Promptorium parvulorum sive clericorum, dictionarius anglo-latinus princeps, auctore fratre Galfrido grammatico dicto, ex ordine fratrum Predicatorum, northfolciensi, circa A. D. M.CCCC.XL. Olim ex officina Pynsoniana editum, nunc ab integro, commentariolis subjectis, ad Fidem codicum recensuit Albertus Way, A. M.
Galfridus, Anglicus, active 1440., Way, Albert, 1805-1874, ed., British Library. Manuscript. Harley 221.
Page  [unnumbered]

PROMPTORIUM PARVULORUM.

  • A-BACKE, or backwarde. Retro, retrorsum.
  • A-BASCHYD, or a-ferde. Territus, perterritus,
  • A-BASCHEMENT, or a-fer. Terror, pavor, formido.
  • A-BATYN. Subtraho.
  • A-BATEMENT, or wythdrawynge of wyghte, 1. [Wyghte, King's MS. weyte, P. The Harl. MS. reads mete.] or mesure, or other thyngys. Subtractio, defalca∣tio.
  • ABBEYE. Abbacia.
  • ABBESSE. Abbatissa.
  • A-BYDYNNE. Expecto, prestolor.
  • ABYDYNGE. Expectacio.
  • ABYTE, i. clothynge. Habitus.
  • ABLE, or abulle, or abylle. Ha∣bilis, idoneus.
  • ABLYN, or to make able. Habi∣lito.
  • A-BOCCHEMENT, or a-bocchynge. 2. [Augmentum, adaugma, a-bocchement. MED. GR. MS. PHILL.]Augmentum, CATH. Amplifica∣mentum, CATH.
  • ABHOMINABLE. Abhominabilis.
  • ABHOMINACYON. Abhominacio.
  • ABBOTT. Abbas.
  • ABOVE. Supra, superius.
  • ABOWTE. Circum, circa.
  • ABREGGYN. Abbrevio.
  • ABBROCHYN or attamyn a vesselle of drynke. 3. ["Thilke tonne, that I shal abroche." CHAUC. Wif of Bathes Prol.]Attamino, CATH. depleo.
  • ABSENCE, or beynge a-way. Ab∣sentia.
  • ABSENT, not here, (or a-way, K.) Absens.
  • ABSTEYNYN. Abstineo.
  • ABSTYNENCE. Abstinentia.
  • ABSTYNENT, or absteynynge, or he that dothe abstynence. Ab∣stinens.
  • ABULLE, supra in able. Habilis, idoneus.
  • ABULNESSE. Habilitas, aptitudo, idoneitas.
  • ABUNDANCE, or grete plente. Abundancia.
  • ABUNDYN, or haue plente. Abundo.
  • ACENT, or assent, or grawntynge. Assensus.
  • ACENTYN, (assentinge, P.) or grawntyn. Assencio.
  • A-CETHEN for trespas (acethe, K. aceth, P.). 4. ["And if it suffice not for asseth." P. PLOUHM. See Jamieson, under Assyth, and Spelman.]Satisfactio.
  • Page  6ACHE, an erbe. 1. [Ache, or hoppe, ORT. VOC. Skinner gives ache, for smallage, from Fr. l'ache parsley. See Cotgr.]Apium.
  • A-CHETYN. Confiscor.
  • ACHWYN, or fleyn. Vito, devito.
  • ACHUYNGE, or beynge ware (ache∣wynge, K. achue, P.) Precavens, vitans.
  • A-CYDE, or a-cydenandys, or a-slet, or a-slonte (acydnande, K. acyd∣enam, P.) Oblique, vel a latere.
  • A-CYNEN, or ordeyn. Assigno.
  • A-CLOYED. 2. ["To acloye with a nayle as an yuell smythe dothe an horse foote, enclouer. Ac∣loyed as a horses foot, encloué." PALSG. The more usual sense of the word is as Horman uses it, "My stomake is accloyed, fastidiosus, nauseabundus." Florio renders inchiodare, "to clow, or pricke a horse with a naile."]Acclaudicatus, incla∣vatus.
  • ACLOYȜEN, (acloyin, K.) Acclau∣dico, acclavo, inclavo.
  • A-COLDE. Frigidus, algidus, frigorosus.
  • (ACOLYTE. Acolytus, P.)
  • A-COMELYD for coulde, or a∣clommyde (acomyrd, P. acom∣bred, W.) 3. ["Jo ay la mayn si estoniye, so acomeled." GAUT. DE BIBELESW. Arunde MS. 220. Acomlyt. MS. Phill. In the later Wycliffite version, Isaiah XXXV. 3, is read, "Coumfort ȝe clumsid, ether comelid hondis, and make ȝe strong feble knees." MS. Cott. Claud. E. II. In the earlier version the passage is rendered, "Coumforteth the hondes loosid atwynne," MS. Douce. In the Latin, "manus dissolutas."]Eviratus, enervatus.
  • A-COMERYD,

    4. "I am accombered with corrupt humours, obruor pituita. The snoffe acombreth the matche, that he can nat burn clere, fungi elychnium obsident." HORM. Piers Ploughman uses the word in the sense of to overcome, or destroy.

    "And let his shepe acomber in the mire."

    CHAUC.

    See Depos. of Ric. II. published by the Camden Society, pp. 29, 30.

    (acombred, W. acoū∣tyrd, P.) Vexatus.
  • A-COMERYNGE, or a-comerment, (acombrynge or a-combrement, W. a-comyrment, P.) Vexacio.
  • A-CORDYD, or of on a-corde. Concors.
  • (ACORDYD, or made at one, Concordatus, P.)
  • A-CORDYN. Concordo.
  • (ACORDYNG. Concordancia, K. P.)
  • A-CORDYNGE, or beynge fytte or mete. Convenio.
  • ACCORNE, or archarde, frute of the oke. 5. [Glans, an acharne, Vocab. Harl. MS. 1002. Accharne, okecorne, ORT. V. A. S. aecern. In the curious inventory of the effects of Sir Simon Burley, who was be∣headed 1388, are enumerated, "deux pairs des pater nosters de aumbre blanc, l'un coun∣trefait de Atchernes, l'autre rounde." MS. in the possession of Sir Thomas Phillipps.]Glans.
  • ACCUSYD. Accusatus.
  • (ACCUSYN. Accuso, H. P.)
  • ACCUSYNGE (accusacyon, P.) Ac∣cusacio.
  • ADAM, propyr name. Adam.
  • ADAMANT, precyowse stone. 6. ["Lapis ferrum attrahens, an adamounde stone, magnes." WHITINTON GRAMM. Aymant. PALSG.]Adamas.
  • ADDYCYON, or puttynge to for encrese. (addyng or puttynge to, P.) Addicio.
  • ADMYTYN, or grawntyn. Admitto.
  • Page  7A-DO, or grete bysynesse. Sollici∣tudo.
  • A-DEWE, or farewelle (adwe or far wel, P.) Vale.
  • AFFODYLLE herbe (affadylle, K. P.) 1. ["Affadyll, a yelowe floure, affrodille." PALSG.]Affodillus, albucea. (Affa∣dilla, K.)
  • AFFECCYON, or hertyly wellwyll∣ynge. Affectio.
  • AFFECTE, or welwyllynge. Affec∣tus, CATH.
  • A-FENCE, or offence. Offensa.
  • AFENDYD, or offendyd. Offensus.
  • A-FERRE, not nye (afer, P.) Procul.
  • A-FERDE (or trobelid, K. H. P.)

    2. Forby, in enumerating among the provincialisms of Norfolk the word afeard, noticed that formerly it was-not, as at present, synonymous with afraid.

    "This wif was not aferde ne affraide."

    CHAUC.

    The Harl. MS. indeed, renders both aferde and afrayed by territus, but the reading of the King's MS. agreeing with the printed editions, seems preferable. Aferde or tro∣belid, turbatus, perturbatus. Compare ABASCHYD or aferde. A. S. afered, territus.

    Territus, perterritus (turbatus, perturbatus, K. P.)
  • AFFERMYD, or grawntyd be worde. Affirmatus.
  • AFFYRMYN, or grawntyn. Affirmo, assero.
  • AFFERMYNGE. Affirmacio.
  • AFFYNYTE, or alyaunce. Affinitas.3. [After AFFYNYTE, the Harl. MS. has the word A-FOYSTE, lirida. See under the letter F.]
  • A-FORNE (afore, P.) 4. [Aforen, aforne, afore. CHAUC. A. S. aet foran.]Ante, coram,
  • A-FORNANDE (aformande, H. P. afromhand, J. aforehande, W.) Antea.
  • A-FRAY. Pavor, terror, formido.
  • AFFRAYED, supra. Territus, pa∣vore percussus.
  • AFTYR. Post.
  • AFTYR PARTE of a beste, or the hyndyr (parte, P.), or the crowpe. Clunis.
  • AFTYR PARTE, or hynder parte of the schyppe. Puppis, CATH.
  • AFTYRWARD. Postea, postmodum.
  • AGAS. 5. [The Harl. MS. gives AGAS twice, first without any corresponding Latin word, but probably it is the same as HAGAS puddynge, tucetum.]
  • AGAS, propyr name. Agatha.
  • A-GASTE, supra in a-ferde.
  • AGE. Etas, senium, senectus, senecta.
  • THE vij AGYS. Prima, infancia, quae continet vij annos; se∣cunda, puericia, usque ad quar∣tumdecimum annum; tercia adolescentia, usque ad xxixm. annum; quarta juventus, usque ad quinquagesimum annum; quinta gravitas, usqui ad lxxm. annum; sexta senectus, que nullo terminatur termino (non terminatur certo numero, P.); senium est ultima parts senec∣tutis. Septima erit in resur∣rectione finali. CATH.
  • A-GAYNE, or a-ȝeyne (ayen, P.). Iterum, adhuc.
  • A-GEYNE, or a-gaynewarde. Retro.
  • A-GAYNBYER, or a raumsomere. Redemptor.
  • (AGEYN BYINGE. Redemptio, K. H. P.)
  • Page  8AGYD. Antiquatus, senectus, ve∣teranus, veteratus.
  • AGYN, or growyn agyd. Seneo, senesco.
  • AGGLOT, or an aglet to lace wyth alle. 1. ["Agglet of a lace or poynt, fer. To agglet a poynt, or set on an agglet vpon a poynt or lace, ferrer. PALSG. Wyll you set none agglettes vpon your poyntes? en∣ferrer voz esguylettes." This word denotes properly the tag, but is often used to signify the lace to which it was attahced. "Myn aglet, mon lasset, a point, la ferrure d'un lasset." R. PYNSON, Good boke to lerne to speke French.]Acus, aculus, (acu∣la, P.)
  • AGGREGGYN, or to greue more. Aggravo.2. ["Agregier, supporter avec peine." ROQUEF. LACOMBE.]
  • AGGROGGYD, or aggreuyd. Ag∣gravatus.
  • AGGRUGGYNGE, or a-greuynge. Aggravacio, aggravamen.
  • AGGREUAUNS. Gravamen, no∣cumentum, tedium.
  • AGREUYD. Gravatus, ut supra.
  • AGRIMONY, or egrimony, herbe. Agrimonia.
  • AGROTONE wyth mete or drynke (agrotonyn, K.). Ingurgito.
  • AGROTONYD, or sorporryd wyth mete or drynke. 3. [Agroted, CHAUCER, Legend of G. W. is explained cloyed, surfeited.]Ingurgitatus.
  • AGROTONYNGE, or sorporrynge. Ingurgitacio.
  • AGWE, sekenes (ague, W.). Acuta, querquera. C. F. CATH.
  • A-HA. Evax.
  • AKE, or ache, or akynge. Dolor.
  • AKYN. Doleo, CATH.
  • AKYR of londe. Acra.
  • AKYR of the see flowynge (aker, P.)

    4. This word is still of local use to denote the commotion caused in some tidal rivers, at the flow of the tide. In the Ouse, near Downham bridge, above Lynn, the name is eager, as also in the Nene, between Wisbeach and Peterborough, and the Ouse near York, and other rivers. Camden calls the meeting of the Avon and Severn, higre. Compare Skinner, under the word eager. In Craven Dial. acker is a ripple on the water. Aker seems, however, to have had a more extended meaning, as applied to some turbulent currents, or commotions of the deep. The MS. Poem entitled Of Knyghthode and Batayle, Cott. MS. Titus A. XXIII. f. 49, commending the skill of mariners in judging of the signs of weather, makes the following allusion to the aker.

    Wel know they the remue yf it a-ryse,
    An aker is it clept, I vnderstonde,
    Whos myght there may no shippe or wynd wyt stonde.
    This remue in th'occian of propre kynde
    Wyt oute wynde hathe his commotioun;
    The maryneer therof may not be blynde,
    But when and where in euery regioun
    It regnethe, he moste haue inspectioun,
    For in viage it may bothe haste and tary,
    And vnavised thereof, al mys cary.

    Aker seems to be derived from A. S. ae, water, and cer, a turn; sae-cir signifies the ebb of the sea. CAEDM. See Nares, under Higre.

    Impetus maris.
  • ALLE, or euery dele. Totus.
  • ALLE, or ylke. Omnis, quilibet.
  • ALABASTER, a stone. Alabas∣trum, Parium, C. F.
  • Page  9ALLABOWTE. Undique, circum∣quaque.
  • A-LAYDE. Temperatus, remissus, permixtus.
  • A-LANGE, or straunge (alyande, P.) Extraneus, exoticus.
  • A-LANGELY, or straungely (aly∣aundly, J.) Extranee.
  • A-LANGENESSE, or strawngenesse (alyaundnesse, J.) Extraneitas.
  • ALAS. Euge, euge, prodolor.
  • ABLASTE (alblast, P.) Balista.
  • ALBLASTERE. Alblastarius, (ba∣listarius, K. P.)
  • ALBEREY, vel alebrey (albry, P.) 1. ["Alebery for a sicke man, chaudeau," PALSG.; which Cotgrave renders, caudle, warm broth.]Alebrodium, fictum est.
  • ALKAMYE metalle (alcamyn, P.) 2. [Alcamyne, arquemie, PALSG. A mixed metal, supposed to be produced by alchymy, and which received thence the name. See Nares.]Alkamia.
  • ALDYR TRE, or oryelle tre. Al∣nus, C. F.
  • ALDYRBESTE. Optimus.
  • ALDYRKYR (alderkerre, K. alder∣kar, P.) 3. [Carre, a wood of alder, or other trees in a moist boggy place, RAY. See Forby and Moore.Ducange gives kaheir, kaeyum, salictum.]Alnetum, viz. locus ubi alni et tales arbores crescunt, C. F.
  • ALDYRLESTE. Minimus.

    4. Aller, the gen. plur. ealra, A. S. is used by Chaucer, both by itself, and compounded:

    "Shall have a souper at your aller cost."

    Prol. Cant. Tales.

    There occur also, alderfirst, alderlast, alderlevest, that is dearest of all, and alderfastest.

  • ALDYRMANN. Aldirmannus, se∣nior.
  • ALDYRMOSTE. Maximus.
  • ALDYRNEXTE. Propinquissimus.
  • ALE. Cervisia, C. F. cervisia quasi Cereris vis in aqua, hec Ceres, i. Dea frumenti; (et hic nota bene quod est potus Anglo∣rum, P.)
  • ALE whyle hys (it is, K.) newe. 5. [Compare GYYLDE or GILE, new ale. Celia, Orosius informs us, was the name of a Spanish drink made of wheat, and here seems to signify the sweet and unhopped wort.]Celia, C. F. COMM.
  • ALLEGYANCE, or softynge of dys∣ese. Alleviacio.
  • ALEGGYN, or to softe, or relese peyne. Allevio, mitigo.
  • ALLEGYAUNCE of auctoryte (of auctours, P.) Allegacio.
  • ALEGGYN awtowrs. Allego.
  • ALEY yn gardeyne. Peribolus, CATH. C. F. perambulatorium et periobolum, UG. (peram∣bulum, DICC. P.)
  • ALEYNE, propyr name. Alanus.
  • ALLEFEYNTE, or feynte. Segnis.
  • ALLEFEYNTELYE (alfeynly, K.) Segniter.
  • ALLEFULLY. Totaliter, complete.
  • ALGATYS, or allewey. 6. ["Wyll you algates do it? le voulez vous faire tout à force?" PALSG. "I damned thee, thou must algates be dead." CHAUC. Sompnour's Tale. A. S. Alȝeats, omnino.]Omnino, omnimode, penitus.
  • ALLEHOLE fro brekynge. Integer.
  • ALLEHOLE, or alleheyle. Sanus, incolumis.
  • ALLEHOOLY (all holy, P.) In∣tegre, integraliter, totaliter.
  • Page  10ALYAUNCE, or affynyte. Affinitas.
  • ALYSAUNDER, herbe, or stan∣marche. 1. [Gerarde gives the name alexanders to the great or horse parsley, hipposelinum.]Macedonia.
  • ALYSAUNDER, propyr name. A∣lexander.
  • A-LYKE, or euyn lyke. Equalis.
  • ALLELYKELY, or euynly (a lyke wyse or euynly, K. P.) Equal∣iter.
  • A-LYKE, or lyke yn lykenes. Si∣milis.
  • A-LYTYLLE. Modicum, parum.
  • A-LYVE. Vivus.
  • ALYEN, straunger. Extraneus, alienus.
  • ALYEN, straunger of an other londe. Altellus, altella, UG. C. F.
  • ALYE. Affinis.
  • ALY, or alyaunce. Affinitas.
  • ALKENKENGY, herbe morub. Mo∣rella rubea.
  • ALKENET herbe. Alkanea, (vlicus, eklicus, P.)
  • ALMAUNDE frute (almon, P.) Amigdalum.
  • (ALMAUND TRE, K. almon tre, P. Amigdals, amigdalus, CATH.)
  • ALMARY, or almery. 2. ["Almariolum, a lytell almary or a cobborde. Scrinium, Anglice almery." ORT. VOC. "All my lytell bokes I putt in almeries, (scriniis chartophilaciis, forulis, vel armariis) all my greatter bokis I put in my lyberary." HORM. A. S. Almeriȝa, scrinium.]Almarium, C. F. almariolum, (armarium, P.).
  • ALMERY of mete kepynge, or a saue for mete. 3. ["Almery, aumbry to put meate in, unes almoires." PALSG.]Cibutum, C. F.
  • ALMESSE, or almos (elmesse, H. P.) Elimosina, roga, C. F. et dicitur elimosina ab el, quod est Deus, et moys quod est aqua, quasi aqua Dei; quia sicut aqua ex∣tinguit ignem, ita elimosina ex∣tinguit peccatum.
  • ALMESSE of mete yeuyn̄ to powre men, whan men haue ete. Mes∣telenium, COMM.
  • ALMESMANN, or woman (almesful∣man, P.). Elimosinarius, roga∣torius, rogatoria, C. F.
  • ALMESSHOWSE. Xenodochium, C. F. vel xenodocium, et xeno∣dium, orphanotrophium, pro∣seuca, CATH.
  • ALLMYȜGHTY (almyghty, P.) Omnipotens, cunctipotens.
  • ALLMYGH̄TYHEDE. Omnipotencia, cunctipotencia.
  • ALMOSTE. Fere, pene, ferme.
  • ALONE. Solus.
  • ALOWANS. Allocacio.
  • ALOWEDE. Allocatus.
  • ALLOWYN yn rekenynge (or re∣ken, P.). Alloco.
  • ALPE, a bryde. 4. ["Ficedula, a wodewale or an alpe." MED. GR. In Norfolk the bull-finch is called blood-olph, and the green grosbeak, green-olf, probably a corruption of alpe. FORBY. Ray gives alp as generally signifying the bull-finch. See Moore.]Ficedula, C. F.
  • ALLWEY. Semper, continue.
  • ALOM, or alym, lyke glasse (alum glas, P.) Alumen, CATH.
  • ALURE, or alurys of a towre or stepylle.

    5. The alure seems in its primary sense to have been the passage behind the battle∣ments, allorium, ambulacrum, in French alleure or allée: and which, serving as a channel to collect the waters that fell upon the roof, and were carried off through the gargoilles, the term alure came to be applied to the channel itself, as it is here rendered. See Ducange, under the words Alatoria, Allorium. Alure occurs in Ro∣bert of Gloucester.

    "Up the alurs of the castles the ladies then stood,
    And beheld this noble game, and which knights were good."
    The towrs to take and the torellis,
    Vautes, alouris and corneris."

    Kyng Alisaunder.
    Canal, CATH. UG. grunda, (canalis, P.)
  • Page  11AMBROSE herbe. Ambrosia, sal∣gia silvestris, CATH. 1. [Ambrose, ache champestre, PALSG. Ambrosia, herba predulcis, wylde sawge, ORT. VOC. "Ambrose, ambroisie, the herbe called oke of Cappadocia, or Jerusalem." COTGR.]
  • AMBROSE, propyr name. Am∣brosius.
  • AMENDYD. Correctus, emendatus.
  • AMENDYNGE. Correctio, emen∣dacio.
  • AMENDYNGE, or reparacyon of thyngys þat byn weryd or a-peyryd (worn,P.) Reparacio.
  • AMENDYN, or reparyn. Reparo.
  • AMENDYN. Emendo.
  • AMENDYN thyngys þat ar done fawty. Corrigo.
  • AMERCYN yn a corte, or lete. Amercio.
  • AMEREL of þe see. Amirellus, classicarius, CATH. C. F.
  • AMYE (Amy, propre name, P.) Amia.
  • AMYSSE, or wykkydly (or euyll done, P.) Male, nequiter.
  • AMYCE (amyte, H. K. P.) 2. [The amice is the first of the sacerdotal vestments: it is a piece of fine linen, of an oblong square form, which was formerly worn on the head, until the priest arrived before the altar, and then thrown back upon the shoulders. It was ornamented with a rich parure, often set with jewels, which in ancient representations appears like a standing collar round the neck of the priest. Dugdale gives an inventory in his History of St. Paul's, taken 1295, which details the costly enrichments of the amice.]Amita, amictus.
  • (AMYSE furred. Almicia, C. F. K. P.). 3. ["Ammys for a channon, aumusse." PALSG. This was the canonical vestment lined with fur, that served to cover the head and shoulders, and was perfectly distinct from the amyce. See almucium in Ducange.]
  • AMONGE, or sum tyme. Inter∣dum, quandoque.
  • AMONGE sundry thyngys. Inter.
  • A-MOWYNTYN, or sygnifyyn̄. De∣noto, significo.
  • AMSOTE, or a fole (anysot, H. P. a folt, P.) Stolidus, baburius, C. F. insons.
  • AMUCE of an hare. Almucium, habetur in horologio divine sa∣piencie.
  • ANCLE, infra in ankle.
  • ANNYS, propyr name (Anneys, H. Annyce, P.) Agnes.
  • ANEYS seede, or spyce. 4. [The King's MS. gives Aneys herbe, anisum, and Aneyssede, anetum.]Anetum, anisum.
  • ANELYD, or enelyd, infra in anoyntyd.
  • ANELYNGE, or enelynge, infra in anoyntynge.
  • ANELYN, or enelyn metalle, or other lyke. 5. [The word to anelel was used in two senses, "to aneele a sicke man, anoynt hym with holy oyle. I lefte hym so farre past, that he was houseled and aneeled, communié et en∣huyllé: and, to aneel to potte of erthe or suche lyke with a coloure, plommer." PALSG. As applied to metal it signifies to enamel, and occurs in that sense. Lacombe and Roquefort give the word néellé, émaillé.]
  • Page  12ANETHYS. 1. [In Robert of Glouc. Wiclif and Chaucer, this word is written vnnethe, vnnethis. A. Saxon Un-eaðe, vix.]Vix.
  • ANTYFENERE (antyphanere, P. an∣phenere, H.) Antiphonarius, (antiphanarium, P.)
  • ANGYLLE to take wyth fysche. 2. [A. Sax. Anȝel, hamus. In the St. Alban's Book, 1496, is a treatyse of fysshynge with an angle; Shakespeare uses the word to signify the implement of fishing. "Angle rodde, verge à pescher." PALSG. Angle twache, lumbricus, which occurs in Vocabula Stanbrigii, 1513, seems to be the worm serving for a bait. A. Sax. Anȝeltwecca. ELFR.]Piscale, fistuca, fuscina, C. F. (hamillus, P.)
  • ANGURE, or angwys (angyr, K. P.) Angor, C. F. angustia.
  • ANGUR, or wrathe (angyr or wretthe, K. H. P.) Ira, ira∣cundia.
  • ANGRYE. Iracundus, bilosus, fellitus, felleus, malencolicus.
  • ANGWYSCHE. Angustia, agonia, angaria.
  • ANYYNTYSCHYN̄, or enyntyschȳn. Exinanio.
  • ANNIUERSARY, or yereday (ȝer∣day, K. H.) Anniversarium, anniversarius.
  • ANKYL. Cavilla, verticillum.
  • ANKYR of a shyppe. Ancora.
  • ANKYR, recluse. Anachorita.
  • ANOYNTYD, or enoyntyd (anelyd, or enelyd, ut supra.). Inunctus.
  • ANOYNTYN (or enoynten, P.) Inungo, ungo.
  • ANOYNTYNGE, or enoyntynge (an∣elynge, or enelynge, ut supra). Inunctio.
  • A-NOON, or as-faste (anon, H. P.) Confestim, protinus, mox, cito, statim, illico.
  • A-NOTHYR. Alter, alius.
  • ANSWERE. Responsum, respon∣sio, antiphona.
  • AWNSWERYN. Respondeo.
  • ANTYLOPPE, beste. Tatula, C. F.
  • (ANTYM. Antiphona, K. H. P.)
  • ANTONY, propyr name. Antonius.
  • APE, a beste. Simia.
  • A-PECE (abce, P. apecy, K. 3. [Cotgrave renders Abecé, an abcee, the crosse row.]) Al∣phabetum, abecedarium, C. F.
  • A-PECE (abce, P.) lerner, or he þat lernythe þe abece. Alphabeticus, abecedarius, C. F.
  • APECHYNGE. 4. [Appeyching, accusement. PALSG. Fabyan relates that, in 1425, "many honeste men of the cytye were apeched of treason." Apescher, to impeach. KELHAM.]Appellacio.
  • A-PECHOWRE, or a-pelowre. Ap∣pellator.
  • APEYRYNGE, or apeyrement.

    5. "A litil sourdow apeyreth al the gobet." 1 Cor. V. WICL. R. Brunne uses the verb to apeire, which occurs also in Chaucer, Cant. Tales:

    "To apeiren any man, or him defame."

    "To appayre, or waxe worse, empirer." PALSG.

    Pe∣joracio, deterioracio.
  • APPEYRYN, or make wors. Pe∣joro, deterioro.
  • A-PEEL, or apelynge, supra in apechynge (apel, H.)
  • Page  13APPELYN. Appello, CATH.
  • A-PELE of belle ryngynge (apele of bellis, P.) Classicum, CATH.
  • APPERYN. Appareo, compareo.
  • A-PLEGGE (apledge, P.) Obses, CATH. vas.
  • APPLYED. Applicatus.
  • APPLYYN. Applico, oppono.
  • APPLYYNGE. Applicacio.
  • (APOSEN, or oposyn. Oppono, K. H. P.)
  • APOSTATA, he þat leuythe hys ordyr. Apostata.
  • APOSTUME (apostym, K. P.) Apostema.
  • APOSTYLLE. Apostolus.
  • APRYLE monythe (Aprel, H.) Aprile.
  • APPULLE, frute. Pomum, malum.
  • APPULLHORDE. Pomarium, CATH.
  • APPULKEPER. Pomarius, po∣milio, pomo, C. F.
  • APPULMOCE, dyschmete (appul∣mos, P.) 1. [Recipes for making this dish occur in the Form of Cury, pp. 42, 96, and other ancient books of cookery. See Harl. MS. 279, f. 16 b. Kalendare de Potages dyuers, Apple muse; and Cott. MS. Julius, D. VIII. f. 97. The following is taken from a MS. of the XV. cent. in the possession of Sir Thomas Phillipps. "Appyl mose. Take and sethe appyllys in water, or perys, or bothe togyder, and stamp heme, and strayne heme, and put heme in a dry potte, with hony, peper, safferone, and let hit haue but a boyle, and serue hit forthe as mortrewys."]Pomacium, C. F.
  • APPULLSELLER. Pomilius, Po∣milia, CATH. pomilio, C. F. UG.
  • APPULLE tree. Pomus.
  • APPULLYERDE, or gardeyne, or orcherde. Pomerium, CATH. C. F. cum e et non cum a.
  • A-QUEYNTE, or knowen. Notus, cognitus, agnitus.
  • A-QUEYNTAWNSE. Noticia, cog∣nitio, agnitio.
  • AQUEYNTYN, or to make know∣leche (make knowen, P.) Noti∣fico, notum facio.
  • AQWYTTE. Quietatus, acquie∣tatus.
  • AQWYTAWNCE (or quitaunce, P.) Acquietancia.
  • AQWYTYN, or to make qwyte and sekyr. Acquieto.
  • AQWYTYN, or qwytyn and yeldyn. Reddo.
  • ARAGE, herbe. 2. ["Atriplex domestica, Arage, or medlus." ROY. MS. 18. A. VI. f. 66 b, where its virtues are detailed. Arage, aroche. PALSG.]Attriplex (artri∣plex, P.)
  • A-RAY, or a-rayment. Orna∣tus, apparatus, ornamentum, cultus.
  • ARAYMENT. Paramentum.
  • A-RAYN, or cloþyn (arayen, P.) Induo, vestio.
  • A-RAYN, or to make honeste (ara∣yen, P.) Orno, adorno, ho∣nesto, decuso, decoro, C. F. KYLW.
  • ARAYNE, or ordeynyd (arayen or ordeyne, P.) Ordino, paro.
  • ARAYNYE, or erenye, or sonde. 3. [There seems evidently here an error of the scribe in the Harl. MS. Arayn, ac∣cording to Ray, is the name given in Nottinghamshire to the larger kind of spiders. It is used also in Yorkshire. The Latin-English Dictionary in Mr. Wilbraham's library renders aranea an arayne, arantinus, an erayn webbe: the former word is in the Me∣dulla rendered, an attercoppe. See further, under ERANYE.]Arena.
  • Page  14(ARANYE, or erayne. Aranea, K. H. P.)
  • ARBYTROWRE. Arbiter.
  • ARCHANGEL yn heuyn (arcawngel, H.). Archangelus.
  • ARCHANGEL, defe nettylle (arc∣aungell, P.) Archangelus.
  • ARS, or arce (aars, H.) Anus, culus, podex.
  • ARSWYSPE. Maniperium, DICC. anitergium.
  • ARCETER, or he þat lernethe or techethe arte (arcetyr, H. K. P.) 1. [Arcetour, arcien. PALSG. Roquefort explains arcien as etudiant en philosophie artifex, artatus.]Artista.
  • ARCH yn a walle. Archus.
  • ARCHER. Sagittarius.
  • ARCHERYE. Sagittaria, arcus. CATH.
  • A-RECHYN, or strecchyn̄ (astretch∣yn, P.) Attingo.
  • A-RENGE, or a-rewe (arowe, P.) 2. ["I shall tell the all the story a-rewe, perpetuo tenore rem explicabo." HORM. The monkish chronicler Dowglas relates of the miracles "the wiche God schowed for Seinte Thomas of Lancaster, that a blind priest dreamed that if he went to the place where the Earl had been slain he schulde have ayenne his sighte; and so he dremed iij nightes arewe." Harl. MS. 4690, f. 64 b.]Seriatim.
  • A-RESTE, or resty as flesche (arees∣tyd, K. areest or reestyed, P.) Rancidus.
  • A-RESTER, or a-tacher, or a catch∣erel, or a catchepolle. An∣garius, apparitor, CATH. C. F.
  • A-RESTE, or a-restynge. Ares∣tacio.
  • A-RESTENESSE, or a-restenesse of flesshe. 3. [Among recipes of the XIV. century in a MS. in the possession of Sir Thomas Phillipps, is one "to sauen venesone of rastichipe (or rastischipe)." See the Roll of A. D. 1381, in Forme of Cury, p. 111, "to do away Restyng of Venisone." Skinner derives resty from A. Sax. rust, rubigo.]Rancor, rancitas.
  • ARESTYN, or a-tachyn. Aresto, attachio.
  • ARGUMENTE. Argumentum.
  • (ARKAWNGELL, or archaungel. Archangelus, H. P.)
  • ARME. Brachium.
  • ARMEHOOLE. Acella, subyrcus, CATH. in brachium.
  • ARMYN. Armo.
  • ARMYS, of auncetrye. Arma.
  • ARMURE (armoure, P.) Arma, armamentum, C. F. armatura.
  • ARNESTE, or hanselle (or ernest, H. P. ansal, K. Strena, P.).
  • ARNESTE, or erneste, seryowste. Seriositas.
  • ARNESTELY, or ernestely. Seriose.
  • A-ROWME, or morevttere. 4. ["Aroume he hovyd, and withstood." Rich. C. de Lion. The word occurs in K. Alis, 3340, Chaucer, Book of Fame, B. ii. 32. See Wilbraham's Cheshire Glossary, under the word rynt.]Remote, deprope, seorsum.
  • ARTE. Ars.
  • ARTYN, or constraynyn. Arto, coarto, stringo, astringo, con∣stringo.
  • AROWE. Sagitta.
  • ARWE, or ferefulle (arwhe, K. arowe, or ferdfull, P.) 5. [A. Sax. earȝ, ignavus, earȝian, torpescere pro timore. The word arwe occurs in C. de Lion, i. 3821. "Frensche men arn arwe and feynte." In Yorkshire arfe is used in the sense of fearful. See Boucher, under the words Arew, Arf, Arghe, and Arwe; and Jamieson, under Erf, and Ergh. P. Ploughman uses the verb to arwe, to render timid.]Ti∣midus, pavidus, formidolus, formidolosus.
  • Page  15ARWYGYLL worme. 1. [This insect is called in Norfolk, erriwiggle. FORBY. In the Suffolk dialect, arra∣wiggle. MOORE. A. S. ear-wiȝȝa, vermis auricularis.]Aurealle. (aurialis, P.) UG. in auris.
  • AS. Quasi, sic, veluti.
  • A-SAYYD. Temptatus, probatus.
  • A-SAYYN. Tempto, attempto.
  • A-SAYLYD. Insultus.
  • A-SAYLYN̄. Insilio, CATH.
  • A-SAYLYNGE. Insultus.
  • A-SCHAMYD, or made a-shamyd. Verecundatus.
  • A-SHAMYD, or shamefaste. Vere∣cundus, pudorosus.
  • ASSE, a beste. Asinus.
  • ASSENEL, poyson (assenyke, py∣sone, K. H. P.) Squilla, C. F.
  • ASSENT, or acent, or a graunte. Assensus.
  • ASFASTE, or a-noon (asfast, or anone, P.) Statim, confestim, protinus, mox.
  • ASSYNGNYN, supra in acynyn̄ (asynyn or acynyn, P.)
  • ASKER. Petitor, postulator.
  • ASKYS, or aschys (aske or asche, K. H. P.) 2. [A. Sax. Axe, axsa, cinis. See Boucher, under the word Ass.]Ciner, cinis, C. F.
  • ASKYSYE (askefise, K. P. aske∣fyse, H. 3. [The reading of the Harl. MS. Askysye, is here given, although probably it is an error, by inadvertence of the scribe. The printed editions all agree with the other MSS. in giving the word Askefise. In the MS. of the Medulla Gramm. in the possession of Sir Thomas Phillips, No. 1022, ciniflo is rendered, an aske fyse; and in another, No. 1360, "ciniphlo, a fyre blowere, an yryn hetere, an askefyce." The word does not occur in several MSS. of the Medulla in the Brit. Mus., nor in the Ortus Vocabulorum, but in Mr. Wilbraham's curious Latin-English Dictionary, printed about the same time as the Promptuarium, ciniflo is explained to be one, "qui flat in cinere, vel qui preparat pulverem muliebrem. Anglice, aske fyste, a fyre blawer, or an yrne hotter." The Harl. MS. 2257, a variety of the Medulla, renders the word "a heter of blode iren, or an axe wadelle;" and it appears in Ihre's Lexic. Suiogoth. v. Aska, that askefis was applied as a term of reproach to those who remained indolently at home by the fireside, as axewaddle is used in Devonshire. See Palmer's Glossary, and Boucher under the word Axewaddle.]) Ciniflo, UG. in flo, CATH.
  • ASKYN. Peto, postulo, posco.
  • ASKYNGE. Peticio, postulacio.
  • ASCHE tre. Fraxinus.
  • ASLET, or a-slowte (asloppe, H. a slope, P.) Oblique.
  • ASOYLYN of synnys (or defautes, P.) Absolvo.
  • ASOYNYD, or refusyd. Refutatus.
  • ASOYNYN.
  • ASOYNYNGE, or refusynge. Re∣futacio.
  • ASPE tre. Tremulus.
  • A-SPYȜE (aspye, K. H. P.), or a spye. Explorator.
  • ASPYYN. Exploro.
  • ASPYYNGE. Exploracio.
  • ASPYYD (aspyed, or perceyued, perceptus, H. P.) Exploratus.
  • Page  16ASTELLE, a schyyd (astyl schyde, 1. [See SCHYYD. Astelle, estelle, copeau, éclat de bois, ROQUEF. a piece of a wooden log cleft for burning.] K. shyde, P.) Teda, C. F. as∣tula, CATH. cadia.
  • ASTYLLABYRE, instrument (as∣tyrlaby, P.) Astrolabium, C. F.
  • ASTONYED, or a-stoyned yn man∣nys wytte. Attonitus, conster∣natus, stupefactus, perculsus.
  • ASTONYD, as mannys wytte. At∣tono, CATH. UG. in tono.
  • ASTONYNGE, or a-stoynynge yn wytte. Stupefactio, conster∣natio, attonicio.
  • ASTOYNYN, or brese werkys. (astoyn, or brosyn, P.) Quatio, quasso, CATH.
  • ASTORYN, or instoryn wyth nede∣fulle thyngys. Instauro.
  • ASTRAY, or a best þat goythe astray. Palans, C. F. vagula, CATH.
  • ASTRAYLY (astray, or astrayly, P.) Palabunde, KYLW.
  • (ASTRETCHYN or arechyn. At∣tingo, P.)
  • (ASTROLOGERE. Astrologus, P.)
  • (ASTROLOGY. Astrologia, P.)
  • ASTRONOMERE. Astronomus.
  • ASTRONOMYE. Astronomia.
  • A-STRUT, or strutyngly (strowt∣ingly, P.) Turgide.
  • A-SUNDYR. Distinctus, divisus, disjunctus.
  • A-SONDYR, or brokyn. Fractus.
  • A-SUNDERLY. Disjunctim, separ∣atim, divisim.
  • ASURE. 2. ["Lazirium, i. e. incaustum, or asur colour," ORT. VOC. See Ducange, under the word Lazur; and directions "for to make fyn azure of lapis lazuli," and distinguishing lapis lazuly from "lapis almaine, of whiche men maken a blew bis azure." Sloan. MS. 73. f. 215, b.]Asura.
  • ASURYN, or insuryn̄. Assecuro, securo.
  • ATTACHYN, supra in arestyn.
  • ATHAMYD, as a wessel wyth drynke (atamed, P.) 3. [John de Garlandia says, "Precones vini clamant gula hiante vinum attaminatum in tabernis, portando vinum temptandum, fusum in cratere. which the gloss renders atamyd. Liber dictus Diccionarius, Harl. MS. 1002, f. 177, b.]Attaminatus, DICC. depletus, CATH.
  • ATTAMYN a wesselle wyth drynke, or abbrochyn. Attamino, depleo.
  • ATTHAMYNGE of a wesselle wyth drynke. Attaminacio, depletio.
  • A-TASTYN. Pregusto.
  • ATTEYNYN, supra in strechyn (astretchyn, P.)
  • ATTEYNTYN. Convinco.
  • ATTYR, fylthe. 4. [A. Sax. Atter, venenum. "This sore is full of matter, or ater; purulentum." HORM. Atter has the same sense in Norfolk at the present time, and Skinner mentions the word as commonly used in Lincolnshire. See WHYTOUWRE.]Sanies.
  • ATTYRCOPPE. 5. [A. Sax. Atter-coppa, aranea, literally a cup, or head of poison. See a curious tale of the effect of the venom of the atturcoppe at Shrewsbury, in the Preface to Lang∣toft's Chron. Hearne, i. p. cc. The Medulla renders aranea, an attercoppe, and the English Gloss. on the "Liber vocatus Equus," Harl. MS. 1002, f. 114, explains the same word as addurcop. Palsgrave gives "Addircop or Spiners web, Araignée;" and Ray says that in Cumberland the word attercob signifies the web, as it does also in York∣shire. See BOUCHER and JAMIESON. In the Legenda Aurea, spiders are called spyn∣coppes. Saynt Felyx, f. 72. In Trevisa's version of the Polychronicon, it is said that in Ireland "there ben attercoppes, bloode-soukers, and eeftes that doon none harme." Caxton, f. 63, b.]Aranea.
  • Page  17A-TYRE, or tyre of women. 1. ["Atyre for a gentilwomans heed, atour." PALSG. See hereafter under TYRE.]Re∣dimiculum, CATH. cultus, C. F.
  • A-TYRYN yn womeyns a-ray, supra in ARAYN̄. Redimio, orno, CATH.
  • ATREET (atrete, P.) Tractatim, (tractim, distincte, K.)
  • A-TWYXYN̄. (atwexyn, H. atwyxt, P.) Inter.
  • A-TURNEYE (aturne, K. H. P.) Suffectus, C. F. atturnatus, sub∣stitutus.
  • ATTE ÞE LASTE. Tandem, de∣mum, novissime.
  • A-WHYLE (avayle, K. P. awayt, W.)2. ["Auayle, prouffit." PALSG. See an enactment in Rot. Parl. VI. 203, regarding certain manors "with all proufites and avayles to the same perteyning."]Profectus, proventus, emolumentum.
  • A-VAYLYN, or profytyn̄. Valeo, prosum, CATH.
  • A-WAYTE, or waytynge (awayt∣inge, P.) Exploracio, explo∣ratus.
  • (AWAYTINGE, or takinge heede, P. Attendens.)
  • A-VAUNCEMENT. Beneficium.
  • A-VAUNCYD (avauntyd, H. avaunt∣ed, P.) Beneficiatus.
  • A-VAUNCE, or boste (avaunt, K. P.) Jactancia, arrogancia.
  • A-VAUNTYN, or boostyn. 3. ["Though you do neuer so many good dedes, you lese your mede if you auaunte you of them, se vanter." PALSG. The word occurs in another sense in Elyot's Librarie, "Vendito, to sell often, to auaunt, venditatio, an auaunt."]Jacto, arrogo, ostento.
  • A-VANTAGE (auauntage, P.) Pro∣ventus, CATH. emolumentum, avauntagium, (prerogativa, P.)
  • AWBE (awlbe, P.) Alba, poderis, CATH.
  • AWBEL or ebelle tre (ebeltre, K. P.) 4. [It is very doubtful what tree is here intended. Forby observes that in Norfolk the asp tree, populus tremula, is called ebble, which seems to be merely a variation of abele, the name given by botanists to the populus alba. In a vocabulary in Harl. MS. 1002, viburnum is rendered "a awberne." The Promptuary gives hereafter EBAN TRE. Ebanus. In early French writers the "bois d'aubor" is often mentioned as in esteem for making bows, but its nature has not been satisfactorily explained, and pos∣sibly it may have been identical with the awbel. In German the yew tree is called eben.]Ebonus, viburnus, DICC. (ebenus, P.)
  • AWBURNE coloure. Citrinus.
  • AWE or drede. Timor, pavor, ter∣ror, formido.
  • A-WEY, or nott here. Absens.
  • AUELONGE (awelonge, H. awey∣longe, P.) 5. [This word occurs again hereafter, WARPYN, or wex wronge or avelonge as vesselle, oblongo. In Harl. MS. 1002, f. 119, oblongo is rendered to make auelonge; and in the editor's MS. of the Medulla, oblongus is rendered auelonge. A. S. Awoh, oblique. Moore gives the word avellong, used in Suffolk, when the irregular shape of a field interferes with the equal distribution of the work.]Oblongus.
  • AVENCE herbe. 6. [Avens, caryophillata. SKINNER. The virtues attributed, at the time the Promp∣torium was compiled, to auaunce, by some called harefoot, which it resembles, may be found in Roy. MS. 18 A. VI. f. 67, b. It was used in cookery; see the Forme of Cury, p. 13. By modern botanists it is known as the geum.]Avancia, sana∣munda.
  • Page  18AVENE of corn (awene, K. awne, P.) 1. ["Arista, spica, an awne of corne, an ere, or a glene." DICT. WILBR.]Arista, CATH.
  • AVENERE. 2. [The avenere was an officer of the household who had the charge of supplying pro∣vender for the horses. A curious account of his duties occurs in MS. Sloane, 1986, f. 38, b. quoted in Boucher's Glossary. See Abatis in Ducange and Spelman. The Clerk Avenar occurs in the Household Book of the Earl of Northumberland, 1511, his duties were "for breving daily of horssemete and liuereis of fewell." Ant. Repert. iv. 233.]Abatis, duorum ge∣nerum, CATH.
  • A-VENTURE. Fortuna.
  • A-WERE, or dowte (awe, K. P.) 3. ["I stand in a wer, whether I may go or turne agayne, hesito." HORM.]Dubium, ambiguum, per∣plexus.
  • AWFYN of þe chekar. 4. [The awfyn or alphyn was anciently the name of the bishop in the game of chess. Hyde derives it from the Arabic, al-fil, an elephant. The piece was called by the French fol, at an early period, and subsequently aufin. The third chap. of the seconde trac∣tate of Caxton's game of the Chesse, 1474, "tretethe of the Alphyns, her office ande maners. The Alphyns oughte to be made ande formede in manere of Juges syttynge in a chayer withe a book open to fore their eyen. Theyr offyce is for to counceylle the Kynge." "Alfyn, a man of the chesse borde, avlfin." PALSG. See Ducange, Douce's Remarks on the European names of Chessmen, Archaeol, xi. p. 400, and Sir. F. Madden's remarks on the chess-men found in Lewis, Archaeol. xxiv. p. 225. Horman, speaking of chess, says, "We shulde have 2 kyngis, and 2 quyens, 4 alfyns, 4 knyghtis, 4 rokis, and 16 paunis." f. 282. b.]Alfinus.
  • AWGRYM. 5. ["Augrym, algorisme. To counte, reken by cyfers of agryme, enchifrer. To cast an accomptes in aulgorisme with a penne, enchifrer. To caste an accomptes with counters, after the aulgorisme maner, calculer. To case an accomptes after the comen maner, with counters, compter par iect. I shall reken it syxe times by aulgorisme, or you can caste it ones by counters." PALSG. It would hence appear that towards the commencement of the XVIth century the use of the Arabic numerals had in some degree superseded the ancient mode of calculating by the abacus, and counters, which, at the period when the Promptorium was compiled, were generally used. Hereafter we find the word COUNTINGE BORDE as an evidence. They were not indeed wholly dis∣used at a time long subsequent: an allusion to calculation by counters occurs in Shake∣speare, and later authors prove that they had not been entirely discarded. Algorithm or algorism, a term universally used in the XIVth and XVth centuries to denote the science of calculation by 9 figures and zero, is of Arabic derivation.]Algarismus.
  • AVYSEMENT. Indicie, deliberacio.
  • AVYSYD. Provisus, avisatus.
  • A-VYSYN. Delibero.
  • AWKE, or angry. 6. ["Aukwarde frowarde, peruers. Aukwar leftehanded, gauche, Auke stroke, reuers." PALSG.]Contrarius, bilosus, perversus.
  • AWKE, or wronge. Sinister.
  • (AWKLY, or wrongly, K. Sinistre.)
  • AWKELY, or wrawely. Perverse, contrarie, bilose.
  • AWMBRERE, or awemenere (awm∣nere, K. awmener or amner, P.) 7. ["Saynt Johan the Elemosner was mercyfull in suche wyse that he was called al∣mosner, or amener." LEG. AUR. f. 83. At the inthronization of Abp. Warham, 1504, to each of the tables was appointed an almner, with sewer, panter, and other officers. LEL. COLL. vi. 18. Of the duties of the "aumenere" at the table of a great lord, see a curious English poem, of the times of Henry VI. appended to the "Boke of Cur∣tasye." Sloan. MS. 1986, f. 43. De officiariis in curiis Dominorum.]Elemosinator, rogatorius, C. F.
  • AWMEBRY, or awmery. Elemosi∣narium, rogatorium.
  • Page  19AWMBLARE, as a horse (awmilere, K. H. aumlinge horse, P.) 1. ["Amblyng horse, hacquenée." PALSG.]Gra∣darius, C. F. ambulator, ambu∣larius.
  • AWMYR, or ambyr (awmbyr, K. H. P.) Ambra, C. F.
  • (AUMENERE, H. awmener or am∣nere, P. Elemosinarius.)
  • AWNCETYR. Progenitor.
  • AWNCETRYE. Progenitura, pro∣sapia, herilitas.
  • AWNDERNE (awndyryn, K. awn∣dyrn, P.) 2. [Among "thingis that ben vsed after the hous." in Caxton's Boke for Travellers, "upon the herthe belongeth woode or turues, two andyrons of yron (brandeurs), a tonge, a gredyron." "Awndyrene, andena." Vocab. Roy. MS. "Aundyern, chenet." PALSG. "I lacke a fyre pan and andyars to bere up the fuel. Alaribus vel ypopyrgiis." HORM. It appears that andyrons and dogs were not identical, as generally is understood, for in the Inventory of Sir Henry Unton's effects, 1596, printed by the Berkshire Ash∣molean Society, the two are enumerated as occurring together, and both occur also singly. Cotgrave renders "chenets, and landiers, andirons; harpon de fer pour retenir et arrester un poultre, dogge of iron."]Andena, ipoporgium, C. F.
  • AWNGEL. Angelus.
  • AWNSCHENYD (auncenyd, P.) Antiquatus, veteranus.
  • AWNTE, moderys systyr. Ma∣teria, CATH. Tia, C. F.
  • AWNTE, faderys systyr. Amita, CATH. (aunta, P.)
  • AWNTYR or happe (aunter, P.) 3. ["Aunter, adventure." PALSG. "He bosteth his dedes of aunters." HORM.]Fortuna, fortuitus.
  • AWNTRŌN (awntryn, K. aventryn, P.) 4. ["To aunter, put a thyng in daunger, or aduenture, aduenturer." PALSG.]Fortuno, CATH.
  • AWNTEROWS, or dowtefulle. For∣tunalis, fortuitus.
  • AWNTEROWSLY. Forte, fortasse, forsan.
  • A-VOYDAWNCE. Evacuacio.
  • A-VOYDYD. Evacuatus.
  • A-VOYDEN̄. 5. ["To auoyde as water dothe that ronneth by a gutter or synke, se vuyder. To blede, or auoyde bloode." PALSG.]Evacuo, devacuo.
  • A-VOWE. 6. ["Auowe, veu." PALSG. This word occurs in R. de Brunne, Wiclif, and Chaucer. The phrase "perfourmed his auowe" occurs in the Legenda Aurea, f. 47.]Votum.
  • A-WOWYN, or to make a-wowe. (auowen, or make auowe, P.) 7. ["I have auowed my pylgrymage unto our lady of Walsyngham, j'ai aduoue." PALSG. In the same book the word is used in a sense somewhat different. "To auowe, warrant, or make good or upholde, as in marchaundyse or such like. Take this clothe of my worde, I auowe it for good, je le pleuuys."]Voveo.
  • A-VOWYN, or stonde by the for∣sayde worde or dede. Advoco, CATH. 8. ["But I wol not avowen that I say." CHAUC.]
  • A-VOWTERE (avoutrere, H. P. avow∣terere, K.) Adulter, adultera.
  • A-VOWTRYE. Adulterium.
  • Page  20AWTERE. Altare, ara.
  • AWTERSTONE. Superaltare.
  • AWTORYTE (auctorite, P.) Auc∣toritas.
  • AWTOWRE. Auctor.
  • AXYLTRE, or exyltre. Axis.
  • (AXE, or exe to hewe, P. Securis, dolabra.)
  • A-ȜENE (ayen, P.) Iterum, adhuc, rursum, rursus.
  • A-ȜENS, or a-gens (ayens or ageyne, P.) Contra, adversus.
  • A-ȜENWARDE (ayenwarde, P.) E contrario, e converso.
  • A-ȜEN WYLLE (ayen wyll, P.) In∣vite.
  • BABE, or lyttyle chylde. Infans, puerilus, pusillus, pusio, DIST.
  • BABEWYN, or babewen (babwyn, or babwen, P.) 1. ["Babwyne beest, baboyn." PALSG.]Detippus, C. F. ipos. figmentus, chimera.
  • BABYLN, or waveryn (babelyn, P.) Librillo.
  • BABELYNGE, or wauerynge. Va∣cillacio, librillacio.
  • BABULLE, or bable (babyll, P.) 2. ["Librilla, baculus cum corrigia plumbata ad librandum carnes. Pegma, baculus cum massa plumbi in summitate pendente, et ut dicit Cornutus tali baculo scenici lude∣bant." CATH. "Librilla dicitur instrumentum librandi, idem est percutiendi lapides in castra, i. mangonus, a bable, or a dogge malyote." ORT. VOC. In the Vocabulary, Roy. MS 17 C. XVII. f. 56, b. occur under Nomina armorum, with mase and other weapons, "Dog babulle, babrilla, Babulle, Pegma." Palsgrave renders "Bable for a foole, marotte." See Douce's Illustrations of Shakespeare, where will be found numerous representations of the bauble. Baubella, in old French babioles, trinkets, gewgaws.]Li∣brilla, CATH. pegma, C. F. CATH.
  • BABYRLYPPYD. Labrosus, CATH. 3. [Piers Ploughman describes Covetyse as "byttel browede and baberlupped." In old French the thick lips of some animals are called babeines. ROQUEF.]
  • BAKER or baxter (bakstar, P.) Pistor, panicius, CATH. pani∣ficus, panifex, panificator.
  • BACE, or fundament. Basis.
  • BACE, fysche. 4. ["Bace, ung bar." PALSG. "Lubin, a base, or sea wolfe. Bar, the fish called a base." COTGR. The basse, or sea perch, the lupus of the Romans, labrax lupus, CUV. seems to be the fish here intended, and not the coal-fish, according to the explan∣ation in Boucher's Glossary.]
  • BACE CHAMBYR. Bassaria, vel camera bassaria, sive camera bassa.
  • BACE PLEYE. Barrus. Barri, bar∣rorum, dantur ludi puerorum.
  • BACENETT. Cassis, CATH. in galeâ.
  • BACHELERE. Bacularius, bach∣illarius, bachalarius.
  • BACUN FLESCHE. Petaso, baco.
  • BAD, or wykyde. Malus.
  • BADDE, or nowght worthe. In∣validus.
  • BADLY, or wykkydl. Male, inique.
  • (BAFFYN as howndys, K. H. P. Baulo, baffo, latro.)
  • BAFFYNGE as howndys folowynge her pray. Nicto, CATH. UG. glatio.
  • BAFFYNGE or bawlynge of howndys. Baulatus, baffatus.
  • BAGE, or bagge of armys (badge, P.) 5. ["Badge of a gentylman, la deuise d'ung Seigneur." PALSG. It was a cognisance or ornament, forming part of the livery assigned by a chieftain to his followers, which led to the use of uniforms. The word is probably derived from A. S. beag, corona, ar∣milla. See in Harl. MS. 4632, an interesting list of badges of cognisance, printed in Collect. Topogr. et Ganealogica, vol. III. p. 54.]Banidium, bannidium, KYLW.
  • Page  21BAGGE, or poke (pocke, K.) Sac∣culus.
  • BAGGE, or sacchelle (sechelle, K.) Saccellus.
  • BAGGYN, or bocyn owte, quere infra in bocyn. Tumeo.
  • BAGGE PYPE. Panduca, KYLW.
  • (BAGGE PYPERE. Panducarius, P.)
  • (BAHCHE, or bakynge, K. batche, P. Pistura.)
  • BAY frute. Bacca.
  • BAY, or wyth-stondynge. Obsta∣culum.
  • BAYYD,as a horse (bay, P.) Ba∣dius, UG. et ibi nota omnes colores equorum.
  • BAYȲN, or berkyn a-yene (ageyne, P.) Relatro.
  • BAYNYD, as benys or pesyn. 1. [This word seems to signify shelled, and consequently prepared for the table, from bayn, ready. See Jamieson and Boucher. In Norfolk bein means pliant or limber, FORBY. Compare BEYN or plyaunte, which occurs hereafter.]Fre∣sus.
  • (BAKKE, flyinge best, K. bak, P. fleynge byrde, W. 2. ["Lucifuga, quedam avis lucem fugiens, a backe." ORT. VOC. "Backe, a beest that flyeth, chauvesouris." PALSG. "Vespertilio, a reremouse or backe." ELIOT. A. S. Hrere-mus.]Vesper∣tilio.)
  • BAKKE. Dorsum.
  • BAKKE of a beste. Tergus, CATH.
  • BAKKE of man, or woman. Ter∣gum, CATH.
  • BAKKE of egge toole. Ebiculum.
  • BAKKEBYTERE. Detractor, de∣tractrix, oblocutor, oblocutrix.
  • BAGBYTYN (bakbyten, P.) De∣traho, detracto, CATH.
  • (BAKBYTYNG, K. backebytinge, P. Detractio, oblocutio.)
  • BAKHOWSE, or bakynge howse. Pistrina, pistrinum, CATH.
  • BAKYN, or to bake. Pinso, pani∣fico.
  • BAKYN, or bake (baked, P.) Pistus.
  • BAKYN vnder þe askys (aschys, K.). Subcinericius.
  • BAKYNGE (or bahche, K.) Pis∣tura.
  • BAKYNGE howse. Panificium.
  • BAKWARD, or bakstale. 3. [Bakstale may be derived from A. S. stael, stal, locus, status. In German stellen signifies to place.]A retro.
  • BAXTER, supra in baker (bakstare, K. P.)
  • BAKUN, supra in bacun.
  • BAKWARDE. Retro, retrorsum.
  • BALLE of pley. Pila.
  • BALLE of þe ye (iye, P.) Pupilla.
  • BALKE yn a howse.
    "With his owen hand than made he ladders three,
    To climben by the renges and the stalkes
    Unto the tubbes honging in the balkes."

    CHAUC. Miller's Tale.

    A. S. Balc, trabs. "Trabes, a beame, or a balke of a hous." ORT. VOC. "Balke, pouste," i. e. poutre. PALSG.

    Trabes, trabecula, COMM.
  • Page  22BALPLEY, or pley (plainge, P.) at þe balle. Pililudus.
  • BALPLEYERE. Pililudius, lipi∣dulus idem est, ludipilus.
  • BALAUNCE. Statera, libra, fa∣lanx (balanx, P.) trutina.
  • BALDEMOYN (baldmony, K. balde∣monye, P.)
    "Look how a sick man for his hele
    Takith baldemoyn with the canele."

    GOWER.

    Of the virtues attributed to this herb, see Roy. MS. 18 A. VI. "Genciana ys an herbe that me clepyth baldemoyne, or feldewort."

    Genciana.
  • BALE, or bane. 2. [The signification here given to bale is uncommon; its usual meaning is mischief, woe or calamity. This Hampole, in the Pricke of Conscience, calls the day of doom "the day of bale and bitterness." A. S. Balew, exitium.]Mortiferum, toxicum, letiferum, letale.
  • BALE of spycery, or other lyke. Bulga, C. F.
  • BALLE, schepys name. Ballator, ballatrix (balator, P.)
  • BALEYS. 3. [Hereafter occurs in the Promptorium ȜERDE baleys, virga. Virga is rendered a ȝerde or a rodde, MED. and ORT. VOC.; and such the baleys seems to have been, and not a besom, balai, in the present sense of the word. Matthew Paris relates that in 1252, a person came to perform penance at St. Alban's, "ferens in manu virgam quam vulga∣riter baleis appellamus," with which he was disciplined by each of the brethren. Wats in the Glossary observes, "Ita Norfolcienses mei vocant virgam majorem, et ex pluribus longioribus viminibus; qualibus utuntur paedagogi severiores in scholis." Baleys occurs in Piers Ploughman in the same sense. Forby does not notice it: but the verb to balase occurs amongst the provincialisms of Shropshire; see Hartshorne's Salopia Antiqua.]Virga.
  • BALY (baley, P.) 4. [In the Wicliffite version Baili seems to imply the charge or office, "ȝelde reken∣ynge of thi baili, for thou myght not now be baylyf." Luc. 16. "He is my ryue and bayly, Inquilinus prediorum urbicorum et rusticorum." HORM.]Ballivus.
  • BALY, or seriaunt men arestynge. Angarius, CATH. apparitor.
  • BALLYD. Calvus.
  • BALLYDNESSE. Calvicies.
  • BALYSCHEPE (balyshype, K.) Balliatus.
  • BALKE in a howse, supra. Trabs.
  • BALKE of (on, P.) a londe eryd. 5. ["Crebro, a balke bitwyne two furrowes. Porca vorat furfur, aratrum vult ver∣tere porcam." MED. HARL. MS 2257. "He hath made a balke in the lande, scannum fecit, sive crudum solum et inmotum reliquit." HORM. "Baulke of lande, separaison." PALSG. A. S. Balc, porca. The word is still in use in Norfolk and Suffolk.]Porca, CATH.
  • BALKYN, or to make a balke yn a londe (in erynge of londe, P.) Porco, C. F. in porca.
  • BALKYN, or ouerskyppyn. Omitto.
  • BALHEW, or pleyn (balwe, or playne, P.) 6. [In Gawayn and the Green Knyȝt occur the expressions "a balȝ berg," and "balȝe hawncheȝ," which are explained by Sir F. Madden to mean ample, swelling. Mr. Stevenson, however, in Boucher's Glossary, interprets the word as smooth or unwrinkled.]Planus.
  • BANNARE, or cursere. Impre∣cator, imprecatrix, maledicus, maledica.
  • BANE, or poyson (supra in bale, P.) Vide supra. Mortiferum, exitium, intoxicum, letiferum.
  • BANE of a pley (or mariage, P.) Banna, coragium, C. F. (pre∣ludium, P.)
  • Page  23BANERE. Vexillum.
  • BANNYN, or waryyn. Imprecor, maledico, execror.
  • BANYNGE, or cursynge. Impre∣catio, maledictio.
  • BANYOWRE, or bannerberere. Vex∣illarius, vexillifer, primipilus, UG.
  • BANKE of watyr. Ripa.
  • BANKE of þe see. Litus.
  • BANKER. 1. [The banker was a cloth, carpet, or covering of tapestry for a form or bench, from the French "banquier, tapis pour mettre sur un banc, stragulum abaci." NICOT. COTGR. "Amphitapa est tapetum circumfilosum, a woll loke." ORT. "Tapes utrinque villosus." DUC.; denoting the coverings of arras and tapestry work, wrought, perhaps, on both sides, such as are enumerated in the Inventory of Sir John Fastolfe's effects, 1459. Archaeol. xxi. 257, 265. We there also find "Banker, hangyng tapestry worke," which may mean the tapestry commonly in use for hangings, or that the Banker was in this instance the covering of a high-backed seat, over which it was hung. In an earlier Inventory of the Priory, Durham, 1446, occur "iij Bankquerez paleat' de blodio intenso et remisso; costerae pro ornatu murorum ejusdem cameroe," these last being of the same suit as the Bankers, that is, of cloth of say, paly dark blue and light. Inventories published by the Surtees Society, i. 92. In the Teutonic, banck-werck is rendered by Kilian, "tapes, opus polymitum, vulgo bancalia, scamnalia, subsellii stragulum." A Vocabulary of nearly the same date as the Promptorium gives "pepotasina, bachis, ban∣quere." ROY. MS. 17. C. XVII. This word has been in Boucher's Glossary incorrectly explained to mean a table-cloth.]Scamnarium, amphi∣taba, C. F. UG.
  • BANYSCHYD (banysshed, P.) Ban∣nitus, exulatus.
  • BANSCHYN (banysshe, P.) Bannio.
  • BANNYSCHYNGE. Bannicio, ban∣nitus, exilium.
  • BAPTYM. 2. [Baptym is not an error of the scribes, but a singular corruption of ortho∣graphy. In the other MSS. as well as the printed editions, the same spelling occurs. In the Wicliffite version it is thus written, as also baptym, and baptem, in the Legenda Aurea. The observation would be trivial, did it not afford an evidence of the predomi∣nant influence of the French language in England at the period; the word is evidently thence received, and not from the Latin.]Baptismus, baptisma, CATH.
  • (BAPTYST, or baptisar, P. Bap∣tista.)
  • BAPTYZYN (baptyse, P.) Baptizo.
  • BARATOWRE. 3. [Compare hereafter DEBATE MAKER, or barator, incentor. FEYGHTARE, or baratowre, pugnax, which is distinguished from FEYGHTARE, pugnator, showing that the word implies one of a contentious disposition, and not an actual combatant.]Pugnax, CATH. rixosus, C. F. jurgosus.
  • BARBARYN frute. Barbeum, C. F.
  • BARBARYN tre (barbery, P.) Bar∣baris.
  • BARBICAN by-fore a castelle. 4. [Spelman explains the barbacan to be "munimen à fronte castri, aliter antemurale dictum; etiam foramen in urbium castrorumque moeniis ad tragicienda missilia. Sax. burgekening. Vox Arabica." Pennant asserts that the Saxons called the barbican to the north-west of Cripplegate, burgh-kenning; other writers have suggested a different etymology, A. S. burk-beacn, urbis specula. Bullet would derive it from the Celtic, bar, before, bach, an enclosure. Lye gives barbacan as a word adopted in the Anglo-Saxon language, and we must certainly not seek thence its derivation. The best specimens of the outworks to which this name was given were at York, and called the Bars, of which one still exists in good preservation.]Antemurale, KYLW.
  • BARBOURE. Barbitonsor.
  • Page  24(BARBORERY, or barborysh hous, K. barbours hous for shauynge. P. Barbitondium.)
  • BARBYLLE fysche (barbell fisshe, P.) Barbyllus.
  • BARBULLE, sekenes of þe mowthe. 1. [Burbul, papula. ROY. MS. 17 C. XVII. de infirmitatibus. It is probably the same as "barbes, pushes or little bladders under the tongues of horses and cattell, the which they kill, if they be not speedily cured. Barbes aux veaux, the barbles." COTGR.]
  • BARE. Nudus.
  • BARYN, or to make bare. Nudo, denudo.
  • BARYNE (bareyn, P.) Sterilis.
  • BAREYNTE (bareynesse, P.) Ste∣rilitas.
  • BARELLE. Cadus.
  • BARENESSE. Nuditas.
  • BARRE of a gyrdylle, or oþer harneys.

    2. The ornaments of the girdle, which frequently were of the richest description, were termed barres, and in French cloux; they were perforated to allow the tongue of the buckle to pass through them. Originally they were attached transversely to the wide tissue of which the girdle was formed, but subsequently were round or square, or fa∣shioned like the heads of lions, and similar devices, the name of barre being still re∣tained, though improperly. Thus a citizen of Bristol bequeathed in 1430, "zonam harnizatam cum barris argenti rotundis." In the description of the girdle of Richesse, in Chaucer's Romaunt of the Rose, we read,

    The barris were of gold full fine
    Upon a tissue of sattin,
    Full hevie, grete and nothing light,
    In everiche was a besaunt wight.

    In the original, "les cloux furent d'or epuré." The word was similarly applied to the ornaments of other parts of costume, such as the garter, worn by the Knight of the Order, or spur-leathers, as in Gawayn and the Green Knyȝt, i. 287.

    —"clene spures under
    Of bryȝt golde vpon silke bordes
    Barred ful ryche."
    Stipa.
  • BARRE of þe schyttynge of a dore (shettinge, P.) Pessulum, re∣pagulum, vectis, clatrus, CATH.
  • BARRE abowte a graue or awter (barres, P.) Barre, plus. C. F. UG. in gero, (cerre, P.)
  • (BARRED as a girdell, P. Stipatus.)
  • BARRYD with yren̄. Garratus, UG. (cerratus, P.)
  • BARREN harnes. Stipo, constipo.
  • BARRYN dorys, (wyndowus, K.) or oþer shyttynge. Pessulo, repa∣gulo.
  • BARRYNGE of dorys (or other shettynge, P.) Repagulacio, obseracio.
  • BARRYNGE of harneys. Stipacio, constipacio.
  • BARRERE, or barreere (barryȝer, K.) Pararium, barraria, bar∣rus, C. F.
  • BARGAYNE (bargany, P.) Lici∣tacio, stipulacio, CATH.
  • BARGANYYN, or to make a bar∣gayne. Stipulo, CATH. mercor, licito, UG. C. F.
  • BARGE, schyppe. Barcha.
  • BARKE. Cortex.
  • BARKE, powdyr of (for, P.) lethyr. Ferunium (frunium, P.) CATH.
  • BARKERE (barkar, P.) Cerdo, frunio, C. F.
  • BARKARYS barkewatyr (barkars water, P.) Naucea, C. F.
  • Page  25BARKYN lethyr. Frunio, tanno, tannio, C. F.
  • BARKYNGE of lethyr (lethyr or ledyr, P.) Frunicio.
  • BARLYLEPE, to kepe yn corne (barlep, P.) 1. ["Sporta, a bere lepe, or basket." ORT. VOC. In one MS. of the Medulla it is rendered "a berynge lep." A. S. Bere, hordeum, leap, corbis. See BERINGE LEPE.]Cumera, UG. in camos.
  • BARLY CORNE. Ordeum, triticum, C. F.
  • BARLYSELE. 2. [In Norfolk at the present time the season of sowing barley is termed barley-sele, in Suffolk, barsel. FORBY, MOORE. A. S. sel, occasio.]Tempus ordeacium.
  • BARLYMELE. Alphita, UG. in al.
  • BARME. 3. ["And in hire barme this litel child she leid." CHAUC. A. S. bearm, gremium.]Gremium.
  • BARMCLOTHE, or naprun.

    4. Chaucer uses the word; it occurs in the Miller's Tale:

    A barme cloth as white as morrow milke
    Upon her lends, full of many a gore.

    The Medulla explains limas to be "vestis que protenditur ab umbilico usque ad pedes, quâ utuntur servi coci et femine. Anglice, barm cloth." A. S. barm-raeȝl, or barm∣clað, mappula, ELFRIC.

    Li∣mas, CATH.
  • BARNYSKYN (barme skyn, P.) 5. [The melotes is explained in the Catholicon to be "quedam vestis de pilis vel pel∣libus taxi facts, a collo pendens usque ad lumbos, quâ monachi utuntur. Et iste habitus est necessarius proprie ad operis exercitium, eadem ut pera ut dicunt." Uguitio says, "melota ex pellibus caprinis esse dicitur, ex unâ vero parte dependens." See Ducange. The King's MS. gives barniskyn, but the reading of the printed editions appears to be preferable, barme-skyn, implying simply an apron formed of the skin of a beast. Barm-skin is preserved in the dialect of Lancashire, where it means a leathern apron.]Melotes, CATH. C. F. melota, UG. in mellese.
  • BAROONE lorde (barun or baron, P.) Baro.
  • BARONESSE. Baronissa.
  • BARONYE. Baronia.
  • BARTRYN or changyn, or chafare oone thynge for a othere. Cam∣bio, campso, CATH.
  • BARTRYNGE, or changynge of chafyre. Cambium, C. F.
  • BAROWE.

    6. A barowe or crowde was a small vehicle, whether precisely similar or not to the barrow of the present times, cannot be asserted. When Sir Amiloun was worn out with leprosy, and reduced to "tvelf pans of catel," the faithful Amoraunt expended that little sum in the purchase of a barowe, therein to carry the knight about.

    "Therwith thai went ful yare
    And bought hem a gode croude wain."

    Amis and Amiloun, 1867.

    A. S. berewe, vectula. "Cenovectorium, a berw. Instrumentum cum quo deportatur cenus." MED. See CROWDE, barowe.

    Cenovectorium, ce∣novium, UG. in cenon, C. F.
  • BASELARDE.

    7. The Baselard was a kind of long dagger, which was suspended to the girdle, and worn, not only by the armed knight, but by civilians, and even priests. Thus Piers Ploughman, in allusion to the neglect of clerical propriety, says,

    "Sir John and Sir Jeffery hath a girdle of silver,
    A baselard, or a ballocke knife, with bottons ouergilt."

    Knighton tells us that the weapon with which Sir William Walworth put Jack Straw to death was a basillard. Sir William was a member of the Fishmongers' Company, who still preserve the weapon traditionally recorded to have been used by him on this occa∣sion, and which he presented to the Company. Among Songs and Carols edited by Thos. Wright, is a spirited poem describing the baselard. "Pugio, a dagger or a baslarde." ORT. "A hoked baslarde (bizachius) is a perels wepon with the Turkes." HORM. In old French bazelaire, badelaire, from balthearis, ROQUEF. See Duncange, basalardus.

    Sica, C. F. cluna∣bulum, CATH. (pugio, BRIT. P.)
  • Page  26BASKET, or panyere (panere, P.) Calathus.
  • BASKET, or a lepe. 1. [See LEEP, or baskett. "Lepe, or a basket, corbeille." PALSG. A. S. leap, corbis.]Sporta, corbes (canistrum, cartallum, P.)
  • BASSENETT, supra in bacenett (basnet, P.)
  • BASONE wesselle (basun or bason, vessell, P.) Pelvis.
  • BAASTE, not wedloke (bast, P.) Bastardia.
  • BASTARDE. Bastardus, nothus.2. ["Bast, bâtard." ROQUEF. "He was bigeten o baste, God it wot." Artour and Merlin. Weber, iii. 360.]
  • BASTARDE, comyn of fadyr and modyr genteylle (comyn of un∣gentyl fadyr and gentyl moder, P.) Spurius, spuria, CATH.
  • BASTARDE, of fadyr gentylle, and modyr vngentylle. Nothus, notha, CATH.
  • BASTYLE of a castelle or cytye. 3. [Fascenia is explained to be "clausibilis vallatio circa castra et civitates que solet fieri quibusdam fascibus stipularum et lignorum." CATH. "Closture de bois, palis." CATH. ABBREV. Roquefort gives "Bastille, château de bois." In Caxton's boke of the Fayt of armes, part ii. c. XXIIII. of habillements that behouen to an assawte, are di∣rections at length respecting bastylles and bolwerks of wood, formed with palebordes called penelles, with defences after the manner of towers, and other batellements. See also C. XXXIV. Lord Berners, in his translation of Froissart, writes, "They landed lytell and lytell, and so lodged in Calays, and there about, in bastylles that they mae dayly."]Fascennia, UG. in facio.
  • BASTYN clothys. 4. ["This dublet was nat well basted at the first, and that maketh it to wrinkle thus, ce pourpoynt n'estoit pas bien basty." PALSG. Chaucer uses this word, Rom. of the Rose, "With a threde basting my slevis." "Besten. Fris. Sicambr. leviter consuere." KILIAN.]Subsuo, CATH. sutulo.
  • BASTYNGE of clothe. Subsutura, CATH.
  • BATAYLE. Bellum, pugna, du∣ellum.
  • BATTE staffe. 5. [This word occurs in the Wicliffite version, Matt. xxvi. 47, "Lo Judas, oon of the twelve, cam, and with him a greet cumpany with swordis and battis." A. S. batt, fustis.]Perticulus, CATH. fustis, batillus, UG. in bachis.
  • BATTYN, or betyn wyth stavys (battis, P.) Fustigo, baculo.
  • BATYN, or abaten̄ of weyte or mesure. Subtraho.
  • BATYN, or make debate. Jurgor, vel seminare discordias, vel dis∣cordare.
  • BATTFOWLERE. Aucubaculator, CATH.
  • BATFOWLYN (or go to take birdes in the nyght, P.) Aucubaculo.
  • BATTEFOWLYNGE. 6. ["Batfowlynge, la pipee." PALSG. The Catholicon explains hamis to be "fustis aucupabilis, scil. virgula que sustinet rhete in quo capiuntur fere, vel que levat rhete in quo capiuntur aves."]Aucubacu∣latus, (CATH. in hamis, P.)
  • BATHE. Balneum, balnearium, balneatorium, UG.
  • BATHYNGE. Balneacio.
  • Page  27BATYLDOURE, or wasshynge be∣tylle. 1. ["Batyldore, battouer à lessive, betyl to bete clothes with, battoyr." PALSG. Feri∣torium is explained in the Medulla to be "instrumentum cum quo mulieres verberant vesturas in lavando, a battyng staffe," "or a betyll." ORT. VOC.]Feretorium, DICC.
  • BATYLMENT of a walle. Pro∣pugnaculum.
  • BATOWRE of flowre and mele wyth water (batour, P.) Mola, C. F.
  • BAWDE, Leno.
  • BAWDEKYN clothe, or (of P.) sylke. Olosericus, C. F. olo∣serica, CATH. UG.
  • BAWDERYKE. 2. ["Baudrike, carquant, baldrike for a ladyes necke, carquan." PALSG. Thus is found in the Ort. Voc. "Anabola est ornamentum mulieris a collo dependens, a baudrik." The word had, however, a more general signification; it is derived, probably, from baudrier, a strap or girdle of leather, but was afterwards used to denote similar appliances of any material, and of costly decoration. In Gawayn and the Grene Knyȝt, bauderyk is the appellation of the guige, or transverse strap by which the shield was suspended round the neck. Hall relates that "Sir Thomas Brandon wore a great baudericke of gold, greate and massy, trauerse his body;" and he further describes the Earl of South∣ampton, Great Admiral of England, as "wearing baudrick-wise a chayne at the whych did hang a whistle of gold, set with ryche stones," which was a badge of office. It would appear that the bauderyke was properly a belt worn transversely, as was the "baudre de serico, argento munitum pro cornu Regis." LIB. GARDEROB. EDW. I. 1299. It signified also the cingulum, or military belt, and in the 16th century, the jewelled ornament worn round the neck both by ladies, and noblemen. See Hall's Chronicle, p. 508, baldrellus and baldringus in Ducange, and Boucher's Glossary.]Strophius, CATH.
  • BAWME, herbe or tre. Balsamus, melissa, melago.
  • BAWME, oyle (baume, P. beaume, J. N.) Balsamum.
  • BAWMYN (balmyn, P.). Balsamo.
  • BAWSTONE, or bawsone, or a gray (baunsey or bauston, best, P.) 3. ["Bawcyn, or brok, fiber, castor, taxus, melota." GARL. SYNONYM. These words are in the Medulla and Ortus explained as signifying the brocke. A. S. broc, a badger. The word bauseneȝ occurs Cott. MS. Nero, A. x. f.62: and baucines in William and the Werwolf. See Bawson in Boucher's Glossary.]Taxus, melota, CATH.
  • BEE, a beste. Apis.
  • BE BETYN. Vapulo.
  • BE BESY. Solicitor.
  • BE BORNE. Nascor.
  • BE BUXUM, or obedyent to anoþyr (obeyyn, K. Obedio.)
  • BESEGYDE. Obsessus.
  • BECEGYN. Obsideo.
  • BESEGYNGE. Obsidio.
  • BECEKYN, or prey (beseche or pray, P.)Rogo, oro, deprecor.
  • BESEKYNGE, or prayere. Depre∣cacio, supplicacio, oracio, ro∣gatus, rogacio.
  • BECEMYN. Decet.
  • BESEMYNGE, or comelynesse. De∣cencia.
  • BECHE, tre. Fagus, CATH.
  • BECYDYN. Juxta, secus.
  • BESYTTYN, or dysposyn (becettyn, K. besette, P.) Dispono.
  • BED. Lectus, thorus, stratus, stratorium, grabatum.
  • BEDCLOTHE, or a rayment for a bed. Lectisternium.
  • BEDE, or bedys. Numeralia, de∣preculae. C. F. (vagule, P.)
  • Page  28BEDE, or prayers. 1. [In the Latin-English Vocabulary, Roy. MS. 17 C. XVII. occurs "rogacio, oracio, deprecacio, a bede or prayer." A. S. bidde, oratio, biddan, petere.]Oracio, sup∣plicacio, interventus.
  • BEDMAN. Orator, supplicator, exorator.
  • BEDEWOMAN. Oratrix, suppli∣catrix.
  • BEDELE. Preco, bidellus.
  • BEDERED-MAN, or woman. 2. [A. S. bedredda, clinicus.]De∣cumbens, clinicus, clinica. CATH.
  • BEDYN, or proferyn. 3. [The verb is used in the sense of profeering in Gawayn and the Green Knyȝt, in Robert de Brunne's Chronicle, and in Sir Tristrem. A. S. beodan, jubere.]Offero, CATH.
  • BEDYNGE, or proferynge. Oblacio.
  • BEDDYNGE. Lectisternium, lec∣tuarium.
  • BEDYS, supra in bede.
  • BEDDYS syde. Sponda, KYLW. C. F.
  • (BEDLAWYR, supra in bedered. 4. [In the will of Sir Thomas de Hemgrave, dated 1419, among the Hengrave evidences in the possession of John Gage Rokewode, Esq. is the following bequest to the bed∣ridden poor in Norwich, "Item lego cuilibet pauperum vocatorum bedlawermen infra civitatem predictam, iiii d. ad orandum pro animâ meâ."] K. P. Decumbens.)
  • BE-DRABYLYD, or drabelyde. Pa∣ludosus.
  • BEDSTEDE. Stratum.
  • BE FAYNE, or welle plesyde. Letor.
  • BYFFE, flesche (beff, P.) Bo∣villa, bosor.
  • BEFYCE. Filius, (filinius, vel pul∣cher filius, P.)
  • BEFORESEYDE. Predictus, pre∣fatus.
  • BEFORESETTE. Prefixus.
  • BEFORETYME. Ante, antea.
  • BEFORNE a thynge (before, P.) Coram, ante.
  • BE-FOTE, or on fote (afote, P.) Pedestre, adv. vel pedestris, pedester, CATH.
  • BEGGAR. Mendicus, mendica.
  • BEGETARE as a fathyr. Genitor.
  • BEGETARE as mothere. Geni∣trix.
  • BEGETYN. Genero, gigno.
  • BEGETYNGE. Genitura, gene∣racio
  • BYGYLYN (begyle, P.) Decipio, fraudo, seduco, circumvenio.
  • BEGYLYNGE, or dysseyte. De∣cepcio, fraus.
  • BEGYLE. Fraus.
  • BEGGYN, or thyggyn (thigge, P.) 5. [See hereafter THYGGYNGE, mendicacio. A. S. piȝan, accipere cibum.]Mendico.
  • BEGGYN bodely fode, as mete and drynke. Victo, CATH.
  • BEGGYNGE. Mendicacio.
  • BEGYNNARE. Inceptor, inchoator.
  • BEGYNNYN. Incipio, inchoo.
  • BEGYN a-yene (ageyne, P.) Itero.
  • BEGYNNYNGE. Incepcio, incho∣acio, initium, exordium.
  • BEGYNNYNGE, or rote of a þynge. Origo, ortus.
  • BE GLAD, or mery. Letor, jo∣cundor.
  • BEHOLDERE, or lokar vpon yn seyynge. Inspector.
  • BEHOLDYN, or seen. Intuor, in∣spicio, aspicio.
  • BEHOLDYN, or bowndyn (beholde or bounde, P.) Obligor, teneor.
  • BEHOLDYNGE. Inspeccio, intuicio.
  • BE-HERTE. Cordetenus.
  • Page  29BEHESTE. 1. [See BEHOTYN, or make a beheste. In the Wicliffite version Acts ii. 39 is rendered, "the biheeste is to ȝou and to ȝoure sones." Horman speaks of making "behestes to God and sayntis. I haue behest a pygge to Saynt Antony, voto nuncupavi." "Nutio, i. promissio, a promyse, or behyghtynge. Promissio, a beheste." ORT.]Promissio.
  • BEHYNDE. Retro, a retro, pone.
  • BEHYNDE, or bakewarde. Re∣trorsum.
  • BEHOTYN, or make a beheste (or behestyn, H. behote or beheste, P.) 2. ["To behest or promesse, to behyght." PALSG. A. S. behatan, vovere. The Chronicler of Glastonbury, Douglas, relates amongst the miracles of St. Thomas of Lancaster, that a certain sick man "beheten to God and to Seinte Thomas thatte iff he werre hole thatte he shulde come thider to seke him" (at Pomfret.) Harl. MS. 4690, f. 64, b. In the Wicliffite version we read, "what euere God hath bihiȝt he is miȝti to do," Rom. iv. 21.]Promitto, pollicior.
  • BEHOUELY (behouable, P.) Opor∣tunus.
  • BEHOUELYNESSE (behouablenesse, P.) Oportunitas.
  • BEHOUYN. Oportet.
  • BEY, or boy. Scurrus.
  • BEYKYNGE, or streykynge (strek∣inge, J. N.) Protencio, extencio.
  • BEYN, or plyaunte (beyen, P.) 3. [Bane in the dialects of Yorkshire and Somerset signifies near, or convenient.]Flexibilis.
  • BEYTŌN hoorse.
  • BEYTŌN wyth howndys, berys, bolys, or other lyke. Commordio, CATH. vel canibus agitare, (oblatro, P.)
  • BEYTYNGE of horse. Pabulacio.
  • BEYTYNGE of bestys wyth howndys.Exagitacio.
  • (BEYTINGE of houndes, P. Obla∣tratus.)
  • BEK, or lowte. Conquiniscio, C. F. (inclinacio, P.)
  • BEK WATYR, rendylle. 4. ["Torrens, aqua sordida ex inundationibus pluviarum, a beke or ryndell." A. S. becc, rivulus. The word is commonly used in the North. See Brockett.]Rivulus, torrens.
  • (BEKE, tokyn, P. Nictus.)
  • (BEKEN with the iye, P. Annuto, conniveo. Connivet hic oculis, annuit ipse manu.)
  • BEKNYN (bekyn, P.) Annucio (annuo, P.) annuto, nuto, C. F. UG.
  • BEKNYNGE, or a bek (bekenynge, P.) Annutus, nutus (annic∣tus, P.)
  • BEEKNE, or fyrebome (bekne, K.) Far, C. F. et UG. in fos. (Pha∣rus, P.)
  • BE-LAGGYD. 5. [A passage in Gautier de Bibelesworth, where he speaks of one who has been splashed by horses in miry places, "Cy vent vn garsoun esclaté," or esclauoté, has this gloss in the margin, "bilagged wit swirting." Arund. MS. 220, f. 303. A. S. lagu, aqua.]Madidatus (palu∣dosus, P.)
  • BELAMY. Amicus pulcher, et est Gallicum, et Anglice dicitur, fayre frynde.
  • BE LAWFULLE. Licet.
  • BE LEFULLE, idem est.
  • BELDAM, moderys modyr. Bel∣lona, C. F.
  • BELDAM, faders and moders modyr, bothe (beldame, faders or moders whether it be, P.) 6. ["Recommaunde me to your bel-fadre, and to your beldame, à vostre tayon et à vostre taye." BOKE FOR TRAV. CAXT.]Avia, CATH. C. F.
  • Page  30BEELDYNGE, or byggynge (bild∣inge, P.) Edificacio, structura.
  • BELLE. Campana.
  • BELEVENESSE, or feythe. Fides.
  • BELLFRAY. Campanarium, UG.
  • BELY. Venter, alvus, uterus.
  • BELLYN, or lowyn as nette (ro∣ryn, P.) 1. ["Cheueraux cheyrist et tor torreye, kide motereth, bole belleth." G. DE BIBELESW. "de naturele noyse des bestes." This word is retained in the dialect of Shropshire, and in Somerset to belg has the same sense. See Hartshorne's Salopia Antiqua, and Jenning's Glossary. A. S. bellan, boare.]Mugio.
  • BELLYNGE, of rorynge of bestys (bellinge of nete, P.) Mu∣gitus.
  • BELSCHYD, or made fayre (belched, P.) Venustus, decoratus.
  • BELCHYN, or make fayre. De∣coro, venusto.
  • BELSHYNGE (belchinge, P.) Ve∣nustacio, decoracio.
  • BELSYRE, or belfather, faders or moders fader. Avus, CATH.
  • (BELT, or ax, P. 2. [This word apepars of rather questionable introduction: the printed editions in which it appears omit the next word BELTE, or gyrdylle. It is not found in the MSS.]Securis.)
  • BELTE, or gyrdylle. Zona.
  • BELOWE (belows, P.) Follis.
  • BELWEDYR, shepe. Titurus, C. F.
  • BELLEȜTARE (belleȝeter, K. bell∣yatere, P.) 3. [Campanarius is explained in the Catholicon to be a bell-founder. See hereafter ȜETYN metel, ȜETYNGE of metelle as bellys, fusio. A. S. ȝeotere, fusor.]Campanarius, CATH.
  • BE-LYTYLLE and lytylle. Para∣tim, paulisper, paulatim.
  • BEEME, or balke, supra. Trabs.
  • BEEME, or (of P.) lyȝhte (lyȝthe, K.) Radius.
  • BEME lygthte. Radio.
  • BEEME of webstarrys lome. Li∣ciatorium, CATH.
  • BE MERY and gladde. Jocundor, letor, jocor.
  • BENCHE. Scamnum.
  • BENDYNGE of bowys, or oþer lyke. Tencio.
  • BENDE bowys. Tendo, CATH.
  • BEEN, or to haue beynge (be or haue be, P.) Sum, existo, subsisto.
  • BEEN abowte yn bysynes, as wyvys and men̄ yn occupacyon (or ben besy, P.) Satago.
  • BEEN̄ abowtyn, or be abowte-warde (be abowte or am abowte, P.) Nitor, conor.
  • BEEN̄ A-KNOWE wyllfully. Con∣fiteor.
  • BE A-KNOWE a-geyne wylle, or be constreynynge. Fateor. (Con∣fiteor sponte, fateor mea facta coacte, P.)
  • BEEN̄ a-qweyntyd or knowyn (aqueynt, P.) Noscor.
  • BEEN a-schamyde. Erubeo, pudeo.
  • BEEN ydylle. Vaco.
  • BENE corne (been, P.) Faba.
  • (BENEDAY, P. 4. [A. Sax. bene, precatio, daȝ, dies. The word seems synonymous with A. Sax. bentiid, rogationum dies, by which name the three days preceding Ascension day were known.]Precare.)
  • BENEFYCE. Beneficium.
  • BENEFYȜYD. Beneficiatus.
  • BENETT, ordyr. 5. ["Exorcista, id est adjurator vel increpator, a benette or a conjurer." ORT. The lesser orders in the Christian churche were four, Ostiarius, Lector, Exorcista, Acolythus. The functions of the third extended to the expulsion of evil spirits by the imposition of hands upon persons possessed, recently baptized, and catechumens. The ceremony was always accompanied with aspersion, and the name benett was doubtless taken from the aqua benedicta, eau bénite, or, perhaps, from the vessel called in French bénitier, which contained the holy-water. In a will dated 1449 is a bequest of "a gret holy-water scoppe of silver, with a staff benature, the sayd benature and staff weyng XX nobles in plate." The staff benature was the aspersorium, termed in the Promptorium STRENKYL, halywater styc. Fox, relating the death of Hooper, states that it was part of the cere∣mony of degrading Bishops to "take from them the lowest vesture which they had in taking bennet and collect" (i. e. acolyte). Eccles. Hist. iii. 152, A. D. 1555. T. Becon, in the Reliques of Rome, says, "Boniface V. decreed that such as were but benet and colet should not touch the reliques of saints, but they only which are subdeacons, deacons, and priests." Edit. 1563, f. 183.]Exorcista.
  • Page  31BENETT, propyr name. Bene∣dictus.
  • BENETHYN (benethe, P.) Inferius
  • (BENWYTTRE, K. benewith tre, P.) 1. [This apepars to be the wood-bine, which in Swedish is called beenwed. Linn. Flor. Suec. Verelius explains the Icelandic beinwid to be ossea pericliminis species, a bony kind of honeysuckle, beinwid signifying bone-wood. Ivy is in the North called bind-wood. See Jamieson.]
  • BENGERE of corne (bengge, P.) 2. [See BYNGGER and BYNGE, theca, cumera. A. S. bin. In Norfolk and Suffolk still pronounced bing, as in Danish, bing, cumulus. FORBY.]Techa.
  • BENGERE of a mylle (bengge, P.) Ferricapsia, DICC.
  • BEPYR, or bewpyr (beawpere, P.) Pulcher pater.
  • BE-PLOTMELE.

    3. This is one of the number of words in which the A. S. Mael, pars, occurs in com∣position. The A. S. form of these adverbs is maelum, in parts, bit-maelum, dael-maelum, &c. We have retained piecemeal, but the rest are wholly obsolete. See in Nares, drop-meal, inch-meal, and limb-meal. P. Ploughman uses pounde-mele and percel-mele. In the Liber Festivalis we read that William Tracy, after the murder of St. Thomas of Canterbury, "fylle syke and roted all his body, in somoche that himselfe with his owne hondes cast away his owne flesshe lompe-mele." Palsgrave gives "by ynche-meale, menuement, par poulcees, and flock-meale, par troupeaux."

    "Only that point his peple bare so sore
    That flockmel on a day to him they went."

    CHAUC. Clerke's T.
    Particulariter, partitive.
  • BE-QWETHYN, or qwethȳn yn testament. Lego.
  • BERE, a drynke. Hummulina, vel hummuli potus, aut cervisia hummulina (berziza, P.)
  • BERE, or beryn. Porto, gero, fero.
  • BERYN a-way (or bere awey, P.) Asporto, aufero.
  • BERE downe, or presse downe. Com∣primo, deprimo.
  • BEERE downe vndyr þe fote. Sub∣pedito.
  • BERE DOWNE, or caste downe to grownde. Sterno, prosterno.
  • BERE fellyschyppe (felaweshepe or companye, P.) Associo.
  • BERE YN. Infero.
  • BERE OWTE. Effero.
  • BERE PARTE, or be partenere. Participo, CATH.
  • BERE WYTNESSE. Testificor.
  • BERBERYN tre, supra in barbaryn tre.
  • BEERDE (berde, P.) Barba, ge∣nobardum, CATH.
  • Page  32BERDE, or brynke of a wesselle, or other lyke. Margo.
  • BERDYD. Barbatus.
  • BERCEL (berseel, P.) Meta.1. [See hereafter BUT, or bercel.]
  • BERE, beste. Ursus.
  • BEERE of (for P.) dede men̄. Fe∣retrum, libitina, loculus.
  • BEREYNYD, or wete wyth rayne. Complutus, UG. in pluo.
  • BEREWARDE. 2. ["Bearwarde, gardeur d'ours." PALSG. A curious representation of the bear-ward, and baiting the bear, occurs in the Louteral Psalter, illuminated in the early part of the reign of Edw. III. It has been engraved in Vetust. Monum. VI. pl. xxiv. In the Household Book of the Earl of Northumberland in 1511, under the head of Rewards, is one of "6s. 8d. to the Kyngs or Queenes Barward, if they have one," when they come to the Earl. Ant. Rep. IV. p. 253. The Earl had also in his own family an official of the same kind, whose reward was 20s. Shakespeare uses the word, and also bearard or bear-yerd, which are synonymous.]Ursarius.
  • BERY, frute. Morum, CATH. C. F.
  • BERYL, precyous stone. 3. [Beryl is used by Chaucer and the authors of the XIVth and XVth centuries, to denote the precious stone so called, and also a finer description of crystal glass, which resembled it in transparency or colour. This distinction is not preserved here; but it is made by Palsgrave: "Berall, fyne glass, beril. Beryll, a precious stone, beril." Elyot renders "Glessum, crystal or berylle." See Whitaker's Cathedral of St. Germains, ii. 280.]Beril∣lus.
  • BERYNGE. Portagium, latura.
  • BERYNGE a-way. Asportacio, ab∣lacio.
  • BERYNGE yn. Illacio.
  • (BERINGE LEPE, P. 4. [One of the MSS. of the Medulla renders sporta, a berynge lep; in the Ortus, it is explained as a bere lepe, or basket. The word is perhaps synonymous with BARLY∣LEPE, to kepe yn corne, which occurs above, and in the printed editions is spelled BARLEP. A. S. bere, hordeum, leap, corbis.]Canistra, CATH.)
  • BERKAR, as a dogge. Latrator.
  • BERKYN. Latro, baffo, baulo.
  • BERKYNGE. Latratus.
  • BERME of ale or other lyke. Spuma, CATH.
  • BERMYN, or spurgyn as ale, or other lyke. 5. [A. S. beorma, fermentum. See hereafter SPORGYN, taken from the French, espurger.]Spumo.
  • BARNAKYLLE, byrde (bernack, K. bernak, P.) 6. [Alexander Neccham, who died in 1227, gives in his treatise de naturis rerum, a curious account "de ave que vulgo dicitur bernekke," which grew, as he asserts, from wood steeped in the sea, or trees growing on the shores. Roy. MS. 12G. XI. f. 31. The marvellous tales respecting this bgird, which has been supposed to be the chenalopeces, mentioned by Pliny as a native of Britain, are to be found at length in Gesner, Olaus Magnus, and many ancient writers. Giraldus gives in his Topographia Hiberniae, c. xi. a detailed account "de bernacis ex abiete nascentibus," as a phenomenon of which he had been an eye-witness on the Irish shores, and states that these birds were, on account of their half-fishy extraction, eaten during Lent. This indulgence, of which the propriety was argued by Michael Meyer in his treatise de volucri arboreâ, was sanctioned by the au∣thority of the Sorbonne. It is scarcely needful to observe that the origin of these strange statements is to be found in the multivalve shell-fish, the lepas anatifera, which attaches itself to submerged wood, or the bottoms of ships. "Ciconia, i. ibis, a ber∣nacle, a myrdrummyll or a buture." ORT. VOC. "A barnak." MED. GRAMM. Junius derives the name from the fabulous origin of the bird, A. S. bearn, filius, and ac, quercus. See Claik, in Jamieson, and barnache in Menage.]Barnacus, bar∣nita, barnites, C. F.
  • Page  33BERNAK for horse (bernakill, P.) 1. ["Chamus est quoddam genus freni, vel capistrm, an halter or bernacle." ORT. VOC. Junius derives the word from the French berner, comprimere petulantiam; and Ro∣quefort mentions a kind of torture practised by the Saracens, termed bernicles. The Wicliffite version renders 2 Kings, xix, 28, "y schal putte a sercle in þi nose þirlis, and a bernacle in þi lippis." Cott. MS. Claud. E. II.]Chamus, CATH.
  • BERNE of lathe (or lathe, P.)

    2. Berne is the contraction of A. S. bere, hordeum, and ern, locus. Lathe, which does not occur in its proper place in the Promptorium, is possibly a word of Danish introduc∣tion into the eastern counties, Lade, horreum, DAN. Skinner observes that it was very commonly used in Lincolnshire. It occurs in Chaucer:

    "Why ne hadst thou put the capell in the lathe."

    Reves Tale.

    "Horreum, locus ubi reponitur annona, a barne, a lathe." ORT. VOC. "Granarium, lathe." Roy. MS. 17 C. XVII. "A lathe, apotheca, horreum." CATH. ANGL.

    Horreum, C. F.
  • BERWHAM, horsys colere (beru∣ham for hors, P.)

    3. "Bargheame, epiphium." CATH. ANGL. This word is still retained in the North of England; see Barkhaam in Brockett's Glossary, Barkham, Craven dialect, Brauchin, Cumberland, Brechame, Jamieson. It occurs in the curious marginal gloss on Gautier de Bibelesworth, Arund. MS. 220, f. 302.

    "Les cous de chiuaus portunt esteles, hames (hamberwes, MS. Phill).
    Coleres de quyr, et bourle hoceles." beruhames.
    Ephiphium, epifium, CATH. vel collare equi.
  • BERWE, or schadewe (berowe or shadowe, P.) 4. [A. S. bearw, berwe, nemus.]Umbraculum, umbra.
  • BESAUNTE. Talentum, mna, dragma, UG. C. F.
  • BESME of besowme (besym, P.) Scopa, C. F.
  • BESTE, or alle the beste (aldyrbest, K.) Optimus.
  • BESTAD, or wythe-holdyn yn wele or wo (in hard plyt set, K. with∣holden in harde plyte or nede, P.) Detentus.
  • BERSTAYLE (bestali, K. bestayle, P.) 5. [The reading of the Harl. MS. seems here to be erroneous; the word is doubtless adopted from the French, bestail, cattle.]Armentum, CATH.
  • BESTE (beest, P.) Bestia, pecus, animal, jumentum.
  • BEESTELY, or lyke a beste (bestly, P.) Bestialis.
  • BESTYLYNESSE (bestlynesse, P.) Bestialitas.
  • BESTYLYWYSE. Bestialiter.
  • BE STYLLE, and not speke. Taceo, sileo, obmutesco.
  • BEESTNYNGE, mylke (bestnynge, K. P.) 6. ["Bestynge, colustrum." CATH. ANGL. "Colostrum, novum lac quod statim primo mulgetur post fetum, quod cito coagulatur, beestnynge. Colustrum, beestynge or ruddys." ORT. VOC. A. S. beost, bystinȝ, colustrum.]Collustrum, C. F. KYLW. UG. in colo.
  • Page  34BETAYNE, herbe (batany, or be∣tony, P.) 1. [See a curious account of the virtues attributed to betony in the XVth century, Roy. MS. 18 A. VI. f. 68, where it is said to be "also clepyd byschuppyswort." Horman observes that "nesynge is caused with byten (betonica) thrust in the nostril." The powdered root of hellebore was another homely sternutatory anciently much in request.]Betonica.
  • BETAKYN' a thynge to anothere. Committo, commendo.
  • BETE, or Betune, propyr name (Be∣tryse, K.) Beatrix.
  • BETHYNKYN'. Cogito, recogito, meditor.
  • BETYDĒN', or happēn'. Accidit, evenit.
  • BETYLLE. Malleus, malleolus, UG.
  • BETYN', or bete. Verbero, cedo.
  • BETYN', or smytyn'. Percucio, ferio.
  • BETYNGE. Verberacio, verber.
  • BETYNGE (instrument, P.) In∣strumentum, verberaculum, UG.
  • BETTYR. Melior.
  • BETTYR. Melius, adv.
  • BETYS herbe. Beta vel bleta.
  • BETONYE supra in BETAYNE.
  • BETRAYYN'. Prodo, CATH. trado.
  • (BEUER, drinkinge tyme, P. 2. ["Merendula, a beuer after none. Merenda, comestio in meridie, vel cibus qui declinante die sumitur." ORT. Harrison, in his description of England, prefixed to Holinshed's Chronicles, i. 170, remarks that "of old we had breakefastes in the fore∣noone, beuerages or nuntions after dinner, and therto reare suppers, generallie when it was time to go to rest, a toie brought into England by hardie Canutus; but nowe those are very well past, and ech one, except some yoong hungrie stomach that cannnot fast till dinner time, contenteth himself with dinner and supper." The higher classes, he observes, dine at 11 and sup at 5, merchants seldom before 12, and 6. This was written about 1579. Sherwood renders, "Bever, or drinking, un réciner, collation, gouster. To bever, réciner;" and Cotgrave explains un réciner as "an afternoones nuncheon, or collation, an Aunders-meat." See hereafter NUNMETE, which seems to have been much the same as the intermediate refection here called BEUER. The word bever still signifies in Suffolk an afternoon snack. MOORE.]Bi∣berrium.)
  • BEUERECHE, drynke (beueriche, P.) Hibria, biberia, KYLW. (bibina, P.)
  • BEVYR, beste.

    3. A. S. beofer, castor. That the beaver was anciently an inhabitant of these islands, the laws of Howel Dha, and the curious description of its habits given by Giraldus, in his Itinerary of Wales, l. ii. c. 3, satisfactorily prove. The fur of this animal was in estimation from an early period. Piers Ploughman says,

    "And yet vnder that cope, a cote hath he furred
    With foyns, or with fichewes, or with fyn beuere.

    "Me fyndeth furres of beuers, of lombes, pylches of hares and of conyes. On treuue fourrures d'escurieus," &c. CAXTON, Boke for Travellers. The beuer hat is mentioned by Chaucer as a part of female attire, and by Hall as worn by the Stradiote light horse∣men in 1513.

    Bever, C. F. cas∣tor, fiber.
  • BE WARE. Caveo, CATH. precaveo.
  • BE WOODE, or madde. 4. [See WOODE or madde. A. S. wod, furiosus.]Furio, insanio.
  • BEWONE, or vsyd (wonte, P.) Soleo.
  • BEWRAYER of counsel. Recelator, recelatrix, CATH. in celo. Et nota alia infra in LABLE.
  • BEWRETHYN', or wreyyn' (be∣wreyen, P.) Prodo, recelo, revelo.
  • Page  35BE WROTHE. Irascor.
  • BE WRATHE yn valewe (be worthe, P.) Valeo, CATH.
  • BEWTE (beawtye, P.) Decor, species, pulchritudo.
  • BY AND BY. Sigillatim.1. [The Medulla renders "sigillatim, fro seel to seel." Harl. MS. 2257.] BY THY SELFE (by the selfe, P.) Seorsum.
  • BY THY SELFE (by the selfe, P.) Seorsum.
  • BYARE. Emptor, institor, CATH.
  • BYBLE, or bybulle. Biblia.
  • BYCE, coloure. 2. [ Palsgrave renders byce by azur: the word is, however, probably taken from the French couleur bise, which properly means a brownish or blackish hue. In some curious instructions respecting the production of fine azure from lapis lazuli, it is ob∣served that to distinguish this last "from lapis almaine of whiche men maken a blewe∣bis azure," they should be exposed to fire, in which the inferior material turns rather black, and becomes "brokel." Sloan. MS. 73, f. 215, b. Probably byce, or rather blue byce, as it was in ancient times usually termed, was a preparation of zaffre, of a dim and brownish cast of colour, in comparison with the brilliancy of the true azure.]
  • BYDDYN', or comawndyn'. Mando, precipio, hortor, exortor.
  • BYDDYN' bedys, or seyn' prayers (bydde or pray, P.)

    3. A. S. biddan, orare. In the Book of Curtasye, the young child on coming to church is thus admonished,

    "Rede, or synge, or byd prayeris
    To Crist for all thy Cristen ferys."

    Sloane MS. 1986, f. 22 b.
    Oro.
  • BYDDYNGE, or commawndement (commaundinge, P.) Manda∣tum, preceptum, imperium.
  • BYDDYNGE, or praynge. Oracio, de∣precacio, exoracio, supplicacio.
  • BYE, or boye. 4. ["Bostio, an oxe dryver." ORT. Compare BEY or boy, scurrus.]Bostio, UG.
  • BYGGYN', or byldyn'. 5. ["To byge, fundare, condere, edificare. A bygynge, construccio, structura. Byg∣ynge vndyr erthe, subterraneus." CATH. ANGL. A. S. byȝȝan, aedificare. See Big, in Boucher's Glossary, and Jamieson.]Edifico.
  • BYGGYNGE, or beeldynge (byldinge, P.) Edificacio, structura.
  • (BYGGYNGE, or thyng that is byg∣gyd, H. Edificium.)
  • BYCCHE, hownde or bylke (bycke, P.) Licista, COMM.
  • BYKER, cuppe (bikyr, P.) 6. [What was the precise kind of cup called byker, or beaker, it is not easy to deter∣mine. This word occurs as early as 1348, in the accounts of the Treasurer of Edward, Prince of Wales; "ii magne pecie argenti, vocate Bikers, emellate in fundo, cum coo∣perculis cum batellis, et ex unâ parte deauratis." In this instance they were destined to be presented to ladies. (Beltz, Memor. of the Garter, p. 385.) Becher in German signifies a cup of goblet, as does beker in Dutch, and Teutonic; possibly we derived the vessel to which the name was originally given from Flanders or Germany. Of cognate derivation is the Italian bicchiero. In the later Latinity bacar, baccharium have the same meaning; see Ducange. The common root of these words was perhaps the Greek 〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉, vas habens ansas. MENAGE.]Cim∣bium, COMM.
  • BIKYR of fytynge (bykere or feight∣inge, P.) 7. ["Beckeryng, scrimysshe, mêslée. Bicker, fyghtyng, escarmouche." PALSG. "Anon after the fylde began to beker." HORM. Skinner suggests the Welsh bicre, conflictus, as the etymon of this word, which, however, he inclines to think of Anglo-Saxon origin.]Pugna.
  • Page  36BEKERYN', or fyghtyn' (bikker∣inge, P.) Pugno, dimico.
  • BYLLE of a byrde. Rostrum.
  • BYLLE of (or, P.) a mattoke. Ligo, marra.
  • BYLE, sore. Pustula, UG.
  • BYLLERNE, watyr herbe. 1. [The curious treatise of the nature and properties of herbs, Roy. MS. A. VI. f. 69, b. gives "Billura, an herbe that me clepyth billure; he ys much worth to rype bocch." Elyot explains lauer to be "an herbe growyng in the water, lyke to alisaunder, but hauyng lesse leaues. Some do call it bylders."]Berula, C. F.
  • BYLET, schyde. Tedula, CATH.
  • BYLET, scrowe (bille, K.) 2. [The Catholicon explains matricula to signify carta promissionis, and cites the life of St. Silvester, which says that he inscribed the names of widows and orphans "in matriculâ." Spelman gives A. S. bille, schedula; the word BYLET was, however, pro∣bably of French introduction, as also was scrowe or scroll, escrou.]Ma∣tricula, CATH. (billa, K.)
  • BOLLYN', or jowyn' wythe the bylle as byrdys (byllen or iobbyn as bryddys, K. iobbyn with the byl, H. P.) 3. [To job signifies still in Norfolk and Suffolk to peck with a sharp and strong beck. FORBY. Tusser calls the pecking of turkies jobbing.]Rostro.
  • BYLLYN' wythe mattokys. Ligo∣nizo, marro, CATH.
  • BYLLYNGE of byrdys. Rostratus.
  • BYLLYNGE of mattokys. Ligo∣nizacio, marratura.
  • BYNDE, or wode bynde. Corrigiola, vitella, CATH. (edera volubilis, K.)
  • BYNDE, a twyste of a wyne (vyne, P.) Capriolus, C. F.
  • BYNDYN' wythe bondys.Ligo, al∣ligo, vincio.
  • BYNDYN' wythe cōmawnt 4. [The word is thus written, but the correct reading probably is comnawnt. See hereafer CUMNAWNTE, pactum.] or scrip∣ture (comavndement, K. cum∣naunt, H. couenaunt, P.) Obligo.
  • BYNDYNGE, lyste of a sore lyme. Fasciola, KYLW. UG.
  • BYNDYNGE. Ligacio.
  • BYNGGER, supra in BENGERE.
  • BYYN a thynge. Emo, mercor, comparo.
  • BYYN' a-ȝēn' (ageyne, P.) Redimo.
  • BYYNGE. Empcio.
  • BYYNGE a-ȝen (ageyne, P.) Re∣demcio.
  • BYYNGE place, or place of byynge. Emptorium, C. F.
  • BYNGE. 5. [Forby gives bing in the dialect of East Anglia, Danish, bing, cumulus. A. S. bin, praesepe. The word binna occurs in a deed of the year 1263, in Chron. W. Thorn, 1912, where it signifies a receptacle for grain. Cumera is explained by Uguitio to be "vas frumentarium de festucis," and no doubt the bin was anciently formed of wicker-work, as in German benne crates, Belg. benn, corbis. In the Indenture of delivery of Berwick Castle, in 1539, occurs "in the pantre, a large bynge of okyn tymbar with 3 partitions." Archaeol. xi. 440.]Theca, cumera.
  • BYPATHE. Semita, orbita, callis, C. F. trames, UG.
  • BYRCHE tre. Lentiscus, cinus, CATH.
  • BYRDUNE (byrdeyne, P.) Pon∣dus, onus, sarcina.
  • BYRYN' (beryyn, H.) Sepelio, humo, funero.
  • BYRYYN', or grauyn', or hydde vndur the grownde. Humo, se∣pelio, UG.
  • Page  37BYRYYDE (biryed, P.) Sepultus, tumulatus.
  • BERYYNGE (biryinge, P.) Sepul∣tura, tumula.
  • BYRYELE (beryel, H. biriell, P. 1. [The more ancient sense of this word, as denoting the place, and not the act of in∣terment, is here distinctly preserved. A. S. byriȝels, sepulchrum. In the Wicliffite version biriel occurs often in this sense. "And the kyng seide, what is this biriel which I se? And the citeseyns of that cite answeriden to him, it is the sepulcre of the man of God that cam fro Juda." IVth Book of Kings, xxiii. 17. Harl. MS. 2249. In Mark v. 5, the demoniac is said to have "hadde an hous in birielis." So likewise in Leg. Aur. "It happed ater, that vpon the buryels grewe a ryght fayre flouredelyse." f. cxi. The Latin-English Vocabulary, Harl. MS. 1002, f. 145, gives "Mausoleum, a byryelle, anabatrum, a chrychestyle."]Sepulchrum, tumulus.
  • BYRTHE. Nativitas, partus.
  • BYSCHELLE, or buschelle (bysshell otherwyse called busshell, P.) Modius, chorus, bussellus.
  • BYSSHOPPE (byschop or buschop, H.) Episcopus, antistes, pon∣tifex, presul.
  • BYSCHYPRYCHE (bysshoperike, P.) Episcopatus, diocesis.
  • BYSY (besy, P.) Assiduus, so∣licitus, jugis.
  • BYSYLY. Assidue, jugiter.
  • BYSYNESSE. Assiduitas, diligencia, solicitudo, opera, CATH.
  • BYSCUTE brede (bysqwyte, H. bysket, P.) Biscoctus.
  • BYSȜYN' chyldur (bissyn chyldryn, K.) Sopio, nemor, lallo, UG.
  • BYSSYNGE of chyldyrne (bysȝing, H.) Sepicio, C. F.
  • BYSSYNGE songys (bysȝing, H.) Fascinnina, C. F. nenia, CATH.
  • BYTT of a brydylle. Lupatum, C. F.
  • BYTT or bytynge (byte, P.) Morsus.
  • BYTYLLE worme (bityl wyrme, K.) Buboscus.
  • BYTYN', or byte. Mordeo.
  • BYTYNGE. Morsura.
  • BYTYNGE or grevows fretynge. Mordax.
  • BYTTYR. Amarus.
  • BYTTYRNESSE. Amaritudo.
  • BYTTYRSWETE. 2. [The Solanum dulcamara, or woody nightshade.]Amarimellus, musceum, KYLW.
  • (BYȜING supra in byinge, H. By∣singe, P. Emptio.)
  • BLABBE or labbe, wreyare of cown∣sell (bewreyar, H. P.) 3. [See hereafter LABLE, or labbe, which occurs in Chaucer. This word is doubtless derived from the same source as blabbe and blaberyn. Skinner would derive the verb to blabber from the Latin, "q. d. elabiare, i. e. labiis quicquid occurrit effutire." Compare TEUT. blapperen, garrire, BELG. lapperen, blaterare.]Futilis, anubicus, CATH.
  • BLABERYN, or speke wythe-owte resone (with owtyn, K. oute of, P.) Blatero, CATH.
  • BLADE. Scindula.
  • BLADE of an herbe (blad or blade, P.) Tirsus, C. F.
  • BLADYN' haftys (bladen heftis, K. H. P.) Scindulo.
  • BLADYN' herbys, or take away the bladys. Detirso, CATH.
  • BLADSMYTHE. Scindifaber.
  • BLAFFOORDE or warlare (blad∣fard, H. blaffere, P.) 4. [This word signifies a person who stammers, or has any defect in his speech. The Ortus renders "traulus, a ratelare." It appears in Ducange that balbus and blesus are synonymous with traulus; the first of these is rendered in Cooper's Thesaurus, one "that cannot well pronounce wordes, a maffler in the mouth."]Traulus. (Traulus peccat in R, peccat in S sidunus, P.)
  • Page  38BLAK. Niger, ater.
  • BLAKENESSE. Nigredo.
  • BLAKYN', or make blake. Denigro, vitupero, increpo.
  • BLAKE THORNE. (Prunus, P.)
  • BLAME. Culpa, noxa, vitupe∣rium.
  • (BLAMEN, P. Culpo, vitupero, in∣crepo.)
  • BLAMEWORTHY. Culpabilis.
  • BLAMYNGE. Vituperium.
  • BLANKETT, vollon clothe. 1. [Blanket is taken from the French blanchet, woollen cloth, no doubt of a white colour; the distinction here made is not very clear, but lodix appears to have been a bed-covering, as we now use the word blanket, langellus, blanket cloth generally. "Langeul, langais, blanchet, drap de laine." ROQUEF. The Medulla explains lodex to be "a blanchet or a whytil;" the latter word, which is merely a version of the French, is still retained in North Britain to denote a woollen wrapper used by females. "Lodix, quicquid in lecto supponitur, et proprie pannus villosus, Anglice, a blanket." ORT. VOC. See hereafter DAGGYSWEYNE, lodix.]Lodix.
  • BLANKETT, lawngelle. Langellus.
  • BLASFEMARE. Blasphemator.
  • BLASFEMYN'. Blasfemo.
  • BLASFEMYNGE. Blasphemia.
  • BLASYN', as lowe of fyre (as doth the leme of a fyre, P.) Flammo.
  • BLASYN', or dyscry armys. De∣scribo.
  • BLASYNGE, or flamynge of fyre. Flammacio.
  • BLASYNGE of armys. Descripcio.
  • BLASTE of wynde. Flatus.
  • BLANKE plumbe (blavmblumbe, K. H. blawmblumb, otherwyse called whyte lede, P.) 2. [In Sloan. MS. 73 f. 213 are directions for making blanc plumb, album plumbum, with "strong reed wine drestis, and brode platis of newe leed, in a great erthen pot or barel, and closed for six wokis or more in hoot horsdunge." This MS. is of the close of the XVth century; an earlier receipt occurs in Sloan. MS. 2584, f. 6.]Album plumbum.
  • BLANCHYN' almandys, or oþer lyke (blaunchyn, P.) Dealbo, decortico.
  • BLANCHYNGE of almondys or other lyke. Dealbacio, decorticacio.
  • BLAWNDRELLE, frute (blaunderel, K.)

    3. Lydgate mentions this among the fruits more choice than "pechis, costardes, etiam wardons."

    "Pipus, quinces, blaunderelle to disport,
    And the pome-cedre corageos to recomfort."

    Minor Poems, p. 15.

    "Blaundrell, an apple, brandureau." PALSG. "Blanduriau, très blanc; pommes de Caleville blanc, qui venoient d'Auvergne." ROQUEF. "Blanduriau, très blanc; pommes de Caleville blanc, qui venoient d'Auvergne" ROQUEF. "Blandureau, the white apple, called in some parts of England, a blaundrell." COTGR.

    Melonis, C. F.
  • BLEDYN'. Sanguino, cruento.
  • BLEDYNGE. Sanguinacio, fleo∣botomia.
  • BLEDYNGE boyste. 4. [The Catholicon gives the following explanation: "Guna vel guina, vas vitreum, quod et Latinis a similitudine cucurbitae ventosa vocatur, quae animata spiritu per ig∣niculum in superficiem trahit sanguinem." PAPIAS; see Ducange. The operation of cupping, which is one of ancient use, was doubtless well known to the Friar of Lynn, who compiled the Promptorium, as one of the means resorted to when, according to the monastic institutions, there were at stated seasons (temporibus minucionis) general blood-lettings. See Martene de Antiq. Ritibus, and Mr. Rokewode's note on Chron. Joc. de Brakelonda, p. 11. In the Chirurgica of John Arderne, surgeon to Edw. III. where he speaks of cupping. "ventosacio," a representation is given of the bledynge boyste. Sloane MS. 65, f. 70. Compare the verb BOYSTON.]Ventosa, guna, CATH.
  • Page  39BLEDYNGE yryn. Fleosotomium, C. F. (fleobothomium, P.)
  • BLEDDYR. Vesica.
  • BLEDDERYD. Vesicatus.
  • BLEYKE of coloure.

    1. "Bleke, wan of colour, blesme." PALSG. A. S. baec, pallidus.

    "Some one, for she is pale and bleche."

    GOWER, Conf. Am. B. v.

    Bleek is still used in Norfolk to signify pale and sickly. FORBY.

    Pallidus, subalbus.
  • BLEYKCLOÞE, or qwysters (ble∣chen clothe, K. P. blekyn, H.) 2. [TEUT. bleycken, excandefacere insolando. A. S. ablaecan, dealbare.]Candido.
  • BLEYSTARE, or wytstare (bleyster, K. bleyestare or qwytstare, H. bleykester or whytster, P.) 3. [The Latin-English Vocabulary, Harl. MS. 1587, renders "Albatrix, candidaria, blecherre or lawnderre." "Whitstarre, blanchisseur de toylles." PALSG. See WHYT∣STARE.]Candidarius, CATH. C. F.
  • BLEYNE. Papula, CATH. et UG. in popa.
  • BLEKE (blecke, P.) 4. [Horman says, "Wrytters ynke shulde be fyner than blatche, atramentum scrip∣torium lectius esset sutorio." "Bleche for souters, attrament noyr." PALSG. A. S. blaec, atramentum.]Atramento.
  • BLEKKYN wythe bleke (blackyn with blecke, P.) Atramento.
  • (BLEXTERE, K. Obfuscator.)
  • BLEMSCHYDE (blemysshed, P.) Ob∣fuscatus.
  • BLENSCHYN' (blemysshen, P.) Ob∣fusco, CATH.
  • BLEMSCHYNGE. Obfuscacio.
  • BLEREYED (blereiyed, P.) 5. ["Lippus dicitur qui habet oculos lachrymantes cum palpebris euersatis, blered of the eye." ORT. VOC. In Piers Ploughman the verb to blere occurs, used metaphor∣ically. "He blessede hem with his bulles, and blerede hure eye." "To bleare ones eye, begyle him, enguigner." PALSG.]Lippus.
  • BLERYDNESSE (blere iyednesse, P.) Lippitudo.
  • BLERYNGE or mowynge wythe the mowthe. Valgia.
  • BLERYNGE wythe mowe makynge. 6. ["I gyue him the best counsayle I can, and the knaue bleareth his tonge at me, tirer la langue," PALSG. See MOWE, or skorne.]Patento, valgio.
  • BLESE or flame of fyre (blase or lowe, P.) Flammela.
  • BLESCHYN', or qwenchyn' (blessh∣yn, P.) Extinguo.
  • BLESCHYNGE, or qwenchynge of fyre (blensshinge, P.) Ex∣tinctio.
  • BLETYN', as a schepe. Balo.
  • BLETYNGE of a schepe. Balatus.
  • BLEVYN, or levyn aftyrwarde (ble∣vyn or abydyn, K. P.) Remaneo, restat.
  • BLEVYNGE, or releve, or relefe (or levynge or relef, K.) 7. [See RELEEF, or brocaly of mete.]Reliquia, vel reliquiae.
  • Page  40BLEYLY, or gladely (blythely, P.) Libenter, sponte, spontanee.
  • BLYNDE. Cecus.
  • BLYNDEFYLDE (blyndfellyd, H.) Excecatus.
  • BLYNDYN', or make blynde. Exceco.
  • BLYNDFELLĒN', idem est.
  • BLYNDNESSE. Cecitas.
  • BLYNNYN, or cesun, or leve-warke.

    1. Hampole, in the Pricke of Conscience, terms the day of final doom, "the day of sorowe that neuer salle blyne." Harl. MS. 6923. Fabyan, in the Prologe to vol. ii. speaks of the great devotion that occupied, without any intermission, the nuemrous religious houses in London,

    "When one hath done, another begyn,
    So that of prayer they neuer blyn."

    "To blynne, rest or cease of cesser. He neuer felt wo or neuer sall blynne, that hath a bysshoppe to his kin." PALSG. A. S. blinnan, cessare.

    Desisto, cesso.
  • BLYSSE. Beatitudo, gaudium.
  • BLYSSYD, hevynly. Beatus.
  • BLESSYD, erthely, Benedictus, felix.
  • BLYSSYN', or blesse. Benedico.
  • BLESSYNGE. Benedictio.
  • BLYTHE and mery. Letus, hillaris.
  • BLYM, or gladde, or make glad (blyym or glathyn in herte, K. blithen or gladden, P.) Letifico.
  • BLYTHYN', or welle-cheryn'. Ex∣hillero.
  • BLOO coloure. Lividus, luridus, C. F.
  • BLO ERYE (blo erthe, P.) 2. [The reading of the Harl. MS. ERYE may at first sight appear to be corrupt; it is, however, retained, because hereafter there occur ERYE, or ERTHE, and ERYYN, or of the erthe.]Argilla.
  • BLOBURE (blobyr, P.)

    3. This word occurs in Chaucer, Test. of Creseide.

    "And at his mouth a blubber stode of fome."

    "Blober upon water (or bubble) bouteillis." PALSG. The verb to blubre occurs in an analogous sense, in Syr Gawayn and the Grene Knyȝt, lin. 2174. "The borne blubred ther inne as hit boyled hade." Blubber still signifies in Norfolk a bubble, from blob, as Forby says. See Bleb in Skinner, and Jamieson.

    Burbu∣lium, UG. burbalium, C. F.
  • BLODE. Sanguis, cruor.
  • BLOODE hownde. Molosus, C. F.
  • BLODY. Sanguinolentus.
  • BLOODE YRYN, supra in BLED∣YNGE YRYN.
  • BLOODE LATARE. Fleobotomator, C. F.
  • BLOKE or stoke (blooc, H.) 4. ["Blocke of a tree, tronchet, tronc. Blocke of tynne, saumon d'estain." PALSG.]Truncus, codex, CATH.
  • BLOME, flowre. Flos.
  • BLOMYN', or blosmyn' (blosym, P.) Floreo, floresco.
  • BLONESSE. Livor.
  • BLORYYN' or wepyn' (bleren, P.) 5. [Skinner gives blare as an English word, from Belg. blaren, mugire. Teut. blerren, clamitare. It is retained in the dialect of Norfolk, as applied to calves, sheep, asses and children. FORBY. Blore signifies a roaring wind, as in the Mirrour for Magistrates, p. 838, "hurried headlong with the south-west blore."]Ploro, fleo.
  • BLORYYNGE or wepynge (bloringe, P.) Ploratus, fletus.
  • Page  41BLOSME, or blossum. Frons.
  • BLOSMYNGE, or blossummynge. Frondositas.
  • BLOTTE vpōn a boke. Oblitum, C. F.
  • BLOTTYN' bokys. Oblitero.
  • BLOTTYNGE. Oblitteracio.
  • (BLOTTYD, P. Oblitteratus.)
  • BLOWYN' as wynde. Flo.
  • BLOWYN' wythe horne. Corno, C. F. cornicino, KYLW.
  • BLOWN̄ as a man wythe honde (blowen with sounde, P.) Ex∣sufflo, sufflo (insufflo, P.)
  • BLOYNGE (blowynge, P.) Flacio, flatus.
  • BLEWE of coloure. Blodius, blue∣tus, DICC.
  • BLUNDERER or blunt warkere (wor∣ker, P.) Hebefactor, hebeficus.
  • BLUNDERYNGE, or blunt warkynge. Hebefaccio.
  • BLUNESSE, supra in BLONESSE.
  • BLUNT of wytte. Hebes.
  • BLUNT of edge, and bluternesse (bluntnesse, P.) quere post in DUL and DULNESSE.
  • BOBET. 1. ["Bobet on the heed, coup de poing." PALSG.]Collafa, collafus, CATH.
  • BOBETTYN'. Collaphizo.
  • BOBETYNGE. Collafizacio.
  • BOOC or boos, netystalle (boce, K. bose, netis stall, H. P.) 2. [In the midland and Northern counties, a stall where cattle stand all night in winter, is called a boose, in Scotland, a bowe. See Craven Dialect, and Jamieson. Ang. Sax. bosȝ, praesepe.]Boscar, CATH. bucetum, presepe.
  • BOCE or boos of a booke or oþer lyke (booce, H.) Turgiolum, UG.
  • BOCYN' owte, or strowtyn'. 3. [This word occurs in Palsgrave as a verb active. "To booce or boce out as worke∣men do a holowe thynge to make it seem more apparent to the eye, endocer. This brod∣erer hath boced this pece of worke very well."]Tur∣geo, C. F. UG.
  • BOCYNGE or strowtynge. Turgor.
  • BOCHERE. Carnifex, macellarius.
  • BOCHERYE. Macellum, CATH. carnificina.
  • BOCLE or boculle (bocul, K. H. bokyll or bocle, P.) Pluscula, DICC. KYLW.
  • BOCLYD as shone or botys (boke∣led, P. Plusculatus.
  • BODE or massage (boode, H.) 4. [A. S. bod, jussum.]Nuncium.
  • BODY. Corpus.
  • BODYLY. Corporaliter.
  • BODYLY. Corporalis.
  • BOFFETE. Alapa.
  • BUFFETYN', or suffetyn' 5. [The word suffetyn', which occurs here only, and is not found in the other MSS., or the printed editions, may be an erroneous reading, but possibly it is a corruption of the French word souffleter, to cuff on the ear. Jamieson gives the verb to souff, or strike.] (bofeten, P.) Alapizo, alapo, CATH.
  • BOFETYNGE. Alapizacio.
  • BOFET, thre fotyd stole (boffet stole, P.) 6. [Skinner gives, "Buffet-stole, vox agro Linc. usitatissima, est autem sella levior portatilis, sine ullo cubitorum aut dorsi fulcro, credo parùm deflexo sensu à G. buffet, mensa; mensae enim vicem satis commodè supplere potest." The buffet, however, was the court-cupboard, in France termed also the credence, and under this a low stool without a back might be placed, but for what special purpose does not appear. Hickes derives the word from A. S. beod, mensa, and faet, vas. Forby explains the buffet-stool in Norfolk to be a four-legged stool set on a frame like a table, and serving as the poor man's sideboard, stool, or table. In the History of Hawsted by Sir John Cullum, p. 25, the bequest occurs in 1553, of "a buffed stool," which is explained to be an oval stool, without a back, and generally having a hole in the seat, for the con∣venience of lifting it. The Inventory of the effects of Katharine Lady Hedworth, 1568, comprises the following articles: "In my Ladyes Chamber, 2 cupbords, 6s. 8d. 2 cup∣bord stoulles, 3s. 4d. 3 buffett formes, 3s. one litle buffet stole, 6d." Wills and Invent. i. 282, printed by the Surtees Society. See hereafter BUFFETT stole.]Tripes.
  • Page  42BAGGYSCHYN (boggysche, K. H. boggisshe, P.) Tumidus.
  • BOGGYSCHELY. Tumide.
  • BOCHCHARE, or vn-crafty (bot∣char, P.) 1. [Palsgrave gives the verg "to botche, or bungyll a garment as he dothe that is nat a perfyte workeman, fatrouiller." "Thou hast but bodchyd and countrefeat Latten, imaginarie umbratilsque figure." HORM.]Iners, C. F.
  • (BOTCHARE of olde thinges, P. Re∣sartor.)
  • BOHCHE, sore (botche, P.) Ulcus, CATH.
  • BOCHMENT (botchement, P.) Ad∣ditamentum, amplificamentum, CATH. augmentum, auctorium.
  • BOY, supra in BEY. Scurrus.
  • BOYDEKYN, or bodekyn. Subucula, perforatorium.
  • BOYSTE, or box. 2. ["A buyste, alabastrum, pixis, hostiarium pro hostiis." CATH. ANGL. "Lechitus est vsa olei amplum, vel ampulla ampla que auricalco solet fieri, Anglice, a boyste or kytte for oyle." ORT. VOC. This word is from the old French boiste, bostia, in late Latinity bustea, or bustula, and these are derived from pyxis, or, as Menage sup∣poses, from buxus, the material chiefly employed. See Buist. in Jamieson.]Pix (pixis, P.) alabastrum, C. F.
  • BOYSTŌN'. 3. [See above BLEDYNGE BOYSTE.]Scaro, ventosi, UG.
  • BOYSTOWS. 4. ["Bustus, rudis, rigidus. To be bustus, rudere." CATH. ANGL. "Rudis, indoctus, inordinatus, quasi ruri datus, boystous. Rudo, to make boystous." ORT. VOC. "Boy∣stous, styffe or rude, lourd, royde. Unweldy, boystouse, lourd. Boystousnesse, roydeur, impetuosité." Chaucer uses the word thus, "I am a boistous man, right thus say I." Manciple's Tale. The Wicliffite version renders Matt. ix. 16, "No man puttith a clout of boystous cloth into an olde clothing" in the original the sense is raw, unwrought cloth.]Rudis.
  • BOYSTOWS garment. Birrus, CATH.
  • BOYSTOWESNESSE (boystousnesse, P.) Ruditas.
  • BOOK (boke, P.) Liber, codex.
  • BOOKBYNDER, or amendere. So∣sius, UG. in soros.
  • BOKELERE. Pelta, ancile, KYLW. C. F. parma, CATH.
  • BOKELYN, or spere wythe bokylle. Plusculo.
  • BOKERAM, clothe. 5. ["Buckeram, bougueram." PALSG. In medieval Latinity boquerannus. DUC. If it signified a coarse-grained cloth, the name may be of French derivation, from bourre, flocks of wool, and grain, but some ancient writers describe it as telae subtilis species, See MENAGE. William Thomas, in his Principal Rules of Italian Grammar, 1548, renders "bucherame, buckeramme, and some there is white, made of bombase, so thinne that a man mai see through it."]
  • BOKETT. Situla, mergus, C. F.
  • BOKULLE, supra in BOCLE (bokyll, P.)
  • BOKULLE makere. Pluscularius, DICT.
  • BOLAS frute (bollas, P.) Pepulum, mespilum, KYLW. CATH.
  • BOLAS tre. 6. ["A bulas tre, pepulus." CATH. ANGL. "Pepulus, a bolaster." ORT. VOC.]Pepulus.
  • Page  43BOOLDE, or hardy (bolde, P.) Audax, animosus, magnani∣mus.
  • BOLDE, or to homely. Presump∣tuosus, effrons, C. F.
  • BOLDELY, or hardely. Audacter.
  • BOLDELY, or malapertly. Effronter, C. F. presumptuose.
  • BOLDENESSE, or hardynesse. Au∣dacia.
  • BOLDENESSE, or homelynesse (to∣homlynes, K.)Presumpcio.
  • BOOLE, a beste (bole, net, beste, H.) Taurus.
  • BOLLE, vesselle. Concha, luter, C. F. UG.
  • BOLLE, dysche. Cantare.
  • BOLLE of a balaunce, or skole (scoole, H.) Lanx, CATH.
  • BOYLYD mete.
  • BOLYYN', or boylyn'. Bullio.
  • BOYLYN ouyr, as pottys on þe fyre (bullyn, H.) Ebullio.
  • BOLYYNGE, or boylynge of pottys or othere lyke. 1. ["Bulla, tumor laticum, i. aquarum, a bollynge or a bloure." GARLAND. EQUIV.]Bullicio, bullor.
  • BOLLYNGE owere as pottys plawyn. Ebullicio, C. F.
  • BOLKE, or hepe. Cumulus, acervus.
  • BOLKYN'. 2. ["Ructo, to bolkyn." MED. GR. "Bolke nat as a bene were in thy throte, ne route point." PYNSON, boke to lerne French. "To bocke, belche, roucter. Bolkyng of the stomake, routtement." PALSG. A. S. bealcan, eructare. Skinner gives "Boke, vox agro Lincolniensi familiaris, significat nauseare, eructare." See Boke, or Voke, Forby.]Ructo, eructo, orexo, CATH. C. F.
  • BOLKYNGE, or bulkynge. Orexis, eructuacio, C. F.
  • BOLNYD. Tumidus.
  • BOLNYN'. 3. [In the Wicliffite version, 1 Cor. v. 2, "Ghe ben bolnun with pride." Chaucer speaks of "bollen hartes." "Bollynge yes out se but febely, oculi prominentes." HORM. "Bolnyng or swellyng of a bruise or sore. See how this tode bolneth, s'enfle." PALSG.]Tumeo, turgeo, tumesco.
  • BOLNYNGE. Tumor.
  • BOLSTYR of a bedde. 4. ["Bolstarre, trauersin, chevecel." PALSG. A. S. bolster, cervical.]Culcitra.
  • BOLTE. Petilium, tribulum, KYLW.
  • BONE. Os.
  • BONDE. Vinculum, ligamen.
  • BONDAGE. Servitus.
  • BONDE, as a man or woman. Ser∣vus, serva.
  • BONDMAN. Servus nativus.
  • BONDSCHEPE. Nativitas.
  • BONDOGGE (bonde dogge, P.) 5. ["A bande doge, Molosus." CATH. ANGL. Skinner conjectures that the word bandog is derived from "band, vinculum, q. d. canis vinctus, ne scilicet noceat; vel si malis, ab A. S. bana, interfector."]Molosus.
  • BONE, or graunte of prayer (boone, P.) Precarium, CATH. C. F. peticio.
  • BONET of a seyle. Artemo, CATH. sirapum, C. F.
  • BONY, or hurtynge (of hurtynge, K. H. P.) 6. [The Catholicon explains flegmen to be, "tumor sanguinis. Item flegmina sunt quando in manibus et pedibus callosi sulci sunt." It would appaer to be the same as a bunnian, the derivation of which has been traced from the French, "bigne, bosse, en∣flure, tumeur." ROQUEF. Cotgrave renders it a bump or knob, and he gives also "Bigne, club-footed." Sir Thos. Browne, Forby, and Moore, give the word bunny, a small swelling caused by a fall or blow; in Essex "a boine on the head." In Cullum's Hawsted, among the words of local use, is given bunny, a swelling from a blow.]Fleumon, CATH. fleg∣men, C. F. (tumor, P.)
  • Page  44BONY, or grete knobbe (knowe, W.) Gibbus, gibber, callus, CATH.
  • BONSCHAWE, sekenesse (bonshawe, P.) 1. ["The baneschawe, oscedo." CATH. ANGL. "Oscedo, quedam infirmitas quo ora infantium exulcerantur, i. e. oscitatio, oris apertio, a boneshawe." ORT. "De in∣firmitatibus. Baneschaw, cratica, i. passus." Roy. MS. 17 C. XVII. f. 40. John Arderne, who was surgeon to Edward III., says in his Chirurgica, "ad guttam in osse, que dicitur bonschawe, multum valet oleum de vitellis ovorum, si inde ungatur." Sloan. MS. 56, f. 18 b. In Sloan. MS. 100, f. 7, is given the recipe for "a good medicyn for boonschawe. Take bawme and feþirfoie, þe oon deel bawme, and þe þridde parte feþirfoie, and staumpe hem, and tempere hem wiþ stale ale, and lete þe sike drinke þerof." In Devonshire the sciatica is termed bone-shave, and the same word signifies in Somerset an horny excrescence on the heel of an horse.? A. S. sceorfa, scabies."]Tessedo, sciasis.
  • BOORE, swyne. Aper, verres, CATH.
  • BORAGE, herbe. Borago. Stultis, leprosis, scabidis, tumi∣dis, furiosis, Dicit borago, gaudia semper ago.
  • BOORDE. Tabula, mensa, asser.
  • BORDECLOTHE. Mappa, gausape, C. F.
  • BOORDE, or game. 2. ["A bowrde, jocus. A bowrdeword, dicerium, dictorium." CATH. ANGL. "Mis∣tilogia, a bourde, i. fabula. Nugaciter, bourdly." ORT. VOC. "Bourde or game, jeu. Bourdyng, jestyng, joncherie. To bourde or iape with one in sporte, truffler, border, iouncher." PALSG.]Ludus, jocus.
  • BOORDON̄, or pleyyn' (bordyn, P.) Ludo, jocor.
  • BORDELE. Lupanar, prostibulum.
  • BORDYOURE, or pleyare (bordere, P.) 3. ["A bowrder, mimilarius, mimilogus, lusor, joculator, et cet' ubi a harlotte." CATH. ANGL. "Mistilogus, a bourder, i. fabulator vel gesticulator." ORT. VOC.]Lusor, joculator.
  • BOORDEKNYFE. Mensacula, COMM. UG. KYLW.
  • BORDURE abowte a thynge (bor∣dore, K. round a-bowtyn, H.) Limbus, orarium, C. F. ora.
  • BORDERYN', or to make a bordur (maken a border about, P.) Limbo.
  • BORE, or hole. Foramen.
  • BORYN', or holyn (make an hole, P.) Perforo, penetro, cavo.
  • BORYNGE, or percynge. Perfo∣racio, cavatura.
  • BORMYN', or pulchyn' (bornyn, K. P. boornyn, H.)

    4. "Bornysch, burnir." PALSG. Chaucer and Gower use burned in this sense fre∣quently, as in the Knightes tale, "wrought all of burned steele."

    "An harnois as for a lustie knight,
    "Which burned was as silver bright."

    Conf. Am.

    The word is taken from the old French word, burni, in modern orthography, bruni.

    Polio, CATH.
  • BORWAGE (borweshepe, K. boro∣wage, P.) Fidejussio, C. F.
  • BORWARE (borower, P.) Mutu∣ator, C. F. sponsor, CATH.
  • BORWYNGE. Mutuacio, mutuum.
  • (BORWE for a-nothire person, K. borowe, H. P.

    5. "A borgh, fidejussor, vas, sponsor, obses. To be borghe, fidejubere, spondere." CATH. ANGL. "Fidejussor, a borowe, qui pro alio se obligat, a suerty." ORT. VOC. The word occurs in Piers Ploughman's Vision, line 13951.

    "Ne wight noon wol ben his borugh,
    Ne wed hath noon to legge."

    It is found also not infrequently in Chaucer and Spenser.

    "That now nill be quitt with baile nor borow."

    Sheph. Cal. May.

    "Vas, i. sponsor vel fidejussor, Anglice a borowe" (borghe, in another Edition). GAR∣LAND, Equiv. "Borowe, a pledge, pleige." PALSG. A. S. borh, foenus, fidejussor.

    Fidejussor, sponsor.)
  • Page  45BOROWE, or plegge (borwe, K. H.) Vas, CATH.
  • BOROWYN' of anodur (borwyn of another, K. borowen, P.) Mu∣tuor.
  • BORWON owt of preson, or stresse (borvyn, H. borwne, P.) 1. ["If thou be taken prisoner in this quarrell, I wyll nat borowe the, I promesse the, je ne te pledgeray point." PALSG.]Vador, CATH.
  • BOSARDE byrde. Capus, vultur.
  • BOSOME, or bosum'. Sinus, UG. gremium.
  • BOST (boost, P.) Jactancia, ar∣rogancia, ostentacio.
  • BOSTARE, or bostowre. Jactator, arrogans, philocompus, C. F.
  • BOOSTON'. Jacto, ostento.
  • BOOT. Navicula, scapha, simba.
  • BOTE for a mannys legge (bote or cokyr, H. coker, P.) 2. [See BOTEW, and COKYR, botew. "Boote of lether, houseau." PALSG.]Bota, ocrea.
  • BOTE of (or, P.) helthe. Salus.
  • BOTELLE, vesselle. Uter, obba.
  • BOTELLE of hey. 3. ["Botelle of haye, botteau de foyn. Aske you for the hosteller, he is aboue in the haye lofte makynge botelles (or botels) of hay, boteller." PALSG. In Norfolk it de∣notes the qantity of hay that may serve for one feed. FORBY.]Fenifascis.
  • BOTLERE (boteler, P.) Pincerna, promus, propinator, acaliculis, CATH.
  • BOTERAS of a walle. 4. ["Bottras, portant." PALSG. "Arc boutant." COTGR.]Machinis, muripula, muripellus, fultura.
  • BOTERYE. Celarium, boteria, pin∣cernaculum (promptuarium, P.)
  • BOTEW. Coturnus, botula, crepita.
  • BOOTHYR. Potomium, CATH. C. F.
  • BOTWRYTHE (botewright, P.) Na∣vicularius, UG.
  • BOTYNGE, or encrese yn byynge. 5. ["To boote in corsyng," (horse-dealing) "or chaunging one thyng for another, gyue money or some other thynge aboue the thyng. What wyll you boote bytwene my horse and yours? mettre ou bouter dauantaige." PALSG. A. S. betan, emendare.]Licitamentum, CATH. liciarium, C. F.
  • BOTUNE, 6. [The correct reading is probably BOTME. "A bothome, fundus." CATH. ANGL.] or botum' (botym, P.) Fundum.
  • BOTUN, or yeue more owere in bargaynys (botyn, or ȝeue more∣ouere in barganynge, K. botown, H. bote, P.) Licitor, CATH. vel in precio superaddo.
  • BOTME, or fundament (botym, P.) Basis.
  • BOTME of threde, infra in CLOW∣CHEN, or clowe (botym, P.) 7. ["A bothome of threde, filarium." CATH. ANGL. "Bottome of threde, gliceaux, plotton de fil." PALSG. Skinner derives it from the French, boteau. fasciculus.]
  • BOTOWRE, byrde (botore, K. P.) Onocroculus, botorius, C. F.
  • BOTWN (botun, P.) Boto, fibula, nodulus, DICT.
  • Page  46BOTHON clothys (botonyn, K. bo∣ton, P.) Botono, fibulo.
  • BOTURE (botyr, K.) Butirum.
  • BOTURFLYE. Papilio.
  • BOWE of a tre (boughe, branche, P.) Ramus.
  • BOWALLE, or bowelle (bowaly, K. H. bawelly, P.) Viscus.
  • BOWALYNGE. Evisceracio, exen∣teracio.
  • BOWAYLYN', or take owte bowalys. Eviscero, CATH.
  • BOWDE, malte-worme (boude of malte, P.) 1. [Bouds, in the Eastern counties, are weovils in malt. TUSSER, FORBY, MOORE.]Gurgulio, KYLW.
  • BOWE. Arcus.
  • BOWETT, or lanterne. 2. [Among appliances for sacred use in the Latin-English Vocabulary, Roy. MS. 17. C. XVII. f. 46, are "absconsa, sconsse, ventifuga, bowyt, crucibulum, cresset." The word was no doubt taken from the French boëte, in Latin, boieta, capsula.]Lucerna, lanterna.
  • BOWȜERE (bowyere, P.) Arcu∣arius, architenens, DICT.
  • BOWYN'. Flecto, curvo.
  • BOWYN', or lowtyn' (lowyn, bulkyn, or bowyn, H. P.) Inclino.
  • BOWGE. Bulga, C. F.
  • BOWLE. Bolus.
  • BOWLYN, or pley wythe bowlys. Bolo.
  • BOWNDE, or marke. Meta, limes.
  • BONTYVASNESSE (bountyuous∣nesse, P.) Munificentia, libe∣ralitas, largitas.
  • BONTYVESE (bountyuous, P.) Mu∣nificus, liberalis, largus.
  • BOWRE, chambyr. Thalamus, conclave.
  • BOX, or buffett. Alapa.
  • (BOX, or boyste, K. H. P. Pixis.)
  • BOX tre. Buxus.
  • BOTHE, or bothyn (bothen, P.) Uterque, ambo, CATH.
  • BOÞE, chapmannys schoppe. Pella, selda (opella, apotecha, P.)
  • BOYUL or bothule, herbe, or cow∣slope (bothil, H. boyl, P.) 3. [In the treatise of herbs and their qualities, Roy. MS. 18 A. VI. f. 72 b. is mentioned bothume, "Consolida media is an here that me clepyth wyth bothume, or whyte goldys, thys herbe hath leuys that beth enelong."]Vac∣tinia, C. F. menelaca, marciana, C. F.
  • BRACE, or (of, P.) a balke. Un∣cus, loramentum, C. F.
  • BRACE of howndys.
  • BRACYN, or sette streyte. Tendo.
  • BRAGETT, drynke (bragot or bra∣ket, K. H. P.) 4. ["Bragott, idromellum." CATH. ANGL. "Hire mouth was swete as braket or the meth." CHAUC. Milleres Tale. Skinner explains bragget to be "species hydromelitis, vel potius cerevisiae melle et aromatibus conditae Lancastrensibus valde usitate." The Welsh bragod has the same signification. Grose says bracket is in the North a drink compounded of honey and spices. See bragwort, in Jamieson and Nares. Harrison, who lived in Essex about 1575, relates in his description of England, prefixed to Ho∣linshed's Chronicles,ii. c. 6, how his wife was accustomed to make brackwoort, re∣serving a portion of the woort unmixed with hops, which she shut up close, allowing no air to come to it till it became yellow, calling it brackwort, or charwort, to which finally she added arras, and bay-berries powdered.]Mellibrodium, bragetum (sed hoc est fictum, P.)
  • BRAY, or brakene, baxteris instru∣ment. Pinsa, C. F.
  • Page  47BRAYNE. Cerebrum.
  • BRAYYN' in sownde (brayne in sowndynge, P.) 1. ["The moders of the chyldren" (slain by Constantine) "camen cryenge and bray∣enge for sorowe of theyr chyldern." LEGEND. AUR. "To bray as a deere doth, or other beest, brayre. There is a deer kylled, for I here hym bray." PALSG.]Barrio, CATH.
  • BRAYYN', as baxters her pastys (brayn, vide in knedying, K.) Pinso, CATH.
  • BRAYYN, or stampyn in a mortere. Tero.
  • BRAYYNGE, or stampynge. Tri∣tura.
  • BRAYYNGE yn sownde. Barritus, C. F.
  • BRAYNYN' (brayne, P.) Excerebro.
  • BRAYNYD, or kyllyd. Excere∣bratus.
  • BRANYD, or fulle of brayne. Ce∣rebrosus, cerebro plenus.
  • BRAYNYNGE, or kyllynge. Ex∣cerebracio.
  • BRAYNLES, Incerebrosus.
  • BRAKE, herbe, or ferne 2. ["A brakane, filix, a brakanbuske,filicarium." CATH. ANGL. "Filix, Anglice, ferne or brakans." ORT. VOC. "Brake, ferne, fusiere." PALSG. In the Household Book of the Earl of Nothumberland 1511, it appears that water of braks was stilled yearly, for domestic use. Ray gives the word brakes as generally used; it is retained in Norfolk and Suffolk. See FORBY and NARES.]Filix.
  • BRAKEBUSHE, or fernebrake. Filicetum, filicarium, UG. in filaxe.
  • BRAKENE, supra in BRAY (brake∣nesse, J.) 3. ["A brake, pinsella, vibra, rastellum." CATH. ANGL.]
  • BRAKYN, or castyn, or spewe. 4. ["He wyll nat cease fro surfettynge, tyll he be reddy to parbrake." HORM. "To parbrake, vomir. It is a shrewde turne, he parbraketh thus." PALSG. This word does not occur again in its proper place in the Promptorium. See Braking, in Jamieson.]Vomo, CATH. evomo.
  • BRAKYNGE, or parbrakynge. Vo∣mitus, evomitus.
  • BRANDELEDE (branlet, K. branlede or treuet, P.) Tripes, NECC.
  • BRAS (brasse, P.) Es.
  • BRASYLE.

    5. It is not a little singular to find so many notices as occur of Brasil-wood, con∣siderably anterior to the discovery of Brasil, by the Portuguese Captain, Peter Alvarez Capralis, which occurred 3d May, 1500. He named it the land of the Holy Cross, "since of store of that wood, called Brasill." Purchas's Pilgrimes, vol. i. It is probable that some wood which supplied a red dye, had been brought from the East Indies, and received the name of Brasil, long previous to the discovery of America. See Huetiana, p. 268. In the Canterbury Tales, the host, commending the Nonne's preeste for his health and vigour, says,

    "Him nedeth not his colour for to dien,
    With Brasil, ne with grain of Portingale."

    Among the valuable effects of Henry V. taken shortly after his decease in 1422, there occur "ii. graundes peces du Bracile, pris vi. s. viii. d." ROT. PARL. In Sloan. MS. 2584, p. 3, will be found directions "for to make brasil to florische lettres, or to rewle wyth bookes."

    Gaudo, DICC. vel lignum Alexandrinum.
  • BRASYN' (brased, P.) Ereus, eneus.
  • BRASYERE. Erarius.
  • BRAS-POTT. Emola, BRIT.
  • Page  48BRAWLERE. Litigator, litigiosus, jurgosus.
  • BRAWLYN', or strywen'. Litigo, jurgo. Quere plura in STRY∣VĒN.
  • BRAWLYNGE. Jurgium, litigium.
  • BRAWNE of a bore.

    1. Brawne, which Tooke conjectured to be boaren, flesh being understood, was applied anciently in a more general sense than at present. The etymology of the word may be traced with much probability to the Latin, aprugnum, callum. Piers Ploughman speaks of "brawn and blod of the goos, bacon and colhopes;" and Chaucer in the Knight's Tale applies the word, as it has been here, to the muscular parts of the human frame.

    "His limmes gret, his braunes hard and strong."

    The gloss on Gautier de Bibelesworth gives the word in this sense,

    "En la jambe est la sure, (the caalf.)"
    E taunt cum braoun rest ensure. (the brahun)."

    Arund. MS. 220, f. 298.

    "þe brawne of a man, musculus." CATH. ANGL. "Lacerna, vel lacertus, proprie superior pars brachii vel musculus, brawne of the arme." MED. Harl. MS. 2257. "He hath eate all the braune of the lopster, callum." HORM. "Braon, le gras des fesses." ROQUEF. Roman de Rou.

    Aprina.
  • (BRAWNE of a checun, H. cheken, P. Pulpa, C. F.)
  • BRAWNE of mannys leggys or ar∣mys. Musculus, lacertus, pul∣pa, C. F.
  • BRANCHE of a tre. Palmes, C. F. (ramus, ramusculus, P.)
  • (BRAWNCHE of a vyny, K. P. Palmes.)
  • BRAWNDESCHYN' (brawnchyn as man, K,) Vibro.
  • BRAWNDYSCHYNGE (brawnchyng, K.) Vibracio.
  • BRECHE, or breke. 2. ["Breke, bracce, femorale, perizoma, saraballa. Breke of women, feminalia." CATH. ANGL. A curious illustration of the use by the fair sex of this last mentioned article of dress is supplied by the Roll of expenses of Alianore, Countess of Leicester, A. D. 1265, edited by Mr. Botfield for the Roxburghe Club. "Item, pro vi pellibus baszeni ad cruralia Comitissae, per Hicqe Cissorem, xxi d. pro iii ulnis tarentinilli ad eadem, per eundem, xii d. pro plumâ ad eadem, xxi d." page 10. "Bathini dicuntur vestes linee usque ad genua pertinentes, a breche." ORT. VOC. "Breche of hosen, braiette, braie, braies." PALSG. Elyot gives in his Librarie, a quaint synonmye in his rendering of the word "subligaculum, a nether coyfe or breche."]Braccae, plur.
  • BREDDE or hecchyd, of byrdys (hetched, P.) Pullificatus.
  • BREDE, mannys fode. Panis.
  • BREDE twyys bakyn, as krakenelle, or symnel, 3. [See CRAKENELLE, brede, and SYMNEL.] or other lyke (twyes bake, or a craknell, P.) Ru∣bidus, C. F. (artocopus, P.)
  • BREDE, bysqwyte, supra (bred cle∣pyd bysqwyte, H. P.) Biscoctus.
  • BREDE, or lytylle borde. Men∣sula, tabella, asserulus.
  • BREDE-HUCHE (bredhitithe, P.) Turrundula, UG. in turgeo.
  • BREDECHESE (bredchese, P.) 4. [Juncata, which is written also juncta, juncheta, and jumentata, is explained to be "lac concretum, et juncis involutum, mattes or crude." ORT. VOC. In French jonchée, which is "a greene cheese or fresh cheese made of milke that's curdled without any runnet, and served in a fraile of green rushes." COTGR. Bred in the Eastern counties signifies at the present time the board used to press for cheese, somewhat less in circumference than the vat; the bred-chese may have been one freshly taken from the press, or perhaps so called as being served on such a "bred," or broad platter.]Jumtata (junctata, P.)
  • Page  49BREDE of mesure.1. ["Brede or squarenesse, croisure." PALSG. A.S. braed, latitudo.]Latitudo.
  • BREDYN' or hetchyn', as byrdys (foules or birdes, P.) Pullifico.
  • BREDYN', or make more brode. Dilato.
  • BREDE vermyne. Vermesco.
  • BREDYNGE, or brodynge (or forthe bringinge, P.) of birdys. Ebro∣cacio, focio, CATH. fomentacio.
  • BREDYNGE, or makynge brode. Dilatacio.
  • BREYDE lacys. Necto, torqueo, UG. laqueo, fibulo.
  • BREDYNGE of lacys, or oþer lyke. Laqueacio, nectio, connectio.
  • BREYDYN', or vpbreydyn'. Impro∣pero.
  • (BRAYDE, sawte, or brunt, P.2. ["Brayde, or hastynesse of mynde, colle. At a brayde, faisant mon effort. At the first brayde, de prime face. To brayde or take a thyng sodaynly in haste, je me mets à prendre hastiuement. I breyde, I make a brayde to do a thing sodaynly, je m'efforce. I breyde out of my slepe, je tressaulx." PALSG. See brade, in Jamieson.]Impetus.)
  • BREKE, or brekynge. Ruptura, fractura.
  • BREKYN' or breston̄' (brasten, P.) Frango.
  • BRAKYN' a-sunder cordys and ropis and oþer lyke. Rumpo.
  • (BREKEN claddis, P.3. ["Occo, scindere, glebas frangere, Anglice to clotte." ORT. VOC. Compare BRESTYN clottys.]Occo, UG.)
  • BREKYNGE. Fraccio.
  • BREME, fysche. Bremulus.
  • BREN, or bryn, or paley.4. [See PALY or bryne. "Paille, chaffe, the huske wherein corn lieth." COTGR. From the Latin palea.]Can∣tabrum, furfur, CATH.
  • BRENNAR, or he þat settythe a thynge a-fyre. Combustor.
  • BRENNYN, or settyn' on fyre, or make brēn'. Incendo, cremo, comburo.
  • BREN', by the selfe (brenne, P.) Ardeo.
  • BRENNYNGE. Ustio, combustio, incendium.
  • BRENT. Combustus, incensus.
  • BRERE, or brymmeylle (bremmyll, or brymbyll, P.) Tribulus, vepris.
  • BRESE.5. ["A brese, atelabus, brucus, vel locusta." CATH. ANGL. "Atelabus, a waspe or brese." ORT. VOC. "Brese or long flye, prester," PALSG. A.S. briosa, tabanus.]Locusta, asilus, UG.
  • BREST, or wantynge, of nede (at nede, P.)

    6. Hampole uses this word in the Pricke of Conscience.

    "Lorde, when sawe we the hafe hunger or thriste,
    Or of herbar haue grete briste."

    Harl. MS. 6723, f. 84.

    It is perhaps taken from the Danish, "bröst, default, have bröst, to want or lack a thing." WOLFF.

    Indigencia.
  • BREESTE of a beste. Pectus.
  • BREESTE-BONE. Torax, UG. in torqueo.
  • (BRASTEN, supra in BREKEN, P.)
  • Page  50BRESTYN', or cleue by þe selfe (brasten, P.) Crepo.
  • BRESTE clottys, as plowmen (clod∣des, P.) Occo.
  • BRESTE downe (brast, P.) Sterno, dejicio, obruo.
  • BREKE cōuenant. Fidifrago.
  • BREKE lawys. Legirumpo.
  • BRESTYN owte. Erumpo, eructo.
  • BRESTYNGE, supra in BREKYNGE.
  • BRESTYNGE downe. Prostracio, consternacio.
  • BETRAX of a walle (bretasce, K. bretays, H. P.)

    1. "A bretasynge, propugnaculum." CATH. ANGL. The Catholicon says, "dicuntur propugnacula pinne murorum sive summe partes, quia ex his propugnatur." In the Treatise "de Utensilibus," written by Alex. Neccham, about the year 1225, in the chapter relating to a castle, the French gloss renders propugnacula, brestaches, and pinne, karneus. Cott. MS. Titus, D. XX. f. 196. "Bretesse, breteche, bretesque, forteresse, tour de bois mobile, parapet, creneaux, palissade." ROQUEF. This word was applied rather indefinitely to denote various appliances of ancient fortification. See bretachiae, in Ducange. It more properly signified the battlements; thus it is said of the valiant Normans,

    "As berteiches monterent, et au mur guernelé."

    Roman de Rou.

    In Lydgate's Troy we read that,

    "Every tower bretexed was so clene."

    In a contract made at Durham in 1401, is the clause, "Et supra istas fenestras faciet in utroque muro ailours, et bretissementa battellata."

    Propugnacu∣lum, DICC.
  • BRETHE. Anelitus, alitus, spi∣ramen.
  • BRETHYN', or ondyn'. Spiro, anelo, aspiro.
  • BREUETOWRE. Brevigerulus, CATH.
  • BREYEL. Brollus, brolla, miser∣culus.
  • BRYBERY, or brybe. Manticulum, C. F.
  • BRYBYN'. Manticulo, latrocinor.
  • BRYBOWRE.
    "Who saveth a thefe when the rope is knet,
    With some false turne the bribour will him quite."

    LYDGATE.

    In Piers Ploughman bribors are classed with "pilors and pikeharneis." In Rot. Parl. 22 Edw. IV. n. 30, are mentioned persons who "have stolen and bribed signetts," that is, young swans. "A bribur, circumforaneus, lustro, sicefanta." CATH. ANGL. "To bribe, pull, pyll, briber, Romant, dérobber. He bribeth, and he polleth, and he gothe to worke." PALSG.

    Manticulus, man∣ticula, CATH.
  • BRYD. Avis, volucris.
  • BRYDALE. Nupciae.
  • BRYDALE howse. Nuptorium, CATH.
  • BRYDBOLT, or burdebolt. Epi∣tilium.
  • BRYDE, infra in SPOWSE (man or woman, infra in spowse, P. mayde or woman, W. Spon∣sus, sponsa.)
  • BRYDYLLE (bridell, P.) Frenum, erica, CATH.
  • BRYDELYN'. Freno.
  • BRYDELYN', or refreynyn'. Re∣freno.
  • BRYDELYME. Viscus.
  • BRYGE, or debate (bryggyng, K.)3. [This word occurs in Chaucer, T. of Melib. "min adversaries han begonne this debat and brige by his outrage." Roquefort gives "Briga, querelle, démêlé, combat. Brigueux, querelleur:" and Cotgrave "Brigue, contention, altercation." Skinner would however trace the word to A.S. brice, ruptura. Horman says, "beware of such brygous matters (abstineas omni calumniâ), for thou oughtest nat to hold cour∣rishly ageynst thy maister." See Briga, in Kennett's Glossary.]Briga, discensio.
  • Page  51BRYGGE. Pons.
  • BRYGYRDYLL.1. ["Lumbare, Anglice a breke-gyrdle, cingulum circa lumbos, et dicitur a lumbis, quia eo cinguntur et religantur, vel quia lumbis inhereat. Item dicitur et coxale, et bracharium, et renale, sed proprie renale quod renibus assignatur, sicut ventrale circa ventrem cingulum." ORT. VOC. from the Catholicon. "Braccale, braccarium, a breke∣girdul. Marcipium, a brigirdele." MED. "Perisoma, braygurdylle." Harl. MS. 1002, f. 116. The terms brekegirdle and bygirdle are occasionally confounded together, and it may be questioned which of the two was here intended: the latter is the Anglo-Saxon biȝyrdel, zona, saccus, fiscus, which properly signifies a purse attached to the girdle. In this sense it occurs in P. Ploughman, "the bagges and the bigirdles." Vision, lin. 5072. "A bygyrdylle, marsupium, renale." CATH. ANGL. "Renale, a bygyrdyll, est zona circa renes. Brachile, i. lumbare, dicitur etiam cingulum renum, a bygyrdell. Cruma vel crumena est bursa, vel saccus pecunie, vel marsupium, a by∣gyrdell." ORT. VOC. On the Northern coast of Norfolk, opposite Burnham Westgate, is an island of singular shape, resembling the letter S: it is about a mile in length, following the direction of its tortuous form, and very narrow throughout. It still bears the name of Bridgirdle, evidently from its supposed similarity to the ancient article of dress called the BRYGYRDYLE. See No. LXIX. of the Ordnance Survey.]Lumbare, renale.
  • BRYGOWS, or debate-makar. Bri∣gosus.
  • BRYLLARE of drynke, or schen∣kare (drinkshankere, P.) Pro∣pinator, propinatrix.
  • BRYLLYN', or schenk drynke.2. ["To byrle, propinare, miscere." CATH. ANGL. Ang. S. byrlian, haurire, byrle, pincerna. Jamieson gives the same sense of the verb to birle. See hereafter SCHENKYN drynke. A.S. scencan, propinare.]Propino.
  • BRYLLYNGE of drynke (of ale, K.) Propinacio.
  • BRYM, or fers.3. [This word occurs in R. Brunne, and Chaucer. See also Gawayn and Golagros. "He come lyke a breme bare." Sir Amadas. "Brimme, feirse, fier." PALSG. A.S. bremman, furere. In the dialects of Norfolk and Suffolk, brim is retained only in the following sense, "a brymmyng as a bore or a sowe doth, en rouyr." PALSG. "To bryme, subare." CATH. ANGL. Elyot renders "subo, to brymme as a boore doth, whan he getteth pygges." See further in Ray, Jamieson, and Forby.]Ferus, ferox.
  • BRYMBYLL, supra in BRERE.
  • BRYNGARE. Allator, lator.
  • BRYNGE to. Affero, perduco.
  • BRYNGE forthe chyldyr, or chyl∣drun. Parturio, pario, edo.
  • (BRYNGYN forthe, or shewyn forthe, K. P. Profero.)
  • BRYNGE forthe frute. Fructifico.
  • BRYNGE forthe kynlynge. Feto.
  • BRYNGE yn to a place. Infero, induco.
  • BRYNGYN, or ledyn. Induco, in∣troduco.
  • BRYNGE to mynde. Reminiscor, commemoro.
  • BRYNGE owte of place. Educo.
  • BRYNGYNGE. Allatura.
  • BRYNE, or brow of þe eye. Su∣percilium.
  • (BRYNNE of corn, K. Cantabrum, furfur.)
  • BRYNE of salt. Salsugo, CATH. C. F.
  • Page  52BRYNKE of a wesslle. Margo.
  • BRYNKE of watyr, supra in BANKE.
  • BRYSYDE (brissed, P.) Quassatus, contusus.
  • BROSYN or qwaschyn' (brysyn, K. bryszyn, H. brissen, P.)1. ["To bryse, quatere, quarsare. Brysille, fragilis, fisilis, fracticius, fractilis." CATH. ANGL. A.S. brysan, conterere. The word bryse is, however, probably taken more directly from the French. Palsgrave gives "to brise or bray herbes or suche like in a morter, briser." In the curious treatise of the virtues of herbs, Roy. MS. 18 A. VI. f. 72 b. is mentioned "bryse-wort, or bon-wort, or daysye, consolida minor, good to breke bocches."]Briso, CATH. quasso, brisco, C. F. allido.
  • (BRISYNG, or brissoure, K. bryss∣ynge or bryssure, H. Quas∣satio, contusio, collisio.)
  • BRYSTYLLE, or brustylle (burs∣tyll, P.) Seta.
  • BRYGHTE. Clarus, splendidus, rutilans.
  • BRYHTENESSE. Splendor.
  • BRYGHTE SWERDE. Splendona.
  • BROCALE, or lewynge of mete (brokaly of mete, P.)2. [Elyot renders "Analecta, fragmentes of meate whiche falle vnder the table. Ana∣lectes, he that gadereth vp brokelettes."]Frag∣mentum, COMM.
  • BROCHE of threde. Vericulum.
  • BROCHE, juelle (jowell, P.)3. [The broche was an ornament common to both sexes; of the largesse of Queen Guenever it is related, "Everych knyȝt she ȝaf broche other ryng." LAUNFAL MILES. "Fibula, a boton, or broche, prykke, or a pynne, or a lace. Monile, ornamentum est quod solet ex feminarum pendere collo, quod alio nomine dicitur firmaculum, a broche." ORT. VOC. The jewel which it was usual about the commencement of the XVIth Cen∣tury to wear in the cap, was called a broche. Palsgrave gives "Broche for ones cappe, broche, ymage, ataiche, afficquet. Make this brotche fast in your cappe. Broche with a scripture, deuise." The beautiful designs of Holbein executed for Henry VIII. and preserved in Sloan. MS. 5308, afford the best examples of ornaments of this descrip∣tion. See also the Privy Purse Expenses of the Princess Mary, edited by Sir F. Madden.]Mo∣nile, armilla.
  • BROCHE for a thacstare.4. [Broaches are explained by Forby to be "rods of sallow, or other tough and pliant wood split, sharpened at each end, and bent in the middle; used by thatchers to pierce and fix their work. Fr. broche."]Fir∣maculum.
  • BROCHE, or spete (without-yn mete, H. withoute, P.)5. ["A soudear for lacke of a brotche or a spyt, rosteth his meate upon his wepon made lyke a broche." HORM. Thomas, in his Principal Rules of Italian Grammar, 1548, renders "stocco, an armyng swoorde made like a broche." In the Earl of Northumberland's Household Book, 1511, it appears that the broches were turned by a "child of the keching." ANT. REP. IV. 233. Palsgrave alludes to the same primi∣tive usage, "when you haue broched the meate (embroché) lette the boye tourne, and come you to churche." See also Leland's Coll. VI. 4.]Veru.
  • (BROCHE or spete, whan mete is vpon it, P. Verutum.)
  • BROCHE for spyrlynge or herynge.6. ["A sperlynge, ipimera, sperlingus." CATH. ANGL. "Spurlin, a smelt. Fr. esperlan." SKINNER. The name is retained in Scotland; see sparlyng and spirling in Jamieson.]Spiculum, COMM.
  • BROCHYN', or settyn a vesselle broche (a-broche, K. P.) Atta∣mino, clipsidro, KYLW.
  • BRODE, or wyde. Latus, amplus.
  • Page  53BRODE, or large of space. Spa∣ciosus.
  • BRODE of byrdys. Pullificacio.
  • BRODE hedlese nayle. Clavus acephalus.
  • BROOD arowe (brodarwe, K.)1. [The Catholicon explains catapulta to be "sagitta cum ferro bipenni, quam sagit∣tam barbatan vocant." Palsgrave renders broad arrow, "raillon:" and Cotgrave gives "fer de flèche à raillon, a shoot-head, a forked or barbed head."]Catapulta, CATH.
  • BROOD axe, or exe. Dolabrum, CATH.
  • BRODYN, as byrdys (and fowles, P.) Foveo, fetifico, C. F. in alcyon.
  • BRODYNGE of byrdys. Focio, CATH. (focacio, P.)
  • BROYDYN (broyded, P.) Laqueatus.
  • BROYLYD. Ustulatus.
  • BROYLYD mete, or rostyd only on þe colys. Frixum, frixitura.
  • BROLYYN', or broylyn'. Ustulo, ustillo, torreo, CATH.
  • (BROLYYD, supra in BROYLYD, K.)
  • (BROLYYNGE, or broylinge, K. Us∣tulacio.)
  • (BROK, best, K. brocke, P.2. [See above BAWSTONE. "Fiber, id est castor, a brocke. Fibrina vestis que tra∣mam de fibri lanâ habet, a clothe of brocke woll." ORT. VOC. "Brocke a best, taxe." PALSG. The Wicliffite version renders Hebr. XI. 37, "Thei wenten about in brok skynnes, and in skynnes of geet." A.S. broc, grumus.]Taxus, castor, melota, pictorius.)
  • BROKE, watyr. Rivulus, torrens.
  • BROKE bakkyde. Gibbosus.
  • BROOKE mete, or drynke (broken, P.)3. ["To brooke meate, digerer, aualer. I can nat brooke this pylles. He hath eaten raw quayles, I fear me he shall neuer be able to brooke them." PALSG. A.S. brucan, frui. Margaret Paston, writing about the sickness of her cousin Bernay, 14 Edw. IV. 1476, 7, says, "I remember yat water of mynte, or water of millefole, were good for my cosyn Bernay to drynke, for to make hym to browke." Paston Corresp. V. 156.]Retineo, vel digerendo re∣tinere.
  • BROKYNGE of mete and drynke. Retencio (retencio cibi vel potus, digestio, P.)
  • BROKDOL, or frees (brokyl or fres, H. brokill or feers, P.) Fragilis.
  • BROME, brusche. Genesta, mirica, CATH. tamaricium, C. F.
  • BRONDE of fyre. Facula, fax, ticio, torris, C. F.
  • BRONDYDE. Cauterizatus, C. F.
  • BRONNYN' wythe an yren' (brondyn, P.) Cauterizo.
  • BRONDYNGE. Cauterizacio, C. F.
  • BRONDYNGE yren'. Cauterium, C. F.
  • BROSTYN, or broke. Fractus, ruptus.
  • BROSTYN man, yn þe cod. Her∣niosus, C. F.
  • BROTHE. Brodium, liquamen, C. F.
  • BROWDYD, or ynbrowdyd (brow∣dred, or browden, P.) Intextus, acupictus, C. F. frigiatus, UG.
  • BROWDYN', or inbrowdyn' (in∣browdyr, P.) Intexo, C. F. frigio, UG. in frigiâ.
  • BROWDYOURE (browderere, P.) In∣textor, C. F. frigio, CATH. UG.
  • BROWE. Supercilium.
  • BROWESSE (browes, H. P.)

    4. Skinner explains brewse to be "panis jure intinctus," which is the precise meaning of brewis in the North of England. BROCKETT. Huloet, in the reign of Edward VI. speaks of "browesse, made with bread and fat meat."

    "A proverbe sayde in ful old langage,
    That tendre browyce made with a mary-boon,
    For fieble stomakes is holsum in potage."

    Ludgate, Order of Fooles, Harl. MS. 2251, f. 303.

    The Latin-English Vocabulary, Roy. MS. 17. C. XVII. gives "browys, adepatum, brewett, garrus," distinguishing these two words, as the Promptorium does. Brewes is derived from the plural of A.S. briw, jusculum, but brewett is a word adopted from the French, brouet, potage or broth. Palsgrave, however, gives "brewesse, potage of fysshe or flesshe, brouet."

    Adi∣patum, C. F.
  • Page  54BROWETT.1. [In the Forme of Cury, and other books of ancient cookery, will be found a variety of recipes for making brewets, such as brewet of Almony, or Germany, of ayrenne, or eggs, eels and other fish in bruet. In a MS. of the XVth century, in the possession of Sir Thomas Phillipps, No. 8336, occur "Bruet seec, bruet salmene, and bruet sara∣zineys blanc." The word seems to have been applied generally to any description of potage, but Roquefort defines the original meaning of brouet as "chaudeau, et ce que les nouveaux mariés donnoient à leurs compagnons pour boire, le jour de leurs noces."]Brodiellum.
  • BROWNE. Fuscus, subniger, ni∣gellus, C. F. UG. in A.
  • BROWNE ale, or other drynke (brwyn, K. P. bruwyn, H.2. [Gautier de Bibelesworth, in his Tretyz de Langage, written in the reign of Edward I. gives a detailed and curious account of malting and brewing, "de breser, et de bracer." Arund. MS. 220. In Harrison's Description of Britaine, Book ii. ch. 6. prefixed to Holinshed's Chronicles, will be found a minute description of the process of brewing, as practised in the Eastern counties in the XVIth century.] browyn, W.) Pandoxor.
  • BROWSTAR, or brewere. Pan∣doxator, pandoxatrix.
  • BROTHYR. Frater.
  • BRODYR yn lawe. Sororius, C. F.
  • BRODYR by the modyr syde onely (alonly by moder, P.) Ger∣manus.
  • BROWNWORTE herbe (brother wort, P.) Pulio, peruleium (puleium, P.)
  • BRUNSTONE, or brymstone. Sul∣phur.
  • BRUNSWYNE, or delfyne.3. [In Anglo-Saxon mere swyn signifies a dolphin; the epithet brun, fuscus, is pro∣bably in reference to the colour of the fish. It is the porpesse, perhaps, which is in many places called sea-swine, in Italian porcopesse, that is here intended.]Foca, delphinus, suillus, CATH.
  • BRUNT.4. ["Brunt, hastynesse, chavlde-colle. Brunt of a daunger, escousse, effort." PALSG.]Insultus, impetus.
  • BRUNTUN, or make a soden stert∣ynge (burtyn, P.) Insilio, CATH.
  • BRUSCHE. Bruscus, C. F.
  • BRUSCHALLE (brushaly, K.) Sar∣mentum, CATH. ramentum, UG. in rado, ramalia, arbustum.
  • (BRUSTYL of a swyne, K. P. Seta.)
  • BUDDE of a tre. Gemma, C. F. botrio, frons, UG. in foros.
  • BUDDE FLYE.
  • BUDDUN' as trees. Gemmo, C. F. pampino, pululo, frondeo.
  • BUFFETT. Alapa.
  • (BUFFETYN, K. H. P. Alapo, alapizo, CATH.)
  • Page  55BUFFETYNGE. Alapacio.
  • BUFFETT stole.1. [See above, BOFET, thre fotyd stole.]Scabellum, tripos, trisilis, C. F.
  • BUGGE, or buglarde.2. ["Bugge, spectrum, larva, lemures." BARET. This word has been derived from the Welsh bwg, larva. Higins, in his version of Junius' Nomenclator, 1585, renders "lemures nocturni, hobgoblins or night-walking spirits, blacke bugs. Terriculamentum, a scarebug, a bulbegger, a sight that frayeth and frighteth." See Nares, and Boggarde and Bogith in Jamieson. St. Augustin and other writers mention "quosdam daemones quos Dusios Galli nuncupant," namely incubi. See Ducange. To this word Ducius, by which the bugge is here rendered, the origin of the vulgar term, the deuce, is evi∣dently to be trace.]Maurus, Ducius.
  • BUGLE, or beste (bugyll, P.)3. ["Bugle beest, bevgle." PALSG. "Bugle, buffle, boeuf sauvage." ROQUEF. "Buffle, buffes or bugles, wild beasts like oxen, uri. Buffe leather, aluta bubalina." BARET. "Preciouse cuppis be made of bugull hornys, urorum cornibus, non bubalorum." HORM. The bugle was introduced into England in 1252, as a present to Richard, Earl of Cornwall, brother of Henry III. "Missi sunt Comiti Richardo de partibus transma∣rinis, Bubali, pars vero sexus masculini, pars feminini, ut in his partibus occidentalibus, ipsa animalia non prius hic visa multiplicarentur. Est autem Bubalus genus jumenti bovi consimile, ad onera portanda vel trahenda aptissimum, cocodrillo inimicissimum, undis amicum, magnis cornibus communitum." Matt. Paris.]Bubalus.
  • BUK, best. Dama.
  • BUK, roo. Caprius (caprinus, P.)
  • BULLE (of the Pope, K.) Bulla.
  • BULLOK. Boculus, biculus.
  • BULTE flowre. Attamino, CATH. taratantarizo, UG. in tardo.
  • BULTURE (bultar, P.) Taratan∣tarizator, politrudinator.
  • BULTYD.4. ["Bulted, sassé, boultyng clothe or bulter, bluteau. To boulte meale, bulter." PALSG. He gives the word also in a metaphorical sense, "to boulte out a mater, trye out the trouthe in a doubtfull thynge, saicher." See bulter-cloth, in Kennett's Glos∣sary.]Taratantarizatus.
  • BULTYNGE. Taratantarizacio.
  • BULTE POOKE, or bulstarre. Ta∣ratantarare, C. F. taratantarum, UG. in tardo, politrudum.
  • BOMBON' as been' (bummyn or bumbyn, K. H. P.)5. ["To bomme as a fly dothe, or husse, bruire. This waspe bommeth about myne eare, I am afrayed leste she stynge me." PALSG.]Bombizo, CATH. bombilo, bombio.
  • BUNCHŌN'.6. ["To bounche or pusshe one; he buncheth me and beateth me, il me pousse. Thou bunchest me so that I can nat syt in rest by the." PALSG. "He came home with a face all to bounced, contusá." HORM.]Tundo, trudo.
  • BUNCHYNGE. Tuncio.
  • BUNDELLE. Fasciculus.
  • BUNNE, brede. Placenta.
  • BUNKYYDE (bunne kyx. Cala∣mus, K.)7. [The Harl. MS. appears here to be faulty, and the correct reading probably is, BUNNE, kyx. See hereafter KYX, or bunnes or drye weed. A.S. bune, fistula. In Joh. Arderne's Chirurgica, Sloane MS. 56, p. 3, in a list of French and English names of plants, occurs "chauynot, i. bunes;" the reading should probably be chenevette, which signifies the stalk of hemp. Forby and Moore give bunds or bund-weed, as the name by which in the Eastern counties weeds infesting grass land are known. Jamieson explains bune to be the inner part of the stalk of flax, or the core.]
  • BUNGE of a wesselle, as a tonne, Page  56 barelle, botelle, or othere lyke (kyx of vessell, P.) Lura, CATH. C. F.
  • BUNTYNGE, byrde. Pratellus.
  • BURBLON, as ale or oþer lykore (burbelyn, P.) Bullo.
  • BURBULLE, or burble (burbyll, P.)1. ["Bulliculus, id est parvus bullio, a burble, tumor aque. Bullio, a wellynge." ORT. VOC. "Burble in the water, bubette. To boyle up or burbyll up as a water dothe in a spring, bouillonner." PALSG.]Bulla, C. F.
  • BURDŌN' of a boke. Burdo.
  • BURRE. Lappa, glis.
  • BURGEYS. Burgensis.
  • BURGYN, or burryn as trees.2. ["Gramino, to burion, or kyrnell, or sprynge." ORT. VOC. "Burryon or budde of a tree, burion. To burgen, put forthe as a tree dothe his blossomes, bourgonner." PALSG.]Germino, frondo, CATH. gemmo, frondeo, supra.
  • BURGYNYNGE (burgynge, K. P.) Germen, pullulacio.
  • BURLE of clothe (a clothe, P.) Tumentum, CATH. C. F.
  • BURMAYDĒN'.3. [This word is compounded of A.S. bur, conclave, casa, and maeden, puella, a bower-maiden, a chamber-maid: in like manner as bur-þegn signifies a chamberlain.]Pedissequa, ancilla.
  • BURNET colowre. Burnetum, bur∣netus, DICC. KYLW.
  • BURTARE, beste (burter, P.) Cor∣nupeta.
  • BURTŌN', as hornyd bestys. Cor∣nupeto, arieto.
  • BURTYNGE. Cornupetus, C. F.
  • BURWHE, sercle (burrowe, P.)4. [Burr signifies in Norfolk, according to Forby, a mistiness around the moon; and in North Britain a halo is termed brugh, brogh, or brough; Jamieson suggests from its encircling the moon like the circular fortifications which are also called brugh. Ang. S. beorȝ, munimentum. The expression, "a burre about the moone" occurs in "Whim∣zies, or a new cast of Characters," p. 173. The same derivation may possibly apply to the terms, burr of a lance, which is a projecting circular ring that protected the hand; as also the burr of a stag's horn, or projecting rim by which it is surrounded close to the head.]Orbiculus, C. F.
  • BURWHE, towne (burwth, K. burwe, H. burrowe, P.) Burgus.
  • BUSCEL (buschelle, K.) Modius, (chorus, buscellus, P.)
  • BUSKE, or busshe.5. ["A buske, arbustum, dumus, frutex, rubus." CATH. ANGL. Buske or boske, as bush was anciently written, occurs in R. Brunne and Chaucer. Spenser uses the word buskets, and boskie is to be found in Shakespeare, Tempest, Act IV. In old French bosc and boschet. ROQUEF.]Rubus, du∣mus.
  • BUSCHOPE (busshop, P.) supra in BISSHOPPE.
  • BUSCHEMENT, or verement. Cun∣eus, C. F.
  • BUT, or bertel, or bysselle (ber∣sell, P.)6. [Buttes are explained by Bp. Kennet to be the ends or short pieces of land in arable ridges or furrows. "Limes, buttynge or bound in fields." ELYOT. Celtic, but, limes.]Meta.
  • BUT, fysche.7. [Yarrell, in his History of British Fishes, observes that the flounder is called at Yarmouth a butt, which is a Northern term; the name is likewise given by Pennant, but does not occur in the Glossaries of Northern dialect.]Pecten.
  • BUTTOK. Nates, CATH. piga.
  • BUTTON̄', or caste forthe (butt, P.) Pello.
  • BUTTYR, or botyr (butture, K.) Buturum.
  • Page  57BUXUM'.
    "Ne yan sal na man be boxsome,
    Ne obedyent to ye kirke of Rome."

    Hampole, Prick of Conscience, Harl. MS. 6923, f. 58, b.

    "And be lofande to hym and bouxsome," namely, to God, ib. f. 101, b. "Boxome, obedient, obeissant." PALSG. A.S. bocsum, obediens.

    Obediens.
  • BUXUM, or lowly or make (lowe or meke, K. P.) Humilis, pius, mansuetus, benignus.
  • BUXUMNESSE, mekenesse and good∣lynesse. Humilitas, mansue∣tudo, benignitas.
  • BUXUMNESSE. Obediencia, obe∣ditio, CATH.
  • CABAN', lytylle howse. Pretori∣olum, CATH. C. F. capana.
  • CABLE, or cabulle, grete shyppe (cabyl or schyp roop, H. P.) Cur∣cula, CATH. currilia, UG. in curvo, curculia, restis, rudens.
  • CABOCHE. Currulia, UG. in curvo.
  • CASE of closynge. Capsa.
  • CASE or happe (or chaunce, P.) Casus, eventus.
  • CADAS.

    2. Cadas appears to have signified flocks of silk, cotton, tow, or wool, used for stuffing gamboised garments. In the curious poem by Hue de Tabarie, at Middle Hill, en∣titled, "Coment le fiz Deu fu armé en la croyz," is this passage,

    "Pur aketoun ly bayle blaunche char e pure,
    Pur cadaz e cotoun de saunk fu le encusture."

    MS. Heber, No. 8336.

    In the petition against excess of apparel, 1463, it is thus mentioned; "No yoman, &c. to were in the aray for his body eny bolsters, nor stuffe of woole, coton, or cadas, nor other stuffer in his doubtlet, save lynyng accordyng to the same." ROT. PARL. "Cadas or crule, saijette." PALSG. "Cadarce pour faire capiton, the tow, or coursest part of silke, whereof sleaue is made." COTGR. Nares explains caddis to be a sort of worsted lace.

    Bombicinium.
  • CADAW, or keo, or chowghe (ca∣dowe or koo, K. P. ko, H.)3. [Caddow is still the name given to the jackdaw in Norfolk, as Coles and Forby have recorded. Palsgrave gives "Caddawe a byrde, chucas," and Withal renders "Caddow or dawe, nodulus." "Monedula, a choughe or cadess." ELYOT. Keo is from A.S. ceo, cornix. See hereafter COO BYRDE, or schowhe.]Mo∣nedula.
  • CADE of herynge (or spirlinge, K. P.) or oþyr lyke.4. [The quantity of fish contained in a cade is determined by the Accounts of the Cel∣larist of Berking Abbey, MON. ANG. I. 83: "a barrel of herryng shold contene 1000, and a cade of herryng six hundreth, sixscore to the hundreth." Palsgrave renders cade, escade, but the word does not occur in the Dictionaries. In 1511 it appears by the Northumberland Household Book, that the cade of red herring was rated at 6s. 4d. the cade of "sproytts, 2s." The spirling mentioned here was the smelt, called in French esperlan. See hereafter SPIRLYNGE, epimera.]Cada, lacista, KYLW. ligatura.
  • CAGE. Catasta.
  • CAHCHARE, or dryvare (catcher, P.) Minator, abactor.
  • CACHYN' a-way (catchinge away, P.) Abigo.
  • Page  58CHASȲN', or drvye furþe (catchyn or dryue forth bestis, P.) Mino.
  • CAHCHPOLLE, or pety-seriawnte. Angarius, exceptor, UG. C. F.
  • CAHCHYNGE, or hentynge (catch∣inge or takyng, K. P.) Appre∣hencio, decapcio, captura.
  • CAHCHYNGE, or drywynge a-wey or forthe. Minatus, abactio, CATH. in abigo.
  • CAYTYFFE. Calamitosus, dolo∣rosus, UG. BRIT.
  • CAKE, Torta, placenta, colirida, C. F. libum.
  • CAKELYN̄' of hennys. Gracillo.
  • CAKELYNGE, or callynge of hennys. Gracillacio.
  • CAKKYN', or fyystyn'. Caco, CATH.
  • CALAMYNT, herbe. Calamenta, balsamita (balsiata, P.)
  • CALENDIS (calende, J.) Calende.
  • CALENDERE. Kalendarium, KYLW.
  • CALFE, beste. Vitulus.
  • CALFE of a legge. Sura, CATH. C. F. UG. in suo.
  • CALKE or chalke, erye. Calx, creta.
  • CALKYN̄'.1. ["He calketh (vestigat) vpon my natyuyte." HORM. Palsgrave gives the verb "to calkyll as an astronomer doth whan he casteth a fygure, calculer. I dare nat calkyll for your horse that is stollen, for feare of my bysshoppe." See also Paston Letters, i. 114.]Calculo.
  • CALLYN' or clepyn'. Voco.
  • CALLYN' yn', or owte, be name, a-ȝene, to-gedyr, to mete, quere infra in CLEPYN̄'.
  • CALLYNGE or clepynge. Vocacio.
  • CALLYNGE or clepynge a-ȝene. Revocacio.
  • CALLYNGE or clepynge yn to a place. Invocacio.
  • CALLYNGE or clepynge to-gedyr. Convocacio.
  • CALLYNGE or clepynge to mete. Invitacio.
  • (CALYON, rounde stone, P.2. [In the accounts of the Churchwardens of Walden, Essex, in 1466, 7, among the costs of making the porch, is a charge "for the foundacyon, and calyon, and sonde." Hist. of Audley End, p. 225. Among the disbursements for the erection of Little Saxham hall in 1505, is one to the chief mason, for the foundation within the inner part of the moat, "to be wrought with calyons and breke, with foreyns and other necessaries con∣cerning the same." Rokewode's Hundred of Thingoe, 141. "Calyon, stone, caliou." PALSG. In the dialect of Northern England a hard stone is termed a callierd.]Ru∣dus. Hic rudus esto lapis, durus, pariterque rotundus.)
  • CALME or softe, wythe-owte wynde. Calmus, C. F. tranquillus.
  • CALME-WEDYR. Malacia, cal∣macia, C. F.
  • CALKESTOKE (calstoke, P.)3. ["A cale stok, maguderis." CATH. ANGL. "Maguderis est secundus caulis qui nascitur in tyrso absciso, vel ipse tyrsus abscisus, a koolestocke." ORT. VOC. "A calstok." MED. In Harl. MS. 1587, occur "maguderis, wortestokk, cauletum, cawlegarthe." "Calstocke, kalstocke, pié de chou." PALSG. In Scotland "castock or kail-castock, the stem of the colewort," according to Jamieson.]Ma∣guderis.
  • CALTRAP, herbe.4. [In the Dictionary of Synonyms of names of plants, in Latin, French and English, Sloan. MS. 5, compiled about the middle of the fifteenth century, occurs "Saliunca, spica Celtica, Gall. spike seltic, Ang. calketrappe." A. Sax, coltraeppe, rhamnus. "Cal∣trops, tribulus, seu carduus stellatus." SKINNER. In French chausse-trappe, according to Cotgrave, signifies both the thistle, and the caltrop used in war.]Saliunca, C. F. CATH.
  • Page  59CALTRAP of yryn, fote hurtynge.

    1. "A calle trappe, hamus, pedica." CATH. ANGL. "Caltrapa, a caltrappe," ORT. VOC. The Catholicon gives the following explanation of hamus. "Dicitur et hamus asser cum clavis quo subtegitur terra in vineis sub arboribus defendendis, vel in domo circa scrinia et thesauros, ut si aliquando fur ingrediatur, ejus pedibus infigatur." In the contemporary poem describing the Siege of Rouen by Henry V. the city is said to have been defended by a deep and wide dike, full of pitfalls, "of a spere of heyth."

    "Also fulle of caltrappys hyt was sette
    As meschys beth made wythinne a nette."

    Archaeol. xxi. p. 51.

    "They hydde pretely vnder the grounde caltroppys of yron to steke in horse or mennys fete, murices ferreos leviter condiderunt." HORM. Chaussetrappe is explained by Cotgrave to be an "iron engine of warre made with four sharp points, whereof one, howsoever it is cast, ever stands upward." Among the "municyons and habyllyments of warre" belonging to Berwick castle, 1539, occur "15 pece of lettes calteroopes." Archaeol. xi. 439. Caltraps are mentioned by Quintus Curtius in the Life of Alex∣ander as having been spread over the ground by the Persians to annoy the Macedonian cavalry. This circumstance is thus described, Kyng Alisaunder, line 6070:

    "And calketrappen maden ynowe,
    In weyes undur wode and bowe,
    Alisaundris men to aqwelle,
    And synfulliche heom to spille."

    Vegetius calls them tribuli. A representation of a caltrap, from the Tower collection, will be found in Skelton's Illustrations of the Armoury at Goodrich Court, ii. pl. 132.

    Hamus, CATH. C. F. UG.
  • CALTRAPPYN'. Hamo.
  • CALVUR as samoon, or oþyr fysshe.2. [The recipe in the Forme of Cury, p. 48, directs for "vyande Cypre of samone, take almandus and bray hem unblaunched, take calwar samone, and seeth it in lewe water," &c. See also p. 75, "salwar salmone ysode." Palsgrave renders "caluer of samon, escume de saulmon." This term appears to denote the state of the fish freshly taken, when its substance appears interspersed with white flakes like curd; thus in Lancashire the fish dressed as soon as it is caught is termed calver salmon, and in North Britain caller or callour signifies fresh, according to Jamieson. "Quhen the salmondis faillis thair loup, thay fall callour in the said caldrounis, and ar than maist delitious to the mouth." Bellend. Descr. Alb. c. 11. Calvered salmon is mentioned by Ben Jonson and Massinger as a delicacy; and Isaac Walton applies the term to the gray∣ling. R. Holme, however, would make it appear that calver was a term applied to fish dressed in oil, vinegar, and spices. See also Nares. The word "caleweis," which occurs in Chaucer, Rom. of Rose, and has been by the earlier glossarists interpreted as calvured salmon, is in the original "poire de caillouel," a sort of sweet pear, called by Roquefort caillos, or cailloel.]
  • CAMAMYLE, herbe. Camamilla.
  • CAMELLE, or chamelle. Camelus.
  • CAMMYD, or schort nosyd.

    3. This word seems to be taken from the French, "camus, qui a le nez court." LACOMBE. Cotgrave renders camus, flat-nosed.

    "Round was his face, and camuse was his nose."

    CHAUC. Reve's Tale.

    Hence also the sea-gull appears to have received a name, which is given by Elyot, "Candosoccus, a sea-gull, or a camose." See Camy, and Camow-nosed, in Jamieson's Dictionary.

    Simus, C. F.
  • CHAMMYDNESSE (cammednesse, P.) Simitas.
  • Page  60CAMPAR, or pleyar at foottballe.1. [Forby and Moore have given ample illustrations of the nature of the game at ball called to this day in Norfolk and Suffolk, camping: the former agrees with Ray, in de∣riving the word from the A. Sax. campian, praeliari. The camping-land appropriated to this game occurs, in several instances, in authorities of the fifteenth century; in Cullum's Hawsted, mention is found, in 1466, of the camping-pightle.]Pedilusor, pedipilusor.
  • CAMPȲN'. Pedipilo.
  • CAMPYNGE. Pedipiludium.
  • CAMPYON, or champyon. Athleta, pugil, campio, CATH.
  • CANCELLYNGE, or strekynge owte a false word. Obelus, C. F.
  • CANCET, soore or kankere (cankyr, K.) Pustula, UG. in puteo, cancer, C. F.
  • CANDYLLE (candell, P.) Candela.
  • CANDELERE.2. [This word seems to be taken from the French chandelier, a candlestick: cande∣larius signifies properly a maker of candles. See hereafter CHAWNDELERE.]Candelarius, can∣delabra.
  • CANDYLRYSCHE (candelrushe, K.) Papirus, CATH.
  • CANDELBEM' (candell beme, P.) Lucernarium.
  • CANDELSTYKKE. Candelabrum, lucernarium, C. F.
  • (CANEL of a belle, K. Canellus.)
  • CANEL, spyce. Cinamomum, amo∣mum.
  • CANEL, or chanelle (in the weye, H. in the strete, P.) Canalis, (aquagium, P.)
  • CANVAS, clothe. Carentinilla, NECC. DICC. canabeus, canalbus, canabus, KYLW. canabasium.
  • CANKER, sekenesse. Cancer.
  • CANKYR, worme of a tre. Teredo, UG. in tero, termus, termes, C. F.
  • CANNYN', or grucchyn' (canyyn or grochyn, K. chanyyn, H. canyen, P.) Murmuro, remurmuro (ca∣niso, P.)
  • CANONYZYDE. Canonizatus.
  • CANONIZACION. Canonizacio.
  • CANOPE.3. ["Canopeum, reticulum subtile factum de canabo. Canopeum, a gnate nette, rete quo culices vel musce excluduntur." DICT. WILBR. The Canope alluded to in the Promptorium, was very probably the Umbraculum under which the Sacred Host was carried in the procession on Palm Sunday. "Canapy to be borne over the sacrament, or ouer a Kynges heed, palle, ciel." PALSG. See the word canapeum in Ducange.]Canopeum.
  • CANTEL,

    4. "Minutal, a lompe of brede, or cantel." ORT. VOC. "Cantel of breddle, cantel or shyuer, chanteau." PALSG.

    "Of Florentys scheld a kantell
    He cleft thonryght." Octouian, line 1113.

    The term occurs also in "the Anturs of Arther at the Tarnewathelan." Hall, in his account of the marriage of the Princess Mary to Lewis XII. at Paris, in 1514, describes the entry of the Dauphin, whose "apparell and bardes were cloth of golde, cloth of syluer, and crymsyn veluet kanteled together." Hall's Chron. 6 Hen. VIII. Roquefort gives "Chantel, un morceau de pain," from cantellus. See Ducange, and Mon. Angl. i. 411. In Norfolk, to cant is to set a thing up on edge; see Forby, Moore, and Nares.

    of what euer hyt be. Quadra, UG. minutal.
  • CANTYN', or departyn'. Partior, divido.
  • CAPPE.5. [The priestly vestment generally known as the cope is here intended. "Capa, a cappe or a cope; caracalla, a sclauyn or a cape." DICT. WILBR. "A cope." ORT. Pilleum, according to the Catholicon, signifies a garment made of skins, but in its more usual sense, a covering for the head. In early times the cappa was an ordinary upper garment worn by ecclesiastics indiscriminately, and Ecgbert, Abp. of York, ordained in the eighth century that none of the clergy should appear in the church "sine co∣lobio vel cappâ." Of the various modifications of this vestment, and the names by which they were distinguished, a detailed account will be found in Ducange. At a later period the cope was a vestment reserved for occasions of ceremony: when worn by prelates and dignitaries, the richest tissues were chosen, and covered with a gorgeous display of jewels, orfrays, and embroidery; but its use was not confined to them, for with the exception of the priest officiating at the altar, who was vested in the sacred garments appropriated to the service of the mass, the cope appears to have been worn by all the assisting clergy, and even the choristers. In A. Sax. the name cappa, or caeppa, was adopted from the Latin, probably as early as the mission of St. Augustine, A.D. 601; and a cappa oloserica, one of the gifts of Gregory the Great, was preserved at Canterbury until the Reformation. See hereafter COOPE, capa.]Cappa, pilleum, CATH. DICC. Campedulum, C. F. (capa, K. caracalla, P.)
  • Page  61CAPPE, or hure, for clerkys.1. [The use of a small cap by the clergy as a covering of the tonsure is one of con∣siderable antiquity, it was usually termed the coif, coypha, and this term occurs here∣after in the Promptorium. This was identical, as Joh. de Athona asserts, with the tenae or infulae, but these appear more properly to have been lappets appended to the coif, and which occasionally were fastened under the chin. At various periods, when the clergy, disregarding strict propriety in demeanour and dress, became assimilated in externals to the laity, the coif was specially decried by the Church. Thus in the Council of London in 1267, the Legate Othobonus ordained that the clergy sould never appear in public with the coif, except in travelling, because thereby the corona, or circlet of hair left by the tonsure, was concealed, and therein "praecipue depositio terrenorum, et regalis sacerdotii dignitas designantur." See Lyndwode, Provinciale, p. 88. Hure, howe, or howfe, are synonymous, and are derived from A. Sax. hufa, cidaris. See hereafter HOWE or hure, heed hyllynge, and HWYR, cappe.]Tena, CATH. C. F.
  • CAPPE of a fleyle.2. ["Cappe of a flaylle, cappa." CATH. ANGL. "Cappe of a flayle, liasse d'un flaiau." PALSG.]Meditentum, COMM.
  • CAPYTLE, or chapytle, or captur (capytyll or chapytyll, P.) Ca∣pitulum.
  • CAPUL, or caple, horse.

    3. This word, which, as Skinner observes, is evidently a corruption of caballus, is used by Chaucer: the Cambridge Scholar exclaims, when the Miller lets his horse loose,

    "Why ne hadst thou put the capell in the lathe."

    Reve's Tale.
    "The knyȝt kacheȝ his caple and com to the lawe."

    Gawayn and the Green Knyȝt, lin. 2175.

    "Capull, a horse, roussin." PALSG. Cotgrave explains roussin to be "a curtall, a strong German horse." Elyot gives "Caballus, a horse; yet in some partes of England they do call an horse a cable."

    Caballus, C. F.
  • CAPVNE or capone. Capo, CATH. gallinacius.
  • CAPTEYN. Capitaneus.
  • CARANYE, or careyn'.4. [This word is written by R. of Gloucester and P. Ploughman caroyne, by Chaucer careyne. In the Wicliffite version likewise, Hebr. iii. 17, is rendered, "Whether not to hem that synneden, whos careyns weren cast doun in desert?" It is taken from the French "caroigne, cadavre." ROQUEF.]Cadaver.
  • CARE-AWEY, sorowles (carawey Page  62 sorweles, H. caraway, P. care∣awaye, W.) Tristicia procul.
  • CARAWAY herbe. Carwy, sic scribitur in campo florum.
  • CARDE, wommanys instrument. Cardus, C. F. discerpiculum.
  • CARDE maker. Cardifactor.
  • CARDYN' wolle. Carpo.
  • CARDENALE (cardynall, P.) Car∣dinalis.
  • CARDYACLE (cardyakyll, P.) Car∣diaca, UG. in Cardyan.
  • CARE. Tristicia, mesticia, dolor.
  • CARE, of hert-besynesse (hertlybe∣synesse, P.) Solicitudo.
  • CARYN' yn' herte. Solicitor.
  • CARRE, carte. Carrus, C. F. currus.
  • CARRE, orlytylle carte þat oone hors drawythe. Monocosmus, CATH.
  • CARYARE. Vector, vectitor.
  • CARYAGE. Vectura, portagium, cariagium.
  • CARYYNGE (cariynge, P.) idem est.
  • CARYN', or cary (caryen, P.) Veho, transveho.
  • CARYYNGE vesselle, or instrument of caryynge. Vectorium, CATH.
  • CARTEHOWSE (carfax, or carfans, H. P.1. [The Harl. MS. gives here CARTEHOWSE, which appears wholly erroneous. The word does not occur in the MS. at King's College. Skinner derives the name of the Carfax at Oxford from the French carrefour, or possibly from quatre faces: another derivation has been proposed, from quatre voies. See an article on the Oxford Carfax, in the Antiq. Repert. iii. 267.]Quadrivium.
  • CARKEYS. Corpus, cadaver.
  • CARLE, or chorle.2. ["Harke howe the fat carle puffeth, le gros vilain." PALSG. A. Sax. ceorl, carl∣man, rusticus.]Rusticus.
  • CARLE, or chorle, bondeman or woman. Servus nativus, serva nativa.
  • CARLOK, herbe.3. [According to Gerarde, carlock, charlocke, or chadlocke, is a sort of wild rape or turnip, rapistrum arvorum, now known as the sinapis arvensis. In Arderne's Practica, however, aubfoyn, which is properly the corn-flower, is rendered karloke, Sloan. MS. 56. A. Sax. cerlice, rapum sylvestre. "Eruca, a coleworm or a carlok." ORT. VOC.]Eruca.
  • CARAL, songe (caroll, P.)4. ["A caralle, corea, chorus." CATH. ANGL. "Carole a song, carolle, chanson de Noël." PALSG. A. Sax. kyrriole, a chanting at the Nativity.]Pali∣nodium, UG. in paluri (psalmo∣dium, psalmodinacio, K.)
  • CAROOLYN', or synge carowlys (carallyn, P.) Psalmodio, (pal∣linodio, P.)
  • CAROLYNGE. Palinodiacio.
  • CARPARE. Fabulator, garula∣tor, garula.
  • CARPYN', or talkyn'.

    5. Palsgrave gives the verb, "to carpe, Lydgate, this is a farre northen verbe, cac∣queter." Gower uses it, Conf. Am. lib. vii.

    "So gone thei forthe, carpende fast
    On this, on that."
    Fabulor, confabulor, garrulo.
  • CARPE, fysche. Carpus.
  • CARPYNGE. Loquacitas, garu∣lacio, collocutio.
  • CART. Biga, reda, quadriga.
  • CARTARE. Bigarius, redarius, auriga.
  • CARTYN', or lede wythe a carte.6. [The Promptorium does not give again the verb to lead, as it is here used, in the signification of to carry. Caxton says, in the Boke for Travellers, "Richer the carter shall lede dong (mettra) on my land, whan it shall be ered, and on my herber (courtil) whan it shall be doluen."]Carruco, CATH.
  • Page  63(CASARD, netes donge, P. casen, W.1. ["Casings, stercus siccum jumentorum, quod pauperes agri Lincolniensis ad usum foci colligunt; a Teut. Koth, fimus, q. d. cothings." SKINNER. In the North, ac∣cording to Brockett, casings, or cassons, are cow-dung dried for fuel. It is still the usage in the neighbourhood of Lynn to employ cow-dung for this purpose. Richards' Hist. i. 80.]Bozetum.)
  • CAST, or castyd. Jactatus, pro∣jectus.
  • (CASTE DOWNE, K. P. Prostra∣tus, projectus.)
  • CASTYN̄', or brakyn' (as man owt the stomack, K.)2. [The Wicliffite version renders ii. Pet. 2, 22, "The hounde turnyde agen to his castyng." In Sloan. MS. 100, f. 5, b. is given the following prescription: "For castinge, For hem that may not browke her mete. Take centorie, and sethe it in watir, and lete the sike drink it leuc warm iii daies, and he schal be hool, for this medicyn spourgith the brest, and the stomak."]Vomo, evomo.
  • CASTYN' A-VAY. Abjicio, projicio.
  • CASTYN', or throwyn̄'. Jacto, jacio.
  • CASTYN' DOWNE. Dejicio.
  • CASTE for to goōn', or purpose for to dōn' any othyr thynge (caste for to go, or any other thinge done, P.) Tendo, intendo, CATH.
  • CASTE lootte. Sorcior.
  • CASTE warke (werkys, K.) or dys∣posyn'. Dispono, propono.
  • CASTYNGE, or a caste. Jactus, jactura.
  • CASTYNGE downe, or a-wey. Pro∣jectio.
  • CATTE, beste. Cattus, mureligus, pilax, CATH.
  • CATELLE (catal, K.) Catallum, census. CATH.
  • CATYRPEL, wyrm' amonge frute.3. ["Catyrpyllar, worme, chatte pelleuse." PALSG.]Erugo, UG.
  • CATŌN', or Catvn' (propre name, P.)4. [In the middle ages a metrical system of ethics, entitled "Disticha de moribus ad filium," attributed to Dionysius Cato, or Magnus Cato, had attained the highest degree of estimation. It was illustrated by the comments of the most learned men of several centuries, and served as a manual for the instruction of youth. It is not certain who was the author; a translation from the Latin was made about 1480, by Benedict Burgh, Archdeacon of Colchester, for the use of his pupil Lord Bourchier; and in 1483 Caxton published his translation from a French version, entitled "The Booke called Cathon." Chaucer frequently quotes Cato: see Miller's Tale, 3227, Marchaunt's Tale, 9261. Caxton says in the Boke for Travellers, "George the booke sellar hath doctrinals, catons, oures of our Lady, Donettis, partis, accidents." See Warton's Hist. of Eng. Poetry, ii. 166. Dibdin's Typogr. Antiq. i. 195.]Cato, CATH.
  • CAUCYON, or wedde.5. [Caucyon may here signify a pledge, as in Palsgrave, "causion, pledge, caution." See hereafter WEDDE, or thynge leyyd yn plegge. The Catholicon, however, explains cautio to be a simple promise, without oath, pledge, or surety, but idonea cautio, im∣plied those additional securities. It is further interpreted to be a writing, as Papias says "cautio est breve recordationis chirographum. Unde in Evang. Luc.: Accipe cautionem tuam." In the Wicliffite Version this passage is rendered "and he seide to him, take thy caucioun and wryte fifty," Luke xvi. 6.]Cautio, CATH.
  • Page  64CAWDELLE.1. ["Caldarium, a cawdell." ORT. VOC. Palsgrave render it chaudeau, which according to Roquefort was "bouillon qu'on donnoit aux époux le matin du lendemain des noces, calens jusculum." In Caxton's Boke for Travellers, occur as "Potages. Caudell for the seke, chaudel. Growell and wortes." Skinner and Junius interpret it to be merely a spicy drink, but in the ancient terms of cookery cawdel signifies generally anything stewed down to a purée; see in the Forme of Cury, pp. 24, 27, "chykens in cawdel, cawdell ferry;" and in Cott. MS. Julius, D. VIII. f. 100, "Caudelle of samone, caudelle of muskles." See further calenum, in Charpentier.]Vitellium, caldea∣rium, caldellum, et hoc nomen habetur in commentario Johan∣nis de Gara (puls, ofasium, P.)
  • CAWDRON, vesselle (cavdryn, H.) Cacabus, caldaria, lebes, CATH.
  • CAWCEWEY (cavuce, K. H. cawcy wey, P.)2. [Cawcewey is derived directly from the French chaussée, a word taken, as Menage and other writers have observed, from the Latin calciata, so called, as some conjecture, from its being continually trodden, via calcata, but probably rather from the mode of forming such a road, with stones imbedded in mortar, via calceata, from calx, lime. See Spelman, Ducange, and Kennet, under the word calcea. There was a causeway at Lynn leading to Gaywood, on which was situated the Hospital of St. Mary Magdalen, and among the benefactors to the Hospital of St. John Baptist occurs Ufketel filius sanctimonialis de Sceringes, who grants "totam terram in Linne super calcetam." Mon. Ang. vi. 648, new edit. Palsgrave gives "Causey in a hye way, chausée."]Calcetum.
  • CAWSE (skyll, K.) or enchesone (cause or cawze, H.) Causa.
  • (CAVTELE, or sleyte, K. H. caw∣tele or sleight, P.3. [Cotgrave renders "cautelle, a wile, cautell, sleight, guilefull devise, subtilty." Fabyan relates that in 1448, the town of Pont-de-l'arche was taken by the "cautele" of the Frenchmen, who introduced two men disguised as carpenters; and Hall, speaking of the same occurrence, calls it "a praty cautele and slighte imposture." In Elyot's Librarie occurs "Offuciae, cawtelles, crafty wayes to deceyue."]Cautela.)
  • CEE. Mare, fretum, pontus.
  • CEK, or cekclothe, or poke. Saccus.
  • CEC, or seeke (ceke, or sekenes, P.) Infirmus, eger, languidus.
  • CECHELLE. Saccellus.
  • CECYN'. Cesso.
  • CECYNGE (cecenynge, H. P.) Ces∣sacio.
  • CEEDE (ced, H.) Semen.
  • CEEDE of corne, as kyrnel.4. [See hereafter KYRNEL of frute, granum.]Gra∣num, semen.
  • CEDYN', as corne or herbe. Se∣mento, CATH.
  • CEDYR, drynke. Cisera.
  • CEED LEPE, or hopyr.5. [In Norfolk the basket carried by the sower, is still called a seed-lep. FORBY. A. Sax. saed-leap, seminatoris corbis. See hereafter HOPUR, and SEEDLEP.]Satorium (satitolum, H.P.)
  • CEDYR, tree. Cedrus.
  • CEGE of (for, P.) syttynge. Se∣dile.
  • CEGE of enmyes a-bowte a castelle or cyte. Obsidium.
  • CEGGE, or wylde gladone.6. [See hereafter SEGGE of the fene, or wyld gladone. A. Sax. secȝ, gladiolus. Nares ex∣plains segs to be the water flower-de-luce. "Glayeul de rivière, sedge, water flags." COTGR.]Ac∣corus.
  • CEGGE, or stare.7. [The name sedge is now applied indiscriminately to the genus carex, which probably from the stiffness of its growth was called also stare. In Su. G. it is denominated starr, Isl. stör, "quum herba sit perquam rigida." IHRE. See hereafter SEGGE, star of the fenne, and STARE.]Carix, C. F.
  • Page  65(CEGE, or preuy, P. Latrina, cathacumba.)
  • CEYLE of a schyppe, or mylle. Velum, carbasus.
  • CEYL YERDE. Antenna, C. F.
  • CEYLYN vpon' watyr. Velifico.
  • CEYLYNGE. Velificacio.
  • (CEK, supra in CEC, P.)
  • CEEKENESSE. Infirmitas, egri∣tudo.
  • CEKYN̄', or wexe seke. Infirmor, egroto.
  • CEKYN̄'. Quero, inquiro.
  • CEKYN̄', or serchyn̄'. Scrutor.
  • CEEL (ceall, P.) Sigillum.
  • CEELE, i. solde (celde, H. P.) Ven∣ditus.
  • CEELDAM (celdom, P.) Raro.
  • CEEL, fysche. Porcus marinus.
  • CELE, or ceele, tyme.1. [Ray in his East Country Words, and Forby, have recorded the use of the word seal, signifying time, or season, from A. Sax, sael, opportunitas. BARLYSELE has occurred already in the Promptorium. See hereafter SEEL, tyme.]Tempus.
  • CEELLE, or stodyynge howse (cell or stody hows, P.) Cella.
  • CELER. Cellarium, promptuarium.
  • CELERERE of þe howse. Cellerar∣ius, promus (promptuarius, P.)
  • CELYDONY, herbe. Celidonia.
  • CELYN̄' letters. Sigillo.
  • CEELYN̄' wythe syllure.2. [The Catholicon explains celo to signify sculpere, pingere, and celamen or celatura, sculptured or painted decoration. Lydgate in the Troye Boke uses the word celature to describe vaulted work of an elaborate character. It appears doubtful whether the verb to cele, and the word ceiling, which is still in familiar use, are derivable from coelo, or may not be traced more directly to coelum and the French ciel, signifying not only vaulting or ceiling, but also the canopy or baldaquin over an altar; the hangings of estate over a throne, which are sometimes termed dais, from the throne being placed in the part of the apartment to which that name properly belonged; and lastly the canopy of a bed, "celler for a bedde, ciel de lit." PALSG. Gervase of Dover uses the term in his graphic description of the conflagration of Canterbury Cathedral in 1174, occasioned by sparks having been carried by the wind, and lodged between the roof and the interior vaulting of the church; "coelum inferius egregie depictum, superius vero tabulae plumbeae ignem interius accensum celaverunt." Twysden, Hist. Angl. Script. 1289. Thomas Stubbs, among the benefactions of Aldred, Archbishop of York 1061-1070, records that "totam ecclesiam à presbyterio usque ad turrium ab antecessore suo con∣structam, superius opere pictorio quod coelum vocant, auro multiformiter intermixto mirabili arte construxit." Ibid. 1704. The word had a still further signification, de∣noting, not merely the decoration of the vaulting or roof of a chamber, but also the wainscot-work upon the walls. Thus Horman says, "These wallys shal be celyd with cyprusse. The rofe shal be celed vautwyse and with cheker work." See hereafter SYLURE of valle, and SELYN wythe sylure.]Celo.
  • CELLYN'. Vendo.
  • CELLYNGE. Vendicio.
  • CELWYLLY, infra quere in SEL∣WYLLY. Effrenatus.
  • CEEM, of a clothe (or other lyke, P.) Sutura.
  • CEME, or quarter of corne. Quar∣terium.
  • CEMELY, or comely yn syghte. Decens.
  • CEMELY, or on seemely wyse (comly wyse, P.) Decenter.
  • Page  66CEMELYNESSE. Decencia.
  • CEMY, or sotelle (subtyll, P.) Subtilis.
  • CEMELY, or sotely. Subtiliter.
  • CEMELYN', or lykyn' (cemlyn, H. cemblen, P.) Assimulo.
  • CEMYN, schowyn or apperen̄'. Ap∣pareo.
  • CEMYN, or becemyn. Decet.
  • CEMYNGE, or a cemys (or cemys, P.) Apparencia.
  • CEMYNGE, or hope(n) schowynge (opyn, K. H. open, P.) Apparens.
  • CENSE, or incense, or rychelle. Incensum, thus.
  • CENSERE. Thuribulum, ignibu∣lum, CATH.
  • CENSYN', or caste þe sensere. Thurifico.
  • (CENSINGE, P. Thurificatio.)
  • CENDEL. Sindon.
  • CENDYN' by massage. Mitto.
  • CENDYNGE. Missio.
  • CENE, or besene. Apparens, ma∣nifestus.
  • CEENE of clerkys.1. ["A seyne, sinodus, est congregacio clericorum." CATH. ANGL. Ceene or a synod is from the French "senne, assemblée de gens d'Eglise; de coenaculum, lieu d'assem∣blée, suivant Barbazan." ROQUEF. Sené is explained by Cotgrave to be "a Synod or assembly of curates before their Ordinarie or Diocesan." "Cene of clerkes, con∣uocation." PALSG. In the Legenda Aurea mention is made of the "Ceene of Calcydone." f. xxvi.]Sinodus, CATH. (A sancto sinodo redeunt burse sine nodo, P.)
  • CENGYLLE (cengylly, H. P.) Sin∣gularis.
  • CENY, or tokyn. Signum.
  • CENY, or tokyn of an in or ostrye.2. [Tessera is rendered in the Ortus "a dyce," and texera has the same meaning; the Catholicon, however, gives another explanation, "Texere dicuntur lapides quadrati ad modum talorum, unde pavimenta sternuntur." There can be little doubt that the token of an inn, here referred to, is the ancient sign of the chequers, scaccarium, the chess∣board or playing tables. It has been questioned whether this symbol denoted in England, as it did where it occurs at Pompeii, a house of entertainment where play was practised, or rather had its origin in the painted lattices at the doors and windows, which, as has been affirmed, were part of the external indications of an hostelry as late as 1700; the ordinary use of such lattices is mentioned by Harrison in his description of England. "Of old time our countrie houses in steed of glasse did vse much lattise, and that made either of wicker or fine rifts of oke in checker-wise." B. ii. c. 12, in Holinshed. Among the deeds and benefactions of Thomas Chillenden, Prior of the church of Canterbury from 1390 to 1411, it is recorded in the obituary, "in civitate Cantuariae unum Hospitium fa∣mosum, vocatum le Cheker, nobiliter aedificavit; in eadem civitate Hospitium de la Crowne." ANG. SACRA, i. 143. The "red lattice" is a term often used to signify an ale hosue; Shakespeare alludes to it, Hen. IV. pt. ii.; it occurs in Marston, Chapman, and other early dramatists, and Massinger speaks of the "red grates next the door" of a tavern. Of this and other inn-signs see Brand's Popular Antiqu. ii. 247, Gent. Mag. xl. 403, lxiii. 531, lxiv. 797.]Texera, CATH. tessera, C. F.
  • CENTENCE. Sentencia.
  • CEPTYR, or mace. Ceptrum, clava.
  • CEERCLE. Circulus, girus, C. F.
  • CERCLE, clepyd the snayle, as of pentys, and other lyke.3. [The term helix was applied to denote the volute of a capital, but here it seems pos∣sible that the term relates to a spiral or newel-staircase. There was however, a military engine, a variety of the testudo, used in battering walls, to which the name of the snail is given in the curious version of Vegecius, made at the bidding of Sir Thomas of Berkeley, 1408. "The gynne that is clepede the snayle or the welke, is a frame made of goode tymber, shaped square, keuerede and hillede alle a-boute wythe rawe hides, or wythe feltes and heyres, for drede of brynnyng. This gynne hath wythe in hym a grete beme meuabely hangede wythe ropes, the whiche beme may wythe draughte of men wythe-in be drawe bacward, and let fle wythe his owene pais forewarde to the walle, and so astoyne and shake the walle. This gynne is cleped þe snaile, for righte as þe snaile hath his hous ouer hym where he walkethe or restethe, and oute of his hous he shetethe his hede whan he wolle, and drawethe hym inne a-yene, so doth this gynne." B. IV. C. xiv. Roy. MS. 18 A. XII. f. 105.]Spira, UG. in spacium.
  • Page  67CERGYN, supra in CEKYN̄'. Scru∣tor, rimor.
  • CEERCHYNGE (cergyn, K. cerg∣ynge, H. P.) Scrutinium, per∣scrutacio.
  • CERIAWNT. Indagator.
  • CERIAWNT of mace. Apparitor, angarius, CATH.
  • CERYN̄' and dryyn', as trees or herbys. Areo, marceo.
  • CEREIOWRE (ceriore, K. ceriowre, P.) Scrutator, perscrutator.
  • CERYOWS. Seriositas.
  • CERTAYNE, or sekyr. Certus, se∣curus.
  • CERTENLY. Certe.
  • CERVAWNTE. Servus, vernaculus.
  • CERUYCYABLE (ceruysable, P.) Servilis.
  • CERUYCYABLE, or redy alle waye. Obsequiosus.
  • CERUYCE. Servicium, obsequium.
  • CERUYN̄'. Servio, famulor.
  • CESSYONE. Cessio.
  • CESTERNE, or cysterne. Cisterna, C. F.
  • CESUN', or tyme. Tempus.
  • CESONE in londe, or oþyr go(o)d takynge. Seisina.
  • (CESYN, supra in CECYN, P.)
  • CESYN̄' (cesun, P.) or welle aray mete or drynke. Tempero.
  • CESUN̄, or yeve sesenynge yn londe, or other gooys. Cesino.
  • CESONYD, yn tyme (cesynde in tyme, or other suche lyke, P.) Tempestus, tempestivus, UG.
  • CETTE, or putt. Positus.
  • CETTYN', or puttyn' (plantyn, P.) Planto.
  • (CETTYN, or putten, P. Pono.)
  • CETTYNGE, leynge, or puttynge. Posicio, collocacio.
  • CETTYNGE, or plantynge. Plan∣tacio.
  • CETEWALE, herbe (cetuall, P.) Zedorium, DICC.
  • CETHYN̄' mete. Coquo, decoquo.
  • CEWARE at mete.1. [See hereafter SEWARE, SEW, and SEWYN.]Depositor, dapifer, sepulator.
  • CEWE. Sepulatum.
  • CEWYN̄' (yn halle, P.) Cepulo.
  • CEVENE, numbyr. Septem.
  • CEVYN HUNDRYD. Septingenti.
  • CEVYNTENE. Septemdecem.
  • CEVYNTYE. Septuaginta.
  • CEVENTYMES. Septies.
  • CEXE. Sex.
  • CEX HUNDRYD. Sexcenti.
  • CEXTY. Sexaginta.
  • CEXTENE. Sedecim.
  • CEXTEYNE (cyxten, J. N.) Sa∣crista, CATH.
  • CEXTRYE. Sacristia. Page  68 Quere plura vocabula haben∣cia in primâ sillabâ hunc so∣num C, in S litterâ, ubi E sequitur immediate S.
  • CHACE of tenys pley, or oþyr lyke. Sistencia, obstaculum, obiculum (fuga, P.)
  • CACCHYN̄' a-way (chas away, P.) Fugo, agito, abigo, effugo.
  • CHACYNGE a-wey. Fugacio, abac∣tio, effugacio.
  • CHAFFE. Palea.
  • CHAFFARE.

    1. Chaffare or merchandise is a word derived by Lye from the Alamannic chauphen, emere. See Junius. Gautier de Bibelesworth says,

    "La lyure (a pound) sert en marchaundye, (chaffare)
    Mais le lyure (þe bok) nous aprent clergy."

    Arund. MS. 220.

    It occurs not unfrequently in Chaucer and Gower. In 1441 a complaint was made by the King's tenants of the forest of Knaresborough, that the Archbishop of York pre∣vented their coming to Ripon, "so that none might utter their caffer, wherewith to pay his (the King's) farme att tearmes accustomed." Plumpton Corresp. p. liv. "Chaffre, ware." PALSG.

    Mercimonium, mer∣catum, commercium.
  • CHAFFARYN̄'. Negocior, mercor.
  • CHAFFERYNGE. Mercacio, mer∣catus, negociacio, negocium.
  • CHAFFENETTE, to take byrdys. Reciaculum, COMM.
  • CAFFYNCHE, byrde (chaffynche, K.) Furfurio, C. F.
  • CHAFYN', or hetyn'. Calefacio, frico.
  • (CHAFYN, or rubbyn, K. H. P. Frico, confrico.)
  • CHAFYNGE. Confricacio.
  • CHAFOWRE, panne (to make hot handys, H.) Scutra, CATH.
  • CHAFOWRE, to make whote a thynge as watur. Calefacto∣rium.
  • CHAYERE (chayȝer, H.) Cathe∣dra.
  • CHALAUNGE, or cleyme (chalenge, P.)2. ["Calenge, dispute, contradiction, contestation." ROQUEF. "Chalenge or cleyme." PALSG. In the Wicliffite version, Jerem. vii. 6 is rendered, "If ye maken not fals caleng to a comelyng, and to a faderless child, and to a widewe."]Vendicacio.
  • CHALENGYN', or cleymyn̄'. Ven∣dico.
  • CHALENGYN', or vndyrtakyn̄'.3. [The distinction is here clearly made between the two significations of the verb to challenge. Thus also Cotgrave explains "Chalanger, to claime, challenge, make title unto: also to accuse of, charge with an offence." Robert of Gloucester, Brunne, and Chaucer use the word in the former sense. "To chalange, vendicare, calumpniari. A chalange, calumpnia." CATH. ANGL. "Calanger, accuser, disputer, demander, être en conquerance." ROQUEF. "The tribune dredde lest the iewis wolde take him bi the waie and sle him, and aftirward he myght be chalengid as he hadde take money." Wicliffite version, Dedis, c. 23.]Re∣prehendo, deprehendo.
  • CHALANGYNGE, or vndurnemynge. Improperium, vituperium.
  • CHALYS. Calix.
  • CHALKE, supra in CALKE (cals, K.)
  • CHALUN (or chalone, K. H.) bedde clothe.

    4. Chalo or chalonus is explained by Ducange to be "pars supellectilis lecti, straguli species." In the Mon. Angl. ii. 720, chaluns are thus mentioned, "aut pannos pictos, qui vocantur chaluns, loco lectisternii." The word occurs in Chaucer, Reves Tale.

    "And in his owen chambre hem made a bedde,
    With shetes and with chalons faire yspredde."

    Tyrwhitt thinks they were probably so called from having been made at Chalons. "A chalone, amphitapetum." CATH. ANGL. In an Inventory taken at the Hospital of St. Edmund, Gateshead, 1325, there occurs, "In Choro, Unum frontale de Chalonns." Wills and Invent. Surtees Society, i. 22.

    Thorale, chalo.
  • Page  69(CHAMELL, best, K. P. Camelus.)
  • (CHAMPYON, or campyon, K. P. Campio, atleta, pugil.)
  • (CHAMLOT, clothe, P.)
  • CHANELLE (or canell, P.) of a strete. Canalis, aquagium, C. F.
  • CHANONE. Chanonicus.
  • CHAPE of a schethe (sheede, K. schede, H.)1. ["Chape of a knyfe, vomellus." CATH. ANGL. "Chape of a shethe, bouterolle de gayne. To chape a sword or dagger." PALSG. The word is derived from the French chappe, which Cotgrave explains to be "the locket of a scabbard," but Skinner more correctly "vaginae mucro ferreus." The chape of a sword was a badge assumed by the De la Warr family, in memorial of the part taken by Sir Roger de la Warr, at Poitiers, 1356, in the capture of John King of France, when he took possession of the royal sword.]Spirula.
  • CHAPELL. Capella.
  • CHAPELEYNE. Capellanus.
  • CAPELET (chapelet, K. H.) Ca∣pellus.
  • (CHAPYTTYL, K. chapytle, H. cha∣petyll, P.2. ["A chapitrye, capitulum." CATH. ANGL.]Capitulum.)
  • CHAPMAN.3. ["A chapman, negociator, et cetera ubi a merchande. A chapmanry, negociacio. A chapmanware, vendibilis. To chappe, mercari, nundinari, negociari." CATH. ANGL. "Chapman, marchant, challant." PALSG. Ang. S. ceapman, mercator.]Negociator, merca∣tor.
  • CHAPMANHODE. Mercatus, UG.
  • CHARCOLE (or charkole, P.) Carbo.
  • CHARE.4. [The term chare seems to have been the earliest appellation in England, of vehicles used to convey persons of distinction. It has been derived from the Anglo-Saxon cyran, vertere, but probably we derived both the vehicle and its appellation from France, where, as early as 1294, the use of the char had become so prevalent that it was for∣bidden to the wives of citizens by an ordinance of Philippe le Bel. A description of the rich chare prepared for the Princess of Hungary, will be found in the Squyr of low degree, Ellis's Specimens, vol. i.; and is beautifully illustrated by an illumination in the Louterell Psalter, executed in the reign of Edward II. See Mr. Rokewode's valu∣able paper in the Vetusta Mon. vol. vi. plate xx. A variety of representations are also given by Mr. Markland, with his remarks on the early use of carriages in England, Archaeol. xx. 443. The appellation chare continued in use in the 16th century. Horman says, "the quyene came in a chare, pilento. He came in a chare or a wagen." It occurs in Hall and Fabyan; and in Strype's Memoirs, Edward VI. 1557, is men∣tioned a "chair drawn by six chariot horses."]Currus, quadriga, pe∣torica, C. F. pilentum, C. F. bel∣giga, COMM. (reda, P.)
  • CHARGE. Cura, onus.
  • CHARGYD wythe byrdenys, or oþyr lyke. Onustus, oneratus.
  • CHARYAWNT. Onerosus.
  • CHARGYN wythe byrdenys, or oþyr þyngys. Onero.
  • CHARGYN̄', or gretely sett a thynge to herte. Penso.
  • Page  70CHARGYN', rekkyn' or yeve tale (reckyn or ȝeuyn tale, H. rechen, or gyue tale, P.) Curo.
  • CHARYETT, supra in CHARE.1. ["Basterna, est theca manualis vel itineris, a carre, or a chareot, or horslytter." ORT. VOC. In the Catholicon Basterna is explained to be "vehiculus itineris, quasi vesterna, quia mollibus vestibus sternitur, et a duobus animalibus trahitur, ubi nobiles femine deferuntur." "Charryet, chariot, branlant." PALSG.]
  • CHARYETTER. Aurigarius, qua∣drigarius, CATH. redarius.
  • CHARYN a-way, supra in CAC∣CHȲN'.2. ["To chare, ubi to chase." CATH. ANGL. A. Sax. cerran, vertere.]
  • CHARYN, or geynecopyn' (aȝen∣stondyn, K.) Sisto, CATH. obsto.
  • CHARYOWRE, vesselle.3. ["Parapsis, discus, sive vas ex omni parte habens latera equalia, a platter, or a dobler, or a charger. Lanx, latus discus, a charger." ORT. VOC. "Charger, a great platter, ung grant plat." PALSG. "One swanne is ynoughe to fyll a charger. This fysshe fylleth a charger, namozanum opplet." HORM.]Cati∣num.
  • CHARYTE. Caritas.
  • CHARKYN', as a carte, or barow, or oþyr thynge lyke.

    4. Gower uses this word to express the creaking of a door, Conf. Am. lib. iv.

    "There is no dore, which maie charcke."

    Compare CHYRKYN̄, sibilo, CHERKYN̄, or chorkyn̄, or fracchyn̄ as newe cartys or plowys, strideo. Ang. Sax. cearcian, stridere.

    Arguo, UG. alii dicunt stridere.
  • CHARLET, dyschemente.5. [In the Forme of Cury, p. 27, will be found directions for making "charlet, and charlet yforced." It appears to have been a kind of omelet, sometimes compounded with minced pork. Pegge derives the term from the French chair. Pepo is explained, however, in the Ortus, as "herba quedam, i. melo, or mortrews, et est similis cucur∣bite."]Pepo, KYLW.
  • CHARLYS, propyr name. Carolus.
  • CHARME. Incantacio.
  • CHARMYD. Incantatus.
  • CHARMYD, or bygylyd, or for∣spekyn. Fascinatus, CATH.
  • CHARMYN̄'. Incanto.
  • CHARMȲN', begylȳn', or for∣spekȳn'. Fascino.
  • CHARMYNGE, idem quod CHARME.
  • CHARNEL, or chernel. Carnarium.
  • CHARTERE. Carta.
  • CHAASTE. Castus.
  • CHASTYZED. Castigatus.
  • CHASTYZYN̄'. Castigo.
  • CHASTYSYNGE. Castigacio.
  • CHASTYSOWRE. Castigator.
  • CHASTYSOWRE þat beryth an instrument of chastysynge, to make pees. Castifer.
  • CHASTYTE. Castitas, pudicicia.
  • CHATERYN̄'. Garrio.
  • CHAVYLBONE, or chawlbone (chaule bone, P.)6. ["A chafte, a chawylle, a chekebone, maxilla, mala, faux, mandubila, mandula, mola." CATH. ANGL. "Chawe bone, machovere." PALSG. In the Latin-English Vocabulary, Harl. MS. 1002, f. 140, occurs the word "brancus, a gole, or a chawle."]Mandibula.
  • CHAWMBYR, or chambyr. Ca∣mera, thalamus.
  • CHAWMBYRLEYNE. Camerarius, cubicularius.
  • CHAWNCE, or happe. Eventus, casus.
  • Page  71CHAUNCEL. Cancellus, CATH.
  • CHAUNCELER. Cancellarius.
  • CHAUNCEMELE (chavncemely, K.)1. ["Subtelaris, vnder the hele." ORT. VOC. A similar explanation is given in the Catholicon, with this addition, "Sotular autem vel sotularis nihil aliud est, ut dicit Magister Bene. sed aliqui contrarium dicunt."]Subtelaris, C. F. CATH.
  • CHAUNCEPE, or schoynge horne (chaucepe, P.)2. [The Catholicon gives the following explanation, "Parcopollex, i. tramellum," which is properly a thimble: chauncepe appears to be a corruption of the French chaussepied.]Parcopollex, CATH.
  • CHAUNCERYE. Cancellaria.
  • CHAWNDELERE.

    3. Of the office of the chandeler in the household of a great lord, see the curious poem appended to the Boke of Curtasye, written about the time of Henry VI. Sloane MS. 1986, f. 46, b.

    "Now speke I wylle a lytulle whyle
    Of the chandeler wyth-outen gyle,
    That torches and tortes and preketes con make,
    Perchours, smale condel, I vndertake."

    Chandler signified not only the maker of candles, but the candlestick, from the French chandelier. Thus in the Legenda Aurea mention occurs of a "chaundeler or candyl∣stycke," f. vii. b. See above CANDELERE, and the word chandler in Jamieson.

    Cerarius, CATH.
  • CHAWNGYN̄'. Muto, permuto.
  • CHAWNGYN', or roryn', supra in BARTERYN', et infra in RORYN'.
  • CHAWNGYNGE. Mutacio, per∣mutacio, commutacio.
  • CHAWNGYNGE, or yeuynge (ro∣ryng, K. H. roringe, P.) oone thinge for a-nothere.4. [See hereafter ROORYN̄ or chaungyn̄ on chaffare for another, cambio.]Cambium, DICC.
  • CHAWNIORE of money (chaungere, P.) Cambitor, camsor (camp∣sor, P.) trapezeta, DICC.
  • CHAWNTERYE. Cantaria.
  • CHAWNTYNGE.5. [It has been stated that the usage of chanting in the English churches was intro∣duced by Osmund, Bishop of Sarum, 1090; but we learn from Bede that Benedict, Abbot of Weremouth, brought Abbot John, the arch-chanter, from Rome to this country, about A.D. 678, at which period Archbishop Theodoric, a Greek by birth, made a visitation of the whole island, and caused instruction to be given in the art "sonos cantandi in ecclesiâ," until then known only in Kent. Bede states even that at an earlier period in the same century Paulinus left at York James the Deacon, who was "cantandi in ecclesiâ peritissimus," and who "magister ecclesiastice cantionis juxta morem Romanorum, seu Cantuariorum multis caepit existere." Bede, lib. ii. 40. See also lib. iv. 3, and v. 20, and the appendix, edit. by Smith, p. 719. The most impor∣tant treatises on the subject of Church Music are those of St. Nicetus in the VIth cen∣tury, and Aurelian in the IXth, subsequent to the great change introduced by St. Gregory. A curious notice of the ancient system of notation has been given among the "Instructions du Comité Historique. Collection de documents inédits." 1839. Chanting or "deschaunt" was among the practices violently opposed by Wickliffe, as was all Church-melody by the innovators of a later period.]Discantus, can∣tus organicus.
  • CHAWNTŌN'. Discanto, organiso.
  • CHAWNTOWRE. Cantor.
  • CAWEPYS, or chavepys, or stran∣gury, sekenesse. Stranguria.
  • CHEP, or hap (chefe, P.) For∣tuna, eventus.
  • CHEFE, or princypale. Precipuus.
  • CHEK. Scactifactio, scaccatus.
  • Page  72CHEKE. Maxilla, fans, gena, mala.
  • CHEKEBONE, supra in chavylbone.
  • CHEKENYD, or qwerkenyd (chowk∣ed or querkened, P.) Suffoca∣tus, strangulatus.
  • CHEKENYNGE (chowkinge, P.) or qwerkenynge. Suffocacio.
  • CHEKYN̄', or qwerchyn̄' (querken, P.) Suffoco.
  • CHEKKYN̄' (checken, P.) Scacti∣fico, KYLW.
  • CHEKKYNGE (checkynge, P.) Scac∣catus, supra.
  • CHEKYR. Scaccarium.
  • CHEKRYE, as cloþys and oþyr thynge (chekered, P.) Scacca∣riatus.
  • CHEKYR, tabulle. Scaccarium, stipadium, CATH.
  • CHELYNGE, fysche.1. ["A kelynge, morus, piscis est." CATH. ANGL. "Morus, quidam piscis, a hadok, a kelynge, or a codlynge." ORT. VOC. At the inthronization feast of Abp. Nevill, 1464, there was served "Kelyng, codlyng, and hadocke boyled." Leland Coll. vi. 6. Ac∣cording to Ray, the keeling is the same as the cod-fish.]
  • CHEYNE (chene, P.) Cathena, boia.
  • CHEYNYN̄', or put yn cheynys. Catheno.
  • CHEEP (chep or pryse, K. chepe, P.) Precium.
  • CHEPYN'.2. ["To chepe, taxare. Chepe, precium." CATH. ANGL. In Caxton's Boke for Tra∣vellers a servant who is sent to market is thus directed, "So chepe for us of the ve∣nyson, si nous bargaigne." Palsgrave gives the verb "To bargen, chepe, bye and sell, marchander. Go cheape a cappe for me, and I wyll come anone and bye it." Ang. Sax. ceapian, negotiari. The following use of the substantive occurs in the Will of Sir John Lumley, 1420, "I wille þat my brothre William haue þe landes and rentys bettir chepe þen any othir man, by a reasonable some." Wills published by the Surtees Society, i. 63. Caxton in the Boke for Travellers says, "he byeth in tyme and at hour, so that he hath not of the dere chepe, du chier marchiet."]Licitor, UG. in liceo, prepalmito.
  • CHEPYNGE, or barganynge. Li∣citacio, stipulacio.
  • CHEERE. Vultus.
  • CHERY, or chery frute. Cerasum.
  • CHERISTONE. Petrilla, cerpeta (ceripetra, P.)
  • CHERYTRE. Cerasus.
  • CHERYN̄', or make good chere. Hillaro, exhillaro, letifico.
  • CHERELLE, or charle (churle or carle, P.) Rusticus, rustica∣nus.
  • CHERLYCHE or charlysche (chur∣lisshe, P.) Rusticalis.
  • (CHERLICHLY, K. cherlyschely, H. churlisshly, P. Rusticaliter.)
  • CHERLYCHE, or charlyche preste (churlisshe prest, P.)3. ["Ut dicit Papias, Egones sunt sacerdotes rustici." CATH. In the Glossary of St. Isidore of Seville, who lived in the VIIth century, occur "Econes, sacerdotes rustici. Egones, sacerdotes rusticorum." The compiler of the Promptorium was a Friar-Preacher, and the insertion of this word may possibly be attributed to the contentious feeling which subsisted between the monastic orders and the secular clergy. The illi∣terate condition, however, of the rural or "uplandish" clergy brought them generally into contempt, and occasioned their receiving the nick-name "Sir John," and other appellations of invidious obloquy.]Ego, CATH. vel eco, C. F.
  • Page  73CHERSYDDE (cheryschyd, H. cherisshed, P.) Fotus, nutritus.
  • CHERSYN̄'.1. ["To cherische or dawnte, blanditractare." CATH. ANG.]Foveo.
  • CHERSYNGE (cherschyng, H. che∣risshinge, P.) Focio, nutricio.
  • CHERVELL, herbe. Cerifolium, apium risus.
  • CHERWYN̄', or tetyn' (chervyn or fretyn, H. cheruen or freten, P.) Torqueo, CATH.
  • CHERVYNGE, or fretynge in þe wombe. Torcio, C. F.
  • CHESE. Caseus.
  • CHESSE.2. [See above CHEKYR.]Scaccarium.
  • CHESEBOLLE.3. [Papiever, MS. "A chesse bolle, papaver, cinolus." CATH. ANG. The Promp∣torium gives also CHYBOLLE, cinollus. "Papaver est herba somnifera, anglicè a che∣bole." ORT. VOC. "Cheese bowls, flores papaveris hort. a similitudine aliquâ vasculorum caseaceorum sic dicti." SKINNER. See the words Chasbol and Chesbow in Jamieson.]Papaver, tadia, C. F.
  • CHESEKAKE. Ortacius, ortoca∣turia, UG. in tigro (artocaseus, artocira, P.)
  • CHESEFATTE. Casearium, fiscina.
  • CHESYN̄'. Eligo.
  • CHESYN', or cullyn' owte. Elicio.
  • CHESYNGE, or choyse. Electio.
  • CHESYPYLLE (chesible, P.)4. ["A chesabylle, casula, infula, planeta." CATH. ANG. "Casula, a chesuble." ORTUS. At the Reformation there was still preserved at Canterbury among the vest∣ments supposed to have been sent by St. Gregory to Augustine A.D. 601, "casula oloserica purpurei coloris aureâ texturâ, et lapidibus superius a parte posteriori ornata." Bede, App. p. 691.]Ca∣sula.
  • CASTANY, frute or tre, idem. (chesteyne, P.) Castanea.
  • CHESTE. Cista.
  • CHESUN, or cawse (chesen, P.)5. [The Latin-English Vocabulary, Roy. MS. 17 C. XVII. gives in relation to suits at law, "Causa, occasio, pretextus, cheson." See hereafter ENCHESONE, or cause. "Acheison, encheison, occasion heureuse, plainte, querelle." ROQUEF. In low Latin "acheso, occasio, lis contra jus intentata." DUC.]Causa (occasio, P.)
  • CHETE for the lorde. Caducum, C. F. confiscarium, fisca.
  • CHETYN̄'. Confiscor, fisco, UG.
  • CHETYNGE. Confiscacio.
  • CHETOWRE. Confiscator, cadu∣carius, CATH.
  • CHEUERELLE, leddare (cheueler lether, P.)6. [In Sloan. MS. 73, f. 211, will be found directions "for to make cheuerel lether of perchemyne," by means of a solution of alum mixed with yolks of eggs and flour; and also "to mak of whit cheuerel, reed cheuerell," the colour being given by a compound of brazil. "Cheuerell lether, cheverotin." PALSG.]
  • CHEUETUN, or ledar, or capteyn' (chefteyne, P.) Capecerius, capitaneus, stratiles, C. F.
  • CHEVYN̄', or thryvyn'.

    7. The verb to cheve is used by R. Gloucester and R. Brunne, and likewise in Piers Ploughman,

    "The poore is but feble,
    And if he chide or chatre,
    Hym cheveth the worse."

    Vision, line 9375.

    Roquefort gives "Chevir, agir, posseder, jouir, en bas lat. cheviare." "To cheve, brynge to an ende, aschieuer." PALSG.

    Vigeo.
  • CHEW METE. Mastico.
  • Page  74CHEWYNGE of metys or oþer þynngys. Masticacio.
  • CHEW the cood, of bestys (as bestis done whan the rest, P.) Rumino.
  • CHEVESAUNCE.1. [This word is used by Piers Ploughman, Chaucer, and Gower. "Schift, cheue∣saunce, cheuesance." PALSG.]Providencia.
  • CHEVYSTYN̄', or purveyn̄' (chevy∣schen, H. cheuesshen, P.)2. [In the Legenda Aurea, f. 64, b. it is related of Becket, "and the nexte nyght after he departed in thabyte of a brother of Sympryngham, and so cheuyssed yt he wente ouer see." Fabyan states that Rufus said of the Earl of Poytiers, "I woll assaye to haue hys Erldom in morgage, for welle I knowe he must cheuyche for money to per∣fourme that journey" (to Jerusalem).]Pro∣video.
  • CHYBOLLE, herbe. Cinollus, KYLW.
  • CHEKYN'. Pullus.
  • CH(EK)YN' WEDE, herbe (cheken∣wede, P.)3. ["Chekynwede, herbe, movron." PALSG. In Norfolk the alsine media according to Forby is called Chickensmeat. Ang. Sax. cicena mete, alsine. ELFRIC.]Hospia, vel hospia major, et minor dicitur oculus Christi, morsus galline (hispia, P.)
  • CHYDAR. Intentor (contentor, P.) litigator.
  • CHYDYN', or flytyn̄'.4. [See hereafter FLYTIN̄, or chydin̄. The Cath. Ang. gives "To chyde, litigare, certare, et cetera ubi to flyte."]Contendo, CATH. litigo.
  • CHYDYNGE. Contencio, litigacio.
  • CHYKKYN̄, as corne, or spyryn̄, or sp(r)owtyn̄.'5. [To chick signifies still in Norfolk and Suffolk to germinate, as seeds in the earth or leaves from the bud. FORBY.]Pulilo (pupulo, P.)
  • CHYKKYN̄', as hennys byrdys (chycke, as henne byrdes, P.) Pipio, pululo.
  • (CHICKYNG, or spyryng of corne, K. sprowtinge of corne, P. Ger∣minacio, pululatus, pululacio.)
  • CHYKKYNGE, or wyppynge of yonge byrdys (chickyng or ȝip∣pyng of bryddys, K. H. yeppinge, P.) Pupulatus, KYLW. pupu∣lacio.
  • CHYLANDER, or chylawndur.6. [Chilindrus, in French chilandre, PALSG. was a name of Greek derivation, applied to some venomouos kind of water-serpent.]Chyndrus (chillindrus, K. P.)
  • CHYLDE. Puer, infans.
  • CHYLDE, whyle hyt can not speke. Proles, soboles.
  • CHYLDE BEDDE, or women whan þey haue chyldryn' (childyng or bringyng forthe of childryn, K. H.)7. [The English gloss on Gautier de Bibelesworth explains "gysine, childing." "There was a woman with chylde grete vpon her delyueraunce, and at ye tyme of chyldynge she myght not be delyuered." Leg. Aurea. "Partus, puerperium, chyldyng." Vocab. Roy. MS. 17 C. XVII.]Decubie, C. F. puer∣perium.
  • CHYLDEHODDE. Infancia, pue∣ricia.
  • CHYYLDYN̄', or bryngyn̄' furthe chylde.8. ["To childe, parturire, eniti, fetare parere. Femina vult parere, sed non vult illa parere." CATH. ANG. The Wicliffite version renders Levit. xii. 2, "If a wōman childiþ a knaue child, sche schal be vncleene bi vii daies." Cott. MS. Claud. E. II.]Pario.
  • Page  75CHYLDYNGE, or woman wythe chylde.1. [Ang. Sax. cildiung-wif, a child-bearing woman.]Pregnans.
  • CHYLDYS BELLE. Bulla, BRIT. C. F. nola.
  • CHYLDYSCAPPE. Calamacium, UG.
  • CHYLLE, herbe. Cilium vel psil∣lium.
  • CHYLLYN̄', or (for, P.) colde. Frigucio.
  • CHYLLYNGE of tethe or oþer lyke. Frigidor, CATH.
  • CH(Y)MME BELLE (chyme, H. P.) Cimbalum.
  • CHYMYN̄', or chenken̄' wythe bellys (clynke bell, P.) Tintillo.
  • (CHYMER, K. H. P. Abella, K. obella, H. P.)
  • CHYMERYNGE, or chyuerynge, or dyderynge. Frigutus.
  • CHYMNEY. Fumarium, CATH. ca∣minus, epicaustorium.
  • CHYN'. Mentum.
  • CHYNCHYN, or sparyn' mekylle (chinkinge or to mekyl sparyn, H.) Perparco, CATH.
  • CHYNCHYR, or chynchare (chynche, H. P.)

    2. "A chinche, tenax, &c. ubi cowatus. Chinchery, tenacitas, &c. ubi cowatyse." CATH. ANG. "Tenax, a toughe halder, or chinche." MED. Chaucer says in the Tale of Melibeus, "men blamen an avaricious man, because of his scarcitee and chincherie."

    "Bothe he was scars and chinche."

    Sevyn Sages, 1244.

    R. Wimbelon said in his Sermon at Paul's Cross, A.D. 1389, "forsoth wete ye, that euerych auouterer, or vncleane man, that is gloton, other chynch, shal neuer haue heritage in the realme of Christ and of God." Fox, Acts and Mon. The word is occa∣sionally written chiche, as by Chaucer, Rom. of R. In French, "chice, mesquin; chicheté, avarice, vilenie." ROQUEF.

    Perparcus, CATH.
  • CHYNCERY (chincherye, P.) or scar(s)nesse. Parcimonia.
  • CHYNE, of bestys bakke. Spina.
  • CHYNGYL, or chyngle, bordys for helyngys of howsys (shingill, howsehillinge, P.)3. [Shingles of wood, a covering both light and durable, were probably still, at the time the Promptorium was compiled, in very general use for roofing houses, although the regulations for the dimension of the various kinds of tiles are a proof of their being likewise employed to a considerable extent. See Stat. 17 Edw. IV. c. 4. A.D. 1477. The term seems derived from the French eschandole, or Latin scindula, and is occasionally written shindles. See Holland's Pliny, B. xvi. c. 10. Piers Ploughman terms Noah's ark a "shynglede shup," an expression that seems to bear some analogy to the Ang. Sax. scide-weall, murus de scindulis congestus. ELFRIC. See SCHYNGYL.]Sindula.
  • CHYPPE. Quisquilie, UG. CATH. assula, UG. C. F. astula.
  • CHYPPYNGE of ledyr, or clothe, or other lyke. Succidia, UG. in cedo, presigmen, C. F.
  • CHYRCHE. Ecclesia (basilica, P.)
  • CHYRCHEȜARDE (churcheyerde, P.)4. [In the Seuyn Sages, line 2625, the chirche-hawe is spoken of, Ang. Sax. haȝa, agellus, or heȝe, septum. In Cath. Ang. it is termed "a kyrke-garthe." Ang. Sax. ȝeard, sepes.]Cimitorium (poliandrum, P.)
  • CHYRCHEHOLY.5. ["Encenia dicuntur nova festa, vel dedicationes ecclesiarum." ORTUS. Ang. Sax. cyric-halgung, church hallowing.]Encennia, in plur.
  • CHYRCHYN̄, or puryfyen̄'. Purifico.
  • Page  76CHYRKYN̄'.1. ["And kisseth hire swete, and chirketh as a sparwe with his lippes." Sompnoures Tale. "To chyrke, make a noyse as myse do in a house." PALSG.]Sibilo.
  • CHERKYN̄', or chorkyn̄', or frac∣chyn̄', as newe cartys or plowys.

    2. See above CHARKYN, as a carte. Ang. Sax. cearcian, stridere. Chaucer uses the term to express generally a disagreeable sound.

    "All full of chirking was that sory place."

    Knightes Tale.
    Strideo.
  • CHYRKYNGE. Sibilatus.
  • CHYRNE, vesselle. Cimbia, cumbia.
  • CHYRNE botyr. Cumo.
  • CHYRNYNGE.3. [CHYRRYNGE, MS.]Cumbiacio.
  • C(H)YRPYNGE, or claterynge of byrdys (chirkinge or chateringe, P.)4. [Thomas, in his Italian Gramm. 1548, gives "Buffa, the dispisyng blaste of the mouthe that we call shirping."]Garritus.
  • CHYSEL, instrument. Celtis.
  • CHYSEL, or grauel.

    5. The Latin-English Vocabulary, Roy MS. 17 C. XVII. gives "arena, grawell, sabulum, sande, glaria, chesylle," f. 37, and again, f. 56. "nomina lapidum, glaria, chesylle." The etymology of the name Chesil Bank, in Dorsetshire, a singular bank of pebbles, which extends nearly seven miles S.E. from Abbots∣bury, and abuts at Chesilton on the isle of Portland, is here clearly ascertained. See prefixed to Holinshed's Chron. the description of the Chesill, by Harrison, Descr. of Brit. p. 58. Harrison speaks also of the Chesill at Seaton in Devonshire, where he says "the mouth of the Axe is closed by a mightie bar of pibble stones," p. 59, and copies the account given by Leland, 1tin. iii. f. 42, "the men of Seton began of late day to stake and make a mayne waulle withyn the Haven—and ther to have trenchid thorough the chisille, and to have let out the Ax, and receyvid in the mayn se. But this purpose cam not to effect. Me thought that nature most wrought to trench the chisil hard to Seton Town, and ther to let in the se." In this instance the term chisel seems to accord with the explanation given in the Medulla, "Glarea, argilla, vel primum lapides quos aqua fluviatilis trahit." Harl. MS. 2257. It implies, however, in a more general sense the pebbles on the shore; thus in the Coventry Mysteries, p. 56, is the following paraphrase of Genes. xxii. 17.

    "As sond in the see dothe ebbe and flowe,
    Hath cheselys many unnumerable."

    In the Wicliffite version this passage is rendered "gravel which is in þe brink of þe see." Ang. Sax. ceosel, glarea, sabulum. Teut. kesel. In Norfolk chizzly signifies dry and harsh under the teeth, which Forby derives from Teut. kiesele, gluma. The Latin-English Vocabulary, Harl. MS. 1002, f. 147, gives among "pertinencia pistrine, Cantabrum, anglicè chycelle."

    Acerua (arena, P.) sabulum.
  • (CHYST, supra in CHEST, P.)
  • CHYTERYN̄' as byrdys, supra in CHATERYNGE.
  • CHYTYRLYNGE.6. ["Chiterlynge, hilla." CATH. ANG. "Chyterling, endoile." PALSG. Horman says, "let us have trypis, chetterlyngis, and tryllybubbys ynough, suppedita aulicoctia ad satietatem." Skinner derives the word from Teut. kutteln, intestina.]Scrutellum, scru∣tum, KYLW.
  • CHYUALRY, or knyghtehoode. Mi∣licia.
  • CHYVERYN̄', supra in CHYLLYN̄'.
  • (CHYUERYNG, or qwakyng for cold, supra in chymeryng, H. P.)7. [Chaucer writes in the Blake Knyght, "I chiver for defaut of hete," and Gower uses the verb to chever. "Chyueryng as one dothe for colde in an axes, or otherwise, frilleux." PALSG.]
  • Page  77CHOYSE. Electio.
  • CHOSUN. Electus.
  • CHOWEN, supra in CHEWEN.
  • CHOWYNGE (or chewynge, P.) Masticacio.
  • CHOFFE, or chuffe, charle, or chutt (chuffe, cherl or chatte, H. chel, or chaffe, supra in carle, P.)1. [Chuffy, as Forby observes, does not in Norfolk now signify clownish, but merely fat and fleshy, particularly in the cheeks. French, jouffu.Palsgrave gives "chuffe, bouffe," which is explained by Cotgrave as "a swollen or swelling cheek; Bouffé, puffed, blown."]Rusticus, supra.
  • CHORLYSCHE, or carlysche. Rus∣ticanus, rusticacio.
  • CYBBE, or kyn, or lye (akyn, H. of kyn, P.)2. [See hereafter SYBBE and SYBREDE.]Affinis.
  • CYBREDE. Banna, in plur. C. F.
  • CYYD, as clothys þat be thredbare (cyd, H.)3. [See hereafter SYYD, as clothys. Talaris. This term, which is retained in Norfolk, implies commonly merely the length of a garment, "syde as a gowne, defluxus." CATH. ANG. from Ang. Sax. sid. amplus, latus. The reason of its special application here to clothes that are threadbare is not apparent, unless it were, that garments in such con∣dition, losing the swelling folds that new stuffs would form, and hanging close to the sides, give the figure a lengthy and lean appearance.]Talaris.
  • CYYDE of a mann, or beste. Latus.
  • CYFTYN̄'. Cribro.
  • CYFTYNGE. Cribracio.
  • CYTHE. Quere in S literâ.
  • CYYNGE DOWNE, or swownynge (cyghinge or swonynge downe, P.) Sincopacio.
  • CYKYLLE. Fassilla, vel fassicula (falcilla, falcicula, falx, P.)
  • CYKYR, fro harme. Securus, tutus.
  • CYKYR or (of, P.) sothefastenesse. Certus.
  • CYKYRLY. Tute.
  • CYKYRNESSE. Securitas.
  • CYLLABLE. Sillaba.
  • CYLKE. Sericum (serica, P.)
  • CYLKE WORME. Bombex, C. F.
  • CYLKE WOMAN. Devacuatrix (aurisceca, P.)
  • CYLTE, soonde. Glarea, C. F.
  • CYLUER. Argentum.
  • CYLLOWRE (cylere, P.)5. [See CEELYN̄ with syllure, and hereafter SYLURE of valle, and SELYN̄. Cotgrave gives "Draperie, a flourishing with leaves and flowers in wood or stone, used especially on the heads of pillers, and tearmed by our workmen drapery or cilery."]Gla∣tura (celatura, P.)
  • CYLUERDE (cyluryd, H. cylered, P.) Celatus.
  • (CILUERYN, K. H. P. Argento.)
  • CYMNEL, brede.6. [See BREDE twyss bakyn as krakenelle, or symnel, and hereafter SYMNEL.]Artocopus.
  • CYMPYLLE. Simplex.
  • CYMPYLNESSE. Simplicitas.
  • CYM, propyr name (Cymund, H.P.) Simon.
  • CHYNCHONE, herbe (cynchone, H. P.7. [In a curious MS. herbal of the XVth century, in the possession of Hugh Diamond, Esq. the virtues of this plant are detailed. "Grondeswyle, we clepen in latin seneceon," p. 61. It was used as a plaster for "bolnyngs" and sores, "hit wole staunce þe hoote potagre, and alle manere greues of þe leggys." By most leeches it was thought dan∣gerous to use it internally, although so recommended by Pliny; however, "þis erbe algreene, if it be dipped in vynegre, and so y ete—wole abate þe fretyng of þe wombe;" and the touch of the root was accounted a specific for the tooth ache.]Ceneceon, camadroos.)4. [See hereafter SYYNGE downe.]
  • Page  78CYNDYR of þe smythys fyre. Casuma, C. F. cochiron, RIC.
  • CYNE of (or, P.) a tokyn'. Signum.
  • CYNAMUM. Cynamomum.
  • CYNAMUM, TRE Sinamus, vel sinamomicus, CATH.
  • CYNNE. Peccatum, piaculum, crimen.
  • CYNFULLE. Criminosus, peccosus.
  • CYNFULLY. Criminose.
  • CYNNYN̄'. Pecco.
  • CYNNYNGE. Peccamen.
  • CYNGYN̄'. Cano, canto, psallo.
  • CYNGYNGE, or (of, P.) songe. Cantus.
  • CYNGYNGE of masse (messys, P.) Celebracio.
  • (CYNKE of a lawere, P.1. [The drain of a lavatory seems to be here alluded to, such as that with which the lavacrum or piscina on the south side of the altar was invariably supplied, which allowed the water that had served for washing the sacred vessels, and for the ablutions during the service of the altar, to sink into the earth: or generally in reference to such provisions for cleanliness as are to be observed in most monastic establishments, as especially the lavatories in the cloisters at Chester and Worcester Cathedrals. Mer∣gulus, however, usually signifies the sink of a lamp, wherein the wick was placed.]Mergulus.)
  • CYNKYN̄'. Mergo, submergo.
  • CYNKYNGE. Dimersio, submercio.
  • CYNTER or masunry (cyynt of masonrye, P.) Cintorium.
  • CYNEW, or cenu, of armys, or leggys (cynows, P.) Nervus.
  • CYPPYN̄', or drynkȳn' lytylle. Bi∣bito, subbibo, CATH.
  • CYPPYNGE, of drynke. Subbibi∣tura, CATH. in bibo.
  • CYPRESSE, tre. Cipressus.
  • CYRCUMSYCYON'. Circumsicio.
  • CYYR (cyre, or syr, P.) Dominus, erus.
  • CYSMATYKE. Cismaticus, cis∣matica.
  • CYSOWRE. Forpex.
  • CYSTYR, by þe faderys syde oonly. Soror, CATH.
  • CYSTYR, by þe modurys syde. Germana.
  • (CYTE, P.) Civitas, urbs.
  • CYTEZEYNE (cytesyn, P.) Cives (urbanita, P.)
  • CYTYR, tre.2. [The citron was probably introduced into Europe with the orange by the Arab con∣querors of Spain, and first received in England from that country. By a MS. in the Tower it appears that in 1290, 18 Edw. I. a large Spanish ship came to Portsmouth, and that from her cargo Queen Eleanor purchased Seville figs, dates, pomegranates, 15 citrons, and 7 poma de orenge. See the introduction to the valuable volume on House∣hold Expenses in England, presented to the Roxburghe Club, by B. Botfield, Esq. p. xlviii.]Citrus.
  • CYTTYN̄'. Sedeo.
  • CYTTYNGE. Sessio, sedile.
  • (CYTTINGE place, or cete, P. Sedile, sedes.)
  • CYVE, (or cifte, P.) for corne clansynge. Cribrum, cribellum.
  • CYVE, for mele. Furfuraculum, C. F.
  • CYUEDYS, of mele, or brynne (cy∣uedus, W.) Furfur, cantabrum, CATH.
  • CYVER, or maker of sevys (cyvyer, H. maker of cyues, P.) Cri∣brarius.
  • CYVYS, herbe (cyues, P.)
  • Page  79CYVN' of a tre. Surculus, vitu∣lamen, CATH.
  • CYYD, (cyued, P.) or cythyd and clensyd, as mylke, or oþer lyke (licoure, P.)1. ["Colum, a mylke syhe, or a clansynge syfe." MED. See hereafter SYYNGE, or clensynge.]Colatus.
  • CYFTYN' (cyuyn, P.) or clensyn̄'. Colo, CATH.
  • CYTHYNGE (cyynge, H cyuynge, P.) or clensynge. Colatura.
  • Quere plura vocabula similem sonum istis habencia in S literâ, ubi I vel Y sequitur hanc literam S immediate.
  • CLADDE, or clothydde. Vestitus, indutus.
  • CLAM', or cleymows (gleymous, K. H. P.)2. ["Clammy, as breed is not through baken, pasteux." PALSG. See hereafter GLEY∣MOWS or lymows. In Norfolk meat over-kept is said to have got a clam; and to clam signifies to stick together by viscid matter. FORBY. Ang. Sax. clam, lutum, claemian, linere.]Glutinosus, vis∣cosus.
  • CLAMERYN̄' (or crepyn, P.) Repto.
  • CLAMERYNGE, or clymynge. Rep∣cio, reptura (reptacio, K.)
  • CLAPPE, or grete dynne (dynt, P.)3. ["They that serche the ende of a mannys lyfe by nygrymanciars be payed at a clappe, clade involvuntur." HORM.]Strepitus, frangor.
  • CLAPPARRE (clat, H. J. clappe, P.) Percussorium.
  • CLAPPE, or clakke of a mylle (clat, H. clatte, P.) Taratan∣tara, UG. in tardo, CATH. ba∣tillus, DICC. C. F.
  • (CLAPYR of a bell, K. H. P. Ba∣tillus, C. F. DICC.)
  • CLAPPYN̄', or knokkyn̄'. Pulso.
  • CLAPPYN̄' hondys to-gedyr for ioy, or for sorowe. Complodo, C. F.
  • (CLAPPYNGE, H. P. Percussio.)
  • CLAPPYNGE, or clynkynge of a belle. Tintillacio.
  • CLARET of a tunne (cleret, P.) Ductilium.
  • CLARET, or cleret, as wyne. Se∣miclarus.
  • CLARET, wyne (clarey, K. clarry, P.)

    4. The French term claré seems simply to have denoted a clear transparent wine, but in its most usual sense a compounded drink of wine with honey and spices, so delicious as to be comparable to the nectar of the Gods.

    "For of the Goddes the vsage is,
    That who so him forsweareth amis,
    Shall that yeere drinke no clarre."

    Chaucer, Rom. of Rose.

    In the original Romance pigment, claré, and vin parée are named together, and in the Merchant's Tale Januarie is said to indulge in consoling spiced drinks, "Ipocras, clareie and vernage." Barth. Anglicus gives a description of the mode of compounding claret, lib. 19, de propriet, rerum, c. 56; and recipes "ad faciendum claretum" occur in Sloan. MSS. 1986, f. 14, b. and 3548, f. 105. The following directions are found in Sloan. MS. 2584, f. 173. "To make Clarre. Take a galoun of honi, and skome it wel, and loke whanne it is i soden þat þer be a galoun; þanne take viii galouns of red wyn, þan take a pounde of pouder canel, and half a pounde of pouder gynger, and a quarter of a pounde of pouder peper, and medle alle þese þynges to geder, and þe wyn; and do hym in a clene barelle, and stoppe it fast, and rolle it wel ofte siþes, as men don verious, iii dayes." Palsgrave gives "Clarry wyne, cleré." In Norfolk at the pre∣sent time any kind of foreign red wine is called claret.

    Claretum.
  • CLARYFYYN̄'. Clarifico.
  • CLARYN̄' wythe a claryone (clary∣yn, K. P.) Clango.
  • Page  80CLARINE, trumpett (claryon trumpe, P.)1. ["Clarine, cleron." PALSG. Horman says that "a trumpette is streyght, but a clarion is wounde in and out with an hope." This instrument received its name from its shrill sounds: it was called in low Latin clario, and Knyghton mentions "clarriones et tubae," as sounding the onset at Cressy, and speaks of them also in his account of the siege of Paris, by Edward III. A.D. 1360.]Lituus, sistrum, C. F.
  • CLARYOWRE, or clarenere (clario∣nere, K. H. P.) Liticen, bellicrepa.
  • CLAW, or cle of a beste. Ungula.
  • CLAWYN̄', or cracchyn̄' (scratche, P.)

    2. The verb to scratch, derived by Junius from the Danish, kratse, or the Flemish, kratsen, was formerly written cracche: see hereafter CRACCHYN̄. Chaucer speaks of "cratchinge of chekes," and Piers Ploughman says,

    "Al the clergie under Crist
    Ne myghte me cracche fro helle,
    But oonliche love and leautee."

    Vision, 6866.
    Scalpo, scrato, grado, CATH.
  • CLAWYNGE. Scalpitacio.
  • CLAWSE, or poynte (or clos, P.) Clausula (clausa, P.)
  • CLAVSURE, or clos (clawser, P.)3. [This term is derived from the Latin, or more directly, perhaps, from the French, "closier, petit clos fermé de haies." ROQUEF. Horman says, "these byrdis muste be kepte in with a rayle, or a closer latis wyse, clathro," See CLOSERE of bokys or oþer lyke.]Clausura.
  • CLEY. Argilla, glis.
  • CLEYSTAFFE (cleyke staffe, K.H.P.)4. [Cambuca is rendered in the Medulla Grammatice, "a buschoppys cros, or a crokid staf." See hereafter CROCE of a byschope. The term CLEY-STAFFE seems to be taken from the similarity of the head of the pastoral staff, in its simplest form, resembling the ancient lituus, to the claw of an animal, which here, as by Gower, is written cle. "Cley of a beste, ungula." CATH. ANG. In Norfolk the pronunciation cleyes is still retained.]Cambusca (cambuca, C. F. H. P.)
  • CLEYME, or chalaunge. Vendi∣cacio, clameum.
  • CLEYMARE. Vendicator.
  • CLEYMYN̄, supra in CHALENGYN̄'.
  • CLEYMYNGE, supra in CLEYME.
  • CLEYPYTTE. Argillarium, C. F.
  • CLENCHYDDE (clenched, P.) Re∣tusus, repansus, CATH.
  • CLENCHYN̄'. Retundo, repando, CATH.
  • CLENCHYN' a-ȝen' (in wraw speche, K.) or chaueryn' a-ȝen', for prowde herte.5. [Chaueryn may be here the same as CHARYN, or geynecopyn, which occurs pre∣viously.]Obgarrio, CATH.
  • CLENCHYNGE. Retuncio, repancio.
  • CLENE.6. [Clean formerly signified, not merely external, but also intrinsic purity. "He gave a senser, and a shyp of clene syluer, argento puro." HORM.]Mundus, purus.
  • CLENNESSE. Mundicia, puritas.
  • CLENSYD, as lycoure (or tryid, K. syyd, H. fyed, P.) supra in CYEDD.
  • CLENSYD, or made cleene. Mun∣datus (purificatus, P.)
  • Page  81CLENSYN̄', or make clene. Mundo, purifico (purgo, depuro, K. P.)
  • CLENSYN̄', supra in CYFTYN̄'. (Colo, P.)
  • CLENSYNGE, or powregynge (pur∣chinge, P.) Purificacio.
  • (CLENSYNGE, or cyyinge, H. cif∣tinge, P. Colatura.)
  • CLENZON', or declenson' (clensen, P.) Declinacio.
  • CLEPYN̄', (or callyn, K.)1. [The verb to clepe is commonly used by Robert of Gloucester, Chaucer, Gower, and other ancient writers; but as early as the commencement of the XVIth century it ap∣pears to have become obsolete, for Palsgrave gives "I clepe or call, je huysche. This terme is farre Northern." Ang. S. cleopian, clamare. Forby gives the word as still in use in Norfolk.]Voco.
  • CLEPYN̄' be name. Nuncupor, nuncupo.
  • CLEPYN' A-ȜENE (ageyne, P.) Re∣voco.
  • CLEPYN' yn to a place. Invoco.
  • CLEPYN owte. Evoco.
  • CLEPYN̄' to-gedyr. Convoco.
  • CLEPE to mete. Invito.
  • CLEPYNGE, or callynge. Vocacio.
  • CLEPPYN̄', or clynchyn̄' (clippyn or clynkyn, P.) Tinnio, UG.
  • (CLEPYNG, K. cleppynge, or clyn∣gynge of a bell, H. clinkinge, P. Tintillacio.)
  • CLERE, as wedur ys, bryghte (or brygth, K.) Clarus, serenus.
  • CLERE, as watur, or oþer licour. Limpidus, perspicuus.
  • CLERE of wytt, and vndyrstond∣y(n)ge. Perspicax, C. F.
  • CLERGY, or cumpany, or (of, P.) clerkys.2. ["A clerge, clerus, clerimonia." CATH. ANG.]Clerus, clericatus, clerimonia.
  • (CLERGE, or conyng of offyce of clerkys, K. clergie, or office of clerkes, H. clergie of office, P.

    3. The word clergy, signifying erudition suitable to the office, in the sense given to the word in the King's Coll. MS. of the Promptorium, is thus used also in Piers Plough∣man's Vision,

    "I asked hir the high way where that clergie dwelt."

    See the word clargie, in Jamieson. "Clergie, science, littérature, savoir." ROQUEF.

    Clericatus.)
  • (CLERGYSE, K. P. Clerimonia.)
  • CLERYN̄', or wex (clere or, P.) bryghte, as wedur. Sereno, cla∣reo.
  • CLERYN̄' fro drestys. Desicco (defico, K. P. CATH.)
  • CLERYN̄', or make clere a thynge þat ys vnknowe (was vnknowen, P.) Clarifico, manifesto.
  • CLERKE. Clericus.
  • CLERKE of cowntys (a cownt, P.) Competista.
  • CLERKELY. Clericaliter.
  • CLERELY. Clare (perspicue, P.)
  • CLERENESSE. Claritas, perspi∣cacitas.
  • CLERENESSE of wedyr. Sere∣nitas.
  • CLYTE, or clote, or vegge (clete or wegge, K.) Cuneus, C. F.
  • CLYFFE, or an hylle (clefe of an hyll, P.) Declivum.
  • CLYFF, clyft, or ryfte.

    4. Clift occurs in the gloss on Gautier de Bibelesworth, to denote what is termed the fork of the human figure, in the following passage, Arund. MS. 220.

    "Quisses (þeȝes) nages (bottokes) oue la fourcheure (þe clift)
    Fount graunt eyse pur chiuauchure (vor ridinge)."

    Clough, a deep fissure or ravine, is a name still retained at Lynn, at a spot described by Forby. Ang. Sax. clouȝh, fissura ad montis clivum. See also cleuch and cleugh in Jamieson, and Brockett's Northern words.

    Sissura, rima.
  • Page  82CLYKETT.

    1. "A clekett, clavis." CATH. ANG. "Clyket of a dore, clicquette." PALSG. The French term cliquet, in low Latin cliquetus, seems properly to have signified a latch, "pessulus versatilis, Gall. loquet." DUC. Thus the gloss on Gautier de Bibelesworth renders it.

    "Par cliket et cerure, (lacche and lok)
    Ert la mesoun le plus sure."

    Arund, MS. 220, f. 302, b.

    Chaucer, however, uses the word in the sense that is here given to it, "clavicula, a lytel keye." ORTUS. Thus in the Merchant's Tale,

    "—he wold suffre no wight bere the key,
    Sauf he himself, for of the smal wiket
    He bare alway of silver a cliket."
    Clitorium, clavicula, CATH.
  • CLYMARE. Scansor.
  • CLYMYN̄'. Scando.
  • CLYMYNGE. Scansio.
  • CLYNGYN', or styrkyn̄' (shrynke, P.) Rigeo, C. F. CATH.
  • CLYNYN̄', or declynyn̄'. Declino, CATH. (vario, P.)
  • (CLYNE, or bowe downe, P. Declino, inclino.)
  • CLYNKYN̄, supra in CLYPPYN̄' (clynkyn, supra in chymyn, K.)
  • CLYNKYNGE of a bell, supra in CLAPPYNGE (clyngkynge, K.)
  • CLYPPARE. Tonsor, tonsatrix.
  • CLYPPYN̄'. Tondeo.
  • CLYPPYNGE.2. ["A clippynge, tonsura. A clippynge howse, tonsorium." CATH. ANG. In Norfolk to clip signifies now to shear sheep, and the great annual meeting at Holkham was commonly termed the Holkham clip, or clipping. FORBY.]Tonsura.
  • CLYPPYCE of þe sonne or money (clypse, K. P.)

    3. "þe clippys of þe sone and moyne, eclypsis. To make clippys, eclipticare." CATH. ANG. Chaucer, comparing the course of love to that of the moon, says that it is like the planet,

    "Now bright, now clipsy of manere,
    And whilom dimme and whilom clere."
    Eclipsis.
  • CLYVYN̄' or parte a-sundyr, a(s) men doone woode. Findo (scindo, P.)
  • CLYUYNGE, or departynge (cleu∣ynge, P.) Scissura (fissura, P.)
  • (CLYUE, or ryue by the selfe, P.4. [The verbs from CLYUE, to COWRYN, are omitted in the Harleian MS. and are here given chiefly from the MS. at King's College, Cambridge, and Pynson's edition.]Rimo, risco.)
  • (CLIUYN to, K. cleve to, P. Ad∣hereo.)
  • CLYUYNGE to, or fastenynge to a þynge (cleuynge, P.) Adhesio.
  • CLOKERRE, or belfray supra (clo∣cherre or bellefrey, K. clocher, P. clocke hous, W.5. [This term is derived from the French clocher, or the low Latin clocherium. It occurs in the accounts of the Chamberlain of Norwich, among charges for the celebra∣tion of the exequies of Henry VIII. A.D. 1547, where a payment appears "to the Clarks of Cryste Churche, for ryngyng the clocher bells." Blomf. Hist. ii. 155.]Campanile, K. classicum, P.)
  • Page  83CLODDE.1. ["A clotte, cespis, occarium. To clotte, occare. A clottynge malle, occatorium." CATH. ANG. "Occo, glebas frangere, to clotte." ORTUS. In the Medulla, Harl. MS. 2257, occur "glebarius, a clotte maller. Gleba est durus cespes cum herbâ, an harde klotte." Palsgrave gives the verb to clodde as signifying the formation, and not the breaking up of clods. "To clodde, go in to heapes, or in to peces, as the yerthe dothe, amonceler. This yerthe clotteth so faste that it must be broken. To clodde, figer, fortier, congeler." Compare CLOTERYN.]Gleba.
  • (CLODDYN, or brekyn cloddes, K. Occo.)
  • CLOGGE. Truncus.
  • CLOYSTYR. Claustrum.
  • (CLOKKYN as hennys, K. clocke, P. Crispio, frigulo.)
  • CLOKKYNGE of hennys. Crispi∣atus, C. F. in crispat.
  • CLOKKE. Horisonium, horologium, CATH.
  • CLOOKE (cloke, P.) Armilausa, (collobium, P.)
  • CLOOS, or boundys of a place (clos, P.) Ceptum, ambitus.
  • CLOOS, lybrary. Archyvum, C. F.
  • CLOOS, ar yerde (or, P.) Clausura.
  • (CLOSYN, or schettyn, K. shette, P. Claudo.)
  • (CLOSYN streytly, K. Detrudo.)
  • (CLOSYN ABOWTYN, K. aboute, P. Vallo.)
  • (CLOSYN IN, K. Includo.)
  • (CLOSYN OUTE, or schettyn owt, K. Excludo.)
  • CLOSETT. Clausella, clausicula.
  • (CLOSED. Clausus, P.)
  • CLOSYD, clausyd, or closyd yn'.2. [A note, copied by Hearne from a copy of the Promptorium, states that the com∣piler of the work was "frater Ricardus Frauces, inter quatuor parietes pro Christo inclusus." See Hearne's Glossary to Langtoft's Chron. under the word Nesshe. If, however, it had been true that he had belonged to the order of Anchorites, who were called inclusi, or reclusi, it seems probable that some indication of the fact would have here occurred. The dwelling of the Anchorite, domus inclusi, or clusorium, ap∣pears to have often immediately adjoined the church, and is doubtless in many instances still to be distinguished. The ritual for his benediction will be found in Martene, Antiq. Rit. lib. iii. c. 3. Palsgrave gives the verb "to close up in a wall, or bytwene walles, emmurer. Cannest thou fynde in thy herte to be an Anker, to be closed up in a wall?" See hereafter RECLUSE.]Inclusus.
  • CLOSYD owte. Exclusus, seclusus.
  • CLOSPE. Offendix, firmaculum, signaculum, CATH.
  • CLOSERE (closure, P.) of bokys, or oþer lyke.3. [Compare CLAUSURE, or clos. Jamieson gives closeris, enclosures, and closerris, which he conjectures may signify clasps. In Norfolk Forby observes that the cover of a book is called clodger, which he supposes to be derived from the French, closier, as the term codger is corrupted from cosier, a cobler.]Clausura, coo∣pertorium.
  • CLOTE, herbe. Lappa bardana, C. F. lappa rotunda (glis, P.)
  • (CLOTERYN, as blode, or other lyke, K. cloderyn, P. Coagulo.)
  • CLOTHE. Pannus.
  • CLOTHE woudōn' (wouyn, K. H. P.) with dyuers colours. Stroma, vel pannus stromaticus, CATH.
  • CLOWCHYN', or clowe (clowchun, Page  84 H. clewe, P.) Glomus, globus, DICC. glomicillus, UG. in garma.
  • CLOWDE of þe skye (clowde, or skye, K. H.)1. [Compare hereafter SKYE, nubes. The word skye is thus used both by Chaucer and Gower, to signify a cloud. Ang. Sax. skua, umbra, Su. G. sky, nubes.]Nubes, nubecula.
  • CLOWDY, or fulle of clowdys (skyys, K.) Nubidus.
  • CLOWE of garlykke (cloue of gar∣lek, or other lyke, P.) Costula.
  • CLOWE, spyce. Gariofolus.
  • CLOWYS, water schedynge (clowse, watyrkepyng, K. clowze, H. clowse, water shettinge, P.)2. [CLAWYS, MS. "A clowe of flodeȝate, singlocitorium, gurgustium." CATH. ANG. The term clowys appears to be taken from the French écluse. See the word clouse, in Jamieson.]Sinogloatorium.
  • CLOWTE of clothe (cloute or ragge.) Scrutum, panniculus, pannucia.
  • CLOWTE of a schoo.3. ["A clowte of yrne, crusta, crusta, ferrea, et cetera ubi plate." CATH. ANG. In Norfolk the terms cleat and clout signify an iron plate with which a shoe is strengthened. FORBY. Ang. Sax. cleot, clut, pittacium, lamina. Palsgrave gives the verb "to cloute, carreler, rateceller. I had nede go cloute my shoes, they be broken at the heles."]Pictasium, UG.
  • (CLOWTYN, K. Sarcio, CATH. re∣brocco, repecio.)
  • (CLOUT disshes, pottes, pannes, P. Crusco.)
  • CLOWTER, or cobelere. Sartorius, rebroccator (pictaciarius, P.)
  • CLOWTER of clothys. Sartorius, sartor, sartrix.
  • CLOWTYD, as clothys. Sartus, repeciatus.
  • CLOWTYD, as shoone, or oþer thyngys of ledyr. Pictaciatus, rebroccatus.
  • CLOWTYNGE of clothys. Sartura.
  • CLOWTYNGE, or coblynge. Re∣broccacio.
  • (CLOWTYNGE of shone, K. Pic∣tacio.)
  • (CLOTHYN, K. Vestio, induo.)
  • (CLOÞID, supra in CLADDE, K. H.)
  • CLOTHYNGE, dede. Induicio.
  • CLOTHYNGE, or garment. Indu∣mentum, vestimentum.
  • CLUBBYD staffe (clubbe, staffe, H. P.) Fustis, CATH.
  • CLUBBYD, or boystows. Rudis.
  • CLEWE, supra in CLOWCHYNGE.4. ["To wynde clowys, glomerare." CATH. ANG. A. Sax. cleow, glomus.]
  • CLUSTYR of grapys (closter, P.) Botrus, racemus, UG.
  • COO, byrde, or schowhe.5. [The chough or jackdaw, called in the Eastern counties a caddow. See before CADAW, or keo, or chowghe, and hereafter KOO, bryd, or schowghe. "Monedula, COO." Vocab. Harl. MS. 1587. "A ka, monedula." CATH. ANG. "Nodulus, a kaa." ORT. VOC. Ang. Sax. ceo, cornix.]Mone∣dula, nodula.
  • COBLER, supra in CLOWTERE.
  • COBYLLSTONE, or cherystone. Pe∣trilla (ceripetra, lapis cerasi∣nus, ceramus, P.)
  • COCATRYSE. Basiliscus, coco∣drillus.
  • COCUR, boote (cokyr bote, H. P.6. [The coarse half-boot used by rustics was called a cocur, and the term cocker is still used in the North of England, but properly signified gaiters or leggings, and even coarse stockings without feet, used as gaiters. In a MS. of the Medulla in the Editor's possession, Culponeus is rendered "a carl stoghe," (in the Ortus "a chorles shoo,") with this additional explanation, "vel a Cokyr, ut dicit Campus florum." Piers Ploughman speaks of his "cokeres," Vision, line 3915, and they may be seen in the curious drawing in a MS. of the Poem in the Library Trin. Coll. Cant. an engraving from which is given in Shaw's Dresses. Elyot gives "Carpatinae, ploughmen's bootes made of vntanned lether, they maye be called cokers. Peronatus, he that weareth rawe lether shoen, boteux, or cokars lyke a ploughman." Librarie, 1542.]) Ocrea, coturnus, KYLW. C. F.
  • Page  85COKERYNGE, or grete chers∣chy(n)ge (ouer greate cherys∣shinge, P.) Focio, nutricio, carefocus (carifotus, P.)
  • (COKERYN, P. Carifoveo.)1. [Junius compares this word with the Dutch, kokerillen, celebrare hilaria, but Lye is inclined to trace its etymology to the Welsh, cocr, indulgens. The use of the term is fully illustrated by Palsgrave. "To coker, cherysshe to moche, mignotter. This boye canne never thriue, he is cokered so moche. To coker, bring up with daynty meates, affriander, affrioller. Coker hym up thus in his youthe, and you shall haue a fayre caulfe of hym shortly." See below, COOKERYNGE METE.]
  • (COKYRMETE, K. H.2. [This singular term was given most erroneously in the printed editions of the Promp∣torium; Pynson printed it Ckyrmete, Julian Notary Chyimete, and W. de Worde Chy∣mette. It appears to relate to the kind of rustic boot called here a cocur, and cokyr; but the whimsical application of such a term to clay is wholly unaccountable.]Cenum, lutum, CATH.)
  • CODDE, of frute, or pesecodde. Siliqua.
  • CODDE, of mannys pryuyte (preuy membris, P.) Piga, mentula (testiculus, fiscus, P.)
  • CUDDE, of bestys chewynge (cod of bestys, or chewynge, P.) Ru∣men.
  • CODE, sowters wex (coode, H. P.)3. [Among numerous substances, resin, grease, and herbs, mentioned in the curious di∣rections for making a good "entreet," or plaster to heal wounds, occurs "Spaynisch code." Sloan. MS. 100, f. 17.]Coresina (cerisina, P.)
  • CODDYD CORNE (coddis, P.) Lu∣gumen.
  • CODLYNGE, fysche. Morus, et nota quod sic dicitur quia morose nature fertur.
  • CODULLE, fysche.4. [Elyot renders "Sepia, a fyshe called a cuttell. Loligo, a fyshe whiche hath his head betwene his feete and his bealy, and hath also two bones, oone lyke a knyfe, the other lyke a penne." The Sepia officinalis, which is found commonly on the coasts of Britain, is not properly a fish, but belongs to Cuvier's great division of Molluscous animals, and the class of Céphalopodes. Ang. Sax. cudele, sepia. See hereafter, COTULL.]Sepia, UG. bel∣ligo (lolligo, P.) UG. in lolium.
  • COFYN'.5. [The primary meaning of the word cofyn seems to have been, as in Latin and French, a basket, and is thus used in the Wicliffite version, which renders Matt. xiv. 20, "Thei token the relifis of broken gobetis, twelve cofyns full." Elyot renders "Tibin, a bas∣kette or coffyn made of wyckers or bull rushes, or barke of a tree; such oone was Moyses put in to by the daughter of Pharao." The term also implied a raised crust, as for a pie, or a custard, and occurs in this sense in Shakespeare. See also the Forme of Cury, pp. 72, 83, 89. Palsgrave gives "Coffyn, grant boiste."]Cophynus, C. F.
  • COFUR. Cista.
  • COGGE of a mylle. Scarioballum, (DICC. P.)
  • (COGGYN a mylle, P. Scario∣ballo.)
  • Page  86COGBOOTE (cokbote, P.) Scafa.
  • COY, or sobyr. Sobrius, modestus.
  • COYFE, supra in CAPPE1. ["A coyfe, pillius, pilleolus, apex, galerus. Versus, Pillius est juvenum, peregri∣numque galerum." CATH. ANG. See above, the note on CAPPE, or hure.]Tena, corocallum (carocallum, P.) capicella, COMM. KYLW.
  • COYLY, or sobyrly. Modeste.
  • (COYYN, K. P.2. [Chaucer uses the verb to "acoie," in the sense of making quiet; in Spenser it sig∣nifies to caress, and also to daunt. Palsgrave gives "to coye, styll, or apayse, ac∣quoyser." The derivation is evidently from the French quoi, quietus, now written coi.]Blandior.)
  • COYNGE, or st(y)rynge to werkyn' (sterynge to done a werke, K. styringe, P.) Instigacio.
  • COYTER, or caster of a coyte. Pe∣treludus (petriludarius, K. P.)
  • COYTE. Petreluda.
  • (COYTYN, K. Petriludo.)
  • COKKEBYRDE. Gallus.
  • COOKE (coke, K. P.) mete dytare. Cocus, coquinarius.
  • COKKROWYNGE, tyme (cokcrow, tyme, K.) Gallicinium, galli∣cantus, UG. in castrio.
  • COK BELLE. Nola, campanella, bulla, BRIT.
  • COKNAY (cokeney, K.)3. ["A coknay, ambro, mammotrophus, delicius. Versus, Delicius qui deliciis a matre nutritur." CATH. ANG. The term coknay appears in the Promptorium to imply simply a child spoiled by too much indulgence; thus likewise in the Medulla, "Mam∣motrophus, qui diu sugit. Mammotrophus mammam longo qui tempore servat, Kokenay dicatur, noster sic sermo notatur." There can be little doubt that the word is to be traced to the imaginary region "ihote Cokaygne," described in the curious poem given by Hickes, Gramm. A. Sax. p. 231, and apparently translated from the French. Compare "le Fabliaus de Coquaigne." Fabl. Barbazan et Méon. iv. 175. Palsgrave gives the verb "To bring up lyke a cocknaye, mignotter;" and Elyot renders "delicias facere, to play the cockney." "Dodeliner, to bring vp want only, as a cockney." Hollyband's Treasurie. See also Baret's Alvearie. Chaucer uses the word as a term of contempt, and it occasionally signifies a little cook, coquinator. See further in Douce's Illustrations, King Lear; and Brand's Popular Antiquities, notes on Shrove Tuesday.]Cari∣fotus, cucunellus, fotus, C. F. delicius, et sunt nomina deri∣sorie ficta, et inventa (lauticius, carenutus, coconellus, K. lu∣cimellus, P.)
  • COKYR, botew, supra. Cocurus.
  • COKERELLE. Gallus (gallimellus, gallulus, CATH. gallinacius, P.)
  • COOKERYNGE METE.4. [This word occurs here as a substantive. See above, COKERYNGE.]Carificio.
  • COCLE, fysche (cokyll, P.) Coclea.
  • COKYLLE, wede.5. ["Cokylle, quedam aborigo, zazannia." CATH. ANG. It would seen that Chaucer considered the term Lollard as derived from lollium. See hereafter, LOLLARDE.]Nigella, lol∣lium, zizannia, CATH. (gitt, P.)
  • COKOLDE. Ninerus.
  • COKKYS combe. Cirrus.
  • COLLEGE. Collegium.
  • COOLDE (colde, P.) Frigidus.
  • COOLDE, substantyfe. Frigus, algor.
  • COOLDER, schuldere (coldyr, K. H. P.) Petrosa, petro.
  • COLE of fyre, brynnynge. Pruna.6. [Colder in the dialect of Norfolk signifies "broken ears of corn mixed with frag∣ments of straw, beaten off by the flail;" and in Suffolk the "light ears and chaff left in the caving sieve, after dressing corn, "are termed colder, or cosh." See Forby, and Moore. Petro signifies the clippings of stone. "Petrones sunt particule que abscin∣duntur de petris." CATH.]
  • Page  87COLE, qwenchyd. Carbo, CATH.
  • COOLDE (cole, P.) or sum-what colde. Algidus, C. F.
  • (COLE, or sumwhat colde, K. P. Algor.)
  • (COLYN, or kelyn, K. Frigefacio.)
  • COLLERE. Collare, collarium.
  • COLLER of howndys. Millus, CATH. in millo.
  • COLLER of horsys. Epiphium.
  • COLLER of a garment. Patagium, CATH. UG. in pateo.
  • COLLER, or lyue(rey) (of leuery, K. of lyvery, H. P.)1. [The usage of distributing year by year a robe, or some external token of adherence to the service or interests of the personage by whom such general retainer was granted, appears to have commenced during the XIIIth century. The gift, whether a robe, a hood, or other outward sign, was termed a livery, liberata, and the practice was carried to so pernicious an extent, that various statutes passed in the reigns of Edward III. Ri∣chard II. and Henry IV. by which the use of liveries was restricted or regulated. Mr. Beltz, in his curious article on the Collars of the King's Livery, Retrosp. Review, N. S. ii. 500, states that the first instance on record of conferring such marks of distinction in England is in 1390, when Richard II. distributed his cognisance of the white hart, but the assertion copied from Anstis, that it was pendant from a collar of broom-cods, does not appear to rest on any authority. This collar was, however, presented in 1393 to Richard II. and his three uncles by Charles VI. King of France, whose cognisance it was. Such a "colare del livere du Roi de Fraunce" is mentioned in the Inventories of the Exchequer Treasury, vol. iii. 357. See Mr. J. G. Nichols's interesting observations on the Effigies of Richard II. and his Queen, Archaeol. xxix. 46. The earliest notice of collars of livery, that has been observed, occurs in Rot. Parl. iii. 313, where it ap∣pears that when John of Gaunt returned in 1389 from the wars in Spain and Gascony, Richard took his uncle's "livere de coler" from his neck, and wore it himself; that it was also worn by some of the King's retinue; and that Richard declared in Parliament that he wore it in token of affection, as likewise he wore the liveries of his other uncles. It is not improbable that this livery of the Duke of Lancaster's was the collar of letters of SS, subsequently adopted by Henry IV. as his livery, the origin of which is still involved in obscurity. This device had been in use many years before his accession, and as early as 1378 Sir John de Foxle, whose will is preserved in Bishop Wykeham's Register at Winchester, bequeathed "Monile auri, cum S literâ sculptâ et amelitâ in eodem." The livery of Henry V. during the life-time of his father, was a swan, adopted doubtless in token of his descent from the Bohun family; the Stat. 2 Hen. IV. c. 21, contains a clause "que Monseigneur le Prince purra doner sa honorable liveree del Cigne as seigneurs et a ses meignalx gentilx;" and such were probably the "Colers d'argent de la livere du Roy," which are enumerated in the Inventories of the effects of Henry V. taken at his decease, 1423. Rot. Parl. iv. 214. Henry VI. used a collar formed of broom-cods and the letter S alternately, and Edward IV. adopted as his li∣very a collar of suns and roses, to which a white lion was appended. There is no evi∣dence that collars of livery were ever distributed by subjects, excepting the Princes of the blood.]Torques.
  • COLLERYDE. Torquatus.
  • COLETTE, propyr name (Collet, P.) Colecta.
  • COOLYD, of heete. Frigefactus.
  • COLYKE, sekenesse. Collica pas∣sio.
  • COLYER, or colyfere (colyȝer, H. coler, P.) Carbonarius.
  • COOLYNGE. Frigefaccio, refri∣geracio, refrigerium.
  • Page  88(COLYSSHE, disshe mete, P.)1. ["A culice, morticium." CATH. ANG. In the collection of Recipes, dated 1381, printed with the Forme of Cury, will be found one "for to make a Colys," which was a sort of invigorating chicken broth. See p. 94, and Peface, p. xvii. where will be found references for further informatin on the subject. The term is French. Cotgrave gives "Coulis, a cullis or broth of boiled meat strained, fit for a sick body." See the words collice in Junius, and cullis in Nares' Glossary.]
  • COLYTTE.2. [Of the minor orders in the Christian church, the fourth is that of acolyte, suc∣ceeded immediately by that of subdeacon, the first of the greater orders. The functions of the acolyte, consisting chiefly in attendance on the services of the altar, will be found detailed by Martene, or Ducange. By the writers of the XVIth century the orders of "benet and colet" are mentioned not infrequently together. See above BENETT, ordyr, Exorcista. "Accolitus, serviens in missâ habens ordinem, a collect. Acholitus Grece, ceroferarius Latine, a colet." ORTUS.]Accolitus, cerofera∣rius, CATH.
  • COLMOSE, byrde.3. ["A collemase, alcedo." CATH. ANG. "Alcedo est qudam avis que ceteris avibus sedulius alit pullos. Anglice, a seemewe." ORTUS. Ang. Sax. colmase, parula.]Alcedo.
  • COLLOPPE. Frixatura, UG. in frigo, assa, NECCH. carbona∣cium, KYLW. carbonella, UG.
  • COLOWRE. Color.
  • COLORYD. Coloratus.
  • (COLORYN, K. colowren, P. Coloro.)
  • COOLE RAKE (colrake, H. P.)4. ["A colrake, trulla, verriculum." CATH. ANG. Elyot gives "Rutabulum, a coole rake to make cleane an oven." See Comenius, orbis sensualium, by Hoole, p. 113.]Restellum, batillum, CATH. C. F.
  • COLTE (or fole, P.) yonge horse. Pullus.
  • COLWYD (colowde, P.)5. ["To colowe, make blacke with a cole, charbonner." PALSG. Forby gives the verb to collar, as used in Norfolk in the same sense. In other parts of England the expres∣sion to collowe or colly is retained. Shakespeare in Mids. Night's Dream applies the epithet "colly'd" to the night. See Nares.]Carbonatus.
  • COLWYNGE (colowynge, P.) Car∣bonizacio.
  • COLUMBYNE, herbe. Columbina.
  • COLUMNE of a lefe (of a boke, P.) Columna.
  • COMBE, for kemynge. Pecten.
  • COMBE, or other lyke of byrdys, supra in COKKYS.
  • COMBE, of curraynge, or horse combe. Strigilis, C. F.
  • COMBE, of hony. Favus.
  • (COMAWNDYN, or byddyn, K. Mando, jubeo, impero, hortor.)
  • COMMAWNDEMENT. Mandatum, preceptum.
  • COMMAWNDEMENT of a kynge. Mundiburdium, C. F. (edictum, P.)
  • COMMAWNDOUR. Preceptor, man∣dator.
  • (COMBYNYN, or copulyn, K. coplyn, P. Combino, copulo.)
  • COMELY, or semely in syghte. Decens.
  • COMELY, or semely, or well far∣ynge in schappe. Elegans.
  • COMELYD, for colde.6. [See above the note on A-COMELYD for coulde. Cumbled still signifies in Norfolk cramped or stiffened with cold; cumbly-cold denotes great severity of weather. See Forby, and the word cumber, or benumbed with cold, in Jamieson. In the Wicliffite ver∣sion a-clumsid occurs in the same sense: "We herden þe fame þerof, our hondis ben a-clumsid, tribulacioun haþ take us," Jerem. vi. 24; and the expression "thou clom∣sest for cold" is found in the Vision of Piers Ploughman, line 9010. "Clumsyd, evi∣ratus. Cumbyrd, ubi clumsyd." CATH. ANG. In the curious translation of Vegecius, Roy. MS. 18 A. XII. it is said that a fleet should not venture to sea after the au∣tumnal equinox, when "the see is looke and shit up, and men bethe combered and clommed with colde." B. IV. c. 39.]Eviratus.
  • Page  89COMELYDNESSE. Eviracio.
  • COMLYNESSE, or seemelynesse. Decencia, elegancia.
  • COMELYNGE, new cum man or woman.1. [In the Wicliffite version the following passages occur: "A comelynge which is a pilgrim at ȝou." Levit. xviii. 26; "Most dere I biseche you as comelingis and pilgryms." 1 Pet. ii. 11. The following expression occurs in Trevisa's translation of Higden's Polychronicon, in reference to the use of the French language in Britain; "the langage of Normandie is a comlynge of another lande," in the original "adven∣titia." "Accida, Anglice a comlynge." ORTUS. "Accola, advena, a comelinge." MED. GRAMM. "A cumlynge, advena." CATH. ANG. Ang. Sax. cumling, advena.]Adventicius, inquilinus.
  • (COMENDYN, or gretyn, K. recōm∣ende, P. Recommendo, com∣mendo.)
  • (COMENDYN, or preysyn, K. Lau∣do, commendo.)
  • COMERAWNCE. Vexacio.
  • (COMEROUS, P. Vexativus, vexu∣lentus.)
  • COMET sterre, or blasynge sterre. Cometa, vel stella comata.
  • COMYN', SEEDE. (Ciminum, P.)
  • COMYNGE TOO. Adventus.
  • COMYS, of malte (cōmys, P.)2. ["Cummynge as malte, germinatus." CATH. ANG.]Paululata, KYLW. (pululata, K. P.)
  • (COMUNYN, or make comowne, K. comon or make comon, P. Com∣munico.)
  • (COMOUNE, or talke with another in cumpany, or felawshepe, H. comon, P. Communico.)
  • COMOWNTE (comnavnte, K. coue∣naunte, P.)3. ["A commontye, vulgus, populus, gens, plebs." CATH. ANG.]Communitas.
  • COMOWNE. Communis.
  • COMOWNLY. Communiter.
  • COMOWNE, pepylle. Vulgus.
  • COMOWNE þynge, or comown goode. Res publica.
  • COMPERE, falawe (compyre, P.) Compar, coequalis.
  • COMPLAYNTE. Querimonia, COMM. querela.
  • COMPLEXIONE. Complexio.
  • COMMUNYONE (the, P.) sacrament. Communio.
  • (COMPOSTYN, or dungyn, P. Stercoro.)
  • CONABLE, accordynge.4. [Jamieson derives the word from the Latin conabilis, what may be attempted with prospect of success.]Compe∣tens.
  • CONABLY, or competently.4. [Jamieson derives the word from the Latin conabilis, what may be attempted with prospect of success.]Com∣petenter.
  • CONCEYTE. Conceptus.
  • (CONCEYUYN, K. Concipio.)
  • CONCEYUYNGE. Concepcio.
  • (CONIECTEN, P. Mollior.)
  • CONSENT, or grawnte. Assensus (consensus, P.)
  • (CONCENTYN, or grawntyn, K. Consencio, assencio.)
  • CONSCIENCE. Consciencia.
  • CONDYCYONE. Condicio.
  • Page  90(CONYN, or hauyn conynge, K.1. ["To cone, to cunne, scire." CATH. ANG. "Cognoscere, scientiam habere, to conne." ORTUS. To conne is used in this sense by Chaucer, and in the Wicliffite ver∣sion, 1 Cor. ii. 2, is rendered thus, "I deeme not me to kunne ony thing." Caxton remarks in the Boke for Travellers, "It is a good thyng to conne a good craft, scavoir." So likewise in the Legenda Aurea, f. 92, b. "O who sholde conne shewe hereupon the secretes of thyne herte!" Palsgrave gives "to konne, learne or knowe, scavoir. I can konne more by herte in a day, than he can in a weke;" and "to conne thanke, or can one good thanke, scavoir bon gré." "Thou shalt kun me thanke." HORM. See Jamieson. Ang. Sax. connan, scire.]Scio.)
  • CONFESSYONE. Confessio.
  • CONFECTYON' of spyces (confexion, H. P. spysery, K.) Confeccio.
  • CONFLYCTE of verre (or werre, K. P.) Conflictus.
  • CONFUSYONE, or schame. Confusio.
  • (CONGELLYN, K. Congelo.)
  • CONY. Cuniculus.
  • CONYYS hole. Cunus, CATH. (cania, P.)
  • CUNNYNGE, or scyence.2. ["A connynge, scientia, facultas." CATH. ANG. "Connynge is of that thou haste lerned the memory or mynde, and reteyneth that thou sholdest forgete." Legenda Aurea, f. 53. Ang. Sax. cunning, experientia.]Sciencia.
  • (CONYNGE, or wytt, K. wytty, P. Sciens.)
  • CONNYNGERE, or connynge erthe.

    3. This word is used by Lydgate in the Concords of Company, Minor Poems, p. 174.

    "With them that ferett robbe conyngerys."

    Among the Privy Purse expenses of Henry VII. is a payment in 1493, "for making of the Conyngerthe pale." Horman observes that "warens and conygers and parkis palydde occupie moche grounde nat inhabitaunt, leporaria sive lagotrophia." Elyot gives "Vivarium, a counnyngar, a parke;" and Thomas, in his Italian Grammar, 1548, uses the word to denote a pleasance, or enclosed garden, "Horti di Venere, the womans secrete connyngers." "Cony garthe, garenne. Cony hole or clapar, tais∣niere, terrier, clappier." PALSG. In the Paston Letters, iv. 426, the term "konyne closse" occurs in the same sense. In almost every county in England, near to ancient dwelling-places, the name Coneygare, Conigree, or Coneygarth occurs, and various con∣jectures have been made respecting its derivation, which, however, is sufficiently obvius. See Mr. Hartshorne's observations on names of places, Salopia Antiqua, p. 258.

    Cunicularium.
  • COONYONE, or drowtly (conione or dwerhe, K. conione or dwerwe, H. congeon or dwerfe, P.)

    4. Coinoun, or konioun, occurs in Kyng Alisaunder, and is explained by Weber as signifying coward, or scoundrel, from the French coion, which has that meaning.

    "Alisaundre! thou coinoun wode."

    line 1718.
    "Pes! quoth Candace, thou konioun!"

    line 7748.

    Here, however, the word seems merely to signify a dwarf. See hereafter DWEROWE.

    Sessillus.
  • COYNOWRE, or coynesmytare.5. [The first record of a mint at Lynn, where the Promptorium was compiled, occurs in 9th John, 1208, but there was possibly one in earlier times, and the name occurs on the coins of Edgar. Parkins supposes that it fell into disuse about 1344, 18 Edw. III.; and he states that the Bishop of Norwich had also a mint there, but the fact is ques∣tionable. See Blomefield's Hist. Norf. iv. p. 582, and Ruding's Annals of the Coinage, ii. 198.]Nummularius.
  • CONIURACYON', or coniurynge. Conjuracio.
  • Page  91(CONQUERYN, K. Conquero, CATH.)
  • CONQUESTE, or conquerynge. Conquestus.
  • CONSTYTUCYONE. Constitucio.
  • (CONSTREYNYN, K. Compello, cogo, coarceo, arto, urgeo.)
  • CONSTREYNYNGE. Coaccio, ar∣tacio, compulsio.
  • CONSTRUARE. Constructor.
  • CONSTRUCCYON', or construynge. Construccio.
  • (CONSTRUYN, K. H. Construo, CATH.)
  • CONTAGYOWS, or grevows to dele wythe. Contagiosus.
  • CONTEMPLACYONE. Contempla∣cio.
  • (CONTEYNYN, hauyn or kepyn wit-innyn, K. kepe within, P. Contineo.)
  • CONTEYNYD (or within holdyn, H. holde, P.) Contentus.
  • CONTEYNYNGE. Continencia.
  • CONTRARYOWS. Contrarius.
  • CONTRARYOWSNESSE. Contra∣rietas.
  • CONTRYCYON, or sorow for synne. Contricio.
  • CONTYNUALLY, or allway (con∣tynuyngly, P.) Continuo.
  • CONTYNUYD, kepte wythe-owte cessynge (brekynge, P.) Con∣tinuatus.
  • (CONTYNUYN, lestyn, or abydyn, K. Continuo.)
  • CONTYNUYNGE. Continuacio.
  • COPPE, or coper of a other thynge (top of an hey thyng, K. coppe of an hye thinge, P.)1. [The Latin-English Vocabulary, Harl. MS. 1587, gives "summitas, coppe," namely, of a steeple. In the Wicliffite version, Luke iv. 29 is thus rendered, "And they ledden him to the coppe of the hil, on which her cytee was bildid, to cast him down." The crest on a bird's head likewise was thus termed, "Cop, cirrus, crista, est avium ut galli vel alaude." CATH. ANG. The gloss on Gautier de Bibelesworth ex∣plains "geline hupée, coppede hen;" and Elyot gives "Stymphalide, a coppe of fethers, whiche standeth on the head of a byrde." In Norfolk, the term copple-crown still has this meaning. Horman says, "Somtyme men were coppid cappis like a sugar∣lofe," and uses the term "a cop heedyd felowe, cilo," which is explained by Elyot as having a great round forehead; and again, "Homer declaryng a very folysshe and an haskard felowe under the person of Thersyte, sayth that he was copheeded lyke a gygge, vertice acuminato." Cotgrave renders "pignon, a finiall, cop, or small pinnacle on the ridge of a house." The epithet is applied to the pointed shoe, or poleyn, in fashion in the XVth century. "Milleus, a copped shoo." ORTUS. Ang. Sax. cop, apex.]Cacumen.
  • COOPE (cope, K. H. cape, W.)2. [See above CAPPE, capa; this sacred vestment commonly called a cope, the wearing of which has fallen into disuse, excepting at coronations, is by the Canons of the Re∣formed Church directed to be worn at the celebration of the communion in cathedral and collegiate churches. See Queen Elizabeth's Advertisements, A.D. 1564, Wilkins' Conc. IV. p. 248, and the Ecclesiastical Constitutions, or Canons, A. D. 1604, ibid. p. 383.]Capa.
  • COPEROSE. Vitriola.
  • COPORNE, or coporour of a thynge (coperone, K. H. coperum, P.)

    3. The Catholicon explains capitellum as signifying merely the capital of a column, but in the Medulla it is rendered "summa pars capitis;" and in this sense, coporne signifying the apex or pinnacle, the work with which a tower, or any ornamental con∣struction, is crowned, may perhaps be regarded as a diminutive of coppe. The term occurs in a curious description of a castle, written about the time of Richard II.

    "Fayre fylyoleȝ that fyȝed, and ferlyly long,
    With coruon coprounes craftyly sleȝe."
    Gawayn and the Grene Knyȝt,

    line 797.

    A round tower appears to have had the appellation of a fyell, a phioll, or fylyole, not as Ruddiman conjectures, from fiola, a vial, but from phala. "Fala, a tour of tre." MED. GRAMM. In the description of Belshazzar's feast, in another poem of the same time, cited by Sir F. Madden in his notes on Sir Gawayn, it is said of the covered cups which were fashioned like embattled castles,

    "The coperounes of the canacles, that on the cuppe reres,
    Wer fetysely formed out in fylyoles longe."

    Cott. MS. Nero, A. x. f. 77.
    Capitellum.
  • Page  92COPY of a thynge wretyn'. Copia.
  • (COPYYN, K. Copio.)
  • COPYYD. Copiatus.
  • COPYOWSE, or plentevows. Co∣piosus.
  • COPYR, metalle. Cuprum.
  • CORAGE, or craske (cranke, P.)1. [See hereafter CRASKE, or fryke of fatte, a word which seems to be derivable as a corruption from crassus, or the French cras. Crank, which occurs here in the printed editions of the Promptorium, usually signifies sickly or feeble, but in Kent and Sussex it has the sense of merry or brisk; the reading is, however, questionable, as the word crank does not occur in these editions subsequently, but craske, as in the MSS.]Crassus, coragiosus.
  • CORAGENESSE, or craskenesse (co∣ragiowsnesse, or cranknesse, P.) Crassitudo.
  • CORALLE, stone. Corallus.
  • CORALLE, or drasse of corne (coralys or drosse, K. P. coralyys, or dros, H.)2. ["Acus, coralle." Vocab. Harl. MS. 1587. "Curailles de maisons, the dust, filth, sweepings, or cleansing of houses." COTG. See DRAFFE hereafter.]Acus, UG. C. F. rusculum, ruscus vel ruscum, UG. in ruo, CATH.
  • CORBELL of a roffe. Tigillus, KYLW.
  • CORCET, or coote. Tunica, tu∣nicella, C. F.
  • CORCY, or corercyows.3. ["Corsy, corpulentus." CATH. ANG. "Corcyfe, corpsu. Corsyfe, to full fatnesse, corsu, corpulent." PALSG. Elyot gives "Pinguis, he that is fat, corsye, unweldye."]Corpu∣lentus.
  • CORCYOWSE, or grete belyydde. Ventricosus.
  • CORCYOWSNESSE. Corpulencia.
  • COORDE, roope. Cordula.
  • CORDYD, or accordyde. Concor∣datus.
  • CORDWANE, ledyr (cordwale le∣thir, K.)4. [Chaucer, in the Rime of Sir Thopas, mentions "his shoon of cordewane;" and in the Boke for Travellers Caxton speaks of "hydes of kyen whereof men make lether; of fellis of gheet, or of the bukke make men good cordewan; of shepes fellis may be made the basenne." The kind of leather to which this name was applied was originally prepared at Corduba, and thence, according to Junius and Menage, received the ap∣pellation.]Aluta.
  • CORDWANER. Alutarius.
  • COORDONE (cordone, P.)5. [The Medulla gives "Nicetrum, tokene of overcomynge." Harl. MS. 2257. The Catholicon gives the following explanation, "dicuntur Niceteria filateria, quae ges∣tabant athletae, facta de summitatibus armorum, quae a victis acceperant." See Du∣cange.]Nicetri∣um (nicetorium, P.) amteonites,Page  93 C. F. victoriale. C. F. dicit sic, Nicetoria, sunt . . . . . et victo∣rialia nicetoria sunt ornamenta.
  • CORE, of frute. Arula.
  • CORY, schepherdys howse.1. [In N. Britain a temporary building or shed is called a corf, or corf-house, signi∣fying, as Jamieson observes, a hole or hiding place, Ang. Sax. cruft, crypta, or perhaps approaching most nearly to Isl. korbae, tuguriolum. The floating basket used on the Suffolk coast to keep lobsters, is called, as Forby states, a corf or coy; and it seems possible that this appellation may have been given to the shepherd's hut, from its being formed with wattles, like a rudely-fashioned basket. Caxton, in the Boke for Tra∣vellers, calls a basket a "corffe, or mande."]Ma∣gale, mapale, CATH.
  • CORYOWRE. Coriarius, cerdo.
  • CORYOWSE, of crafte. Curiosus, (artificiosus, P.)
  • CURYOSTE, or curyosite (coriouste, P.) Curiositas, artificiositas.
  • CORKTRE. Suberies, UG. in suo.
  • CORKBARKE. Cortex, UG. in suo.
  • CORMERAWNTE. Corvus mari∣nus, KYLW. cormeraudus, mor∣plex, C. F.
  • CORMUSE, pype (cornymuse, P.)

    2. A distinction seems to be made in the Promptorium between the CORMUSE and the BAGGE-PYPE, panduca, a word which has occurred previously. Chaucer speaks of the great multitude that he saw in the House of Fame,

    "That made loud Minstralcies
    In cornmuse and shalmies."

    Book iii.

    In the Romance of the Rose he describes the discordant sounds produced by Wicked Tongue "with hornepipes of cornewaile," evidently identical with the cornmuse. Palsgrave renders "Bagge-pype, cornemuse," in low Latin, "cornemusa, vox ab Italis et Hispanis usurpata, uter symphoniacus." DUC. Hawkins has given in the Hist. of Music, vol. ii. 453, a representation of the cornamusa or bagpipe, copied from the Musurgia of Luscinius, published at Strasburg, 1536. Dr. Burney observes that "the cornmuse was the name of a horn or Cornish pipe, blown like our bagpipe." Vol. ii. 270. This instrument appears to have been in favour as an accompaniment of the dance. Roquefort gives it another appellation, estive; and in the list of Minstrels who played before Edward I. in 1306, when Prince Edward was knighted, are found Hamond Lestivour, and Geffrai le Estivour. See the volume presented to the Rox∣burghe Club by Mr. Botfield, on Manners and Household Expenses in England, p. 142.

    Cormusa.
  • CORNE. Granum, gramen.
  • CORNE, whyle hyt growythe. Seges.
  • (CORNE, that is grene, P. Bla∣dum.)
  • COORNE, or harde knott in þe flesche. Cornicallus.
  • (CORNEL, H. P. Frontispicium.)
  • CORNERE (or hyrne, H. P.) An∣gulus.
  • CORNERYD. Angulatus.
  • CORONALLE. Corolla, COMM. CATH. coronulla, UG.
  • COROWNE (corone, K.) Corona.
  • COROWNYDE. Coronatus.
  • (COROWNYN, K. P. Corono.)
  • COROWNYNGE, or coronacyon. Coronacio.
  • CORPHUN (corpchun herynge, H.P.)
  • CORPORASSE, or corporalle.3. [The term corporas, corporalis palla, denotes a consecrated linen cloth, folded and placed upon the altar in the service of the mass, beneath the sacred elements. Its symbolical import, allusive to the fine linen in which the body of Christ was wrapped, is fully explained by Durandus. See Lyndwood's Observations on the Constitutions of Abp. Walter Reynold, 1322, p. 235. The Constit. of the Bishops of Worcester in 1229 and 1240, required that in every Church should be provided "duo paria corpo∣ralium," and the Synod of Exeter in 1287, ordained that in every Church should be "duo corporalia cum repositoriis." Wilkins, Conc. i. 623, 666, ii. 139. The reposi∣torium, or case wherein the corporas was enclosed, when not in use, was richly, em∣broidered, or adorned with precious stones; it was termed likewise theca, capsa, or bursa corporalium. See the inventories of the gorgeous vestments and ornaments at St. Paul's, 1295, Mon. Angl. iii. 321. "Corporale, alba palla in altari, Anglice, a corporalle." ORTUS. "A corparax, corporale." CATH. ANG. "Corporas for a chales, corporeau." PALSG.]Cor∣porale.
  • Page  94COORS, dede body (corse, K.) Funus.
  • COORS of sylke, or threde (corce, P.)1. ["Corse of a gyrdell, tissu. Corse weauer, tissutier." PALSG. See hereafter SEYNT, or cors of a gyrdylle.]Textum.
  • CORSOURE of horse.2. ["A coyseyr of hors, mango. To coyse, alterare, et cetera ubi to chawnge." CATH. ANG. To cose signifies in N. Britain, according to Jamieson, to exchange or barter. In Octovian a dealer in horses is termed a "corsere." See Weber's Metr. Rom. iii. 191. Horman says, "Corsers of horses (mangones) by false menys make them loke fresshe." "He can horse you as well as all the corsers in the towne, courtiers de chevaulx." PALSG.]Mango, C. F.
  • COWRTE. Curia.
  • COORTYOWRE. Decurio, CATH. curialis, curio, UG. in cordia.
  • CORUUN, or kutte (corvone, K. corued, P.) Scissus (sculptus, P.)
  • COOTE, lytylle howse (cosh, K. cosche, H. cosshe, P.)3. [As COOTE occurs hereafter in its proper place, the reading of the Harl. MS. ap∣pears here to be corrupt. "Cosshe, a sorie house, cavere." PALSG. In the Cavern dialect cosh still has this signification.]Casa, tugurrium, capana (gurgus∣tium, teges, K. P.)
  • COOSYN', or emys sone (cosyng, K. cosyne, P.) Cognatus, cog∣nata.
  • COSYN, of ii systerys, awntys son' or dowgh̄tur. Consobrinus, con∣sobrina, UG. in sereno.
  • COSYNAGE. Cognacio.
  • COSYNES, brederys chyldrynne. Fratruelis, C. F. (fraternalis, P.)
  • COSCHYNE. Sedile, RIC.
  • COOSTE, or costage. Expense, sumptus, impendium, CATH.
  • (COSTYN, or do cost or spendyn, K. Exspendo, impendo.)
  • COOSTE, herbe.4. [Of the various virtues of coste, which is the root of an Indian plant, the early writers on drugs give long details, and Parkinson has represented it at p. 1582 of his Herbal. In Mr. Diamond's curious MS. on the qualities of plants and spices, two kinds of coste are described, both brought from India: "þe oone ys heuy and rede, þe toþer is liȝt and noȝt bittere, and somedel white in colour;" and it is recommended to make an ointment of coste ground small with honey, excellent to cleanse the face of the freckles, and "a suffreyn remedie for sciatica, and to þe membris þat ben a-stonyed."]Costus (coosta, P.) cujus radix dicitur costum, C. F.
  • COSTE of a cuntre. Confinium, ora.
  • COSTARD, appulle. Aniriarium (quiriarium, K. P.) quirianum, KYLW.
  • COOSTRE of an halle (costere, H.)5. [The Catholicon explains auleum as "cortina, quia in aulis extendi solet." The hangings with which the side-walls of a hall were garnished, previously to the more general use of wainscot, appear to have been termed costers. The name was applied likewise to hangings, either in a church at the sides of the choir, or in a hall near the high table, as a kind of screen, or even to the curtains of a bed. In the Register of the ornaments of the Royal Chapel at Windsor, taken 1385, 8 Ric. II. under the head of "Panni," several are enumerated. "Duo costers panni magni de Velvetto, pro prin∣cipalibus diebus, rubei et viridis coloris, cum magnis imaginibus stantibus in taberna∣culo." Mon. Ang. T. iii. part 2, p. 81. Ralph Nevill, Earl of Westmorland, bequeathed in 1424 to his wife a third part of his estate, "cum uno lecto de Arras operato cum auro, cum costeris eidem pertinentibus et concordantibus;" and to his son Richard another bed of Arras, "cum costeris paled de colore rubeo viridi et albo, qui solebant pendere in magnâ camerâ infra castrum de Sherifhoton." Madox, Formul. p. 432.]Subauleum, CATH. in auleum.
  • Page  95COSTELEWE (costfull, K. costlew, H. costuous, W.)1. [Chaucer, in the Persones Tale, makes great complaint of the "sinneful costlewe array of clothing," occasioned by the extravagant fashions of the time of Richard II. In the Stat. 3 Henry VII. c. 2, against murderers, it is stated that "he that will sue eny appell must sue in propre persone, which sute ys long and costlowe (costeouz, Fr.) that yt makyth the partie appellant wery to sue." The Cath. Ang. gives "costy, sumptuosus," and Palsgrave, "costyouse, sumptueux."]Sumptuosus.
  • (COSTYN ouyr þe cuntre, K. coos∣tyn on the countre, P.

    2. Chaucer uses the verb to costeie in the sense of the French costoier, to pass along∣side; as in the complaint of the Black Knight, line 36.

    "And by a riuer forth I gan costeie."

    Palsgrave gives the verb "to coste a countrey or place, ryde, go, or sayle about it, costier or costoyer. To hym that coulde coste the countray, there is a nerer way by syxe myle."

    Trans∣patrio.)
  • COSTRED, or costrelle, grete bo∣telle (costret, or botel, K.)3. [Chaucer, in the Legend of Hypermestre, relates that her father Danao gave her "a costrell" filled with a narcotic, in order to poison her husband Lino. "A cos∣trelle, oneferum, et cetera ubi a flakett. A flakett, flacta, obba, uter, et cetera ubi a potte." CATH. ANG. A MS. of the XIVth century, which gives the explanation of words that occur in the Missal, contains the following interpretation: "Uter, Anglice a botel, sed collateralis, Anglice, a costrelle. De cute dicis utres, de ligno collaterales." M. Paris gives a curious relation of poison discovered in the year 1258, concealed in certain vessels, "quae costrelli vocantur." Costerellum or costeretum, in old French costeret, signified a certain measure of wine, or other liquids; and a costrell seems to have been properly a small wooden barrel, so called because it might be carried at the side, such as is carried by a labourer as his provision for the day, still termed a costril in the Craven dialect.]Onopherum, DICC. C. F. aristo∣phorum, CATH.
  • COOTE, byrde (cote, brydde, K.) Mergus, fullica, UG. MER.
  • COTE ARMURE.4. [Baltheus, which properly implies the girdle or mark of knightly dignity, the cingulum militare, is here used as signifying a kind of military garment. Compare hereafter DOBBELET, garment, baltheus. The Cath. Ang. gives "a cotearmour, insignium." The usage of wearing an upper garment, or surcote, charged with armorial bear∣ings, as a personal distinction in conflict, when the features were concealed by the aventaille, commenced possibly in the reign of John, but was not generally adopted before the time of Henry III. A portion of the armorial surcote of William de For∣tibus, Earl of Albemarle, who died 1260, still exists, and an engraving of it is given in the Vetusta Monum. VI. plate 18. Among the earliest representations may be men∣tioned the effigies at Salisbury of William Longespee, who died 1266, and of a knight of the De l'Isle family at Rampton, Cambridgeshire. See Stothard's Monumental Effi∣gies. Sir Thomas de la More relates that the Earl of Gloucester was slain at Bannock∣burn, 1314, in consequence of his neglecting to put on his insignia, termed in the Latin translation "togam propriae armaturae." Chaucer relates that the heralds after the conflict distinguished Arcita and Palamon by their "cote armure," as they lay in the "tas" severely wounded. Knight's Tale, 1018. An early instance of the use of the term coat-armour occurs in the Close Roll, 2 Edw. III. 1328, where the King commands the keeper of his wardrobe to render up "omnes armaturas, tam cotearmurs quam alias," which had belonged to Bartholomew de Badlesmere, deceased, for the use of Giles his son, to whom the King had given them. Rymer, iv. 371. During the reign of Edward III. the surcote gave place to the jupon, and this was succeeded, about the time that the Promptorium was compiled, by the tabard, the latest fashion of a garment armorially decorated, and the prototype of that which is still worn by the heralds and pursuivants.]Baltheus, C. F. UG.
  • Page  96COOTE, lytylle howse, supra.
  • COTERELLE.1. [The inferior tenants, or occupiers of cottages, are termed in the Domesday Book cotarii or coscets, in Ang. Sax. cotsaeta, casae habitator, in French cotarel, or costerel. Ducange and Spelman make no distinction between cotarelli and cotarii, but Bp. Ken∣nett thinks there was an essential difference, and that the coterelle held in absolute villenage. See his Glossary, Paroch. Ant.]Gurgustinus, tugur∣rinus, tugurrina, gurgustina, coterellus, coterella, et hec duo nomina ficta sunt.
  • COTELERE. Cultellarius.
  • COTHE, or swownynge.2. [Sir Thomas Browne mentions cothish among words peculiar to Norfolk, and Forby gives cothy as the word still used, signifying faint or sickly. In Bishop Kennett's Glossarial Collections, Lansd. MS. 1033, is given "cothish, morose. Norf." Ang. Sax. cothe, morbus.]Sincopa, sincopes, C. F.
  • (COTUL, fisshe, K. H. cotull or codull, fisshe, P.3. [See above CODULLE, fysche. Sepia.]Cepia.)
  • COTUNE (coton, P.) Bombicinum.
  • COWE, beste. Vacca.
  • COWARD, hertlesse. Vecors, iners.
  • COWARDNESSE (cowardise, K.) Vecordia, inercia, CATH.
  • COWCHE. Cubile, grabatum, C. F. mediâ productâ; grabatum, me∣diâ correptâ, Anglice a barme, or lappe, unde versus, Pro gre∣mio grabatum, pro lecto pone grabatum.
  • (COWCHYN, or leyne in couche, K. lye in cowche, P. Cubo.)
  • (COWCHYN, or leyne thinges to∣gedyr, K. Colloco.)
  • COWDE.4. [This word appears to signify a piece or a lump of meat; congiarium is in the Catholicon explained to be "frustum carnis undique equatum." Minsheu states that "cowde is an old English word, signifying a gobbet, morcell, or peece of any thing cut out," but he appears to have taken it from the Promptorium, and Skinner gives it on his authority. Possibly COWDE may have some analogy with cud, which in the Promptorium is written cood. See above CHEW the cood. Ang. Sax. cud, rumen.]Frustrum, congiarium, UG. (frustum, P.)
  • COVEY of pertrychys (coue, or couy, H. P.) Cuneus, vel cohors.
  • (COWEYTYN, K. Cupio, opto, glisco, concupisco, CATH.)
  • COVETYSE. Cupiditas, cupido.
  • COVETYSE of ryches (coveytyce, H.) Avaricia.
  • COVETOWSE. Cupidus.
  • COVETOWS of (great, P.) worldely Page  97 goodys, or other ryches (werdli good, K. wordly, P.) Avarus, cupidinarius, C. F.
  • COVETOWS of worldely ryches (wordli worchyp, K. worldly worshippes, P.) Ambiciosus.
  • COOVENT (couente, P.)1. ["A couent, conventus, conventiculus." CATH. ANG. The derivation of the word is here evidently from the French, couvent, and not from the Latin: and the orthography of the name Covent Garden thus appears to have the sanction of ancient authority.]Conventus.
  • COUERCLE (coverkyl, H.) Oper∣culum, cooperculum.
  • COUERTOWRE. Coopertorium.
  • COGH̄E (cough or horst, P. cowhe, or host, H. W.)2. [Among the virtues of "horhowne," as stated in a translation of Macer's Treatise on Plants, MS. XVth Cent. belonging to Hugh W. Diamond, Esq. is the following; "þis erbe y-dronke in olde wyne helpiþ þe kynges hoste, and þe comone coghe eke." In another place a decoction of roots of "skyrewhite" is recommended to heal "þe chynke and þe olde coghe." Skinner says the hooping-cough was termed in Lincoln∣shire kin-cough, and derives the word from the Belg. kicnkhost, and the verb kinchen, difficulter spirare. See hereafter HOOSE, or cowghe, and HOSTYN̄.]Tussis.
  • (COWYN, or hostyn, K. cowhyn, H. cowghen, P. Tussio, tussito, CATH.)
  • COWHERDE. Vaccarius, vaccaria (bubulcus, P.)
  • COUERLYTE, clothe. Coopertorium.
  • COOWLE to closyn mennys fow∣lys.3. ["Coupe or coule for capons, or other poultrie ware, caige aux chappons." PALSG. The name was probably assigned in consequence of a supposed similarity to a monk's cowl, whence likewise the name has been given to the covering of a chimney. Ang. Sax. cuhle, cuculla. Elyot gives "scirpea, a dounge potte, or colne made with roddes."]Saginarium, cavea, CATH.
  • COWLE, vesselle (for to sette ves∣sell, P.)

    4. The cope was originally worn with a hood, which at a subsequent time was repre∣sented only by embroidery on the back. Hence, probably, this garment was sometimes termed a cowle. Chaucer repeatedly termes the monastic habit a cope. See the descrip∣tion of Huberd the Frere, who was not like a "cloisterere,"

    "With thredbare cope as is a poure scolere.
    Of double worsted was his semicope.
    That round was as a belle, out of the presse."
    Tina, CATH.
  • COWLE, or coope (cope, H. coupe, P.)5. ["Tina, vas vinarium amplissimum." ORTUS. In the accounts of the church∣wardens of Walden, in Essex, occurs a charge in 27 Hen. VI. 1448, for a "cowle pro aquâ benedictâ, x. d." Hist. of Audley End, by Lord Braybrooke. In Essex the term cowl is applied at the present time to any description of tub. See Kennett's Glossary, under the word cowele; he supposes it to be derived from cucula, a vessel shaped like a boat.]Capa.
  • COWLE, munkys abyte. Cuculla, cucullus, C. F.
  • COWLE TRE, or soo tre.6. ["Phalanga est hasta, vel quidam baculus ad portandas cupas, Anglice a stang, or a culstaffe." ORTUS. "Courge, a stang, pale-staffe, or cole-staffe, carried on the shoul∣der, and notched for the hanging of a pale, at both ends." COTGR. In Caxton's Mir∣rour of the World, c. 10, A.D. 1481, it is related that in Ynde "the clustres of grapes ben so grete and so fulle of muste, that two men ben gretly charged to bere one of them only vpon a colestaff." In Hoole's translation of the Orbis sensualium by Comenius, 1658, is given a representation of the cole-staff (aerumna) used for bearing a burden between two persons, p. 135; and again at p. 113, where it appears as used by brewers to carry to the cellar the newly-made beer in "soes," or tubs with two handles (labra), called also cowls. In Brand's Popular Antiquities, ii. 107, will be found an account of the local custom of riding the cowl-staff, or stang.]Fa∣langa, vectatorium, CATH.
  • COWME of corn̄e. Cumba.
  • COW(M)FORY, herbe (cowmfory, Page  98 K. P.) Consolida major, et minor dicitur daysy (dayseys, P.)
  • COMFORTE. Consolacio, confor∣tacio, consolamen.
  • COMFORTOWRE (confortoure, P.) Consolator (confortator, K.)
  • (COWMFORTYN, or cumfortyn, K. conforten, P. Conforto, consolor.)
  • COWNSELLE. Consilium.
  • COWNSELLE, or preuey thynge to know. Secretum, C. F. misterium.
  • COWNSELHOWSE. Concionabu∣lum, consiliabulum, CATH.
  • COW(N)SELLOUR. Consiliarius.
  • (COWNSELYN, or aske counsell, or gyue counsell, K. Con∣sulo.)
  • (COWNTYN, K. Computo.)
  • COWNT ROLLARE (countrolloure, P.) Contrarotulator.
  • COUNTESE. Comitassa.
  • COWNTYNGE. Computacio.
  • COWNTYNGE BORDE, or table. Ta∣pecea, tapeceta, UG. in torreo (trapecea, P.)
  • COWNTOWRE.

    1. At the period when the Promptorium was compiled, calculations were usually made by means of the abacus, or counting-board, and counters, which were chiefly the pieces of base metal to which the name of Nuremburgh tokens has commonly been given. The "augrim stones" mentioned by Chaucer in the Miller's Tale, where he describes the clerk of Oxford's study, probably served the same purpose. Palsgrave gives "counters to cast a count with, iect, iecton." The science of calculation termed algorism had, however, been partially introduced. See above AWGRYM. The term counter signified also the table on which such accounts were cast, and even the counting-house, in which last sense it occurs in Chaucer, where it is related that the Merchant's wife went to call her husband,

    "And knocketh at his countour boldely."

    Shipman's Tale.

    A curious representation of the counter-table occurs in drawings of the time of Edward II. in Sloane MS. 3983. In a letter from Margaret Paston to her husband, about 1459, regarding some alteratios in his house, is the following passage: "I have take the measure in the draute cham'yr, as ye wold yor cofors and yor cowntewery shuld be sette for the whyle, and yr is no space besyde the bedd, thow the bedd wer remevyd to the dore, for to sette bothe yor bord and yor kofors ther, and to have space to go and sytte besyde." Paston Letters, iii. 324. At a later time there appears to have been a piece of ordinary furniture in the hall of a mansion termed a counter, probably from its re∣semblance to the table properly so called. In the Inventories printed by the Surtees Society, mention frequently occurs of the counter and the counter-cloths; as likewise of "doble counters, counters of the myddell bynde, Flanders counters with their car∣pets." Wills and Invent. i. 133, 154, 158.

    Complicatorium.
  • Page  99(COWNTINGE HOWS, P.1. ["A cowntynge place, libratorium." CATH. ANG.]Com∣putoria.)
  • COWNTYSE (cownte, K. count, P.) Compotus (racio, P.)
  • COWNTYRFETE, what so hyt be. Conformale.
  • (COWNTYRFETYN, K. Configuro, conformo.)
  • COWNTYRFETYNGE. Conformacio.
  • COWYNTYRPEYCE (peys, K. poys, P.) Hostimentum, libramentum.
  • COWNTYRTALY.2. ["A cownter, anticopa." CATH. ANG.]Anticopa, CATH.
  • COWNTERE (countour, P.) Com∣putarius (computatorium, P.)
  • (COUNTER', P.

    3. See above CLERKE of cowntys. The appellation which occurs in Chaucer's de∣scription of the Frankelein was placed by Tyrwhitt among his words not understood.

    "A shereve had he ben, and a countour."

    Cant. Tales, Prol.

    A countour appears to have been one retained to defend a cause or plead for another, in old French, conter. See the Stat. 3 Edw. I. c. 24, against deceit or collusion by pleaders, "serjaunt, contour, ou autre," who being convicted, should suffer imprison∣ment, and never again be heard "en la Court le Rey, a conter pur nulluy." It may, however, be questionable whether Chaucer used the term in this sense, and it seems possible that escheator may be meant; the office like that of sheriff was held for a limited time, and was served only by the gentry of name and station in their county.

    Computator, com∣potista.)
  • (COWNTRYN songe, K. in songe, P. Occento, C. F.)
  • COWNTERYNGE yn songe. Con∣centus, C. F. (occentus, K.)
  • COWPARE. Cuparius.
  • COWPE, or pece4. [See hereafter PECE,cuppe.]. Crater (cuppa, P.)
  • COWPYLLE, of ij thynggys. Co∣pula (cupla, P.)
  • (COWPLYN, K. Copulo.)
  • COWPLYD. Copulatus.
  • (COWRYN, or strechynge, K. curyn, or astretchyn, P. aretchyn, J. N. Attingo, CATH.)
  • COW(R)CER, horse (cowsere, K. courcer', P.) Succursarius, gra∣darius, CATH.
  • COWRSE. Cursus.
  • COWRSE of mete. Missorium, UG. in fero, vel cursus ferculorum.
  • COWURS of frute yn þe ende of mete (cowrs, K.) Bellarium, CATH. collibium, imponen∣tum.
  • COWSLOPE, herbe (cowslek, or cowslop, P.) Herba petri, herba paralisis, ligustra, KYLW. (vac∣cinia, P.)
  • COWRS of ordyr, or rewe. Series.
  • CRABBE, fysche. Cancer.
  • CRABBE, appulle or frute. Maci∣anum.
  • CRABBE, tre. Acerbus, macianus, arbutus.
  • CRABBYD, awke, or wrawe (wray∣warde, W.)5. [See above AWKE, or angry, and hereafter WRAW, froward.]Ceronicus, bilosus, cancerinus.
  • (CRACCHE, or manger, supra in CRYBBE.)
  • CRACCHYN̄', supra in CLAWYN̄' (cramsyn, P.)6. [See above the note on CLAWYN̄', or cracchyn̄'. In the history of St. Eutrope it is related that "she ran to hym yt had slayne her broder, and wolde haue cratched his eyen out of his heed." Legend. Aur. f. 51, b. Palsgrave gives the verb "to cratche violently with ones nayles, gratigner." "He crached me cursedly about the chekis, unguibus laceravit." The Promptorium gives also CRAMZYN̄' in the same sense.]Scalpico.
  • CRACCHYNGE (cratchinge, P.) Sculptura.
  • Page  100CRAFTE. Ars, artificium.
  • CRAFTY. Artificiosus (artatus, P.)
  • CRAFTYNESSE. Industria.
  • CRAFTYLY. Artificiose, arcite.
  • CRAGGESTONE (crag stone, P.) Rupa, scopula, cedico, CATH. saxum.
  • CRAKKE, or dyn. Crepitus, fra∣gor, C. F.
  • CRAKENELLE, brede.1. [The kind of biscuit which still bears this name was in France called craquelin; Skinner gives also Belg. craeckelinck. "Pastilla, a cake, craknel or wygge." ORTUS. See above BREDE twyys bakyn, as krakenelle, or symnel.]Creputel∣lus, fraginellus (artocopus, K.)
  • CRAKKYN̄', as salt yn a fyre, or oþer lyke. Crepito.
  • CRAKKYN̄', or schyllen nothys (shill notes, P.) Excortico, enuculo, enucleo, KYLW.
  • CRAKKYNGE. Crepor, C. F.
  • CRAKYNGE, or (of, P.) boste.2. ["Jacto, id est gloriari, erogare. Anglice, to boost, or crake. Jactor, a craker." ORTUS. "Craker, a boster, bobancier. To make auaunte, boste or crake. When he is well whyttelled, he wyll crake goodly of his manhode; quand il a bien beu, il se vante gorgiasement." PALSG. Forby gives this word as still in use in Norfolk. See Jamieson's Dictionary.]Jac∣tancia, arrogancia.
  • CRAMPE. Spasmus, CATH.
  • CRAMZYN̄', supra in CRACCHYN̄' (cramsyn, supra in clawyn, H. P.)
  • CRAMSYNGE, supra in CRACCH∣YNGE (cratchinge, P.)3. [CRANSYNGE, supra in CRECCHYNGE, MS.]
  • CRANE, byrde. Grus.
  • CRAYNE, or crayues (crany or craues, P.) Rima, rimula, riscus, CATH.
  • CRANYYD. Rimatus.
  • CRANYYN̄'. Rimo.
  • CRANKE, instrument.4. [Girgillus signifies a kind of reel for winding thread. "Girgillum, Anglice, a haspe, or a payre of yerne wyndle blades." ORTUS. Ang. Sax. cranc-staef, a weaver's instru∣ment.]Cirillus (girgillus, K. H. P.)
  • CRANKE of a welle. Haustrum, haustra.
  • CRAPPE, or gropys of corne.5. [In low Latin the word crappae is used in this sense, "abjectio bladi, ut crappae—recolligatur." Fleta, lib. ii. c. 82. Ducange gives also crapinum, which he derives from Belg. krappen, excidere. "Crappes, acus." CATH. ANG. "Crapin, criblure, le bled qui tombe du van." ROQUEF.]Acus, CATH. criballum, C. F.
  • CRASCHYN̄', as tethe (crayschyn, H. crasshen teethe, P.)6. ["To crasshe with my tethe togyther, grincher. To crasshe, as a thynge dothe that is cryspe or britell bytwene ones tethe, cresper." PALSG.]Fremo, frondeo (strideo, P.)
  • CRACCHYNGE of tethe, or grynn∣ynge (crashynge, K. craskinge, P.) Stridor, fremitus.
  • CRASKE, or fryke of fatte (crask, or lusty, K.)7. [This word is given by Skinner among the ancient words, "Crask, Authori Dict. Angl. apud quem solum occurrit, ex. pinguis, obesus, q. d. crassius, a Lat. crassus." It is perhaps more directly corrupted from the old French word cras, which has the same signification.]Crassus.
  • Page  101CRAUARE. Procax, pecultus, peculta, CATH.
  • CRAUAS, supra in CRANY.
  • CRAWE, or crowpe of a byrde, or oþer fowlys. Gabus, vesicula, CATH.
  • CRAWYN̄' (cravyn, K.) Proco, procacio, rogito, CATH.
  • CRAWYNGE. Procacitas.
  • CRACOKE, relefe of molte talowe or grese (crauche, K. crawke or crappe, H. P.)1. [In a MS. of the Medulla in the Editor's possession cremium is rendered "a cra∣conum of grece or talwhe." "Extrema crematio cepi, vel illud quod relinquitur ustum in frixorio." ORTUS. "A crakane, cremium." CATH. ANG. The term cracklings, which occurs in the Scotch Acts, James VI. is explained by Jamieson as signifying the refuse of melted tallow; Su. G. and Isl. krak, quisquiliae, from krekia, to throw away. Tallow craps has a like meaning in the Craven dialect.]Cremium (quod restat in frixorio, K.)
  • CREDE. Symbolum, CATH.
  • CREDEL, or cradel. Crepundium, cunabulum, cuna, crocea, C. F.
  • CREDEL BONDE, or cradel bonde. Fascia, fasciale, CATH. quicia (inicia, P.)
  • CREKYN̄' (as hennes, P.) supra in CLOKKYN̄'. Gracillo (crispo, P.)
  • CRELLE (creke, H. P.) baskett or lepe.2. [Creel is given by Moore as a word not frequently used in Suffolk; Forby does not mention it, but it occurs in the Craven dialect, and signifies an ozier basket, or crate. See Jamieson's Dictionary. Roquefort explains creil as signifying a hurdle, craticula. LEPE occurs hereafter.]Cartallus, sporta.
  • CREME of mylke. Quaccum, UG. C. F.
  • CREMYN̄', or remyn̄', as lycour. 3. [See hereafter REMYN̄', as ale, or other lycoure.]Spumat.
  • CREMMYD, or crammyd, or stuffyd. Farcinatus.
  • CREMMYN̄', or stuffyn̄'. Farcino, repleo, CATH.
  • CREMMYNGE, or crammynge. Far∣cinacio.
  • CREPERE, or he þat crepythe. Reptor.
  • CREPYN̄'. Repo, UG.
  • CREPYNGE. Repcio, reptura.
  • CREPAWNDE, or crapawnde, pre∣cyous stone (crepaud, P.)4. [Precyoustone, MS. "Crapaude, a precious stone, crapaudine." PALSG. Cotgrave explains crapaudine as signifying the stone chelonitis, or the toad-stone. The precious stone found, as it was asserted, in the head of a toad, was supposed to possess many virtues, and especially as a preservative against poison. On some of these stones, ac∣cording to Albertus Magnus, the figure of the animal was imprinted; these were of a green colour, and termed crapaudina, being possibly the kind here called smaragdus, a name which properly denotes the emerald. These stones were known also by the appellations borax, brontia, chelonitis, nise, batrachites, or ceraunia. In the Metrical Romance entitled Emare is described a rich vesture, thickly set with gems, rubies, topaze, "crapowtes and nakette;" the word is also written "crapawtes." More de∣tailed information on this subject will be found in Gesner, de quadrup. ovip. ii. G. See also Douce's Illustrations of Shakspeare, As you like it, Act 2, Sc. I.; and the word toad-stone in Nares' Glossary.]Sma∣ragdus.
  • CRESE, or increse (cres, or incres, K. P.) Excrescencia (incremen∣tum, P.)
  • Page  102CRESYN̄', or encresyn̄'. Accresco.
  • CRESSAUNT.1. ["A cressent a-bowte ye nek, torques, torquis, lunula." CATH. ANG. Lunula is explained in the Ortus to be an ornament for a woman's neck, shaped like the moon. "Anglice, an ouche, or barre."]Lunula, CATH. UG.
  • CRESSE, herbe. Narsturcium.
  • CRESSE, seede. Gardanum.
  • CRESSYT.

    2. "Batulus, a cressed, quoddam vas in quo ponuntur prune." ORTUS. "A cressett, batillus, crucibulum, lucubrum. A crosser, crucibulum, lucubrum." CATH. ANG. A curious representation of the cresset of the time of Henry III. occurs in one of the subjects from the Painted Chamber, engraved in the Monum. Vetusta, vol. vi. where Abimelech is pourtrayed attempting to set fire to the tower of Thebes. Gower relates that in Gideon's little troop every man had

    "A potte of erthe, in which he tath
    A light brennyng in a cresset."

    Conf. Am. lib. viii.

    This word is derived from the French, "crasset, lampe de nuit." ROQUEF. See Douce's Illustrations of Shakspeare, and the representations of ancient cressets there given. Hen. IV. Part I. In Queen Elizabeth's Armoury at the Tower, there is one affixed on a long spear-headed pole. "Cresset, a lyght, flambeau, fallot." PALSG. "Falot, a cresset light (such as they use in Playhouses) made of ropes wreathed, pitched, and put in small and open cages of iron." COTGR.

    Crucibollum, C. F.
  • CRESTE, on an hede. Crista.
  • CRESTE, or a werke.3. ["Anaglypha dicuntur eminentes picturoe, sicut sunt in frontispiciis ecclesiarum, et in aliis altis locis. Anglice, borde of painters." ORTUS. The finishing which sur∣mounts a screen, roof, or other ornamented part of a structure, was called a crest, such as is seen at Exeter Cathedral on the high-ridged roof. The Stat. 17 Edw. IV. c. 4, comprises an enactment respecting the manufacture and dimensions "de tewle, ap∣pellez pleintile, autrement nosmez thaktile, roftile, ou crestile," the prescribed length of the last being 13 in. the thickness five-eighths, with convenient deepness accordyng. Crest-tiles, pierced with an ornamental open pattern, were to be seen on the roof of the ancient hall of the Templars, at Temple Balsall, Warwickshire. In Hall's Chron. are described "crestes karued wyth vinettes and trailes of sauage woorke," which orna∣mented the Banqueting-house prepared at Greenwich in 1527. Reprint, pp. 606, 722. "Crest of a house, coypeau de la maison." PALSG. The Glossary of Architecture cites several authorities, in which the use of the term crest occurs.]Anaglipha, C. F.
  • CRESTE, of a byrdys hede. Cirrus.
  • CREYSTE, of londe eryyde (of a londe erryed, P.)4. [See above BALKE of a londe eryd. "Porca est terra illa que eminet inter duos sulcos." ORTUS.]Porca, CATH.
  • CRESTYN̄', or a-rayyn̄' wythe a creste (or sette on a creest, P.) Cristo.
  • CREUES, supra in CRANY.
  • (CREVEYS, fysshe, K. creues, P.5. [In the Medulla polipus is rendered "a schrympe," and in the Ortus "a lepeste," or lobster; but the fish here intended is probably the craw-fish, Cancer Astacus, Linn. which still bears the name in the North of England, and Jamieson gives it the ap∣pellation crevish. "Creues, a fysshe, escreuice." PALSG.]Polipus.)
  • CRYE. Clamor, vociferacio.
  • CRYE of schypmen, that ys clepyd Page  103 haue howe (halowe, P.)1. ["Celeuma est clamor nauticus, vel cantus, ut heuylaw romylawe." ORTUS. See hereafter HALOW, schypmannys crye.]Ce∣leuma, C. F.
  • CRYE, or grete noyse a-mong the peple (in the people, P.) Tu∣multus.
  • CRYAR, he þat cryethe yn a mer∣ket, or in a feyre. Declamator, preco, C. F. (proclamator, P.)
  • CRYYN̄'. Clamo, vocifero.
  • CRYBBE, or cracche, or manger (cribbe or bose, K.)2. [In the Legenda Aurea the manger in which our Saviour was laid is termed a crybbe or racke; in the Wicliffite version it is called a cratche, Luke xi. 7. "Cratche for horse or oxen, créche." PALSG. "Creiche, a cratch, rack, oxe-stall, or crib." COTG. See Nares's Glossary. BOOC, or boos, occurs previously.]Prese∣pium, presepe.
  • CRYKE of watyr. Scatera.
  • CRYKKE, sekenesse (or crampe, H. P.) Spasmus, secundum medicos, tetanus, UG. in teter.
  • CRYKETTE. Salamandra, cril∣lus, COMM. (grillus, P.)
  • CRYMPYLLE, or rympylle. Ruga.
  • CRYMPLED, or rympled. Rugatus.
  • CRYMPLYN̄', or rymplyn̄'. Rugo.
  • CRYPYLLE (cripil, K. crepyll, P.) Quadriplicator, CATH. claudus, contractus.
  • CRYSME (holy, P.) oyle. Crisma.
  • CRYSPE, as here, or oþer lyke.3. ["Cryspe as ones heer is that curleth, crespe, crespeleux." PALSG. In the Cath. Angl. is given "A cryspyngeyrene, acus, calamistrum."]Crispus, KYLW.
  • CRYSPHEED, or cryspenesse. Cris∣pitudo, CATH.
  • CRYSTE (Criyst, XP̄C, K.) Cristus.
  • CRYSTALLE, stone. Cristallus.
  • CRYSTYNDAME.4. [Horman uses this word in the sense of the common term Christening; "I was called Wyllyam at my Christendome, die lustrico." So likewise in the Cath. Angl. "A crystendame, baptismus, baptisma, Christianitas."]Cristianitas, Cristianismus.
  • CRYSTEN manne or womanne. Cristianus, Cristiana.
  • CROCE of a byschope.5. [The pastoral staff with a curved head, to which the appellation CLEYSTAFFE has been given previously in the Promptorium, was called croce, crosse, croche, or crutch, words derived from the French croce or croche. "Croce, lituus, ce nom vient de croc, pource qu'une croce est crochue." NICOT. In Piers Ploughman's Vision, line 5089, it is said that Do-best "bereth a bisshopes crosse," with one extremity hooked: and at the con∣secration of a church, according to the Legenda Aurea, "the bysshop gooth all aboute thre tymes, and at euery tyme that he cometh to that dore, he knocketh with his crosse," in the Latin original, "baculo pastorali." Chaucer uses the word croce. "Crosse for a bysshoppe, crosse." PALSG. "Pedum, croche." Vocab. ROY. MS. 17 C. XVII. "Cambuca, a crutche." ORTUS. "A cruche, cambuca, pedum." CATH. ANGL. A costly "cruche" occurs in the Inventory taken at Fountains Abbey, and published by Burton. In Ang. Sax. cruce signifies both a cross and a crook, and from similarity of sound between cross and croce, words perfectly distinct in their derivation, some con∣fusion of terms has arisen, especially as regards the usual acceptance of the word crosier, which has been supposed to be incorrect. Crosier, however, properly signifies the pas∣toral staff, or croce, the incurved head of which was termed in French crosseron, part of the insignia of Bishops: thus in Brooke's Book of Precedents it appears, that at the marriage of Philip and Mary in 1554, the Bishops present had their "crosiers carried before them." Lel. Coll. IV. 398. Fox says that Bonner, who was then Bishop of London, at the degradation of Dr. Taylor in 1555, would not strike him with his "crosier-staff" upon the breast, lest he should strike again. Minsheu says that "croce is a shepherd's crooke in our old English; hence the staffe of a Bishop is called the crocier or crosier."]Pedum,Page  104 KYLW. DICC. cambuca, C. F. KYLW. crocea.
  • CROCERE.1. ["A croser, cruciferarius, crucifer," CATH. ANG. In the relation of the mar∣tyrdom of St. Thomas of Canterbury it is said that "one Syr Edward Gryme, that was his croyser, put forthe his arme with the crosse to bere of the stroke, and the stroke smote the crosse on sonder." Legenda Aur. At the first progress of Henry VII. after his coronation, during the solemnities at York, the Archbishop's "suffragan was croyser, and bar the Archebisshops crosse." Lel. Coll. III. 192. It appears, however, by the Promptorium, that the appellation CROCERE denoted also the bearer of a pastoral staff, or crosier. In this sense Higins, in the version of Junius' Nomenclator, 1585, renders "lituus, a crosier's staffe, or a Bishop's staffe."]Crociarius, cambu∣carius, crucifer, CATH. peda∣rius, KYLW. cruciferarius.
  • CROCHETT of songe. Semimi∣nima (simpla, P.)
  • CROKE, or scheype hoke (crotche, H. P. croche, W.) Pedum, C. F. UG. cambuca (podium, P.)
  • CROKYD, or wronge. Curvus, (reflexus, tortus, P.)
  • CROKYD (or lame, P.) supra in CRYPYLLE (claudus, tortus, K.)
  • CROKYN̄', or makyn̄' wronge. Curbo (curvo, K.)
  • CROKYNN̄' (cromyn, K. H. P.) Unco, CATH. (vinco, K.)
  • CROMBE, or crome (crowmbe, P.)2. [This word, signifying a staff with an hooked end, is still retained among the pro∣vincialisms of Norfolk and Suffolk, and is traced by Forby to the Belg. crom, uncus. Tusser speaks of a "dung-crome," and Jamieson gives crummock, or crummie-staff, a stick with a crooked head. Ang. Sax. crumb, curvus.]Bucus, C. F. (unccus, K. P.) arpax, C. F.
  • CRONYCLE, or cronykylle. Cro∣nica, historia.
  • CRONYCLERE. Cronicus, histo∣ricus, C. F. (historiagraphus, K.)
  • CROPE, supra in CRAWE of a byrde. (Cabus, vesicula, K.)3. [Forby gives crop, as the name applied to the craw of a bird, Teut. krop, stomachus; according to Jamieson it signifies the same in N. Britain, and also the human stomach. Ang. Sax. cropp, gutturis vesicula.]
  • CROPPE of an erbe or tree.

    4. "A croppe, cima." CATH. ANGL. Chaucer uses this word repeatedly, signifying the topmost boughs; so likewise Gower, alluding to the confused state of affairs in the latter part of the reign of Richard II. says,

    "Nowe stante the croppe vnder the rote,
    The world is chaunged ouerall."

    Conf. Am. Prologue.

    Crap has the same signification in the North, as given by Jamieson. Ang. Sax. crop, cima.

    Cima, coma, capillamentum, CATH. C. F.
  • CROPPE of corne yn a yere (ȝere, K.) Annona.
  • Page  105CROPPERE, or crowpyn' (croper, K. P.) Postela, subtela, CATH.
  • CROPŌN' of a beste (croupe or cropon, H. P.) Clunis.
  • CROSSE (cros, K. H.) Crux.
  • CROSSYDDE. Crucesignatus.
  • CROPPE of a tre or other lyke (crote of a turfe, K. H. P.) Glebi∣cula, glebula, CATH. glebella.
  • CROWDE, instrument of musyke.1. [The crowde appears to have been a six-stringed instrument resembling a fiddle, called in Wales crwth, and in Scotland cruit. Fortunatus, Bishop of Poitiers, who wrote at the close of the VIth century, enumerating the kinds of music peculiar to different countries, uses this expression, "Chrotta Britanna placet." Carm. lib. vii. c. 8. In the Wicliffite version, Judges xi. 34 is thus rendered, "Forsoþe whanne Iepte turnede aȝen—his oon gendrid douȝter cam to him wiþ tympans and croudis." The word occurs again, Luke xv. 25. "Coralla, a crowde. Coraldus, a crowdere." Vocab. Roy. MS. 17 C. XVII. "A crowde, corus, lira; Corista, qui vel que canit in eo." CATH. ANGL. "Croude, an instrument, rebecq. Croudar, iouevr de rebecq." PALSG. The English interpretation of the Equivoca of Joh. de Garlandia gives "chorus, crouthe."]Chorus.
  • CROWDE, barowyr. Cenivectorium. Nota supra in BAROWE.
  • CROWDE wythe a barow.

    2. Of the barrow, called in the Romance of Sir Amiloun a "croude wain," and still called in the Eastern Counties a crud-barrow, some notice has been taken under the word BAROWE. The use of the verb occurs in the following passage, after the descrip∣tion of the leprous knight being placed in the barrow,

    "Then Amoraunt crud Sir Amiloun
    Thurch mani a cuntre vp and down."

    Amis and Amiloun.

    Moore gives the verb to crowd as signifying in Suffolk to push or shove.

    Cine∣vecto.
  • CROWDYN̄', or showen (xowyn, H. shoue, P.) Impello.
  • CROWDYNGE, caryynge wythe a barowe. Cenivectura.
  • CROWDYNGE, or schowynge. Pres∣sura, pulsio.
  • CROWE, byrde. Corvus.
  • CROWEFOTE, herbe. Amarusca, vel amarusca emeroydarum, pes corvi.
  • CROWEN, as cokkes. Gallicanto.
  • CROWKEN, as cranes. Gruo.
  • CROWKEN, as todes, or frosshes (froggis, P.)3. [This term, as well as several others of synonymous meaning, appear to be onoma∣topeias, and to be traced to their similarity of sound to the noise which they express. The Medulla explains coax to be "vox ranarum, croudynge of padokys." Palsgrave gives "to crowle, crouiller. My bely crowleth, I wene there be some padokes in it." Horman says, "his bely maketh a great crowlynge, patitur bothorygmon." In N. Britain to croud, according to Ruddiman, signifies the noise of frogs. See Jamieson.]Coaxe.
  • CROWNE, or corowne. Corona.
  • CROWNERE, or corownere. Co∣ronator.
  • C(R)OWPER, supra in CROWPŌN'.
  • CROWSE, or cruse, potte (crowce, or crwce, P.) Amula, C. F.
  • CURDE (crudde, K. H. P.)4. ["A crudde, bulducta, coagillium." CATH. ANGL. "Cruddes of mylke, mattes." PALSG.]Co∣agulum.
  • CRUDDYD. Coagulatus.
  • CRUDDYN̄'. Coagulo.
  • CRUEL, man or beste. Crudelis, severus, truculentus.
  • CRUEL min(i)ster. Satelles, UG.
  • CRUELTE. Crudelitas, severitas.
  • CRUETT.5. [The vessels which contained the wine and water for the service of the altar were called cruets, in Latin phialae, urceoli, amululae, in French burettes, chennettes, &c. The Constitutions of Walter de Cantilupe in 1240 require that in every church there should be "duae phialae, una vinaria, altera aquaria;" and at the Synod of Exeter in 1287 it was ordained that there should be "tres phialae." Wilkins, Concil. i. 666, ii. 139. Among the costly bequests of the Black Prince in 1376 to our Lady's altar at Canterbury, are mentioned "deux cruetz taillez taillez come deux angeles, pur servir à mesme l'autier perpetuelement." Horman, under the head of things sacred, says, "Have pure wyne and water in the cruettes, amulis."]Ampulla, phiola.
  • Page  106CRUMME. Mica.
  • CRUMM' brede, or oþer lyke (crum∣myn, K. H.) Mico.
  • CRUSCHYLBONE, or grystylbone (crusshell, P.)1. [In Norfolk, according to Forby, crish or crush signifies cartilage, or soft bones, and in Suffolk crussel or skrussel has a similar meaning. Ang. Sax. gristl-ban.]Cartilago.
  • CRUSCHYN̄, or quaschyn̄'. Quasso.
  • CRUSSHYN̄' bonys. Ocillo, UG.
  • CRUSKYN', or cruske, coop of erþe.2. [This term is derived from the old French word creusequin, which signifies a drink∣ing cup. In a MS. Inventory, dated 1378, 1 Ric. II. in the possession of Sir Thomas Phillipps, are enumerated "Un petit cruskyn oue le pee et le couercle d'argent enorre et eym'. Un cruskyn de terre garnis d'argent, &c. Un pot d'argent blanc au guyse d'un cruskyn, oue le couercle sanz pomelle. Un cruskyn de terre couere de quir bende en la sumete d'or et le couercle d'or." Among the "pertinencia promptuario," in Vocab. Harl. MS. 1002, occur "cornua, horne cuppe, picarius, cruskyn."]Cartesia.
  • CRUSTE. Crustum, UG.
  • CU, halfe a farthynge, or q. (cue, P.)3. [The smallest Anglo-Saxon coin was the styca, of which two were equal to a far∣thing. Ruding observes that the stycas appear identical with the "minuta," Domesd. i. f. 268, and the passage rendered in the Saxon Gospels, "tweȝen stycas," is in the Wickliffite version, "tweie mynutis, that is a farthing." Mark, xii. 42. See MYNUTE hereafter. In Duncombe's Hist. of Reculver is given a mortmayn grant, dated 13 Henry VI. 1435, in which half a farthing is named as a portion of rent paid to the Hospital of Herbaldowne, namely, "xxv schelynges, and the halfin dell of an fferdyng of rente, and rente ȝeldynge of a quat' of berr', and an henne and a half, a certell (sar∣cella) and þe iij parte of a certell," &c. Bibl. Top. i. 151. At the time however that the Promptorium was compiled it does not appear that there was actually a coin of this value; the mite, as well as its equivalent, called here a CU, were merely terms retained in calculation, and the latter was commonly used at Oxford at a much later period. It is thus explained by Minsheu, who completed his first edition in that University. "A cue, i. halfe a farthing, so called because they set down in the Battling or Butterie bookes in Oxford and Cambridge the letter q. for halfe a farthing, and in Oxford when they make that cue or q. a farthing, they say, Cap my q. and make it a farthing, thus qa. But in Cambridge they use this letter, a little s. for a farthing, and when they demand a farthing bread or beare, they say a seize of bread or beare. Latin, calcus, a cue of bread." The abbreviation q. did not, it plainly appears, always stand as at present for quadrans, a farthing, but denoted a value of only half that amount; and it seems possible that cue or q. may have been an abbreviation of "calcus, quarta pars oboli." ORTUS. The term cue occurs in Beaumont and Fletcher. See Nares's Glossary.]Calcus, C. F. minutum, CATH.
  • CUFFE, glove, or meteyne (mytten, P.) Mitta (ciroteca, J.)
  • CUKKOW, byrde (cukhew, bryd, K.) Cuculus.
  • CUKKYNGE, or pysynge vesselle. Scaphium, UG. in scando.
  • CUKSTOKE, for flyterys, or schy∣derys Page  107 (cukstolle, K. cucstool, H.)1. ["Terbichetum, a cokstole." ORTUS. "Cokestole, cuckestole, selle a ricaldes." PALSG. The earliest mention of this mode of punishing female offenders occurs in the laws of Chester in the time of Edward the Confessor, as stated in Domesd. i. f. 262, b. The fine for using false measures was fixed at 4 shillings; "similiter malam cervisiam faciens, aut in cathedrâ ponebatur stercoris, aut iiij sol. dabat prepositis." It was called in Ang. Sax. "scealfinȝ-stol, sella urinatoria, in quâ rixosae mulieres sedentes aquis demergebantur." SOMNER. The pillory for male offenders, and cucking-stool for females, were essentially appendant to the view of frank-pledge, or Leet: inquest was ordered to be made respecting the sufficient provision of both, by the Stat. assigned to 51 Hen. III. c. 6; and among the "Capitula Escaetrie," one of the duties of the Escheator is declared to be inquiry "de pilloriis et tumbrellis sine licentiâ Regis le∣vatis." Stat. of Realm, i. 201, 240. It was termed, perhaps from its resemblance to a warlike engine so called, trebuchet, or trebuchetum. See hereafter TREBGET for werre. By Bracton it is spoken of as tymborella, and in the Statutes tumbrellus, appellations likewise derived from its construction. An instance of the jealousy with which any un∣authorized assumption of this manorial right of punishment was repressed, occurs in the Chron. of Jocelin de Brakelond, p. 38, where it is related that about 1190 certain encroachments were made on the privileges of the Abbot of St. Edmund's Bury, in the manor of Illegh; "levaverunt homines de Illega quoddam trebuchet ad faciendam justi∣ciam pro falsis mensuris panis vel bladi mensurandi, unde conquestus est abbas." This punishment was chiefly inflicted in early times on brewers, who are spoken of always as females, for any transgression of the assize of ale, "Braciatrix (paciatur) trebuchetum vel castigatorium;" in Scotland it was used in like manner. Stat. of Realm, i. 201, and Skene's Reg. Majest. It became subsequently the punishment of scolds, and women of immoral or disorderly life; thus in the town of Montgomery such offenders were adjudged to suffer the penalty "de la Goging-stoole," as appears by a MS. cited in Blount's Tenures; in the Leet Book of Coventry mention occurs in 1423, of the "cokestowle made apon Chelsmore grene to punysche skolders and chidders, as ye law wyll:" and items of account are found so late as 1623, which show that the punish∣ment still continued to be used in that city. Of the "coke-stool" at Norwich, which was to be provided by the gild of St. George, see Blomf. Hist. ii. 739; an account of expenses connected with another at Kingston-on-Thames is given in Lysons's Env. i. 233; and in Lord Braybrooke's Hist. of Audley End, p. 261, are mentioned payments so late as the year 1613, at Saffron Walden, where the scene of such punishments at the end of the High Street is spoken of in 1484 as the "cokstul hend." In 1555 Mary Queen of Scots enacted that itinerant singing women should be put on the cuckstoles of every burgh or town; and the first Homily against contention, part 3, published in 1562, sets forth that "in all well ordred cities common brawlers and scolders be pun∣ished with a notable kind of paine, as to be set on the cucking-stole, pillory, or such like." An original cucking-stool, of ancient and rude construction, was preserved in the crypt under the chancel of St. Mary's, Warwick, where may still be seen the three-wheeled carriage upon which was suspended by a long balanced pole a chair which could readily be lowered into the water, when the cumbrous vehicle had been rolled into a convenient situation. This chair is still in existence at Warwick. Another cucking-stool, differently contrived, may be seen at Ipswich in the Custom House; it appears to have been used by means of a sort of a crane, whereby the victim was slung into the river, and is represented in the Hist. of Ipswich, published 1830, and Gent. Mag. Jan. 1831. More detailed information on this curious subject will be found in the Glossaries of Ducange, Spelman, Blount, and Cowel; as also in Brand's Popular Antiqu. ii. 441. The term flyterys, here applied to contentious persons, does not occur again in the Promptorium, but only the verb FLYTIN̄ or chydin̄. See hereafter KUKSTOLE.]Turbuscetum, cadurca.
  • CULLYN̄' owte. Segrego, lego, separo (eligo, K.)
  • CULLYNGE, or owte schesynge (owtclesyng, K. chesyng, H. chosinge owte, P.) Separacio, segregacio.
  • Page  108CULME of a smeke (of smeke, H. P.) Fuligo.
  • (CULPOWN, K. culpyn, H. P.)

    1. Culpon, derived from the Latin colpo, or the French coupon, a shred, or any por∣tion cut off, is a term not uncommon in the early romances.

    "Al to peces thai hewed thair sheldes,
    The culpons flegh out in the feldes."

    Ywaine and Gawin, 641.

    Hoveden, speaking of the livery allowed to the King of Scotland at the court of King Richard in 1194, says he had "40 grossos longos colpones de dominicâ candelâ Regis." Chaucer says of the long hair of the Pardoner, which hung "by vnces" on his shoulders,

    "Full thinne it laie, by culpons one and one."

    Cant. Tales, Prologue.

    "Culpon that troute" is given as the proper term of the art, in the "Boke of Kerving," 1508. "Culpit, a large lump of any thing." FORBY.

    Culpum, scissura.
  • CULRACHE, smerthole, herbe (cul∣ratche, H. P.)

    2. The Persicaria hydropiper, Linn. was called culrage, from the French, "curage, culrage, the hearbe water-pepper, arse-smart, killridge or culerage." COTGR. Its aphrodisiac properties are thus alluded to by Piers of Fulham,

    "An erbe is cause of all this rage
    In our tongue called culrage."

    Hartshorne, Metr. Tales, 133.
    Persiccaria.
  • (CULTER' for a plowe, P. Cultrum.)
  • CUM, or come (cvmnyn, K. cvmne, H.) Venio.
  • CUM AFTER, or folow (cvmnyn aftyr, K. cvmne, H.) Succedo, sequor.
  • CUM DOWNE. Descendo.
  • CVM̄ YN. Ingredior, introeo.
  • CVM' TOO. Advenio.
  • CUMLY (or semely, P.) supra in COMELY.
  • COMLY, or cumlywyse. Decenter.
  • (CUMLINGE, or newe come, K. P. 3. [See COMELYNGE. Sir Ywaine, when he had long time left the lady whom he had espoused in a foreign land, is called by her messenger, "an unkind cumlyng." Ywaine and Gawin, 1627. "Komelynge" occurs in Rob. of Gloucester; "comlyng," R. Brunne.]Adventicius, UG. inquilinus.)
  • (COMMAWNDEMENT, K. H. P. Man∣datum, preceptum.)
  • CUMNAWNTE (comnawnt, K. cū∣naunt, P.)

    4. Cumnawnte or comenaunt are perhaps corruptions of the French convenant. In Sir John Howard's Household Book, entries frequently occur of agreements made with domestics or artificers, always expressed by the term comenaunt at Fressefeld with . . . . Carpenter, yt he schalle be wyth hym this xii monyth, and he shalle have in mony xxxs. and a gowne, and his comenaunt begynnith the iiii. yer of the Kynge, and the next Monday before myhelmesse." Household Expenses in England, presented to the Rox∣burghe Club by B. Botfield, Esq. Palsgrave gives "comnant, appoyntment, conuenant. To comnaunt, conuenancer; that that I comnaunt with you shall be parfourmed." Compare BREKE cōuenant above, p. 50, in which instance, if the correct reading be conuenant, it will accord perfectly with the French word. In the Romance of Sir Amadas, "conande" occurs in the sense of a covenant:

    "The conande was gud and fynne."

    Weber, Metr. Rom. line 700.

    In Mr. Robson's edition the word is printed "couand," possibly a contraction of "couenand," which is found in the context. See stanzas 63, 64, the Anturs of Arther, st. 16, and Avowynge of King Arther, s. 38, where occurs the same word "couand."

    Pactum, fedus, convencio.
  • (CUMNAWNTE brekere, K. Fidi∣fragus.)
  • CUMNAWNTYN̄', or make a cum∣nawnte. Convenio, pango.
  • CUMPANY. Comitiva, agmen, turba, turma, conturbernium, cetus (conventiculum, proprie malorum, P.)
  • Page  109COMPANYABLE, or felawble, or felawly. Socialis.
  • (CUMPAS, or sercle, P. Girus.)
  • CUMPASSE, instrument. Circi∣nus, circulus, machina.
  • CUMPASSYN̄' (cvmpacyn, K.) Cir∣cino.
  • CUMPLYNE.1. [Compline, called in Latin Completorium, completa, or complenda, "quod caetera diurna officia complet et claudit," DUC. is the service with which in monastic estab∣lishments the day closed, after which, by the rule of St. Benedict, all converse was forbidden. It was called in Ang. Sax. niht-sanȝ, vespertina cantio, completorium, and Abbot Aelfric speaks of it in his pastoral Epistle translated from Latin into the lan∣guage of England, by order, as he states, of Abp. Wulstan. The seven canonical hours, that the four synods had appointed for daily services of praise to God, are in this epistle stated to be matins with the after song appertaining thereto, prime, tierce, sext, none, vespers and compline (niht-sanȝ). Ancient Laws and Institutes, ii. 377. See also the Regularis concordia Angl. nationis monachorum. Amalarius says, "comple∣torium ideo dicitur quia in eo completur quotidianus usus cibi vel potus, seu locutio communis." De Eccl. Offic. lib. iv. c. 8. The hour of compline is stated by Fuller, in his Church History, B. vi. 278, to have been at 7 o' clock, but in Davies' rites of the Church of Durham, it is fixed at an earlier hour.]Completorium.
  • CUNDYTE of watyr. Conductus, aqueductus, aquagium, C. F.
  • CUNE, or money (coyne of mony, K.) Nummisma, assarium, C. F.
  • CUNNE, or to haue cunnynge (cun, supra in cone, P.) Scio.
  • (CUNNYNGE, K. P. Sciencia,)
  • CUNGE, or yeve leve (cungyn̄, or zeue leue, K. H. P.)2. [CUNTE, MS. The verb cungyn̄ is evidently derived from the low Latin congeare, and French congéer, signifying to send away, to give license to depart.]Licencio.
  • CUNGYR, fysche. Congrus, COMM.
  • CONIURYN̄', or cuniowryn̄'. Con∣juro, adjuro, exorcizo.
  • CUNIURYD, or con(iu)ryd. Con∣juratus.
  • CUNIURYNGE, or coniurynge. Conjuracio.
  • CUNSTABLE. Constabularius.
  • CUNTENAWNCE (or chere, P.) Vultus.
  • CUNTRE. Patria.
  • CONTREMANN, or womann'. Compatriota (patriota, K. P.)
  • CUPPE. Ciphus, patera, cuppa.
  • (CUPPE of erthe, P. Carthe∣sia.)
  • CUPBURDE.3. [In the Commentary on the Equiv. Vocab. Interpret. of Joh. de Garlandia abacus is explained to be the marble table whereon, in the feasts of the ancients, the cups were placed, "apud modernos fit de aliis lapidibus, sive de lignis artificiose conjunctis, et vocatur a cupborde." The cupboard was, in the more common sense of the word, an open buffet, whereon a rich display of plate was made, such as Hall and other chron∣iclers describe frequently. It was also sometimes closed with doors, as usual at the present time; such as in the will of Elizabeth Drury, in 1475, is called a "cupbord with two almeries." Rokewode's Hund. of Thingoe, 284. The livery cupboard, often mentioned in accounts and ordinances of household, was open, and furnished with shelves, whereon the ration called a livery, allowed to each member of the household was placed; and in well ordered families every dormitory appears to have been supplied nightly with a substantial provision. In the contract for building Hengrave Hall, in 1538, is the following clause; "the hall to have ii. coberds, one benethe at the sper (screen) with a tremor, and another at the hygher tables ende without doors." Pals∣grave gives "cupborde of plate, or to sette plate upon, buffet: cupborde to putte meate in, dressouer. Methinke my cupborde is ungarnysshed, nowe I wante my salte celler." Cotgrave renders "Buffet, a court-cupboard, or high standing cupboard; also a cup∣board of plate. Dressoir, a court cupboord (without box or drawer)."]Abacus, C. F.
  • Page  110CURRAYYN̄' horsys, or oþer lyke. Strigillo.
  • CURRAYYN̄' ledyr. Cociodio, KYLW. (corradio, P.)
  • CURSER, or cow(r)ser. Equus caballus.
  • CURATE. Curatus.
  • CURE, or charge. Cura.
  • CURFU.1. [The origin of the curfew in England is generally ascribed to the Conqueror, by whom it was imposed in token of servitude, but the assertion seems to rest on no suf∣ficient authority, and no mention of the usage occurs in the Stat. de nocturnis custodiis. Ancient Laws and Instit. i. 491. Dr. Henry observes that the custom prevailed, at the time of the Conquest, in France, and probably in all the countries of Europe, and was intended merely as a precaution against fires, at a time when cities were con∣structed chiefly of wood. It has been stated also that the custom was abolished by Henry II. The Statutes of the City of London, 13 Edw. I. enjoin that no one shall be found in the streets "apres coeverfu personé à Seint Martyn le graunt." Stat. of Realm, i. 102. Couvre feu, or carfou in France was rung at 7 in the evening, but in some places at a later hour in summer, and there was also a bell at daybreak. See Pasquier, iv. 18, and Menage. In England the hour of ringing the curfew was eight, Wats, however, gives nine as the hour in summer; that hour is so named in "the Merry Devil of Edmonton," and it was the customary time in Scotland, as appears by Act Parl. 13 James I. 1419, but subsequently was altered to ten. The usage of the curfew is still retained in the Universities, and many towns and villages in England, as is likewise the custom of ringing a bell at day-break, or four o' clock. At Lynn, where the Promptorium was compiled, the largest bell of the principal churches is still tolled at six, both morning and evening, and serves as a signal to labourers and artizans. The salutatio angelica, commonly called the angelus, was recited daily morning and evening, "ad pulsationem ignitegii," an institution ascribed to St. Bonaventure, but more probably, as Ducange observes, to Pope John XXII. at the Council of Sens, 1320. In the Statutes of Lichfield Cathedral, it is ordered as follows: "Est autem ignite∣gium quâlibet nocte per annum pulsandum horâ septimâ post meridiem, exceptis illis festis quibus matutinae dicuntur post completorium." In the Institutions of Guarin, Abbot of St. Alban's, who died 1195, the curfew is called pyritegium. Matt. Paris. The Medulla renders "ignitegium, a coure feu," in the Ortus "a fyrepanne," alluding perhaps to such an implement for extinguishing the fire, as is represented in Antiqu. Repert. i. 89, and which was afterwards in the possession of Horace Walpole at Straw∣berry Hill. "Courefewe, a ryngyng of belles towarde euenyng, couurefev." PALSG. In the Romance of the Seuyn Sages the word is repeatedly written "corfour bell." VIth Tale. "Curfur, ignitegium." CATH. ANGL. See curfure in Jamieson. Spelman gives the Ang. Sax. curfu-bell, but it is not found in Lye. See further on this subject Brand's Popular Antiqu. ii. 136, and Barrington on the Anc. Stat. 133.]Ignitegium.
  • CURYN̄', or hyllȳn' (cuueren, W.) Operio, cooperio, tego, velo, CATH.
  • CURYN̄', or heelyn' of seekenesse (holyn, K. H.) Sano, curo.
  • CUVERYNGE, or hyllynge, or thynge þat hyllythe (curyng, Page  111 K. H.) Operculum, velamentum, velamen, tegimen.
  • CURYNGE, or heelynge of seke∣nesse. Curacio, sanacio.
  • CURYNGE, or recurynge of seke∣nesse. Convalescencia.
  • CURLYD, as here. Crispus.
  • CURLYNGE of here. Crispitudo.
  • CURLEW, byrde. Coturnix, or∣togameter, ortogametra, C. F.
  • CURCE. Excommunicatio, ana∣thema, maledictio.
  • (CURSYD, K. Excommunicatus, maledictus.)
  • CURSYN̄'. Excommunico, ana∣thematizo, cateziso, maledico.
  • CURTEYSE. Facetus, urbanus, curialis.
  • CURTESY. Facecia, urbanitas, curialitas.
  • CURTEYNE. Curtina.
  • CURTLAGE, or gardeyn'. Olera∣rium, curtilagium.
  • CUS, or kysse. Osculum, basium, C. F.
  • CUSCHONE (cusshyn, P.) Cus∣cina, supinum.
  • CUSTUM, or vse. Consuetudo, ritus.
  • CUSTUM, kyngys dute. Custuma, (usucaptio, P.)
  • CUSTUMABLE. Solitus, consuetus.
  • CUSTUMABLY. Consuete, solite.
  • CUSTUMMERE. Custumarius, usu∣captor, C. F. consuetudinarius.
  • CUTTE a-sundere. Scissus.
  • CUT, or lote. Sors.
  • CUTTYN̄' (cutte, or cutton, P.) Scindo, seco, CATH.
  • CUTTYYN̄' a-way. Abscindo, reseco, amputo.
  • CUTTE vynes. Puto, C. F.
  • CUTTYNGE of vynys. Putacio.
  • CUTTYNGE. Scissura.
  • CUTTYNGE, or a-voydaunce yn any materyalle thynge, (mater', P.) or refuse. Resecamen, putamen.
  • CUTTPURS. Burscida, et inde burscidium, actus ejus, cucufri∣dramus.
  • (CUT PURSINGE, P. Burcidium.)
  • DAFFE, or dastard, or he þat spekythe not yn tyme.

    1. This term of reproach occurs in Piers Ploughman and Chaucer,

    "Thou dotest daffe, quod she, dulle are thy wittes."

    Chaucer uses the expressions, "a daffe, or a cokenay," in a similar sense, and "be∣daffed," made a fool of,

    "Beth not bedaffed for your innocence."

    Clerkes Tale.

    In the "seconde fyt of curtasie" occurs the following advice:

    "Let not þe post be-cum þy staf,
    Lest þou be callet a dotet daf."

    Sloane MS. 1986, f. 28, b.
    Ori∣durus, CATH.
  • DAGGARE, to steke wythe men'. Pugio (clunabulum, armicu∣dium, P.)
  • DAGGE of clothe. Fractillus, CATH.
  • DAGGYDE.2. [DRAGGYDE, MS. daggyd, K. P. Chaucer, among the costly fashions of the reign of Richard II. which are satirized in the Parson's Tale, speaks of "pounsed and dagged clothing;" this custom of jagging or foliating the edge of a garment had commenced in the previous reign, and is curiously represented in the History of the Deposition of Richard, Harl. MS. 1319. Archaeologia, vol. xx. Chaucer uses also the diminutive dagon; thus in the Sompnoures Tale the importunate Friar, who went from house to house to collect anything he could lay hands upon, craves "a dagon of your blanket, leve dame." Ang. Sax. "daȝ, anything that is loose, dagling, dangling." SOMN.]Fractillosus.
  • Page  112DAGGYN̄'. Fractillo.
  • DAGGYSWEYNE.

    1. A bed-covering, or a garment formed of frize, or some material with long thrums like a carpet, was termed a daggysweyne; lodix is explained in the Ortus to be "quic-quid in lecto supponitur, et proprie pannus villosus, Anglice a blanket." Horman says, "my bed is covered with a daggeswaine and a quylte (gausape et centone) some dags∣waynys have longe thrumys (fractillos) and iaggȝ on bothe sydes, some but on one." So likewise Elyot gives "Gausape, a mantell to caste on a bed, also a carpet to lay on a table, some cal it a dagswayne." Andrew Borde, in the Introduction of Knowledge, 1542, puts the following speech in the mouths of the Frycelanders:

    "And symple rayment doth serue us full well,
    With dagswaynes and roudges we be content."

    Harrison relates in the description of England, written in Essex during the reign of Elizabeth, that the old men in his village used to say, "our fathers (yea and we our selues also) have lien full oft vpon straw pallets, on rough mats couered onelie with a sheet under couerlets made of dagswain, or hopharlots (I vse their owne termes) and a good round log vnder their heads insteed of a bolster." Holinshed, Chron. i. 188.

    Lodix, CATH. C. F.
  • DAY. Dies.
  • DAY BE DAY, or ouery day (or daily, or euery day, P.) Quo∣tidie.
  • DAYYN̄', or wexyn day (dawyn, K.)2. ["The dayng of day," Anturs of Arther, edited by Mr. Robson, st. 37. See DAWYN̄.]Diesco.
  • DAYS rawarde or hyre, or oþer lyke. Diarium, C. F.
  • DAYSY, flowre. Consolida mi∣nor, et major dicitur confery (cownfery, K.)
  • DALE, or vale. Vallis.
  • DAYLY, or pley (daly, K. P.)3. [The Council of Worcester, in 1240, ordained regarding the Clergy, "nec ludant ad aleas vel taxillos;" the latter game was probably the same which is here termed DAYLY, but in what respect it differed from ordinary dice-play has not been ascer∣tained. Ducange supposes it may have been the same as the French "trictrac, ludus scrupulorum." Horman says that "men pley with 3 dice, and children with 4 dalies, astragulis vel talis. Wolde God I coude nat playe at the dalys, aleam. Cutte this flesshe into daleys, tessellas."]Tessura, C. F. (alea, decius, K.)
  • DALYAUNCE. Confabulacio, col∣locucio, colloquium.
  • DALYYN̄', or talkyn'. Fabulor, confabulor, colloquor.
  • DALKE.4. [Delk, according to Forby, signifies in Norfolk a small cavity either in the soil, or the flesh of the body. In this last sense the gloss on Gautier de Bibelesworth inter∣prets the expression "au cool troueret la fosset, a dalke in þe nekke." Arund. MS. 220, f. 297, b.]Vallis (supra in dale, P.)
  • DALLȲN, or hallesyn (halsyn, K. Amplector.
  • DALLYNGE, or halsynge. Am∣plexus.
  • (DALMATYK, K. P.)5. [The dalmatic is a sacred vestment, so named, according to St. Isidore, from its having originated in Dalmatia, and was introduced into the Christian church by St. Silvester, P. P. in the 4th century, as stated by Alcuin, who describes it as "vestimentum in modum crucis, habens in sinistrâ suâ parte fimbrias, dextrâ iis carente, inconsutile, et cum largis manicis." It was specially appropriated to the deacon, who was vested there∣with at the time of his ordination, and therefore St. Stephen and St. Laurence, who were deacons of the Church, are always represented as wearing this vesture. A very interesting portraiture of the former will be found in a MS. of XIth cent. Calig. A. XIV. In early times the dalmatic was ornamented with longitudinal bands, called clavi, which were either of gold, as in the illumination just mentioned, or purple; "Dalmata, vestis sacerdotalis candida cum clavis purpureis." Gloss. S. Isid. Orig. Hence the epithets auroclavus, chrysoclavus, and purpurâ clavatus. To these bands were attached at intervals the plagulae, as exhibited in the illumination of the Bible of Charles the Bald at Paris, executed in the IXth century, engraved in Montfaucon Mon. Franc. tom. i, and the splendid work published by the Comte Bastard. See also the curious German Missal, Xth cent. Harl. MS. 2908, and the illumination in Cott. MS. Claud. A. III. supposed to represent St. Dunstan. In the Ang. Sax. Inventory of sacred ornaments given by Bp. Leofric to the church of Exeter about A.D. 1050, occur "2 dalmatica, 3 pistel roccas." Mon. Angl. i. 222. These last were probably tunicles, vestments appropriated to the order of subdeacon, as was the dalmatic to that of deacon; in effigies and representations that exist in England of ecclesiastics in pon∣tificalibus, both vestments are almost invariably exhibited. The Legate Ottoboni or∣dailed, A.D. 1268, that if any Prelate neglected to punish the immoral conduct of his clergy, "Episcopus a dalmaticae, tunicae, et sandaliorum usu sit suspensus donec duxerit quae statuta sunt exequenda." Wilkins, Conc. xi. 5.]Dalmatica.
  • Page  113DAME, or hye bankys (dam or heybanck. K.) Agger (stag∣num, K. P.)
  • DAMAGE, or harme. Dampnum.
  • DAMASYN', tre. Nixa.
  • DAMASYN̄', frute. Prunum Da∣mascenum, coquinella.
  • (DAME, K. P. Domina.)
  • DAMESELLE. Domicella.
  • DAMPNACYONE. Dampnacio.
  • DAMPNYD. Dampnatus.
  • DAMPNYNGE, idem est quod dampnacio.
  • DAMNYN̄'. Dampno, condempno.
  • DAPYR, or praty.1. [DRAPYR, or party, MS. dapyr, or praty, K. P. Palsgrave gives "daper, proper, mignon, godin; dapyrnesse, propernesse, mignotterie."]Elegans.
  • DARYN', or drowpyn̄', or prively to be hydde (priuyly to hydyn, K. prevyly ben hyd, H.)

    2. A very usual sense of the verb to dare, in the old writers, is to gaze about, or stare; Palsgrave gives "to dare, prye or loke about me, je advise alentour. What darest thou on this facyon, me thynketh thou woldest catche larkes?"

    "With woodecokkys lerne for to dare."

    Lydgate, Minor Poems, 174.

    The same signification has been assigned, by Tyrwhitt and the commentators on Chaucer, to an expression occurring in the Shipman's Tale, the true import of which appears above to be made clear. Dan John rallies the old merchant's wife on the slug∣gishness of her spouse:

    "an olde appalled wight.
    As ben thise wedded men, that lie and dare,
    As in a fourme sitteth a wery hare."

    Chaucer appears evidently here to use dare in the sense given to the word in the Promp∣torium of lying concealed, as an animal in its den, which is termed hereafter DWERE, or dowere. "Dilatesco, to biginne to dare. Lateo, to lurk." MED. Cotgrave gives "blotir, to squat, ly close to the ground, like a daring larke, or affrighted fowle."

    Latito, lateo, CATH.
  • DARYNGE, or drowpynge (drou∣kynge, Page  114 H. droukinge, P.) Lici∣tacio (latitatio, K. H. P.)
  • DARTE. Jaculum, telum, spicu∣lum (spilum, P.)
  • DARN, or durn (darun, daren, or dorn, P.) Audeo.
  • DASYD, or be-dasyd. Vertiginosus.
  • DASMYN̄', or messen̄ as eyys (da∣syn, or myssyn as eyne, H. iyen, P.)

    1. The derivation of this word appears, according to Skinner and Junius, to be from Ang. Sax. dwaes, hebes, stultus; the Teut. daesen, insanire, phantasmate turbari is more closely assimilated to it. In the Wicliffite version Gen. xxvii. 1 is rendered thus: "Foresothe Isaac wax eld, and hise iȝen dasewiden." The word is repeatedly used by Chaucer.

    "Thin eyen dasen, sothly as me thinketh."

    Manciple's Prol.
    Caligo.
  • DASTARD, or dullarde.2. ["Duribuccus, þatn euer openeþ his mouþ, a dasiberde." MED. "A daysyberd, duri∣buccus." CATH. ANGL. "Dastarde, estourdy, butarin." PALSG. See DAFFE and DUL∣LARDE.]Duri∣buctius (vel duribuccus, P.)
  • DATE, frute. Dactilus.
  • DATE, of scripture. Datum.
  • DAWBER, or cleymann'. Argil∣larius, bituminarius, KYLW. linitor (lutor, P.)
  • DAWBYN̄'.3. [Palsgrave gives the verbs "to dawbe with clay onely; to daube with lime, plaster, or lome, that is tempered with heare or straw. Dauber, placqueur." Forby states that a dauber in Norfolk is a builder of walls with clay or mud, mixed with stubble or short straw well beaten and incorporated, and so becoming pretty durable; it is now difficult to find a good dauber. This mode of constructing fences for farm-yards and cottage walls is much used in Suffolk, as appears by Sir John Cullum's account of the process, Hist. of Hawsted, 195, and Moore's explanation of the term "daabing." The proverb given by Ray, "there's craft in dawbing" would make it appear that this mode of construction was once more generally known; in the western counties it is still in con∣tinual use, being known by the appellations cob, or rad and dab, a curious article on which, and on the use of concrete in building generally, will be found in Quart. Rev. vol. lviii, 524.]Limo, muro (banni∣no, P.)
  • DAWNCE. Tripudium.
  • DAWNCE yn a sorte (in sercle, P. cercle, H.) Chorea.
  • DAWNCERE. Tripudiator, tri∣pudiatrix.
  • DAWNCELEDERE. Coralles.
  • DAWNCYNGE, idem est quod DAWNCE.
  • DAWNCYNGE PYPE. Carola.
  • DAWNCYN̄'. Tripudio, salto.
  • DAUNGE(R), or grete passage (dawnger, K. or streyte passage, P.) Arta via.
  • (DAWNGERE, K. daunger', P. Domigerium.)
  • DAWNGEROWSE (or straūge, P.) Daungerosus (domigeriosus, K. P.)
  • DAWYN̄', idem est quod DAYYN' (dawnyn or dayen, P.)

    4. "To dawe, diere, diescere, diet, impersonale." CATH. ANGL. This verb is used by Chaucer:

    "Thus laboureth he, till that the day gan dawe."

    Marchant's Tale.

    Palsgrave gives "to dawe as the day dothe, adjourner, l'aube se crieve. To dawe from swounyng; when a dronken man swouneth, there is no better medecyne to dawe hym with, than to throwe maluesy in hys face. To dawne or get lyfe in one that is fallen in a swoune; I can nat dawne hym, get me a kaye to open his chawes." Compare DAYYN̄, or wexyn day. Ang. Sax. daȝian, lucescere.

    Auroro, CATH.
  • Page  115DAWNYNGE of the day. Ante∣lucanum, C. F. MER. ante luca∣nus, qui surgit ante lucem, C. F. UG.
  • DAWNTYN', supra in CHERSYN'.

    1. DAWNCYN', MS. "To dawnte, blanditractare." CATH. ANGL. In N. Britain to dawt has the same signification. See Jamieson. In the vision of Piers Ploughman to daunt appears to mean to tame by kind treatment; the allusion is to the dove which was trained by Mahomet to come to his ear for her food.

    "Thorugh his sotile wittes
    He daunted a dowve."

    Vision, line 1042.

    In Norfolk to daunt is used in the sense of knocking down, Fr. dompter, as by Pals∣grave, "To dawnte, mate, overcome, je matte. Lydgat. This terme is yet scarsly admitted in our comen spetche."

  • DAW(N)TYNGE, or grete cher∣synge (dauntinge, or greate cherisshinge, P.) Focio, CATH.
  • DEBATE. Dissencio, sedicio, CATH.
  • DEBATE MAKER, or baratour.2. [See BARATOWRE. In "the Charge of the Quest of Warmot in euery Warde," given by Arnold, in the Customs of London, p. 90, inquiry is ordered to be made "yf ther be ony comon ryator, barratur, &c. dwelling wythin the warde." The term is taken from the French, barateur, in low Latin, baraterius, which have the same meaning.]Incentor, CATH.
  • DECEYTE, or begylynge. Fraus, decepcio, dolus, meander, C. F.
  • DECEYUABLE (deceywabyl, K.) Deceptorius, fraudulentus, fal∣lax.
  • DECEYUAR. Fraudator, tiptes, C. F.
  • DECEYVYN̄'. Decipio, fraudo, defraudo, fallo (supplanto, P.)
  • DEDE, or deth̄e, substantyue. Mors, letum, interitus.
  • DEDE, adiectyue. Mortuus, de∣functus.
  • DEDE, or werke. Factum (accio, P.)
  • DEDELY. Mortalis.
  • DEDELY. Mortaliter, letaliter.
  • DEDELY ENMY. Hosticus, C. F.
  • DEDELYNESSE. Mortalitas.
  • DYFFAMYN' (or defamyn, P.) Defamo, diffamo, CATH.
  • DEFFE. Surdus.
  • DEFAWTE. Defectus.
  • DEFAWTY. Defectivus.
  • DEFENCE. Defencio, tuicio, mu∣nimen, munimentum, tutela.
  • DEFENSYN̄'. Defenso, munio.
  • DEFENSOWRE (defendour, K. P.) Defensor.
  • DEFENDYN̄'. Defendo, tego, pro∣tego, tuto, tutor, tueor, CATH.
  • DEFENDYN', or forbedyn̄'. Pro∣hibeo, inhibeo.
  • DEFYYN' (or broken, P.) mete or drynke.

    3. "To defy, degere, degerere. A defiynge, digestio." CATH. ANG. This word occurs in Piers Ploughman, where repenting Gluttony makes a vow to fast, and that

    "Shal never fyssh on Fryday
    Defyen in my wombe."

    line 3253.

    See also line 457. In the same sense it is used in the Wicliffite version, and by Gower. To defy has also the signification of dissolve; thus Master Langfrank of Meleyne in one of his prescriptions, directs certain substances to be compounded, and "make pelotes, and defy one of heme in water of rewe." MS. in the possession of Sir Thomas Phillipps. See FYIN̄, or defyin̄ mete and drynke.

    Digero.
  • DYFFYYN', or vtterly dyspysȳn'. Page  116Vilipendo, floccipendo, sperno, aspernor, aporio, C. F.
  • DEFYYNGE of mete, or drynke.1. [Drynge, MS.]Digestio.
  • DEFYYNGE, or dyspysynge. Vi∣lipencio, floccipencio.
  • DEFFENESSE. Surditas.
  • DEFFE NETTYLLE. Archange∣lus.
  • DEFOWLYD. Deturpatus, macu∣latus, feculentus (dehonestatus, P.)
  • DEFOWLYN', or make fowle. In∣quino, deturpo, violo, polluo.
  • DEFOWLYNGE. Deturpacio, ma∣culacio.
  • DEFFE, or dulle (defte, K. deft, H. P.)2. [Jamieson observes that deaf signifies properly stupid, and the term is transferred in a more limited sense to the ear. It is also applied to that which has lost its germi∣nating power: thus in the North, as in Devonshire, a rotten nut is called deaf, and barren corn is called deaf corn, an expression literally Ang.-Saxon. An unproductive soil is likewise termed deaf. The plant lamium, or archangel, known by the common names dead or blind nettle, in the Promptorium, has the epithet DEFFE, evidently because it does not possess the stinging property of the true nettle.]Obtusus, agrestis, Aristotelis in politicis (ebes, P.)
  • DEYE.

    3. "Androchia, a deye." Vocab. Harl. MS. 1002. "A deye, Androchius, androchea, genatarius, genetharia. A derye, androchiarium, bestiarium, genetheum." CATH. ANG. The daia is mentioned in Domesday, among assistants in husbandry, and the 2d Stat. 25 Edw. III., A. D. 1351, occasioned by exorbitant demand for wages made by servants after the pestilence, enacts that "chescun charetter, caruer, chaceour des carues, bercher, porcher, deye et tous autres servantz" should be content with such rate of wages as had been previously usual, and serve not by the day, but the year, or other usual term. The term is again found in Stat. 37 Edw. III., A. D. 1363, c. 14, "de victu et vestitu," which defines the homely provision and attire suitable to the estate of "charetters, &c. bovers, vachers, berchers, porchers, deyes, et touz autres gardeinz des bestes, batours des bleez, et toutes maneres des gentz d'estate de garson, entendantz à husbandrie," not having goods or chattels of 40s.. value. The word is rendered here in the translations "deyars," and "dairymen," and by Kelham is explained to signify drivers of geese. The Stat. 12 Ric. II. c. 4, A. D. 1388, fixes the wages of all servants for husbandry, and rates the porcher, femme laborer, and deye at vjs. each by the year. The word is here translated "deye" and "deyrie woman." In the Stat. 23 Hen. VI. c. 12, by which the wages of such servants were assessed at double the previous rate, the term deye is no longer used. It appears by Fleta, l. ii c. 87, de caseatrice, that the androchia was a female servant who had the charge of all that pertained to the "daëria," and of making cheese and butter. A more detailed account of her duties is given by Alex. Neccham, Abbot of Cirencester, A. D. 1213, in his Summa de nominibus utensilium. "Assit et androgia (vne baesse) que gallinis ova supponat pullificancia, et anseribus acera substernat; que agnellos morbidos, non dico anniculos, in suâ teneritate lacte foveat alieno. Vitulos autem et subrumos (sevlement dentez) ablactatos inclusos teneat in pargulo juxta fenile. Cujus indumenta in festivis diebus sint matronales serapelline (pelysains) recinium (riueroket) teristrum. Hujus (androgie) autem usus, subulcis colustrum et bubulcis et armentariis, Domino autem et suis collateralibus in obsoniis (supers) oxigallum sive quactum in cimbiis ministrare, et catulis in abditorio repositis pingue serum cum pane fulfureo porrigere." Cott. MS. Titus, D. xx. f. 15 b. The French interlinear gloss which gives here baesse, signifying a female servant of an inferior class, is not contemporary with the MS. This account satisfactorily illustrates Chaucer's description of the poor widow who lived on the produce of her little farm, her three sows and kine, and one sheep; her fare was milk and brown bread in plenty,

    "Seinde bacon, and sometime an ey or twey,
    For she was as it were a maner dey."

    Nonnes Priest's Tale.

    The deye was sometimes a male servant; thus in the commentary on Neccham it is stated that "androgia dicitur ab andros, vir, et genet, mulier, quia id officium exer∣cetur a viro et muliere," and Bp. Kennett cites the "compotus Henrici Deye et uxoris de exitibus et provenentibus de dayri." A. D. 1407. See the word kevere in his Glos∣sary. Palsgrave gives "dey wyfe, meterie," i. e. métayère, and Shakespeare speaks of the "day woman," Love's Labour's Lost, i. sc. 2. See Douce's Illustrations. Jamieson has discussed the obscure etymology of the word dey. In Gloucestershire and the neighbouring counties day-house signifies dairy house, and many instances are met with among names of places. See Hartshorne's Salopia Antiqua.

    Androchia, C. F.
  • Page  117DEYYN'. Morior, obio, interio, decedo.
  • DEYYNGE (deying, supra in dethe, K.) Defunctio.
  • DENTE (deynte, K. H. P.) Lauticia, C. F.
  • DEYNTE mete. Cupes, cupium, CATH. (delicie, K.)
  • DEYRYE (deyery, K.) Androchi∣anum, KYLW. vaccaria, andro∣chiarium (androchiatorium.)
  • DEKYN'. Diaconus, levita.
  • DELE, or parte.1. [See hereafter EYȜTYNDELE, mesure, and HALVUNDEL. In the Rot. Parl. A. D. 1423, mention is made of a "thredendels, or tercyan," 84 gallons of wine, or the third part of a "tonel." The Ortus gives "sepile, somdele ofte; sobriolus, somdele sober." In the Legenda Aur. occurs the word "euerydeale," which is rendered by Palsgrave "tout tant qu'il y a." He gives also "by the halfe deale, la moitié; any deale, goutte; neuer a deale, riens qui soyt; somdele grete, small wyse, quelque peu." Ang. Sax. dael, pars.]Porcio.
  • DELARE, or he þat delythe. Dis∣tributor, partitor.
  • DELARE, or grete almysse yevere (elmesȝeuer, K. greate almes gyuer, P.) Rogatorius, C. F.
  • DELYCATE, or lycorowse. Deli∣catus (lautus, P.)
  • DELYCE, or deyntes.2. [In the Legenda Aur. it is related of St. Genevieve, that "in her refeccyon she had no thynge but barly bread, and somtyme benes, ye whiche soden after xiiij dayes, or thre wekes she ete for all delyces."]Delicie.
  • DELYCYOWSE. Deliciosus, delica∣tus.
  • DELYN̄' almesse.

    3. "To dele, distribuere, dispergere, erogare." CATH. ANG. This verb in its primary use has the sense of division or separation. Thus the Gloss on Gautier de Bibeles∣worth,

    Car par bolenger (baker) est seueree (to deled)
    La flur, en fourfere (bran) ainz demoree."

    Arund. MS. 220.
    Erogo, distribuo.
  • DELYTYN̄', or haue lykynge. De∣lector, delecto, C. F. CATH.
  • DELYUERER. Liberator, delibe∣rator.
  • DELYUERAUNCE. Liberacio.
  • DELYUERYD. Liberatus, erutus.
  • Page  118DELYVERE (or quycke, in bey∣nesse, P.)

    1. This word appears to be taken from the French, delivre, and is very frequently used in old writers. "Industris, sleyghe, bisy, or deliuur." MED. GRAMM.

    "Deliuerly he dressed vp, er the day sprenged."

    Gawayn and Grene Knyȝt, 2009.

    Palsgrave gives "delyuer of ones lymmes, as they that prove mastryes, souple; de∣lyver, redy, quicke to do anything, agile, delivré; delyuernesse of body, souplesse." Thomas, in his Italian Grammar, renders "snello, quicke, deliuer." BEYN, or plyaunte, has already occurred, and bain is still used in Norfolk in the same sense; the word has also, as shown by Jamieson, the sense of alert, lively, active, or of prepared, made ready, as has been observed above in the note on BAYNYD, as benys or pesyn.

    Vivax.
  • DELYVERYN̄'. Libero.
  • DELYVERYN, or helpȳn' owte of wooe. Eruo, eripio.
  • DELUAR, or dyggar. Fossor.
  • DELVYN'.2. [The verb to delve, Ang. Sax. delfan, appears to have become obsolete in Norfolk, and is now rarely used in Suffolk, but the substantive delf, a deep ditch or drain, is still retained. The verb occurs frequently in early writers. In the Legenda Aur. occurs this expression, "I have dolphen in the depe erthe;" and it is related that when St. Donate conjured his wife, after her death, to reveal where she had concealed some treasure, "she answered out of the sepulcre, and sayd, at the entre of the hous, where I dalue it." In the Wicliffite version, 2 Chron. xxxiv. 10, the expression occurs, "stonys hewid out of þe delues (eþer quarreris)." Cott. MS. Claud. E. II. "Aurife∣della, a gold delfe." Vocab. Harl. MS. 1002. Delph and delf occur not infrequently as names of places in the fenny districts of the Eastern counties.]Fodio.
  • DELVYNGE. Fossura, fossatura.
  • DELVYN' vp owte of the erthe. Effodio, CATH.
  • DEMAR (or domes man, P.) Ju∣dicator (judex, P.)
  • DEMYN̄'. Judico, dijudico.
  • DEMYNGE, or dome. Judicium.
  • DEN̄, hydynge place. Spelunca, latibulum, specus.
  • DEN̄, or forme of a beste. Lus∣trum, UG.
  • DEENE, or denerye (dene of de∣nerye, K.) Decanus.
  • DENERYE. Decanatus.
  • DENYYN̄', or naytyn'. Nego, de∣nego.
  • DENTYN', or yndentyn'. Indento.
  • DEPARTYN'.3. ["To departe, abrogare, disjungere, separare. Departiabylle, divisibilis. To departe membres. To departe herytage, herecescere. Departyd (or abrogate) abrogatus, dis∣plosus, phariseus, scismaticus. A departynge, hoeresis, divisio, scisma," &c. CATH. ANG. In the will of Lady Fitzhugh, A. D. 1427, is the bequest, "I wyl yat myn howsehold s'uantz haue departed emāg theym a C. marc." Wills and Inv. Surtees Soc. i, 75. So it is said of Christ in the Legenda Aur. "he shall departe the heete of the fyre fro the resplendour and bryghtnesse." Palsgrave gives the verb, "to departe, deuyde thynges asonder that were myxed or medled together; departe this skayne of threde, désmesler. Departe or distribute the partes of a thynge to dyuers persons, mes∣partir." Fr. départir, to separate or distribute, in low Latin, dispertire.]Divido, partior.
  • DEPARTYN̄' a-sundyr yn' to dyuerse placys. Separo.
  • DEPE. Profundus.
  • DEPENESSE. Profunditas, alti∣tudo.
  • DEPENESSE of vatur (watyr, K.) Gurges.
  • Page  119DEPOSE (depos, or weed, H. wed, P.) Depositum.
  • DEPRIVĒN' or puttēn' a-wey a þynge, or takȳn' a-way fro a-nodyr. Privo, deprivo.
  • DERE. Carus.
  • DERYNGE, or noyynge.

    1. The verb to dere, or hurt, is commonly used by Chaucer, and most writers, until the XVIth century.

    "Fyr ne schal hym nevyr dere."

    Coer de Lion, 1638.

    Fabyan observes, under the year 1194, "so fast besyed this good Kyng Rycharde to vex and dere the infydelys of Sury." Palsgrave gives "to dere, or hurte, or noye, nuire; I wyll never dere you by my good wyll. To dere, grieve, blecer; a lytell thynge wyll dere hym." Sir Thomas Browne mentions dere among words peculiar to Norfolk, in which county it still has the sense of sad or dire. See Jamieson. Ang. Sax. derian, nocere, derung, laesio. NOYYNGE occurs hereafter.

    Nocu∣mentum, gravamen.
  • DERKE, or merke. Tenebrosus obscurus (teter, caliginosus, P.)
  • DERKENESSE. Tenebrositas.
  • DERKȲN', or make derke or merke. Obscuro, CATH. obtenebro.
  • DERLYNGE. Carus, cara.
  • DERLOURTHY, idem est quod DERE (derworthy, K.)
  • DERNEL, a wede. Zizania, CATH. lollium.
  • DERTHE (or derke, P.) Cariscia, C. F.
  • DERTHYN', or make dere. Ca∣risco, carioro.
  • DESE, of hye benche (desse, or heybenche, K. dees, H.)

    2. The term dese, Fr. deis or daix, Lat. dasium, is used to denote the raised platform which was always found at the upper end of an hall, the table, or, as here in the Promp∣torium, the seat of distinction placed thereon, and finally the hanging drapery, called also seler, cloth of estate, and in French ciel, suspended over it. With regard to its etymology, various conjectures have been offered by Ducange, Menage, and others. See also Jamieson's Dictionary. Matt. Paris, in his account of the election of John de Hertford, Abbot of St. Alban's, A. D. 1235, and the customary usages on the occasion, says, "solus in refectorio prandebit (electus) supremus, habens vastellum, Priore pran∣dente ad magnam mensam quam Dais vulgariter appellamus." Ducange suggests that vastellum may here mean a canopy or hanging dais, from Ang. Sax. vatel, tegmen, um∣braculum. Chaucer, in his Prologue, describes the haberdasher and his companions, members of a fraternity, and having the appearance of fair burgesses, such as sit "at a yeld hal, on the hie deys." Gower speaks of a king at his coronation feast, "sittend upon his hie deis." In the Boke of Curtasye, Sloane MS. 1986, f. 17, written about the time of Henry VI. a person coming into the hall of a lord, at the time of first meat, is advised not to forget

    "þe stuard, countroller, and tresurere
    Sittand at de deshe þou haylse in fere."

    In the ceremonial of the inthronization of Abp. Nevill, A. D. 1464, after the Lord and the strangers had entered, the marshal and other officers were to go towards the "hygh table, and make obeisance, first in the midst of the hall, "and agayne before the hygh dease." Leland, Coll. vi. 8.

    Sub∣sellium, C. F. dindimus, or∣cestra, UG. C. F.
  • DESCRYNGE (descryynge, K. H.) Descripcio.
  • Page  120DESCRYYN̄'.

    1. This verb is directly taken from the old French descrier, and is by some writers used to denote the enuntiation, or distinction generally of the combatants by their coat armour, either previously to entering the lists, or at other times, duties which devolved upon the heralds.

    "Herawdes goode descoverours
    Har strokes gon descrye."

    Lybeaus disconus, line 926.

    In the Vision of Piers Ploughman occurs an allusion to the usage that heralds of arms "discryued lordes." Palsgrave gives "to descryue or descrybe or declare ye facyons or maners of a thynge, blasonner; Ptolemye hath discryued ye worlde."

    . Describo.
  • DESERT, or meryte.2. [DESEEIT, MS. Desert, H. deserte, P.]Meritum.
  • DESERVYN̄', or worthy to haue mede or magre (be worthy to havyn, K.) Mereor, CATH.
  • DESERTE, or wyldernesse. De∣sertum, solitudo.
  • DESYRE, or yernynge (ȝernyng, H.) Desiderium, optacio.
  • DESYRYDE. Desideratus, optatus.
  • DESYRYN̄'. Desidero, opto, af∣fecto, appeto.
  • DESKE. Pluteum, quere infra in LECTRŌN' (ambo, K.)
  • DESPYSE (despyte, K. H. P.) Contemptus, despeccio, impro∣perium.
  • DESPYSYN̄'. Despicio, sperno.
  • DESTEYNE (or happe, K. destenye, H.) Fatum.
  • DESTROYERE. Destructor, dissi∣pator.
  • DESTROYYDE. Destructus, dis∣sipatus.
  • DESTROYYN̄'. Destruo, dissipo.
  • DESTROYYN̄' a cuntre (or feeldis, P.) Depopulor, depredo, de∣vasto.
  • DESTRUCCYONE (or destriynge, K.) Destructio, dissipacio.
  • DETTE. Debitum.
  • DETTERE (dettoure, K. P.) Debitor.
  • DETRACCYON', or bagbytynge (bak∣bytynge, K.) Detraccio, oblo∣quium.
  • DETRACTOWRE. Detractor, ob∣locutor.
  • DEWE. Ros.
  • DEWLE, or devylle. Diabolus, demon.
  • DEVYCE, purpose. Seria, KYLW.
  • DEVYDYN', supra in DEPARTYN'.
  • (DEVYDEN, or cleuen asunder, P. Findo.)
  • DEWYN̄', or yeve dewe. Roro, CATH.
  • (DEUYNITE, K. H. Theologia.)
  • DEW LAPPE, syde skyn' vndur a bestys throte. Peleare, CATH.
  • DEUOCYONE. Devocio.
  • (DEVERE, or dute, K. H. deuour, P.) Diligentia, debitum, opera.)
  • DEVOWRAR. Devorator.
  • DEVOWRYN'. Devoro.
  • DEVOWTE. Devotus.
  • DYAMAWNTE, or dyamownde. Adamas.
  • DYALE, or dyel, or an horlege (dial, or diholf of an horlage, K. orlage, P.) Horoscopus, C. F.
  • DYCARE (dyker, H. P.) Fossor.
  • DYCE. Alea, tessera, taxillus.
  • DYCE PLAY (dicepleyinge, K.) Aleatura.
  • Page  121DYCE PLEYARE. Aleator, aleo.
  • DYCYN', or pley wythe dycys. Aleo.
  • DYCYN', as men do brede, or oþer lyke (or make square, P.) Quadro.
  • DYDERYN' for colde.

    1. "To dadir, frigucio, et cetera ubi to whake." CATH. ANGL. "Barboter de froid, to chatter or didder for cold, to say an ape's Paternoster." COTGR. Skinner gives this word as commonly used in Lincolnshire, "a Belg. sitteren, prae frigore tremere." The Medulla renders "frigucio, romb for cold." In the Avowynge of King Arther, edited by Mr. Robson, to "dedur" has the sense of shaking, as one who is soundly beaten; and in the Towneley Mysteries, Noah's wife, hearing his relation of the ap∣proaching deluge, says,

    "I dase and I dedir
    For ferd of that taylle."

    p. 28.

    "Didder, to have a quivering of the chin through cold." FORBY. See Brockett's Glossary, the verb dither in the Dialect of Craven, and Hartshorne's Salopian Glossary.

    Frigucio, rigeo.
  • DYDERYNGE (for colde, P.) Fri∣gitus.
  • (DYDOPPAR, watyr byrde, infra in DOPPAR.)
  • DYCHE, or dycyde.
  • DYFFYNYN̄, or deme for sekyr. Diffinio, CATH.
  • DYGGYN̄', supra in DELVȲN'.
  • DYKE. Fossa, fovea, antrum.
  • DYKEN̄', or make a dyke. Fosso.
  • DYLLE, herbe. Anetum.
  • DYMME (or dyrk, K.) Obscurus.
  • DYMME, or harde to vndyrstonde. Misticus.
  • DYMMYN̄', or make dymme. Ob∣scuro.
  • DYRKENESSE. Obscuritas.
  • DYNE, or noyse. Sonitus, stre∣pitus (crepitus, K.)
  • DYNER. Jantaculum, CATH. (prandium, P.)
  • DYGNYTE (or worthynesse, P.) Dignitas, probitas.
  • DYNYN̄'.2. [DYMYN̄', MS.]Jantor, janto, CATH.
  • DYNDELYN̄'.3. [This verb is given in a somewhat different sense, namely, of suffering acutely, "to dindylle, condolere." CATH. ANGL. Brockett gives to dinnel, or dindle, to be affected with a pricking pain, such as arises from a blow, or is felt by exposure to the fire after frost. In the Craven dialect to dinnle has a similar signification. Langham, in the Garden of Health, 1579, recommends the juice of feverfew as a remedy for the "eares ache, and dindling." Dutch, tintelen, to tingle.]Tinnio.
  • DYPPYN̄' yn lycour. Intingo, CATH.
  • DYPPYNGE yn' lycore. Intinctio.
  • DYRYGE, offyce for dedemēn' (dyrge, P.)4. [The office for the dead received the name of DYRYGE, or dirge from the Antiphon with which the first nocturne in the mattens commenced, taken from Psalm 5, v. 8, "Dirige, Domine Deus meus, in conspectu tuo viam meam." In 1421, Joanna, relict of Sir Thos. de Hemgrave, directed daily mass to be said for his and her own souls, and the anni∣versaries to be kept with a solemn mass, "cum placebo et dirige." Among the "coosts laid out at the monthes mynde" or Sir Thos. Kytson at Hengrave, 1540, occur payments "to Mr p'sson for dirige and masse, ijs.; to iiij prists for dirige and masse, xijd.; to the clark for dirige and masse, xijd." Rokewode's History of Hengrave, 92, 112. The name is retained in the Primer set forth in English by injunction from Henry VIII. in 1546; and this Dirige, from which portions have been retained in the burial service of the Reformed Church, appears to have been only a service of me∣morial, to be used even on occasion of "the yeres mynde" of the deceased, and com∣prises a prayer for departed souls in general. "Dirige, seruyce, vigiles." PALSG. Horman says, "he must go to the dirige feste, ad silicernium," which is mentioned by Harrison in his description of England, written in the reign of Elizabeth, where he alludes to the changes that had taken place in religious observances; "the superfluous numbers of idle waks, guilds, fraternities, church-ales, helpe-ales, and soule-ales, called also dirge-ales, with the heathnish rioting at bride-ales, are well diminished and laid aside." B. ii. c. i. Holinsh. vol. i. There occur items in the Hengrave accounts, already cited, which shew the feasting that took place on that occasion.]Exequie.
  • Page  122DYSBOWAYLYN̄'. Eviscero, ex∣entero, UG. in enteria.
  • DYSBOWALYNGE. Evisceracio.
  • DYSSHE. Discus, scutella.
  • DYSSHE BERER at mete. Disco∣ferus, CATH.
  • DYSSHE METE. Discibarium.
  • DYSCENCYONE, or debate. Dis∣cencio.
  • DYSCHARGYN̄'. Exonero (deo∣nero, P.)
  • DYSCYPLE. Discipulus.
  • DYSCORDE. Discordia, discor∣dancia.
  • DYSCORDE yn songe. Disso∣nancia.
  • DYSCORDYN̄'. Discordo, discrepo.
  • DYSCORDYN' yn sownde, or syng∣ynge, Dissono, deliro, C. F.
  • DYSCOWMFYTȲN'. Confuto, su∣pero, vinco.
  • DYSCOWMFORTYN̄' (disconforten, J.) Disconforto.
  • DYSCRECYONE. Discrecio.
  • DYSCRETE. Discretus.
  • DYSCURER, or dyscowerer of cownselle (discuerer, K.) Ar∣bitrer, anubicus, CATH. in anu∣bis.
  • DYSCURYN̄' cowncelle, supra in BEWREYYN̄'.
  • DYSCURYNGE of cownselle. Arbi∣trium, anubicatus (revelacio, K.)
  • DYSCHERYTYN̄', or puttyn' fro he∣rytage. Exheredo.
  • DYSESE, or greve. Tedium, gra∣vamen, calamitas, angustia.
  • DYSESYN', or grevyn'. Noceo, CATH. vexo.
  • DYSMEMBRYN'. Dissipo, dispergo (exartuo, P.)
  • DYSOWRE, þat cannot be sadde.

    1. By Gower and other writers dysour is used as signifying a tale teller, a convivial jester;

    "Dysours dalye, reisons craken."

    K. Alisaunder, 6991.

    Palsgrave renders "dissar, a scoffar, saigefol," and Horman says, "he can play the desard with a contrefet face proprely, morionem representat." Elyot gives "Panto∣mimus, a dyssard which can fayne and counterfayte euery mannes gesture. Sannio, a dysarde in a playe or disguysynge; also he whiche in countenaunce, gesture, and maners is a fole." Ang. Sax. dysian, ineptire.

    Holomochus, Aristoteles in ethicis, nugaculus, nugax (bo∣nilocus, K. bomolochus, P.)
  • DYSPENSYN (disperagyn, K. dys∣pagyn, P.)
  • DYSPENSYN'. Dispenso.
  • DYSPENDYN'. Expendo.
  • DYSPENSON̄, be auctoryte, of pe∣nawnce. Dispenso.
  • DYSPARPLYN̄' (dispartelyn, K. Page  123 dysparlyn, H. P.)1. [In the Wicliffite version, disperplid, disperpriled, disparplid, and disparpoylid, occur in the sense of dispersed. In the curious version of Vegecius, attributed to Trevisa, Roy. MS. 18 A. XII. the danger is set forth of surprise by an ambush, while the host is unprepared, some employed in eating, "and somme disperbled and de∣parted in oþer besynes." B. III. c. 8. In a sermon by R. Wimbeldon, as given by Fox, A. D. 1389, it is said that "by Titus and Vespasianus Jerusalem was destroyed, and the people of the Jewes were disparkled into all the world." Palsgrave gives "to disparpyll, Lydgate, same as disparke, escarter, disparser. They be disparkled nowe many a mile asonder." See hereafter SPARPLYN̄.]Dissipo, dispergo.
  • DYSPLESAUN(C)E (displesawnce, K. H.) Displicencia.
  • DYSPLESYD. Displacatus, im∣precatus, maleplacatus.
  • DYSPLESYN'. Displiceo.
  • DYSPOYLYN̄, or spoylyn'. Spolio.
  • DYSPREYSYN̄', or lackyn̄'. Culpo, vitupero.
  • DYSPUTACYONE. Disputacio.
  • DYSPUTYN̄'. Disputo.
  • DYSTAWNCE of place (or space, P.) betwene ij thyngys. Dis∣tancia.
  • DYSTAUNCE, supra in DEBATE, vel DYSCORDE (discidia, P.)
  • DYSTEMPERYN̄'. Distempero.
  • (DISTEMPRED, P. Distempera∣tus.)
  • DYSTROBELAR of þe pece (dis∣turbeler, or distroyere of peas, K.) Turbator, perturbator.
  • DYSTURBELYN' (distroublyn, P.)2. [This verb is used by Chaucer, and occurs in the Wicliffite version. "And they seynge him walkinge on the see weren disturblid." Matt. xiv. 26. So also in the version of Vegecius, Roy. MS. 18 A. XII. it is said that a young soldier should be taught "that he destrowble nat the ordre of ordenaunce." The Mayor of Norwich, on being sworn, made proclamation "that iche man kepe the pees, and that no man disturble, ne breke the forseid pees, ne go armed." A. D. 1424, Blomf. Hist. ii. 100.]Turbo, conturbo.
  • DYSTROBELYNGE of pece (dis∣turbelynge, K.) Disturbium, turbacio, conturbacio.
  • DYSPLAYYN̄' a baner of armys of lordys, or oþer lyke. Displodo.
  • DYSVSYN' a-ȝenste custome. Ob∣soleo, dissuesco.
  • DYSVSYN, or mysse vsyn a-ȝenste resone. Abutor.
  • (DYSȜESE, K. dyseȝe, H. Te∣dium, calamitas.)
  • DYTANE, herbe. Diptanus.
  • (DYTARE, vide infra KOKE, mete dytare.)
  • DYTE (dytye, P.) Carmen.
  • DYHTYN̄'.3. [In the Household Book of Sir John Howard, A. D. 1467, among expenses incurred for one of his retinue, is entered this item, "My Lady paid a surgeone for dytenge of hym, whan he was hurte, 12d." Palsgrave gives the verb in its more usual sense, "to dyght, or dresse a thynge, habiller. A foule woman rychly dyght, semeth fayre by candell lyght." Ang. Sax. dihtan, disponere.]Paro, preparo.
  • DYTYN̄' or indytyn̄' letters and speche (scripture, K.) Dicto.
  • DYTYN̄', or indytyn for trespace. Indicto.
  • DYTYNGE, or indytynge of tres∣pace. Indictacio.
  • DYTYNGE, or indytynge of cury∣owse speche. Dictamen.
  • DYSWERE, or dowte.

    4. The place in which this word is found in the alphabetical arrangement seems to indicate that it was originally written dywere, or divere, which may be derived from the old French, "divers, inconstant, bizarre, incommode." ROQUEF. It occurs, however, written as above, in a poem by Humphrey Brereton, who lived in the reign of Hen. VII. which has been printed under the title of "the most pleasant song of Lady Bessy, eldest daughter of King Edw. IV."

    "That time you promised my father dear,
    To him to be both true and just,
    And now you stand in a disweare,
    Oh Jesu Christ, who may men trust!"
    Dubium.
  • Page  124 DYUERSE. Diversus, varius.
  • DYVERSYN', or varyn̄' (varyen, P.) Diversifico, vario.
  • DYUERSYTE. Diversitas, varie∣tas.
  • DYUERSE WYSE, or on dyuers maner. Varie, multipharie, diversimode.
  • DYVYN̄' vnder þe weter. Sub∣nato, CATH.
  • DYUYNYTE (or deuynite, J.) Theologia.
  • DYYN̄' clothys, or letyn̄' (dye, or lyt clothes, P.) Tingo.
  • DOO, wylde beste (beste of the wode, H. P.) Dama (capra, P.)
  • DOAR, or werkare. Factor, actor.
  • DOBELER, vesselle (dische ves∣selle, K.)1. ["A dublar, dualis, et cetera ubi a dische." CATH. ANG. The Medulla gives the following explanation of Parapsis, "proprie est discus sive vas quadrangulum, ex omni parte habens latera equalia, a dobuler." The term is derived from the French doublier, a dish; it occurs in Piers Ploughman, and is still retained in the Cumberland and Northern dialects. See Ray and Brockett.]Parapses.
  • DOBBELET, garment.2. [It appears that the compiler of the Promptorium assigned to baltheus, which pro∣perly signifies the cingulum militare, the unusual meaning of a garment of defence. Thus COTE ARMURE previously is rendered baltheus. The Catholicon explains "di∣plois, duplex vestis, et est vestis militaris," but it does not appear to have been ori∣ginally, as it subsequently became on the disuse of the gambeson, a garment of defence. The dublectus mentioned in the Constitutions of Fred. II. King of Sicily, in the XIVth century, was a garment of ordinary use by nobles and knights, as were also, it is pro∣bable, the rich garments provided for John II. of France, in 1352, when Stephen de Fontaine, his goldsmith, accounts for the delivery of "un fin drap d'or de damas, et un fin camocas d'outremer, pour faire deux doublés." At this period wadded defences were made in Paris by the armuriers, and the tailors were divided into two crafts, pourpointiers and doubletiers; it was only in 1358 that the Regent Charles, on account of the use of the doublet becoming general, permitted the tailors to exercise also the craft of doubletiers. See the Reglemens sur les Métiers, edited by Depping, p. 414. Shortly after, however, the doublet appears as a military defence; "25 doublettes, 24 jakkes," and other armours, are enumerated among the munitions of Hadlegh Castle granted in 1405 by Henry IV. to his son Humfrey. Rymer, viii. 384. The importance at this time attached to the manufacture of this kind of armour appears by the privileges conceded in 1407 to the "armurariis linearum armaturarum civitatis Londonie." Pat. 9 Hen. IV. confirmed 18 Hen. VI. and 5 Edw. IV. It is related that the Duke of Suffolk, when murdered at sea in 1450, was attired in a "gown of russette, and doblette of velvet mayled;" Paston Letters, i. 40; and in the curious inventories of the effects of Sir John Fastolf, at Caistor, in Norfolk, 1459, occur "j dowblettis of red felwet uppon felwet; j dowbelet of rede felwet, lynyd with lynen clothe." Archaeol. xxi. 253. See further Sir Samuel Meyrick's valuable observations on military garments worn in England, Archaeol. xix. 228. At a later time the doublet seems again to have become a vestment of ordinary use, the military garment which resembled it being termed a coat of fence. "I wyll were a cote of defence for my surete, loricâ lintheâ." HORM. Caxton says "Donaas the doblet maker hath performed my doublet and my jaquet, mon pourpainte, et mon paltocque." