A treatise on practical seamanship: ... By William Hutchinson, mariner, and dock master, at Liverpool.
Hutchinson, William, 1715-1801.
Page  [unnumbered]

THE CONTENTS.

  • ON air, and its weight. Page 1
  • Foul air in ships, and how to get clear of it. Page 2
  • Pressure of air, and the bad effects it may have on ships in a tide way lying in mud, and on people being drowned by sticking fast in mud, Page 3
  • Pressure of the air, the cause of what is called suction, and the weather judged of from the state of the air by weather glasses. Page 4
  • The uncertainty of weather glasses, a storm once pointed out by one, Page 5
  • On wind and its velocity, and on eddy wind, &c. and how the wind acts on a ship's sails both by and large. Page 6
  • On water, its properties in floating ships and other bodies, its pressure, and on leaks being in proportion to the different depths, and on dif∣ferent shaped bottles broke by its pressure. Page 8
  • On ships hulls, recommended to be built with rounding bottoms cur∣ved a litte downwards rather than with straight floors. Page 10
  • On the difference of sharp and full built ships for sailing. Page 13
  • Advantages in building ships with rounding bottoms, projecting stems, and upright stern posts. Page 14
  • On hanging ships rudders, and on ships hawse holes. Page 17
  • On masts and yards. Page 18
  • On ships sails, narrow taunt square sails recommended. Page 19
  • Fore tacks to stand as far to windward as main tacks, the angle ships sails stand at when turning to windward, and on setting many sails and working them in an easy manner in little wind. Page 20
  • On setting many sails to the greatest advantage to sail large, or before the wind, in fine weather, and how sails may be strengthened in the making them. Page 22
  • On rigging, and ropes above six inches round, recommended to be ca∣ble laid, for standing rigging. Page 23
  • On stowing and trimming a ship. Page 24
  • Experience the only guide to find a ship's best sailing trim. Page 25
  • Page  viiiDifferent proportions of ships require different management in stowing. Page 25
  • The bad consequence of a ship being too crank, or too stiff. Page 26
  • The medium ought to be endeavoured after. The weightiest part of the cargo or materials to be near the main body of a ship. Page 28
  • On the center of cavity and gravity of a ship. Page 29
  • The center of gravity always liable to aler its place. Why a ship over∣sets, and what supports from overseeing. The center of motion of a ship. Experiments on models of ships to find their center of mo∣tion. Page 30
  • The center of motion shewn by a ship launched. Page 31
  • The center of gravity and motion of a ship at sea in high waves, are near the same place; and the ship's behaviour depends upon that place. Page 32
  • Heavy bodies turn in quick motion upon their center of gravity, and bring their heaviest end foremost. Reasons why a well proportioned ship may be easy or uneasy in high waves at sea. The properties of a collier cat loaded with timber. Page 33
  • The difference of being loaded with timber and coal. Page 34
  • On loading lead without sufficient dinnage. Experiments recommend∣ed to find out a ship's best trim, by their different degrees of stiffness. Page 36
  • On getting a ship under way. To heave a peek with the first of a windward tide, and sail with the flood tide, recommended; and on getting under way with a lee tide. To consult the officers on all necessary occasions, and the intended method of proceeding to be made known. Page 37
  • On the helm, fault of its going too far over, or not far enough. Page 38
  • The effect of the water on the rudder. On the helm when a ship has stern way. Page 39
  • To cast a ship from a single anchor on the larboard tack, with a lee tide, and back her a stern of a danger by making a stern board. Page 40
  • To cast the same way, and shoot her a-head of a danger upon a wind. Page 41
  • To cast a ship on the larboard tack, riding in a tide way with the wind two points on the starboard bow. Page 42
  • To cast on the larboard tack, when riding in a lee tide with the wind right a-head, and ware short round before the wind in little room, and to do it in still water. Page 43
  • On turning to windward, and what makes a ship gain ground to wind∣ward. Page 44
  • An experiment proved, when the wind blew at the rate of nine miles an hour, a sailing boat sailed at the rate of five by the wind and large; Page  ix and to sail within six points of the wind is near enough for a three mast ship to turn to windward. Page 45
  • On tacking and turning to windward; and when a ship is in the best sailing trim for it. An experiment of a rudder tried to the stem of a sailing boat to help gaining to windward. The advantage to suit a ship with sail to prevent her griping too much on the helm. Page 46
