The history and antiquities of the city of Carlisle: and its vicinity, by William Hutchinson, Esq.
Hutchinson, William, 1732-1814.

[illustration]
THE CITY OF CARLISLE.

THE traveller approaching from the south, has the best view of the city, seat∣ed on a fine eminence, gradually emerging from an extensive plain of rich cultivated land. The waters of the Frith are seen on the one hand, with the ad∣jacent levells; the back ground of the landscape is beautifully variegated by the irregular swells of the whole Scotch promontory, extending towards the Irish sea. The walls strengthened with an arrangement of buttresses at irregular distances, lies upon one angle to the view; in part, concealing the houses of the city, and boldly overtoped by the square tower of the castle, and the august and solemn structure of the cathedral. This view of Carlisle is the more striking, as there is no adjacent eminence; from which cause the city looks more majestic, as it crowns so beautiful a plain.

The city is walled round, the fortifications towards Scotland appearing the most modern; they are formed of better squared stones than several other parts of the works. The east and south sides are supported by a multitude of buttresses, which, we presume, have been built up occasionally, to strengthen the decaying parts of the wall. It is watered by three fine rivers, the Eden on the north, the Peterill on the east, and Caude on the west. There are three gates to the city, which, from their different aspects, are called the English, Irish, and Scotch Gates. On Page  4the approach from Penrith, on the south, you enter the English Gates; on the ap∣proach from Wigton, on the south-west, is the Irish Gate; and the Scotch Gate, to the north, opens upon the bridges. The walls are embrazured, but without any earth-work. The English Gate is guarded by a very strong machicolated gate, flanked by circular towers of great strength; the guns mounted therein in several tiers, would effectually sweep every approach. This gateway, with its towers and other works, is commonly called the Citadel, and was erected by the order of King Henry VIII. The castle consists of various works, but being kept up as a garrisoned place, we conceive it imprudent to describe them minutely. * The donjon, or great tower, more properly deserves the title of the citadel, being surrounded by the other works; it is square and very lofty, and the walls of vast strength and thickness, being constructed agreeably to the old modes of defence, before the use of cannon: it was strengthened by a draw bridge over a wide ditch, and defended by modern works; a half-moon battery mounted with cannon, and a very large platform also mounted with cannon, under cover of the outward wall. The top of the tower being embrazured and lined with turf, and mounted with large cannon, this part of the fortress could make a good defence, and sustain a formidable attack. By a well of vast depth constructed within the great tower, and said to be of Roman work, the supply of water for the garrison could not be cut off by an enemy. This well is not unlike that in Bambrough Castle in Nor∣thumberland, and has been constructed at the same time the great tower was built. In the outer castle is a fine grass plot, a garden and governor's house.

But it will be expected by our readers, that we give a more particular descrip∣tion of this city, and collect the historical facts relative to it.

The name of Carlisle has been deduced by several authors, from different ety∣mologies. The British chronicle informs us, this city was built by a British potentate, called Luel. Leland says,

the Irishmen call bale a town, and so peradventure did the old Scottes: thus might be said that lugabalia soundeth Luel's-town.
§ The Romans called it Lugovallium, or Luguballum, from its si∣tuation on Severus' wall, and from the troops and people garrisoned there. Ptolemy calls it Leucopibi, Nennius Caer Lualid. The Saxons retained the old name Luel; the Welsh writers give it the name of the city of Duballus. Some derive the name Page  5from the ancient British Llu-gyda-gwal, which implies an army by the wall; from whence it is asserted the Romans framed their appellation of Lugovallium; others from Lagus, or Lucus, which, in the language of the Celtae and Britains, signified a tower; and which, with the Roman compound, expressed a tower or fort upon the wall or vallum: to the Saxon name was added, the word caer, or city; and from these, Caer Leuel, the present name of Car-lisle, seems to come by an easy corrup∣tion. It is reasonable to apprehend, that in so fine a situation, on the confluence of three rivers, and the grand estuarie of the Frith, this place was of some strength and distinction before the coming of the Romans: it will naturally follow, that the name was given antecedent to the building of Severus' wall, or the vallum of Hadrian; and we conceive that Leland points out the most probable etymology. Camden and his editors have taken great pains on this subject,
The Romans and Britains called it Luguvallum and Luguballium, or Luguballia; the Saxons, as Bede writeth, Luel; Ptolemy, as some think, Lucopibia, (which seems rather to be a corruption of 〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉i. e. white houses, and to be Candida Casa, or Whithorn in Galloway) Nemicus Caer Lualid; the ridiculous Welsh prophecies, the city of Duballus; we Carlisle; and the Latins, from the more modern name, Carleolum. For that Luguballia and Carlisle are the same, is universally agreed by our historians. But as to the etymology, what pains has our countryman, Leland, taken about it, and at last he is driven upon this shift, that Ituna might be called Lugas, and that Ballum came from Vallis, a valley, and so make Lugu∣vallum, as much as a valley upon the Luge. But to give my conjectures also, I dare affirm, that the vallum and valia were derived from that famous military vallum of the Romans, which runs hard by the city. For Antoninus calls Lugu∣vallum ad vallum; and the Picts wall, which was afterwards built on the wall of Severus, is to be seen at Stanwicks, a small village a little beyond the Eden. It passed the river over against the castle; where, in the very channel, the remains of it, namely, great stones appear to this day. Also, Pomponius Mela has told us, that lugus or lucus signified a tower among the old Celtae, who spoke the same language with the Britains; for what Antoninus calls lugo augusti, is in him turris augusti; so that luguvallum, both really is, and signifies a tower or fort upon the wall or vallum. Upon this foundation, if the French had made their lugdunum signify a tower upon a hill, and their lucotetia (so the ancients called what we call lutetia) a beautiful tower; for the words import so much in the British, they might possibly have been more in the right, than by deriving the latter from lutum, dirt; and the former from one Lugdus, a fabulous king. As to the present name, Carlisle, the original of this is plain enough, from the British, caer, a city; and Lual, Luel, Lugubal, Leil, or Luil, according to the several appella∣tions, antient or modern, importing as much as the town or city of Luul, &c.

