lb. 5d.5   
3.Oil, 1 quart,26   
 Bread,16   
4.Eggs,4   
 Flour,6   
5.Letters,6   
 Butcher's bill,123   
6.Bread,1   
 Milk,12   
7.Candles, 12 lb.78   
  1155
8.Bread,1   
 And so on the next week.      

Page  178

CELLAR BOOK.
1786.Cyder,Ale,Port,Lisbon,Madeira,Claret,
Stock, in Bottles,7814069475524
Added, 4025 16 
Total,7818094477124
Monday, May 1.121   
Tuesday, 2. 1211 
Wednesday, 3.2  2 1
Thursday, 4.      
Friday, 5.      
Saturday, 6.      
Sunday, 7.      
Drk,33311
〈◊〉,7177••7023

Note, The first line contains the stock in the cellar, in bottles.

The second line contains the additions to the stock in the cou of the week.

The third line the total amount of the week's stock.

As it is drank daily, set it down opposite the days, and cast up what is drank in the week, and enter it in the line opposite Drank; then, deducting the bottles drank from the stock above, will leave the number of bottles in the cellar as in the last line.

Page  179

A LIST of the MEATS, FOWL and FISH, in season. * denotes in Season.
MEATS.Jan.Feb.Mar.Apr.MayJuneJulyAugSeptOct.NovDec.
Beef,************
Grass Lamb,   *******  
House ditto,***       **
Mutton,************
Pork,***     ****
Veal,************
Venison, Buck,     ****   
Ditto, Doe,         ***

Grass Lamb is in much esteem in April and May, when it first comes in.

POULTRY, &c. Jan. Feb. Mar Apr. May June July Aug Sept Oct. Nov Dec
Capons, * * *                 *
Chickens, * * * * * * * * * * * *
Dotterels,                   * * *
Ducklings,     * * * * * *        
Ducks,             * * *      
Ditto wild,               * * * * *
Fowls, * * * * * * * * * * * *
Geese,                 * * * *
Ditto, green,         * * * *        
Hares, * *             * * * *
Larks,                 * * * *
Leverets,       * * * * *        
Partridges, * *             * * * *
Pheasants, * *           * * * * *
Pidgeons, * * * *     * * * * * *
Plover,           * * *        
Pullets, * * * * * * * * * * * *
Rabbits, wild, *     * * * * * * * * *
Snipes, * *               * * *
Teal,                 * * * *
Turkey Poults,         * * * *        
Turkeys, * * *             * * *
Wheatears,             * *        
Widgeons,                   * * *
Woodcocks, * *               * * *

Chickens are dear and choice at Lady-day, Fowls at Midsummer.

Page  180

FISH is always DEAREST when in SEASON. † denotes in Season.
FISH.Jan.Feb.MarApr.MayJuneJulyAug.SeptOct.NovDec.
Carp, 
Chubb,          
Cockles,         
Cod,      
Codling,           
Crabs,       
Crawfish,    
Dorees,          
Eels,    
Flounders,      
Gudgeons,          
Gurnet,          
Haddock,         
Herrings,       
Holibut,          
Lampreys,          
Lobsters, 
Mackrel,         
Mullet,       
Muscles,         
Oystes,     
Perch,         
Pike,      
Plaice,      
Prawns,     
Salmon,      
Skate,     
Smelts,   
Soles,    
Sturgeon,         
Tench,  
Thornback,      
Tront,         
Ditto Salmon,          
Turbot,     
Whitings,         

Page  181The most eminent PHYSICIANS in Town are,

  • DR. William Pitcairn, Warwick-Court.
  • Dr. Heberden, Pall-Mall.
  • Dr. Brocklesby, Norfolk-street.
  • Dr. Cadogan, George-street, Hanover-square.
  • Dr. Gisborne, Clifford-street, Burlington-Gardens.
  • Dr. Warren, Sackville-street.
  • Sir Clifton Wintringham, Dover-street.
  • Dr. Turton, Adelphi.
  • Sir Richard Jebb, Great George-street, Westminster.
  • Sir Lucas Pepys, Upper Brook-street.
  • Sir George Baker, Jermyn-street.
  • Dr. Watson, Lincolns-inn-fields.
  • Dr. Saunders, Spring-Gardens.
  • Sir John Elliot, Cecil-street.
  • Dr. Hugh Smith, Bridge-street, Blackfriars.
  • Dr. Ford, Old Bond-street.
  • Dr. George Fordyce, Essex-street.
  • Dr. Bromfield, Gerard-street, St. Anne's.
  • Dr. Lettsom, Basinghall-street.
  • Dr. Higgins, Greek-street, Soho.
  • Dr. Hulme, Charterhouse Square.