  • To tack a ship when in a dangerous situation by a rough sea, or when her trim or property is such as to make her staying doubtful. Page 47
  • To tack a quick turning ship in a fresh gale and smooth water. Page 48
  • An experiment made with a model of a ship on the helm being more or less over. And on tacking in very narrow channels. Page 49
  • On tacking and working to windward in the coal trade to LONDON. Page 50
  • On turning to windward in very narrow channels. Page 51
  • On box-hauling a ship when she refuses stays. Page 52
  • Why a ship loses little ground in box-hauling. Page 53
  • On club-hauling a ship. And on driving to windward with the tide. Page 54
  • Reasons why ships shoots a head more than they can be backed a stern when driving broad side to windward, though with the sails a-back. Page 55
  • To drive a ship broad side to windward, with the tide right against the wind. And driving end on to the tide the difference it makes in driving. Page 56
  • On bringing to, and waring when driving broad side to windward. Page 57
  • To drive broad side to windward with the tide running a little across a channel, or in a winding serpentine river as represented in plate 3. Page 58
  • On bringing a ship to an anchor. And on coiling cables. Page 59
  • On the bad custom of always coiling cables with the sun without being stretched, or the end taken through the coil. And the great advan∣tage of making as long a scope a cable as possible to one good anchor. Page 60
  • To come to an anchor when the wind is right against the tide. Page 61
  • To come to an anchor when sailing with a strong wind and tide the same way. And when the wind is right across the tide. Page 62
  • The great advantage in bringing a ship's head against the tide at letting go the anchor. And to come to an anchor at slack tide, or still water where there is neither tide nor current. Page 63
  • To come to an anchor in roads that are often crowded with ships so as to take and give good and clear births. Page 64
  • To come to an anchor when designed to moor with the best and small bower anchors. And to let go all the anchors to the best advantage, when that is the only chance left to keep a ship off a lee shore. Page 65
  • On keeping a clear anchor. Page 66
  • To keep a clear anchor with the wind right against the tide. Page 67
  • Page  xTo cast the ship the right way when the windward tide makes so as to shoot her always one way clear of the anchor. Page 68
  • On keeping a clear anchor when the wind blows a point or two across the tide. Page 69
  • To keep a clear anchor when the wind is right across the tide. Page 70
  • On the bad custom of sheering a ship to windward of her anchor. Page 71
  • The advantages of sheering to leeward of the anchor. Page 72
  • On mooring ships. Page 73
  • On keeping a clear or open hawse. Page 74
  • On serving the cables to prevent their chafing. Page 75
  • How the weakest moorings may be best applied to help a ship to ride out a storm. Page 76
  • On unmooring a ship. And on heaving the hand lead. Page 77
  • Rules observed by a good leads man. And on singing out the soundings. Page 78
  • On sounding with the deep sea lead. Page 79
  • To bring a ship to, to sound. And on the latitude. Page 80
  • On the latitude of places being wrong laid down. Page 81
  • On look out. Page 82
  • On looking out for land. Page 83
  • On looking out aloft for shoals. And on seeing shoals in clear water from the mast head. Page 84
  • On the longitude at sea by observation. Page 85
  • To have our system of worlds and the fixed stars more easily described. And a compass card ecliptick instead of the twelve signs. And to shew our world on the eight capital points of her orbit recommended. Page 87
  • How our system of worlds with their moons move round the sun. And our world that causes the sun's different declinations, length of days and nights, and our four different seasons of the year. Win∣ter, spring, summer, and fall quarters. And to try to observe the longitude by Jupiter's moons, with Dolland's improved spying glass in calms and smooth water at sea, or in roads or harbours. Page 89
  • This compass card ecliptick with two star hemipheres recommended to be made public by those in power for the benefit of seamen. Page 90
  • On making passages. Page 92
  • On making passages in the coal trade to LONDON, their dexterity in sailing, managing, and working their ships, and the difference of men in heaving up an anchor with the windlass. Page 93
  • On making passages in merchant ships. In narrow channels, and cross tides, two objects for leading marks should always be endeavoured after, being much better than any single mark. Sailing with the Page  xi ebb tide more dangerous than with the flood. In case of getting out of the proper channel whether to let go the anchor or to pro∣ceed forward, to be considered. Proceeding in the night among dangers, if a boat can be sent to shew where they are may be of great service. A ship coming aground that is likely to take a great heald, the topmast should be struck before she takes her heald, and the lower yards may be made shores to help to support her. Page 96