Page  6It has been the opinion of several judicious visitants, that the river Eden has shifted its course and channel since the time of the Romans, and that formerly it passed nearer to the castle; for it should seem an inconsistent task for that wise people, to make their work traverse a rapid and broad river, otherwise than in a direct line. Both Mr. Horsley, and Mr. Warburton join in this opinion.

It may safely be determined, that the Romans found this a place of some im∣portance; but that it was, in their time, rather a place of recess after the toils of warfare were over, than a place of chief strength, appears from the vicinity of Stanwix, the station in course upon the wall. It is not to be doubted, but Caer-Luel was fortified, as it lay too near the borders not to be subject to perils and alarms; but we have no Roman authorities, to denominate it a regular Roman city or station; as we find those nearest to the wall, on the south, were Olenacum, now called Old Carlifle, near Wigton; and Bremetenracum, called old Perith. The words of Camden and his editors are,

That this city flourished in the time of the Romans, appears plainly enough from the several evidences of antiquity, which they now and then dig up; and from the frequent mention made of it, by the writers of those times. And even after the ravages of the Picts and Scots, it retained something of its ancient splendor, and was accounted a city.
§

We have no authority to determine what was the size or form of this place in distant antiquity. Leland says in his Itinerary, vol. VII. p. 48.

The hole site of the towne, is sore chaungid.q For whereas the stretes were, and great edifices, now be vacant and garden plottes. The cite of Cairluel stondeth in the forest of Ynglewood. The cite ys yn compace scant a myle, and ys walled with a right fayre and stronge wal, ex lapide quadrato subrufo. In diggyng to make new buildyngs yn the towne, often tymes hath bene, and now alate fownd diverse foundations of the old cite, as pavimentes of stretes, old arches of dores, coyne, stones squared, paynted pottes, mony hid yn pottes, so hold and mauldid, that when yt was stronly touchid yt went almost to mowlder.
Page 49,
In the feldes about Caerluel, yn plewhyng hath be fownd diverse Cornelines, and other stonys wel entaylid for seals, and yn other places of Cumberland yn plewhyng hath be fownde brickes conteynyng the prints of antique workes.

Page  7After the retreat of the Romans, we may naturally conceive, this city would soon be evacuated by the Britons, and destroyed and laid waste by the northern nations, who made constant irruptions, and at length extended their rapine and devastation into the southern, and interior parts of Britain, till repressed by the coming in of the Saxon allies. It would even be a considerable time after their introduction, before they could extend their arms to these western parts. During this period, and in the darkness in which the history of those ages is involved, we are left to conjecture, that this now flourishing city lay in ashes and ruin, till ******* Egfrid possessing the diadem of Northumbria, carried his conquest to the western ocean. The Britons in this mountainous country, long retained their natural ferocity, and supported their uncivilized liberty and independance. Egfrid had Cumberland as a tributary province of his kingdom; and from that period we gain some degree of certainty in the history of this place. *

The first certain account we have of Carlisle, is in the seventh century of the Christian aera. It appears, that in Egfrid's reign, it became a place of consider∣able strength and consequence; he having caused it to be rebuilt, and fortified with a wall. Camden says,

in 619, Egfrid, King of Northumberland, gave it to the famous St. Cuthbert, in these words: I have likewise bestowed upon him the city called Luguballia, with the lands fifteen miles about it,
and quotes Symeon Dunelm. This is a palpable error, for Cuthbert's consecration was in 685. The words of Symeon are,
Et quia illa terra minus sufficiens erat, Lugubaliam que Luel vocatur, in circuita xv. miliaria habentum in augmentum suscepit; ubi etiam sanctimonialium congregatione stabilita. Reginam dato habitu religionis consecravit, et inprofectu divinae servitutis scolas instituit.
Bede says, the citizens carried Cuthbert to see the walls of their city, and a well of admirable workmanship, built in it by the Romans.
Several writers of St. Cuthbert's life, tell us of that holy man's founding here, A. D. 686, a convent of monks, a school, and an abbey of nuns; but from Bede's Life of St. Cuthbert, cap. 27. it seems as if the monastery here, to which Queen Emenburga retired, was in be∣ing before St. Cuthbert's coming to Carlisle.

