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Title: Carpentry – [Plates I-XXVII]
Original Title: Charpenterie – [Planches I-XXVII]
Volume and Page: Plates vol. 2 (1765)
Author: Unknown
Translator: Ann-Marie Thornton [Bilkent University, Ankara, Turkey]
Original Version (ARTFL): Link
Source: Russell, Terence M. and Ann-Marie Ashworth. Architecture in the Encyclopédie of Diderot and D'Alembert : the letterpress articles and selected engravings. Scolar Press, 1993. Used with permission.
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URL: http://hdl.handle.net/2027/spo.did2222.0001.184
Citation (MLA): "Carpentry – [Plates I-XXVII]." The Encyclopedia of Diderot & d'Alembert Collaborative Translation Project. Translated by Ann-Marie Thornton. Ann Arbor: Michigan Publishing, University of Michigan Library, 2012. Web. [fill in today's date in the form 18 Apr. 2009 and remove square brackets]. <http://hdl.handle.net/2027/spo.did2222.0001.184>. Trans. of "Charpenterie – [Planches I-XXVII]," Supplément à l'Encyclopédie ou Dictionnaire raisonné des sciences, des arts et des métiers, vol. 2 (plates). Paris, 1765.
Citation (Chicago): Carpentry – [Plates I-XXVII]." The Encyclopedia of Diderot & d'Alembert Collaborative Translation Project. Translated by Ann-Marie Thornton. Ann Arbor: Michigan Publishing, University of Michigan Library, 2012. http://hdl.handle.net/2027/spo.did2222.0001.184 (accessed [fill in today's date in the form April 18, 2009 and remove square brackets]). Originally published as "Charpenterie – [Planches I-XXVII]," Encyclopédie ou Dictionnaire raisonné des sciences, des arts et des métiers, vol. 2 (plates) (Paris, 1765).

Containing Seventy Plates, Including Thirty-Six Simple Ones and Seventeen Double Ones.

Plate I: Framework Construction


Carpenter's yard with workmen who rip planks, make mortices, square off, shape with axes, etc., [together with] details of these operations.

Plate II: Carpentry, Assembly


Method of drawing [dressing] a piece of wood as straight as a die, and methods of jointing in mortice and tenon joints, in butt joints, in dove tail joints, etc.

Plate III: Carpentry, Assembly and Old Timbers


Method of making mortices and tenons, [and] ancient [traditional] wood frame [constructions].

Plate IV: Carpentry, Modern Timbers


Figure 34. Wood frame, as made about 150 years ago, composed of several pieces named below:

A, A, masonry. B, B, D, D, E, E, F, F, string pieces. C, C, master posts. G, G, h, h, casement posts. H, H, H, casement lintels. I, I, supports. K, K, door frame posts. L, casing lintels. M, O, struts [stanchions]. N, C, cross of St André [cross bracing]. Q, R, T, a, b, k, lining [framing] posts. S, diagonal bracing. v, stud posts. x, relief posts [bracing]. d, consoles. e, console heads. f, blocking pieces. g, rafters. m, encircled truss. n, tie beam. o, framing posts. p, angle braces.

Figure 35. Wood frame in the modern style with shop [front] composed of several pieces named below:

A, masonry. B, beam or breast summer [bressumer]. D, F, casing lintel. E, casing posts. G, Q, small posts. H, joists. I, K, string pieces. L, corner posts. M, large posts. N, casement posts. O, casement lintels. P, casement supports. R, relief points. S, stud posts. T, cross of St André [cross bracing]. V, small string pieces.

Figure 36. Another wood frame in the modern style without a shop [front] composed of several pieces named below:

A, masonry. B, corner posts. C, D, E, string pieces. F, joists. G, casement posts. H, lintels. I, supports. K, small posts. L, relief points. M, stud posts. N, cross of St André [cross bracing]. See article: Wood frames.

Plate V: Carpentry, Wall Partitions and Floors


Plate VI: Carpentry, Floors


Partitions

Figure 37. Framework partition composed of several pieces named below:

A, padding posts. B, relief points [bracing]. C, stud posts. D, casing posts. E, lintels. F, small posts. G, string pieces.

Figure 38. Door frame partition composed of several pieces named below:

A, padding posts. B, string piece. C, door frame casing posts grooved one third.

Figure 39. Section of a grooved frame of the preceding partition.

Figure 40. Plan of the door to the casing partition, Fig. 38.

Figure 41. Plan of the door of the framework partition, Fig. 37. A, rebates for receiving the laths.