  • On choosing the watches. Safety depends on the watch upon deck. The officer of the watch to use his judgment to avoid danger when it appears. Page 98
  • On shaping a course and navigating through dangerous narrow seas, or straits, where tides or currents run strong if known should be allow∣ed and reckoned as a course. The anchors and cables to be ready on this occasion. To find a ship's situation when danger appears, before proceeding further recommended. Page 99
  • On turning to windward in narrow seas. The advantages and disad∣vantages in bad weather of beating at sea, or running for a port, compared. Remarks when stopping tide, and to take the advan∣tage of the difference of the tide running off, and in shore, recom∣mended. Page 101
  • On taking a departure from the land. And the difference between the theory and practice of navigation, with reasons for it. Page 102
  • On steering in general. Page 103
  • On ships compasses. And on the steering wheel to have its spokes marked, recommended. Page 104
  • On steering a course. Page 105
  • Difference between good and bad helms-men. Page 106
  • On suiting a ship with sail that she may be well steered. And on steer∣ing upon a wind in the open ocean. And on making allowance for lee way. Page 107
  • Experiment on measuring ships away at sea. And on measuring it by the log. Proportions for the log line and glass to mark the line and try the glass. Page 109
  • On heaving and marking down the log only once in two hours. Page 112
  • On heaving and marking down the log every hour in the log book and journals, as practised in the EAST-INDIA trade. Page 113
  • On a ship when in the open ocean. And on turning to windward there. Page 115
  • On taking in sails to save them, and ease the ship sailing upon a wind in the beginning of a storm. Page 116
  • On taking in the topsails upon a wind when it blows strong. And on taking in the courses upon a wind in a storm. Page 117
  • Page  xiiOn brailing up the mizen. And taking in the lower staysails upon a wind. And on taking in the topsails, mainsail, or foresail, when sail∣ing large, or before the wind in a storm. Page 118
  • On taking in the foresail at the time of waring in a storm. Page 119
  • On laying a ship to in a storm. And on lying to under a mainsail, with the foresail aback in the brails. Mainsail often split by it. Page 120
  • On a ship under lower staysails and mizen in a storm. And the advan∣tages of it instead of lying to in a storm. Page 121
  • On Bearing away in a storm, to scud before the wind and waves. And on sailing large or before the wind in squalls. Page 123
  • On scuding or sailing before the wind in a storm. And on relieving the helms-man, to prevent the ship broaching to. And to allow for bad steerage in marking down the log. Page 125
  • On cunning to the helms-man. Page 127
  • On sailing and cunning with high winds and waves right upon the beam. The danger of sailing this way, on luffing up to or bear away from a dangerous wave. To avoid the danger of sailing this way by al∣tering the course a little either way. Page 128
  • On carrying sail against head waves. And on loosing and setting sails. Page 130
  • On drawing near to danger, or making a land fall. Page 131
  • On turning to windward out of MOUNT'S BAY. And box-hauled the ship when she would not stay. Page 132
  • Necessary cautions in strong tide channels in the night, or thick, wea∣ther. And not to mistake the land, which often occasions great misfortunes. Page 133
  • On getting a Pilot on board in bad weather at sea. Page 134
  • On Pilots, and their necessary qualifications only to recommend how to treat and depend upon them. And not to be afraid to differ and take the command from them when found necessary. An instance of a narrow escape from loss by being over persuaded by one Page 135
  • On the tides, and the important advantages of the knowledge of them to navigation. Damage done by running for bar harbours at a wrong time of tide. Observations on the tides at LIVERPOOL. A middling tide nicely observed. Their flowing compared with a tide clock. They slow more or less in proportion to the moon's distance. When the day and night tides run highest. Why spring and neep tides come sooner or later. Progressive difference of the tides flow∣ing. Tables for the time and height of the tides flowing at LIVER∣POOL. The preface for these tables. Advantages of these tide ta∣bles. The moon's distance in her orbit to be attended to for the Page  xiii height and strength of the tides. To make an allowance for the wind being with or against the direction of the flood-tide Page 139
  • On ripplings or races that run at the edge of strong tides. Page 146