§

Page  8After Egfrid's having restored the city, and fortified it with a wall, it became an appendage to the see of Lindisfarn, by the royal gift thereof to St. Cuthbert; and so continued till the year 1130, when King Henry I. constituted it a separate bishoprick. By Dugdales Monasticon, it appears, that in 1082, in the acts of William Carilepho, bishop of Durham, it was stiled part of the diocese of the bishop of Durham. It is asserted, that in 1066, William the Conqueror issued his mandate to the inhabitants of Cumberland at large, and of Carlisle in particular, that they should continue subject to the bishop of Durham as their diocesian, from whose predecessors they had received Christianity.

So far we are allowed to speak of this city from the loose records of antiquity; from the time of the Conquest we have more certainty, and evidence of undenia∣ble authenticity to guide us. Camden's description of the site of Carlisle is to this purport,

Between the confluence of these rivers (Peteril and Cauda) the ancient city of Carlisle has a delightful, pleasant situation; bounded on the north with Eden, on the east with Peteril, and on the west with Caude; and, besides these natural fences, it is fortified with a strong stone wall, a castle, and citadel. It is of an oblong form from west to east: to the west is a pretty large castle, which was built by William the second, and repaired by King Richard III. as should seem by the arms.
The period of time between the reign of Egfrid, and the coming of the Danes, affords a sufficient number of years to support a presumption, that this place would greatly improve in importance and power, before the pro∣gress of those ravagers; but the advance only served to aggrandize its woe; for when those invaders had possessed themselves of these northern parts, we find Carlisle again smoking in her ashes: and so complete was the destruction, that she lay overwhelmed in her desolation, till the time of William the Conqueror, when one of his followers is said to have rebuilt some parts of the city, founded, or restored the ancient religious society there, and dedicated the house to the honour of the Blessed Virgin, of which he became the chief: and, in consequence of these pious works, it was, that the Conqueror issued the foregoing mandate, in which Carlisle was particularly specified; that this body of religious should be Page  9subject to the episcopal jurisdiction of Durham, as were the adjacent lands of Northumberland.

King William Rufus having entertained a perfect idea of the importance of this place, on the western part of the frontier, as he saw Newcastle was on the eastern; and seeing the infant works of Walter proceeding prosperously, he un∣dertook to restore the city, and caused many public buildings to be erected; the whole of which, he directed, should be defended by a complete circumvallation, and a strong fortress: the care of executing his plan he consigned to Walter, and under his inspection, it is alledged, the works were carried on. From the appear∣ance of several parts of the fortifications, one is led to determine, they are the work of that aera; for the Normans brought into this country, some of the best workmen the island ever possessed, as appears by the remains of many of the northern castles, whose dates are well ascertained: and there is so great a simili∣tude of the form and mode of architecture in the great tower of the castle of Car∣lisle, that thence, by a common observer, its date may be ascertained. In the sides of this tower, in several parts, are placed the arms of England, but these seem to denote no more than the reparations made by the several sovereigns. §

It is said he first placed here a colony of Flemings, and most probably they were the artificers who raised the fortifications; for soon after, we read of the city being restored and walled, with the defence of a fortress added thereto: we find the Flemings were removed to North Wales, and the isle of Anglesea, and the king replaced them with a colony of South Britains, men used to husbandry, and Page  10the culture of lands, who should till this part of the forest of Inglewood, which hitherto had lain in its original state; and teach the natives the mode of reaping from the natural fertility of their country, the many comsorts of life; and the progressive treasures to be won by industry; of which they do not, from any thing mentioned by historians, appear to have conceived a previous idea. To this colony all the records existing attribute the first tillage that was known in the fertile plains of Carlisle. Bishop Gibson, in his edition of Camden, speaking of the evidence touching this matter in the Saxon Chronicle, says,

It has it 〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉 which at first sight should seem to be an error for; 〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉: but in truth, this seems rather to be an error of the librarian, for 〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉, and on that supposition the words would imply, that a great number of husbandmen were sent thither, and not Englishmen; for, before that time the inhabitants of Carlisle were English: and what follows in the Saxon Chronicle, 〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉, strengthens the conjecture, as expressing the errand upon which they were sent, viz. to cultivate those parts.
This was deep policy in William, as it was in∣troducing a certain employment, which would naturally call together many settlers; and render his kingdom less subject to annoyances from a northern enemy, by the increase of population, and consequent strength of the frontiers. The cultivation introduced by William, had not made so rapid a progress in the course of seventy years, as to have cleared the neighbourhood of Carlisle of wood; for by the char∣ter of King Henry II. the citizens had the privilege of taking fuel, and building timber from the Royal Forest of Carlisle.

Camden says,

Lugubalia now grown populous, had, as they write, its Earl, or rather Lord Ralph Meschines, from whence descended the earls of Chester.

After the death of Richard, Earl of Chester, who was drowned with the king's children, Ranulph Meschines removed to Chester. and was Earl thereof. Pre∣sently after King Henry I. died, and King Stephen usurping the state, gave this county to David, King of Scots, to procure his aid against King Henry II. right heirs to the late king, as son to Maud the Empress, daughter and sole heir to Henry I. But the Scots secretly favoured him for his right's sake; and for that he had made the said Henry Fitz Empress knight at Carlisle. Yet accepting the gift of the county, whereunto he pretended his own right, before granted to his ancestors by the Saxon kings, he made his eldest son, Henry Fitz David, Earl of Huntington and Carlisle; which Henry founded the abbey of Holm Cultram in the time of King Stephen, his father confirming the grant of the revenues wherewith he endowed that house, and so his son Malcom, King of Scots, after David. After Henry Fitz David and King Stephen were dead, King Henry Fitz Empress took Carlisle and the county from the Scots, and granted to the city the first liberties I hear of, that they enjoyed after the Conquest. But his charter was burned by a casual fire that happened in the town, which defaced a great part of the same, and all the records of antiquity of that place.
—DENTON.