Floors

Figures 42, 44, 45, and 47. The same number of floor elevations of which Figs 43, 46, 48, and 49 are the [corresponding] plans, composed of several pieces named below:

A, beams. B, trimmer beam. C, trimming joist. D, framework joists [trimming work]. E, lengthwise joists. F, padding joists. G, backing strips [wall plates]. H, upper joists. I, lower joists. K, platforms. See article: Floor.

Plate VII: Carpentry, Spiral Stairways


Plate VIII: Carpentry, Helical and Other Stairways


Plate IX: Carpentry, Stairways and One-Sided and Two-sided Attics


Circular or winding stairway:

Figure 50. Elevation and diagram.

Figure 51. Plan.

Oval stairway with newel post:

Figure 52. Elevation and diagram.

Figure 53. Plan.

Square stairway with newel:

Figure 54. Elevation and diagram.

Figure 55. Plan.

Rectangular stairway with newel:

Figure 56. Elevation and figure.

Figure 57. Plan.

Stairway in a circular well:

Figure 58. Elevation and figure.

Figure 59. Plan.

Stairway with a square shaft:

Figure 60. Elevation and diagram.

Figure 61. Plan.

Suspended [cantilever] stairway with rectangular stairwell:

Figure 62. Elevation and diagram.

Figure 63. Plan.

Peristylar [dog leg] stairway:

Figure 64. Elevation and diagram.

Figure 65. Plan.

Straight flight stairway with wall at centre of stairwell:

Figure 66. Elevation and diagram.

Figure 67. Plan.

Irregular stairway with suspended stringer:

Figure 68. Elevation and diagram.

Figure 69. Plan.

All these stairways are composed of several pieces named below:

A, newels or stringers. B, nosing of the steps. C, side of the steps sealed in the walls.

Figures 51, 53, 55 and 57D, interval of the steps filled with masonry.

Figure 59D, double, bottom string board [curved] in a stairwell.

Figures 60, 61, 62, 64, 66 and 67D, columns [newel posts].

E, side of the first stone step [bonded] in the walls. F, neck of the stone step. G, walls. H, landings, square or continued [half landing]. I, quarter turns [winders]. K, base [bottom rail]. L, masonry. M, balustrade [handrail]. N, supporting string boards. O, inclined balusters. P, horizontal balusters.

Plate X: Carpentry, One-Sided and Two-sided Attics


Plate XI: Carpentry, Two-Sided Attics and Mansard Roof


Plate XII: Carpentry, Other Roof Trusses


Plate XIII: Carpentry, Roofs and Lucarnes


Figure 70. Trussed roof with two pitches.

Figure 71. Lean-to roof with one pitch and half truss.

Figure 72. Iron king pin.

Figure 73. Crest [sequence of braced timbers].

Figure 74. Large trussed roof with two pitches without raised ridge.

Figure 75. Crest.

Figure 76. Large trussed roof with two pitches and raised ridge.

Figure 77. Bracing timbers.

Figure 78. Small trussed roof with two pitches of which the principal rafters, G, serve sometimes as trusses.

Figure 79. Similar lean-to roof.

Figure 80. Bracing of these last two roofings.

Figure 81. Trussed roof with two pitches, with as many small trusses as rafters.

Figure 82. Similar lean-to roof.

Figure 83. Roof timbers with two pitches, without raised ridge and truss.

Figure 84. Crest.

Figure 85. Roof timbers with two pitches, with uplift [strengthening] and without truss.

Figure 86. Bracing timbers.

Figure 87. Mansard roof with truss and enclosure.

Figure 88. Similar Mansard roof without truss or enclosure.

Figure 89. Mansard roof of a pavilion at the extremity of a central building.

Figure 90. Plan of the framing of the side [carcase] (*), at the height of the tie-beam (F), and of the side (+), above the roof beams.

Figure 91. Mansard roof with vault.

Figure 92. Raised Mansard roof with truss and small enclosure.

Figure 93. Roofing in the form of a cone or sugar loaf.

Figure 94. Plan of the framing of the side carcase (*), at the height of the large tie-beam, F, and of the side (+), at the height of the small tie-beam (f).

Figure 95. Coronet shaped roof, squared by its plan.

Figure 96. Plan of the framing at the height of the tie-beam.

Figure 97. Dome shaped roofing, squared by its plan.

Figure 98. Plan of the framing at the height of the tie-beam (F).

Figure 99. Dome shaped roofing, squared by its plan and elliptical by its elevation.

Figure 100. Plan of the framing at the height of the large tie-beam (F).

Figure 101. Dome shaped roofing, circular by its plan and elliptical by its elevation.

Figure 102. Plan of the framing at the height of the tie-beam (F).