  • On a ship at anchor waiting for the tide. And on leading marks thro' channels, or to avoid dangers. To observe marks, buoys, &c. with a spying-glass, recommended. And the best colours for marks, buoys, &c. Page 147
  • On light-houses. And the uncertainty of open fire-light Page 148
  • On oil-lamps, with reflectors, for light houses. How made and fixed in light-houses at LIVERPOOL. On light-houses that require to be seen more than half round the compass. On hand-lamps and reflectors. Signals for ships seen off, and in distress. Experiment of the dis∣tance of two lights not to appear as one. Round or circular win∣dows, with the best glass recommended for light-houses. Page 149
  • On running for dangerous tide and bar harbours. Page 155
  • On running for LIVERPOOL at improper times. Not to run till a pro∣per time and tide. Danger of running too soon, as well as too late, in the tide. To guard against cross tides. On grounding on sand-banks, when the flood-tide runs strong over them. Hints to ride a ship by the stern. And when catched in the narrows in a fog. Page 156
  • On letter of mart ships and privateer's crews to be disciplined. Page 159
  • On sitting out these ships. Short and light guns recommended. Page 160
  • On the common gun carriage. And on the method of carrying lower-deck guns. The cause of their breaking loose Page 161
  • On carrying the guns run out. Page 162
  • On swivel carriages for great guns Page 163
  • On these carriages carrying the guns with more convenience, ease and safety to the ship, than the common carriage. Page 164
  • Their advantage above the common carriage, either for exercise or action. On pointing the gun to the object with more ease and certainty Page 165
  • On fortifying the quarter-deck, forceastle and tops, &c Page 168
  • On carrying swivel guns in the tops. And on powder and shot. And how to prove the powder recommended Page 169
  • On keeping a clean bottom. A cask scrubber recommended. Page 171
  • On the sailing of letter of mart ships, or privateers. Page 172
  • On stationing and exercising their people. Page 173
  • On exercising manoeuvres to attack or defend a ship. Page 174
  • On a ship cruising in her station. Without sail in the day and under topsails at night. Not always to give chace at first seeing a ship. Page 179
  • On chasing to the best advantage. And on seeing the chace in the night. Page 181
  • Page  xivOn towing and rowing a ship in chace. On sculling oars used in CHINA.
  • And on porpoises sculling with their tails, shews, that oars, in rowing and sculling, will never be beat by any complicated machinery. Page 182
  • On coming to action properly prepared. Page 184
  • On running end on to the enemy's broad side to begin the attack. Page 185
  • On attacking by backing and filling the sails. Page 186
  • To take all advantages in attacking, keeping the enemy always before the beam, to observe and act according to their motion. Page 187
  • On treating prisoners of war well; but to guard against their rising. Page 188
  • On sayings and signs of good or bad weather. Page 189
  • On ships in distress. And dangerous leaks suddenly breaking out. Page 192
  • On a ship overset, or laid on her side at sea. Page 193
  • On recovering a ship upright without cutting away the masts. Page 194
  • To make a ship ware and steer that has lost her foremast. And a ship that will not steer without broaching to. And on steering a ship that has lost her rudder. Page 195
  • On the danger of a lee shore in a gale of wind, when the waves run high and a rocky shore, the best of swimmers stand but little chance to save their lives, as proved by a fatal instance. Page 197
  • On a ship being near a dangerous lee shore. To try to clear it by car∣rying sail, to box-haul the ship when she refuses stays. To endea∣vour to ride out the storm. To cut away the masts as necessity may require. Page 198
  • On ships being forced upon a dangerous lee shore. The necessity for the best of management to save lives and property on this occasion. Page 200
  • The best conduct when it is a gentle sloping shore, in a tide way, and to wait the best time of tide to quit the ship, nearer low water the better. Page 201
  • To preserve the boats, and the best method to haul them over strands. When the shore is nothing but high, hard steep rocks, both above and under water, requires the ground tackle to be tried as the only refuge. On a gentle sloping shore, when the waves are not so vio∣lent to bulge a ship, to trim her by the head, to be end on to the sea may answer best to preserve and get her off again. Page 202
  • On saving lives from ships lost on a lee shore. Page 203
  • Experiments recommended to be tried for this noble purpose. And certain rewards of a guinea or more to the poor people on shore for every human life that can be saved from wrecks, and vessels forced on shore, as fixed here by the Corporation of LIVERPOOL. Page 204
  • The Conclusion. Page 209