The next person we read of in history, who had the title of Earl of Carlisle, was Andrew de Harcla, whom King Edward II. for his good services against Thomas, Earl of Lancaster, and his adherents, and for subduing those who were Page  [unnumbered]

[illustration]
CARLISLE CASTLE.
Page  11in rebellion, and delivering them prisoners to the king, created him Earl of Car∣lisle. From the time of his degradation, * the title of Earl of Carlisle was never revived till the Restoration of King Charles II. when Charles Howard, son of Sir William Howard, in the 13th year of that reign, was created Lord Dacre of Gils∣land, visc. Howard of Morpeth, and Earl of Carlisle, in reward for his having been highly instrumental in that happy restoration: in which honours he hath been suc∣ceeded by his immediate descendants to this time.

In the wall be iii gates, Bocher (south) gate, Caldew (west) gate, and Richard (north) gate. The castle being within the towne, is yn sum part as a closer of the wall.
—LEL. ITIN. vol. VII. page 48.

The parts of Carlisle castle are particularly mentioned in the report made of the state of it, in the reign of Queen Elizabeth, given in the notes. The cita∣del, Page  12as it is said, was erected in the reign of King Henry VIII.; and it is surpris∣ing that the whole castle and fortifications should so soon fall into such decay, as to be in the state represented by that report, in the reign of Queen Elizabeth. It appears thereby, that the works consisted of a donjon, whose walls are twelve feet Page  13in thickness, an inward and outward ward; the walls of the outward ward, nine feet in thickness, and eighteen feet in height; and the walls of the inner ward, twelve feet, having a half-moon bastion. A tower, called the Captain's Tower. Two gates, one to each ward. In the castle a great chamber and a hall, but no Page  14storehouse for amunition. In the walls of the town, three gate-way towers, a se∣micircular bastion, called Springold Tower: and add to these, the citadel. But besides those mentioned in the report, the walls were garnished with several square towers, particularly a tower at the western sally port, and a tower called the Tile Tower, of particular strength.

Before we quit the subject of the castle, we must remark the beautiful and ex∣tensive prospect which you command from the great tower. The foreground is formed of level meads, washed by Eden; in one part, insulated by a separation of the river. This plot is ornamented by two fine stone bridges, one of four, the other of nine arches, the great passage towards Scotland. The hanging banks are crowded with the village and church of Stanwix, and the distant ground filled with the mountains of Bewcastle. To the south, you command the plains to∣wards Penrith, shut in on either hand by a vast chain of mountains; over which Cross-fell and Skiddaw are distinctly seen, greatly eminent. To the east, a varied tract of cultivated country, scattered over with villages and hamlets, mingling beautifully with woodlands on the extensive landscape: the distant horizon form∣ed by the heights of Northumberland. To the west, the Frith spreads out its Page  [unnumbered]

[illustration]
The DEANEY from the CITYWALL..
[illustration]
S.W.VIEW of the FRATRY.
[illustration]
CARLISLE.
N.W.VIEW of the CATHEDRAL.
[illustration]
N.E.VIEW of the CASTLE.
[illustration]
GATE of the CASTLE.
Page  15shining expanse of waters, margined on this hand by a cultivated tract, on the other by the Scotch coast, where Creffel, and a chain of mountains extend towards the ocean.

The parts of the CATHEDRAL now remaining, shew, that the old structure when it was intire, was a noble and solemn edisice.

The body of the cathedral chyrch ys of an older building than the quyer; and yt ys as a filial derived from St. Oswald's fast by Pontfret.
Lel. Itin. vol. VII. page. 48.—but since his days, it has undergone great change, as will be shewn in the sequel. The present edifice consists of the east limb of the cross, being the chancel, and the cross aile or tran∣sept, with the tower: the greatest part of the west limb of the cross, having been pulled down in the civil wars, 1641: with the materials they erected a guard∣house at every gate of the city, and one in the market-place; and two batteries in the castle. The circular arches and massive round columns,
whose shafts are only fourteen feet two inches high, and circumference full seven and a half,
* which remain of the west limb and transept, are of the heaviest order of the Saxon architecture; and at the first sight, testify the different ages in which this part and the chancel were erected: indeed the architecture denotes an earlier aera than the time of William Rufus, and probably here is a part of the work of the age of St. Cuthbert: but there is no corroborating evidence to attend the mode of building, which might prove so ancient a date. The west end is said to have been, in length, 135 feet from the cross aile, of which 43 feet remains, it being dismembered of 92 feet. It is not in our power to determine how often this church was restored; it is evident that the Danes laid this city in ashes, and that King William Rufus, under his trusty nominee Walter, restored the city and the public buildings: but so early as the reign of King Henry H. the city was laid waste by the Scots, and the public records were burnt, which most probably, a∣greeable to the custom of those days, were deposited in the archieves of the eccle∣siastics: conceiving this to be the fact, then we must admit of some considerable change in this sacred edifice; for in 1292, we are told, an accidental fire consum∣ed the church, with half of the city, to the number of 1300 houses, as far as the north gate. In the reign of King Edward III. it was rebuilt by contributions. The editor of Camden's words are,
Almost in the middle of the city, stands the cathedral church; the upper part, whereof (being newer) is a curious piece of workmanship, built by King Henry VIII. but the lower is much more ancient.— The lower west part is the parochial church, and as old as St. Cuthbert; or as Walter, who came in with the Conqueror, was a commander in his army, rebuilt the city, founded a priory, and turning religious, became, himself, the first prior of it. The chancel was built by contributions, about the year 1350, and the belfrey was raised, and the bells placed in it, at the charge of William de Strick∣land, bishop in the year 1401.
The expression used by this learned editor, is so indefinite, that we own we are not able to determine, whether he meant to imply that King Henry VIII, built the present chancel. By a writer in the Page  16Gentleman's Magazine 1745, p. 674, it is said,
on the 14th Richard II. near 1500 houses were destroyed, with the cathedral, and suburbs,
by an accidental fire; and he adds, this account is taken from the Magna Britannia Antiqua et Nova. If this account has any foundation, the last conflagration happened forty
[illustration]
A Ground Plan of the CATHEDRAL CHURCH of CARLISLE.
  • A The Bishop's Throne.
  • B The Pulpit.
  • C The Governor's Seat.
  • D The Mayor's do.
  • E The Litany Desk.
  • F The Reading Desks.
  • G The Bishop's Stall.
  • H The Dean's do.
  • I The Prebendaries' Stalls.
  • K The Entrance, above which is the Organ.
  • L The place where the Bells are rung.
  • M The place where the Legend of St. Anthony is painted.
  • N The place where the Legend of St. Augustine is painted.
  • O The Clock.
  • P The Doors, the south one of which opened into the Cloisters.
    • 1. Bishop Strickland's Tomb.
    • 2. Unknown, but supposed to be Bp. Welton's.
    • 3. Unknown, but supposed to be Bp. Appleby's.
    • 4. Bishop Robinson's Monument.
    • 5. Unknown.
    • 6. Unknown.
    • 7. Bishop Smith's Grave-stone.
    • 8. His Lady's.
    • 9. Bishop Law's Monument.
    • 10. Bishop Bell's Grave-stone.
    • 11. Bishop Barrow's Tomb.
    • 12. Mr. Tomlinson's Monument.
    • 13. Mrs. Benson's Monument.
    • 14. Mrs. Saunderson's.
    • 15. Rev. Mr. Thompson's.
    • 16. Unknown.
    • 17. Rev. Archdeacon Fleming's.
    • 18. Bishop Fleming's.
    • 19. His Lady's.
    • 20. Miss Senhouse's.
    • 21. Mrs. Dacre's.
    • 22. Sir Thos. Skelton's Tomb formerly was here.
    • 23. Dean Wilson's Monument.
    • 24. Unknown.
    • 25. Unknown.
    • 26. St. Catharine's Chapel.
Page  17years after the Restoration made in the preceeding reign; but it was ten years be∣fore Bishop Strickland raised the belfrey, which would have been an useless work, when the church was in ruins. These contradictions and ambiguities, we are at present obliged to leave unsolved.

The choir is 137 feet in length, and, with the side ailes, 71 feet broad: the cross aile or transept is 28 feet broad, so that the length of the church, when entire, was exactly 300 feet within. The choir is of fine Gothic architecture, with light columns, remarkably beautiful. The stalls are garnished with taber∣nacle work; (the organ is placed at the cross screen, which contains but a narrow and low entrance, and is a great injury to this fine edifice.) By late repairs it is greatly embellished, being wainscotted with oak, from the stalls round the whole east end of the choir, in a simple stile, after the old order. The open gates leading into the side ailes, are old and much broken, but shew excellent light Tracery work, finely ornamented. The bishop's throne is not magnificent, but yet elegant and stately. The breadth of the choir and ailes being 71 feet, corresponds well with the height, which to the center of the ceiling is 75 feet. The roof was originally lined or vaulted with wood, painted and orna∣mented with arms and devices of the several patrons and contributors to the work; with the arms of France and England, were those of the Piercys, Lucys, Warrens, and Mowbrays. The old wood lining remains in the cross aile, and shews what was the former figure, and the ornaments of the choir: but the outward roof and wood ceiling of the choir having gone greatly to decay, when repairs were made, in 1764 the ceiling was stuccoed, in the form of a groined vault, which is a great advantage to its appearance. * The east window is large, being 48 feet in height, and 30 in breadth, ornamented with fine pilasters: but it has no cast of solemnity, by means of a border of coloured glass thrown round it, of yellow, red, and green, which looks gaudy.

In the ailes on each side, are some strange legendary paintings of the history of St. Anthony, St. Cuthbert, and St. Augustine: one represents the saint vi∣sited by an unclean spirit, who tempts him in a most indecent manner.
Above every picture is a distich relative to the subject.

Page  18To give the reader an idea of these strange compositions, we have transcribed the legends of St. Anthony, St. Cuthbert, and St. Austine.

*

Page  [unnumbered]

[illustration]
Legend of St. Anthony.

[illustration]
Legend of St. Austin.