Figure 103. Dome with lantern, circular by its plan and elliptical by its elevation.

Figure 104. Plan of the framing at the height of the tie-beam (F).

All of these different roofings are composed of pieces of wood named below:

A, rafters of long panels. A, double, rump rafters. A, B, rump tie-beam. A, D, hip rafter. a, break [intermediate] rafters. a, double, roof top rafters. a, curved rafters. B, beams or tie-beams. b, furrings. C, walls. c, gussets. D, king post. d, ball. E, braces. e, pillars. F, large tie-beam. f, small tie-beam. G, principal rafters. g, flying buttresses. H, purlins of long panels. h, break [intermediate] purlins. I, battens. K, purlin cleats. K, frame. L, roof top. l, frame. M, string pieces. m, small posts. N, ties. n, joists. O, double, large linkages. o, small linkages. P, stanchions. p, casing posts. Q, furrings. q, curved lintels. R, struts. r, supports. S, under ridgeboard. s, consoles. T, floor joists. v, cross-pieces of the rafters. X, struts. Y, crossbars of the string-pieces. y, supports. Z, inter-ties and ties in a cross of St André [diagonal bracing].

Dormer windows

Figure 105. Roof top attic window composed of: A, stiles. B, supports or string piece [cill]. C, curved lintels. E, rafters.

Figure 106. Flemish attic windows composed of: A, stiles. B, string piece [cill]. C, lintel. E, façade [rafters and decorative cornice].

Figure 107. Hooded attic window composed of: A, stiles. B, string piece [cill]. C, lintel. D, crown post. E, hip rafters. F, rafters.

Figure 108. Young woman's dormer window composed of: A, stiles. B, cill. C, lintel. D, pieces of wood [serving as] shutters.

Figure 109. Circular bull's eye window composed of: A, stiles. B, string piece [cill]. C, curved lintel. D, curved framing pieces.

Figure 110. Shallow-curved bull's eye window composed of: A, stiles. B, string piece [cill]. C, curved lintel. See article: Attic-window.

Plate XIV: Carpentry, Arched Roof Trusses


Figure 111. Framework arch which has been used to construct the vault of the church of St Peter in Rome.

Figure 112. Depressed [elliptical] framework intended for the building of a vault or archway.

Figure 113. Framework arch, more depressed [elliptical], and different [in timber construction] from the preceding.

Figure 114. Another framework arch for a very wide and more shallow archway.

These arches are composed of different pieces of wood named below:

A, truss rafters. B, king post. C, tie-beam. D, ties in the form of braces. d, ties used as supports. E, sole pieces. F, struts. G, large braces. g, small braces. H, ties. I, under tie-beam. K, under braces. L, ties in the form of rafter trusses. M, ties or supports. N, curved rafters. O, longitudinal wood piece bearing the arching. P, voussoirs. Q, horizontal pieces of wood bearing the framework. R, piles. S, small pile of masonry [temporary foundation]. See article: Vaulting.

Plate XV: Carpentry, Bridges


Wooden bridges of different constructions.

Plate XVI: Carpentry, Large Bridge and Drawbridge


Elevation of a large bridge; elevation of the piers of a large bridge with several particularly solid arches, composed of the [timber] pieces [named above]. [Note: This plate is not listed in the État détaillé .]

Plate XVII: Carpentry, Tilt Bridges and Swing Bridges


Elevation and plan of a sliding bridge; elevation, plan and frame of a swing bridge.

Plate XVIII: Carpentry, Swing Bridges and Suspension Bridges


Elevation and plan of another swing bridge; a bridge suspended between two mountains.

Plate XIX: Carpentry, Foundations of Abutments


The method currently used for piling.

Plate XX: Carpentry, Modern Method of Laying Abutment Foundations


New method of piling.

Plate XXI: Carpentry, Machine to Saw Under Water


A [machine] saw for sawing piles at the bottom of the water.

Plate XXII: Carpentry, Scaffolding for the Abutments


A caisson serving to contain the masonry of a pile.

Plate XXIII: Carpentry, Pile Driver


Another pile driver propelled by horizontal levers.

Plate XXIV: Carpentry, Horse-Drawn Pile Driver on a Boat


Perspective elevation and details of a pile driver employed in the construction of Westminster Bridge.

Plate XXV: Carpentry, Slanted Pile Driver


Perspective elevation and details of a pile driver which is appropriate for driving piles in obliquely.

Plate XXVI: Carpentry, Deck of the City of Rouen


Plate XXVII: Carpentry, Opening of the Bridge of the City of Rouen


Plan of a pontoon bridge erected in Rouen on the river Seine.