MEN-MIDWIVES.

  • Dr. Ford, Old Bond-street.
  • Dr. Denham, Old Burlington-street.
  • Dr. Khron, Southampton-street, Covent Garden.
  • Dr. MacLaurin, of the London Hospital, City Road.
  • Dr. Garthshore, St. Martin's lane, Westminster.
  • Dr. John Cooper, may be heard of at the Crown and Anchor, Strand.
  • Dr. Osborne, Percy street.

SURGEONS.

  • Mr. Warner, Hatton-street, Holborn.
  • Mr. Watson, Rathbone Place.
  • Page  182Mr. Hunter, St. George's Hospital.
  • Mr. Minors, Chancery-lane.
  • Mr. Chafey, Bernor's-street.
  • Mr. Wathen, Walbrook.
  • Mr. Pinkston, St. Alban's-street.
  • Mr. Adair, Argyle-street.
  • Mr. Pott, Hanover-square.
  • Mr. Grindall, Austin-friars.
  • Mr. Triquet, Craven-street.
  • Mr. Greening, Old Burlington street.
  • Mr. Howard, Southampton-street, Covent-Gardon,

LIST of the BANKERS.

  • ASGIL, Sir Charles, and Co. No. 70, Lombard-street.
  • Barclay and Co. 56, ditto.
  • Batson and Co. 69, ditto.
  • Biddulph and Co. Charing-cross.
  • Bland and Co. 62, Lombard-street.
  • Boldero and Co. 5, Mansion-house street.
  • Boldero, Kendal and Co. 77, Lombard-street.
  • Castel and Co. 66, ditto.
  • Child and Co. 1, Fleet-street.
  • Couts and Co. near the Adelphi.
  • Crofts and Co. 39, Pall-mall.
  • Denne and Co. without Temple-bar.
  • Dorriens and Co. 22, Finch-lane.
  • Drummond and Co. Charing-cross.
  • Esdaile, Sir James, and Sons, Lombard-street.
  • Fuller, William, and Son, 24, ditto.
  • Fuller, Richard, and Co. 84, Cornhill.
  • Gosling and Co. 19, Fleet-street.
  • Hallifax, Sir Thomas, and Co. 18, Birchin-lane.
  • Hanbury and Co. 60, Lombard-street.
  • Hankey and Co. 7, Fenchurch-street.
  • Harrison and Co. 17, Ironmonger-lane.
  • Hercy and Co. New Bond-street.
  • Herries, Sir Robert, and Co, 16. St. Jame's-street.
  • Page  183Hoare and Co. 37. Fleet-street.
  • Hodsoll and Co. near Catherine-street, Strand.
  • Jones and Co, 17, Watling-street.
  • Ladbrooke and Co. Bank Buildings.
  • Langston and Co. 29, Clement's-lane.
  • Lee and Co. 71, Lombard-street.
  • Lefevre and Co. 29, Cornhill.
  • Lemon, Sir William, and Co. 11, Mansionhouse-street.
  • London Exchange banking company, St. James's-street.
  • Lowe and Co. 20, Birchin-lane.
  • Mackworth, Sir Herb. and Co. 68, New Bond street.
  • Martin and Co. 68, Lombard street.
  • Mildred and Co. 2, White Hart Court, ditto.
  • Moorhouse and Co. 76, Lombard-street.
  • Newnham and Co. 65, ditto.
  • Pell and Co. 1, Bartholemew-lane.
  • Prescott's and Co. 62, Threadneedle street.
  • Pybus and Co. 148, New Bond-street.
  • Ransom and Co. 57, Pall Mall.
  • Raymond, Sir Charles, and Co. by the Mansion house.
  • Smith, Payne, and Co. ditto.
  • Smith, (Sam.) and Son, 12, Aldermanbury.
  • Smith, Wright, and Co. 21, Lombard-Street.
  • Staples and Co. 50, Cornhill.
  • Taylor and Co. 60, Lombard-street.
  • Walpole and Co. 28, ditto.
  • Welch and Co. Freeman's Court, Cornhill.
  • Whitehead and Co. 4. Basinghall-street.
  • Wikenden and Co. 20, Lombard-street.
  • Wright and Son, Henrietta-street, Covent Garden.

A LIST of such PUBLIC OFFICES as the People in general have occasion to apply to.