Page  19The cross aile from north to south, is 124 feet; in the center is a tower, in height 127 feet, which originally supported a spire of lead, thirteen or fourteen feet high, which being gone greatly to decay, was totally removed soon after the Restoration.

The pillars of the choir are clustered, and in excellent proportion; the arches are pointed; in the inner mouldings of the capitals, are figures and flowers in pierced work, of light carving, and the inside of the arches are prettily ornamented. Two galleries run above the side ailes, but with windows only in the upper: that in the east end has a magnificent simplicity.

When the choir was rebuilt in the reign of King Edward III. indulgences were issued, the common and most effectual claim of assistance; which were of forty days penance to such laity, as should, by money, materials, or labour, contri∣bute to this pious work: and the bishop's register abounds with letters patent, and orders for the purpose.

At the west end of the church, is a large plain altar tomb, called the Blue stone; § on this the tenants of the dean and chapter, by certain tenures, were obliged to pay their rents.
—PENNANT.

Page  20Several parts of the abbey were enlarged or improved by Prior Gondibour, who occurs in 1484; the initial letters of his name appearing in several parts. In the vestry is preserved an old oak aumery or chest, with an inscription in the old English letter.—See the Plate, p. 598.

Prior Senhouse, who occurs in 1507, repaired the square tower within this priory; and on the beams of the middle room are inscribed many sentences, with a moral maxim often used by him, Loth to offend.

Prior Slee built the west gate-house, and in a fillet round the arch, in the side towards the court, in an excellent character of raised letters is cut, Grate pro anima Existopheri Slee Prioris, qui primus hoc opus fieri incipit, A. D. 1528.

The door with its ornaments, on the south side of the choir, near the bishop's throne; and also the throne was the work of Prior Haythwaite, about the year 1480, his name having been on the backside of it: and the opposite door with its ornaments, is supposed to have been erected by Prior Senhouse, about the year 1500, by the sentence inscribed thereon, "Vulnera quinque dei sint medicina mei," which was that prior's common adage. The tabernacle work in the quire was done at the expence of Bishop Strickland, who came to the see, A. D. 1400.

There were two chapels, and two chantries, founded within this church; the chapel of St. Catharine was founded by John de Capella, a citizen of Carlisle, which he endowed with certain burgage houses, some lands and rents. In 1366, there being an unjust detention of the rights of this chapel, Bishop Appleby gave notice for restitution in ten days, under pain of excommunication by bell, book, and candle. This chapel was on the south side of the church.

The chapel of St. Alban in 1356, was on inquiry, found not to have been con∣secrated, and thenceforth divine offices and sepulture were prohibited to be longer performed therein: this appears by an entry in Bishop Welton's register. On the dissolution, King Edward VI. granted the lands and tenements appertaining to this chantry, unto Thomas Dalston and William Denton.

Bishop Whelpdale founded a chantry, and endowed it with 200l. for holy offices, for the souls of Sir Thomas Skelton, Knt. and Mr. John Glaston.

There was a chantry of the holy cross, but who was the founder, and when it was endowed, is not known; King Edward VI. granted the lands and tenements thereto belonging, in Carlisle and Kirklinton, to Hen. Tanner and Tho. Bucher.

In the middle of the choir, is a monument of Bishop Bell, with his effigies in his pontificals in brass; and an inscription on a marginal fillet of brass.—See Page  [unnumbered]

[illustration]
Page  21the plate.—He departed this life, A. D. 1496. Bishop William Barrow was buried in St. Catharine's chapel; he died at Rose Castle, A. D. 1429. Bishop John Best was also buried here; he departed this life, A. D. 1560. Bishop Henry Robinson was also buried in this church. There is this remarkable entry in the parish register of Dalston, that he died at Rose Castle, on the 19th day of June, 1616, about three o'clock in the afternoon, and was buried in this cathedral, the same evening about eleven o'clock. In taking down the old hangings and orna∣ments of the high altar to make the late repairs, at the north corner was discover∣ed, a brass plate finely engraven, which had been put up to his memory. The bishop is there represented in his pontisicals, kneeling before one church in ruins, and another lately or newly erected: upon the former is inscribed,
Invenit de∣structum, reliquit extructum et instructum:
on the latter,
Intravit per ostium, per mansit fidelis, recessit beatus.
The devices on the plate are whimsical and grotesque.

Under the engraving,

Henrico Robinsono Carleolensi S. S. Theol. Doctori, collegii reginae Oxoniae praeposito providissimo, tandemq. hujus Ecclesiae per annos 18. Episcopo vigilantissimo. 13 Calend Julii, anno apartu virginis, 1616, aetat suae 64 pie in Domino obdormienti.

Bernardus Robinsonus frater ac haeres hoc qualecunq. MNHMEION, amoris testimonium collocavit.
"Non sibi, sed Patriae, praeluxit Lampadis instar,
"Deperdens oleam, non operam, Ille suam:
"In minimis fide Servo, majoribus apto,
"Maxima nunc Domini gaudia adire dutur."

Bishop Richard Senhouse was interred here.—He died, A. D. 1626, by a fall from his horse.

Bishop Thomas Smith died at Rose-Castle, and was interred in this church: the following inscription is upon his tomb:—

D. S.
Thomas Smith, S T. P.
Hujus Ecclesiae primum Canonicus,
Dein Decanus, tandemq. Episcopus,
Placide hic in Domino requiescit
Vixit Annos LXXXVII.
Obiit duodecimo die Aprilis
Anno Christi
MDCCII.

