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Title: Academy of Painting
Original Title: Académie de Peinture
Volume and Page: Vol. 1 (1751), pp. 56–57
Author: Paul Landois (biography)
Translator: Reed Benhamou [Indiana University, benhamou@indiana.edu]
Original Version (ARTFL): Link
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URL: http://hdl.handle.net/2027/spo.did2222.0000.203
Citation (MLA): Landois, Paul. "Academy of Painting." The Encyclopedia of Diderot & d'Alembert Collaborative Translation Project. Translated by Reed Benhamou. Ann Arbor: Michigan Publishing, University of Michigan Library, 2003. Web. [fill in today's date in the form 18 Apr. 2009 and remove square brackets]. <http://hdl.handle.net/2027/spo.did2222.0000.203>. Trans. of "Académie de Peinture," Encyclopédie ou Dictionnaire raisonné des sciences, des arts et des métiers, vol. 1. Paris, 1751.
Citation (Chicago): Landois, Paul. "Academy of Painting." The Encyclopedia of Diderot & d'Alembert Collaborative Translation Project. Translated by Reed Benhamou. Ann Arbor: Michigan Publishing, University of Michigan Library, 2003. http://hdl.handle.net/2027/spo.did2222.0000.203 (accessed [fill in today's date in the form April 18, 2009 and remove square brackets]). Originally published as "Académie de Peinture," Encyclopédie ou Dictionnaire raisonné des sciences, des arts et des métiers, 1:56–57 (Paris, 1751).

Academy of Painting is a public school where Painters go to draw or paint, and Sculptors model, from a nude man, who is called the model .

The Royal Academy of Painting and Sculpture of Paris owes its beginning to the squabbles that arose between the Master Painters and Sculptors of Paris, and Painters protected by the King, whom the Community of Painters sought to harass. [Charles] Le Brun, [Jacques] Sarrazin, [Michel] Corneille and other royal painters formed a plan for a special Academy, and having presented a request on this matter to the Conseil [d'Etat], they obtained a ruling such as they sought, dated 20 January 1648. They first met at the residence of [Martin de] Charmois, Secretary to the Maréchal Schomberg, who established the first statutes of the Academy.

The Academy next held its conferences in the residence of one of the friends of De Charmois, located near Saint-Eustache. From there, it went to the Hôtel du Clisson, rue des Deux-Boules, where it stayed through 1653, when the Academicians moved to the Rue des Déchargeurs. In 1654 and at the beginning of 1655, it obtained from Cardinal Mazarin official documents and letters-patent, that were registered in Parlement; and in appreciation it selected the Cardinal as its protector, and the Chancellor [Pierre Séguier] as vice-protector.

It is to be remarked that the Chancellor , from the first beginnings of the Academy, had been named protector; but to show deference to Cardinal Mazarin, he resigned this office and contented himself with that of vice-protector.

In 1656 Sarrazin ceded the Academy a lodging that he had in the Louvre; but in 1661 it was obliged to vacate, and M. de Ratabon, Superintendent of Bâtiments, moved it to the Palais Royal, where it stayed thirty-one years. The King finally gave it quarters in the old Louvre.

Finally, in 1663, it received, through the efforts of M. Colbert, 4000 livres in annual support.

This Academy is made up of a Protector, Vice-protector, a Director, a Chancellor, four Rectors, Adjunct Rectors, a Treasurer, and fourteen Professors, of whom one teaches Anatomy and another Geometry; several Adjuncts and Counsellors, a Secretary and Historiographer, and two Porters. The first members of this Academy were Le Brun, [Charles] Errard, [Sébastien] Bourdon, [Laurent de] La Hyre, Sarrazin, Corneille, [Henri and Charles] Beaubrun, [Eustache] Le Sueur, [Théodore-Juste] d'Egmont, [Gérard] Van Obstal, [Simon] Guillain, etc.

The Academy of Paris holds public studio for two hours every afternoon, where Painters go to draw or paint, and Sculptors model, from the nude; there are twelve Professors, each of whom teaches for a month, and twelve Adjuncts to replace them if necessary; the Professor in charge of the studio places the nude man, who is called the model , in the posture he believes appropriate, and he poses him in two postitions each week, this is what is called posing the model ; for one week, he poses two models together, this is what is called posing the group ; the drawings, paintings and models made of this man are called academies , as are the copies made from these academies. Female models are not used in public Schools, as many believe. Every three months, three Drawing prizes are distributed to the Students, and every year, two prizes in Painting and two in Sculpture; those who receive Painting and Sculpture prizes are sent to Rome at the King's expense, to study and improve their skills.

Besides the Royal Academy there are two other Schools or Academies of Painting in Paris, one of which is at the Gobelins Royal Factory.

This School is directed by Artists whom the King houses in the Hôtel Royale des Gobelins, and who are usually Members of the Royal Academy.

The other is the Academy of Saint-Luc, run by the Community of Master Painters and Sculptors; it was established by the Provost of Paris, 12 August 1391. Charles VII gave it several legal rights in 1430, which were confirmed in 1584 by Henri III. In 1613, the Community of Sculptors was joined to that of Painters. This Community occupies a house near Saint-Denis de la Chartre, where it has its headquarters and a public Academy administered in the same way as the Royal Academy, and where every year it distributes three prizes in Drawing to its Students.