  • ADMIRALTY, Charing-cross.
  • African Company, Cannon-street.
  • Bank, Cornhill.
  • Chamberlain, Lord, Stable yard, St. James's.
  • Chamberlain's office, city, Guildhall.
  • Page  184Charter House, Smithfield.
  • Christ's Hospital, Newgate-street.
  • Custom House, Lower Thames-street.
  • Excise Office, Broad-street, near the Exchange.
  • First Fruits Office, Temple.
  • Greenwich Hospital Receiver's Office, Tower-hill.
  • Hawkers and Pedlars, Somerset Place.
  • Herald's College, near St. Paul's.
  • House Tax, Charing-cross.
  • Imprest Office, Scotland-yard.
  • Lancaster Duchy Court, Gray's-inn.
  • Land Tax, Excise Office, Broad-street.
  • Window Lights, Lombard-street.
  • Navy Office, Crutched Friars
  • Pay Office, Navy, Broad-street, city.
  • Ditto, Army, Whitehall.
  • Post Office, General, Lombard-street.
  • Privy Seal, Whitehall.
  • Queen Ann's Bounty, Dean's yard, Westminster.
  • Salt Office, York Buildings.
  • Secretaries of State, Foreign, St. James's,
  • — Home, Whitehall.
  • Sick and Hurt Seamen, Tower hill.
  • Signet Office, Whitehall.
  • Stamp Office, Somerset-place, or Lincoln's-inn.
  • Society for Christian Knowledge, Bartlet's Buildings, Holborn.
  • — for Religious Knowledge among the Poor, Founder's-Hall, Lothbury.
  • — for propagating the Gospel, Queen Ann's Bounty-office, Dean's-yard, Westminster.
  • Tenths, Temple.
  • Treasury, Whitehall.
  • Trinity House, Water-lane, Tower-street.
  • Turkey Company, Salters-hall.
  • Victualling Office, Tower-hill.
  • War Office, Whitehall.
  • Widows and Children of Clergymen, No. 13, Paper Buildings, Temple.
  • Works, Board of, Whitehall.
Page  185

HOLIDAYS kept at the PUBLIC OFFICES.

    BANK.
  • Jan. 1, 6, 18, 25, 80.
  • Feb. 2, 24.
  • Mar. 25.
  • Apr. 23, 25.
  • May, 1, 29.
  • June, 4, 11, 24, 29.
  • July, 25.
  • Aug. 1, 12, 24.
  • Sept. 2, 21, 22, 29.
  • Oct. 18, 25, 26, 28.
  • Nov. 1, 4, 5, 9, 30.
  • Dec. 21, 25, 26, 27, 28.
    Moveable Holidays.
  • Shrove Tuesday,
  • Ash Wednesday,
  • Good Friday,
  • Easter Monday,
  • —Tuesday,
  • Easter Wednesday,
  • Holy Thursday,
  • Whit-Munday,
  • —Tuesday,
  • —Wednesday.

Dividends are paid at the Bank from nine to eleven in the morning, and from one to three in the after|noon.

Transfers are made from eleven to one.