Sir George Fleming, bishop of this diocese, died at Rose-Castle, 1747, and was interred in the south aile.

Page  22In a letter from Mr. G. Smith, in the Gentleman's Magazine, 1749, we have an account of part of a monumental inscription, found below the bishop's throne. *

〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉

There is no attempt to explain what person was here interred; it is possible the tomb was made antecedent to the building of the throne.

The whole of this noble edifice is of red freestone, ornamented with pilasters and pointed arches. There have been some statues on the eastern turrets, but they are mutilated, and gone greatly to decay.

No circumstances are come to our knowledge, touching the religious founda∣tions here, before, or in the time of St. Cuthbert, other than the mention made of them by ancient writers; probably they did exist as several persons speaking of St. Cuthbert's life, tell us he founded, A. D. 686, a convent of monks, a school, and an abbey of nuns: but from Bede's Life of that saint, chap. xvii. it appears the nunnery here, to which Queen Emenburga retired, was existing before St. Cuthbert's visiting Carlisle. Mr. Denton's account of these religious foundations is to the following effect:—

When the city was replenished with people, for to maintain better policy in the same; and to inform the people, instead of a nunnery which had been there before, and which William Rufus had translated thence, and established at Ain∣staplighe; or rather in recompence for the lands to that nunnery belonging, had
In the 81st year of his Age, and the 13th of his Consecration.
A Prelate
who by gradual and well merited Advancements
having passed through every Dignity to the Episcopal
supported that
with an amiable Assemblage of Graces and Virtues:
which eminently formed in his Character
The courteous Gentleman and the Pious Christian;
and rendered him a shining Ornament
to his Species, his Nation, his Order.
His Deportment
in all human Relations and Positions
was squared by the Rules of Morality and Religion,
under the constant Direction of a consummate Prudence;
whilst his Equanimity
amidst all Events and Occurrences
in an inviolable Adherence to the golden Medium
made him easy to himself and agreeable to others,
and had its Reward
In a chearful Life, a serene old Age, a composed Death.
His excellent Pattern
Was a continual Lesson of Goodness and Wisdom,
and remains in his ever reverable Memory
an illustrious Object of Praise and Imitation.
Page  23founded another at Ainstaplighe, endowing the same with other revenues there. King Henry I. founded a college of secular priests in the second year of his reign, and made Athwald his confessor or chaplain, (prior of St. Botophs) first prior of Carlisle, dedicating the church to the honour of the Blessed Virgin Mary, and endowed them with the tithes of the churches then founded in the Forest of Englewood; but being hindred by the tumults and troubles of his time, he could not perfect all things before the 33d year of his reign, and then strucken with grief for the loss of his children, that were drowned coming from Normandy, by the counsel of the Prior Athelwold; and to appease God for his sins, as he thought, he erected a bishop's see at Carlisle, and made the said Athelwald, first bishop thereof, whom the Archbishop of York named Thurstan, did consecrate in the year 1133: and in his stead, another chaplain of the said King Henry, named Walter, was made the second prior of that house, who, a little before his election, had taken upon him, by the king's license, a religious habit, viz. of a regular canon there, which order of canons the king and bishop Athelwold had placed in that house, banishing the secular priests immediately upon his consecration. The said Walter gave to the church of Carlisle for ever in pure alms, his lands in Lynstock, Richardby, Crosby, Little Crosby, Walby, Brunskeugh, Carleton, Little Carleton, and the wood; and the churches or rectories of St. Cuthbert in Carlisle and Staynwings, which the king had given him; and the same gift was confirmed unto them both by the king and bishop Athelwold.

The rectory of St. Cuthbert's in Carlisle, was founded by the former inhabi∣tants of Carlisle before the Danes overthrew the city, and by them dedicated to the honour of St. Cuthbert of Duresm, who of antient times was lord of the same for fifteen miles about Carlisle. At the first foundation of the church every citi∣zen offered a piece of money, which was a coin of brass then current, which they buried under the foundation of the church steeple there as was found to be true at the late re-edifying of St. Cuthbert's steeple, A. D. ****, for when they took up the foundation of the old steeple, they found well near a bushel of that money.

After the said priors, Athelwold and Walter, succeeded John, who gave Water∣croft in Flimby, to the Lord of Workington, son of Gospatrick; and after John, Bartholomew, who, in the time of Bishop Hugh, confirmed Orton in Westmor∣land to the prior of Coneyshead. After him Radulph was prior, who confirmed the impropriation of the rectory of Burgh to the abbey of Holm Cultram, in the time of Walter, bishop of Carlisle.—After Radulph these were priors suc∣cessively: Robert Morvill, Adam Felton, Alanus, Galfridus, John de Horncastle, John de Penrith, William Dalston, Robert Edenhall, Thomas Hoton, Thomas Barnaby, Thomas Hathwaite, Thomas Gudybour, Simon Senhouse, Christopher Slee, Lancelot Salkeld, last prior and first dean.

After King Henry VIII. had changed the priory into a deanry and cathedral church of a new foundation, at the suppression of abbeys, adding thereunto, for their better maintenance the revenues of the dissolved priory of Wetheral, a cell Page  24of St. Mary's abbey York, dedicating the church to the honour of the holy and and indivisible Trinity.
After Salkeld succeeded in the deanry as follows:—
  • 1 Lancelot Salkeld last prior and first dean. §
  • 2 Sir Thomas Smith, A. D. 1547, died 12 Aug. 1571.
  • 3 Sir John Wooley, Knt. inst. 11 Octr. 1577, died 1595.
  • 4 Christopher Perkins, inst. 1596, died 1622.—So far DENTON.
  • 5 Francis White, inst. 1622, made bishop of Carlisle, 1626.
  • 6 William Paterson, inst. 1626, made dean of Exeter, 1629.
  • 7 Thomas Comber, inst. 1630, died 1653.
  • 8 Guy Carleton, inst. 1660, made bishop of Bristol, 1671.
  • 9 Thomas Smith, inst. 1671, made bishop of Carlisle, 1684.
  • 10 Thomas Musgrave, * inst. 1684, died 1686.
  • 11 William Graham, inst. 1686, made dean of Wells, 1704.
  • 12 Francis Atterbury, inst. 1704, made dean of C. C. Oxon, 1711.
  • 13 George Smalridge, inst. 1711, made dean C. C. Oxon, 1713,
  • 14 Thomas Gibbon, inst. 1713, died 1716.
  • 15 Thomas Tullie, inst. 1716 died 1726.
  • 16 George Fleming, inst. 1727, made bishop of Carlisle, 1734.
  • 17 Robert Bolton, inst. 1734, died 1764.
  • 18 Charles Tarrent, D. D. inst. 1764, made Dean of Peterborough.
  • 19 Thomas Wilson, D. D. inst. 1764, died 1778,
  • 20 Thomas Percy, D. D. inst. 1778, made Bishop of Dromore, 1782.
  • 21 Jeffrey Ekins, D. D. inst. 1782, died, 1792.
  • 22 Isaac Milner, D. D. inst. 1792.

The priory wanted not for reliques of saints, for Waldeive the son of Gospa∣trick, Earl of Dunbar, brought from Jerusalem and Constantinople, a bone of St. Paul, and another of St. John Baptist, two stones of Christ's sepulchre, and part of the holy cross, which he gave to the priory, together with a mansion near St. Cuthbert's church, where, at that time, stood an antient building, called Arthur's chamber, taken to be part of the mansion house of King Arthur, the son of Uter Pendragon of memorable note, for his worthiness in the time of antient Kings. Waldeive also gave other antient buildings, called Lyons Yards, often remembered in the history of Arthur, written by a monk; the ruins whereof are still to be seen, as it is thought at Ravenglass, distant from Carlisle, accord∣ing to that author, fifty miles, placed near the sea; and, not without reason, thought therefore to be the same,
—DENTON's MS.

Mr. Denton's account of the money found in rebuilding the sleeple of St. Cuthbert's church, is rendered uncertain by some late discoveries; and it is most Page  25probable it was a concealed treasure, intended to be secured against the Danes, or some other ravagers: for when the foundations were making for the present new edifice, and the workmen had gone below the foundations of the old church, they discovered the remains of a still more ancient erection, and took up several pieces of broken sculpture; among the rest the figure of a nun with her veil or hood, well cut and in good preservation, which we saw in the garden of George Mounsey, Esq. of Carlisle; so that it should seem the old nunnery stood there. It seems that Walter's foundation was entirely a new one, and not a revival of St. Cuthbert's institution; for, in Tanner we find

Here was a house of Gray, or Franciscan friars, *
before A. D. 1390; and also a house of Black friars, founded here 53d Henry III. §

Walter, the Norman, laid the foundation of the priory, which he dedicated to the Blessed Virgin: it is said he became the head of the society which he had in∣stituted; but authors of great authenticity, speak of his work as being incomplete at the time of his death; and that King Henry I. in the second year of his reign, took it under his patronage, finished it, and endowed it, A. D. 1101, and therein placed regular canons of the order of St. Augustine, appointing Athelwald his confessor and chaplain the first prior. Notwithstanding Denton's account, we are convinced there was a succession of thirty priors after Athelwald, before the time of the dissolution. Athelwald afterwards being made bishop of this diocese, was succeeded in the priory by Walter, another chaplain of the kings', who had taken upon him the regular habit; and being a rigorous disciplinarian, he banished all Page  26the secular priests from that religious house. § The original possessions of this priory were very considerable; but the foundation of the see succeeding so im∣mediately almost to that of the priory, there is no possibility of distinguishing them Page  27at this time. The property of the prior and bishop were so blended and mingled, that several contentions and disputes arose, touching them; till Gallo the Pope's legate, at their mutual petition, made partition of their lands. The castle of Lin∣stock, Page  28in the parish of Stanwix, the capital house of the barony of that name, was for a long series of years, the only palace of the bishops of Carlisle; and in 1293. Johannes Romanus, Archbishop of York, was entertained there, whilst he visited this diocese. The priory was dissolved 9th of Jan. 1540, and the revenues were then valued at 418l. 3s. 4d. ob. 9. according to Dugdale; and 481l. 8s. 1d. Speed. There were cloisters appertaining to this religious house, and also a chapter house, which the dissolute mob, under Cromwell, destroyed: part of the seats, or stalls, of the cloister remain.