    EXCHEQUER.
  • Jan. 1, 6, 18, 25, 30.
  • Feb. 2, 14, 24.
  • Mar. 1, 25.
  • Apr. 23, 25.
  • May, 1, 29.
  • June, 4, 10, 11, 24, 29.
  • July, 15, 25.
  • Aug. 1, 11, 12, 24.
  • Sept. 2, 14, 18, 21, 22, 29.
  • Oct. 25, 28.
  • Nov. 1, 2, 4, 5, 17, 25, 30.
  • Dec. 21, 25, 26, 27, 28.
  • Shrove Tuesday,
  • Ash Wednesday,
  • Good Friday,
  • Easter Mon. Tues. & Wed.
  • Holy Thursday,
  • Whit-Mon. Tues. & Wed.
    Page  186 STAMP-OFFICE.
  • Jan. 1, 6, 18, 25, 30.
  • Feb. 2, 24.
  • Mar. 25.
  • Apr. 23, 25.
  • May, 1, 29.
  • June, 4, 10, 11, 24, 29.
  • July, 25.
  • Aug. 1, 11, 12, 24.
  • Sept. 2, 18, 21, 22, 29.
  • Oct. 18, 25, 28.
  • Nov. 1, 4, 5, 9, 17, 25, 30.
  • Dec. 21, 25, 26, 27, 28.
  • Shrove Tuesday,
  • Ash Wednesday,
  • Good Friday,
  • Easter Mon. Tues. & Wed.
  • Holy Thursday,
  • Whit-Mon. Tues. & Wed.
    EXCISE-OFFICE.
  • Jan. 1, 6, 18, 25, 30.
  • Feb. 2, 14, 24.
  • Mar. 1, 25.
  • Apr. 23, 25.
  • May, 1, 29.
  • June, 4, 10, 11, 24, 29.
  • July, 15, 25.
  • Aug. 1, 11, 12, 24.
  • Sept. 2, 14, 18, 21, 22, 29.
  • Oct. 18, 25, 28.
  • Nov. 1, 2, 4, 5, 9, 17, 30.
  • Dec. 21, 25, 26, 27, 28.
  • Shrove Tuesday,
  • Ash Wednesday,
  • Good Friday,
  • Easter Mon. Tues. & Wed.
  • Holy Thursday,
  • Whit-Mon. Tues. & Wed.
    CUSTOM-HOUSE.
  • Jan. 1, 6, 18, 25, 30.
  • Feb. 2, 24.
  • Mar. 25.
  • Apr. 23, 25.
  • May, 1, 29.
  • June, 4, 10, 11, 24, 29.
  • July, 25.
  • Aug. 1, 12, 24.
  • Sept. 2, 21, 22, 29.
  • Oct. 18, 28.
  • Nov. 1, 4, 5, 9, 30.
  • Dec. 21, 25, 26, 27, 28.
  • Good Friday,
  • Easter Mon. Tues. & Wed.
  • Holy Thursday,
  • Whit-Mon. Tues. & Wed.
    Page  187 SOUTH-SEA HOUSE.
  • Jan. 1, 18, 25, 30.
  • Feb. 2, 24.
  • Mar. 1, 25.
  • Apr. 23, 25.
  • May, 1, 29.
  • June, 4, 10, 11, 24, 29.
  • July, 25.
  • Aug. 1, 12, 24.
  • Sept. 2, 18, 21, 22, 29.
  • Oct. 18, 26, 28.
  • Nov. 1, 4, 5, 9, 25, 30.
  • Dec. 21, 25, 26, 27, 28.
  • Shrove Tuesday,
  • Ash Wednesday,
  • Good Friday,
  • Easter Mon. Tues. & Wed.
  • Holy Thursday,
  • Whit-Mon. Tues. & Wed.

Dividends at the South-Sea House and India-House are paid from nine to twelve in the morning.

Transfers are made there from twelve to one.

TABLES OF MEASURES AND WEIGHTS.

    Ale and Beer Measure.
  • 2 Pints make 1 Quart
  • 4 Quarts 1 Gallon
  • 8 Gallons 1 Firkin of Ale
  • 9 Gallons 1 Firkin of Beer
  • 2 Firkins 1 Kilderkin
  • 2 Kilderkins 1 Barrel
  • 3 Kilderkins 1 Hogshead
  • 3 Barrels 1 Butt
    Wine Measure.
  • 4 Gills make 1 Pint
  • 2 Pints 1 Quart
  • 4 Quarts 1 Gallon
  • 18 Gallons 1 Rundlet
  • 1 1-3d Rundlet 1 Barrel
  • 1 1-3d Barrel 1 Tierce
  • 11-2 Tierce or 63 Gall. 1 Hhd
  • 1 1-3d Hhd. or 84 Gall. 1 Puncheon
  • 1 1-half Punch. or 2 Hhds. 1 Pipe or Butt
  • 2 Pipes 1 Tun

By this measure all brandies, spirits, mead, cyder, per|ry, and oil, are measured.

    Page  188 Corn Measure.
  • 2 Quarts make 1 Pottle
  • 2 Pottles 1 Gallon
  • 2 Gallons 1 Peck
  • 4 Pecks or 8 Gall. 1 Bushel*
  • 8 Bushels 1 Quarter or Vat
  • 5 Quarters of Wheat, Beans or Pease, 1 Load
  • 10 Quarters of Oats 1 Load
    Dry Measure.
  • 2 Pints make 1 Quart
  • 2 Quarts 1 Pottle
  • 2 Pottles 1 Gallon
  • 2 Gallons 1 Peck
  • 4 Pecks 1 Bushel
  • 8 Bushels 1 Quarter
  • 5 Quarters 1 Wey or Load
  • 5 Pecks 1 Bushel of water measure
  • 4 Bushels 1 Coomb
  • 10 Coombs 1 Wey
  • 2 Weys 1 Last of corn

By this measure salt, lead-ore, oysters, corn, and other dry goods are measured.

    Coal Measure.
  • 4 Pecks make 1 Bushel
  • 9 Bushels 1 Vat or Strike
  • 36 Bushels 1 Chaldron
  • 21 Chaldrons 1 Score

Note, In five chaldrons of coals the seller always gives nine bushels over.

    Cloth Measure.
  • 2 1-4th Inches make 1 Nail
  • 4 Nails 1 Quarter of a Yard
  • 4 Quarters 1 Yard
  • 5 Quarters 1 Ell English
  • 3 Quarters 1 Ell Flemish
  • 6 Quarters 1 Ell French

Scotch and Irish linens are bought and sold by the yard English; but all Dutch linens are bought by the ell Flemish, and fold by the ell English.

    Page  189 Long Measure.
  • 3 Barley-corns make 1 inch
  • 3 Inches 1 Palm
  • 3 Palms 1 Span
  • 1 1-3d Palm, or 12 Inches, 1 Foot
  • 1 1-2d Foot 1 Cubit
  • 2 Cubits 1 Yard
  • 1 Yard 2-3ds 1 Pace
  • 1 Pace 1-5th 1 Fathom
  • 2 Fathoms 3-4ths 1 Pole
  • 16 Feet 1-half, or 5 Yards 1-half, 1 Pole
  • 40 Poles 1 Furlong
  • 8 Furlongs 1 Mile
  • 3 Miles 1 League
  • 20 Leagues 1 Degree
  • 69 Miles 1-half 1 Degree

This treats of Length only.

    Square Measure.
  • 144 square Inches make 1 square Foot
  • 9 square Feet 1 square Yard
  • 30 1-4th square Yards 1 square Pole
  • 40 square Poles 1 square Rood
  • 4 square Roods 1 square acre
  • 640 square Acres 1 square Mile

This includes Length and Breadth.

    Cubic Measure.
  • 1728 cubic Inches make 1 Foot
  • 27 cubic Feet make 1 cu|bic Yard

This comprehends Length, Breadth, and Thickness.

    Avoirdupoize Weight.
  • 16 Drachms make 1 ounce, marked oz.
  • 16 Ounces 1 Pound, lb.
  • 28 Pounds 1 Quarter of a Hundred, qr.
  • 4 Quarters 1 Hundred, or 112 lb. cwt.
  • 20 Hundred Weight 1 Ton, T.

Butter, Cheese, Flesh, Grocery wares, and all goods that have waste, are weighed by this.

    Page  190 Troy Weight.
  • 4 Grains make 1 Carat
  • 24 Grains 1 Pennyweight, marked dwt.
  • 20 Pennyweight 1 Ounce, marked oz.
  • 12 Ounces 1 Pound lb.

By this weight Jewels, Gold, Silver, Amber, &c. are weighed.—14 Ounces, 11 Pennyweights, and 15 Grains Troy, are equal to a Pound Avoirdupoize.

    Apothecaries Weight.
  • 20 Grains make 1 Scruple, marked ℈
  • 3 Scruples 1 Drachm ʒ
  • 8 Drachms 1 Ounce ℥
  • 12 Ounces 1 Pound, or Pit of Liquid, lb.

Apothecaries compound their medicines by this weight, but buy and sell by Avoirdupoize weight.

    Wool Weight.
  • 7 Pounds make 1 Clove
  • 2 Cloves 1 Stone
  • 2 Stone 1 Todd
  • 6 and half Todd 1 Wey
  • 2 Weys 1 Sack
  • 12 Sacks 1 Last

Bread Weight.
 lb.oz.dr.
A peck loaf should weigh1761
A half-peck8110
A quartern458

Note, A bushel of flour is 56 lb.—When the quartern loaf wheaten is sold for 8d. the seconds shall be sold for 7 d. the houshold for 6 d. and so in proportion.

    Hay and Straw.
  • A Load of either contains 36 trusses
  • A Truss of Hay 56 Pounds
  • A Truss of Straw 36 Pounds
    Page  191 TIME.
  • 60 Seconds make 1 Minute
  • 60 Minutes 1 Hour
  • 24 Hours 1 Day
  • 7 Days 1 Week
  • 4 Weeks 1 Month
  • 13 Months, 1 day, 6 hours, or 365 days, 6 hours, makes 1 Year.
    Paper is Bought by the Ream.
  • 4 Sheets make 1 Quire
  • 0 Quires 1 Ream
  • 2 Reams 1 Bundle
  • 5 Bundles 1 Bale

Note, A perfect Ream is twenty-one Quires and a half, without any outside or damaged Sheets.

A stone of meat is 8lb.

A stone horseman's weight, 14 lb.

Horses in height are measured by hands, each hand four inches.

THE END.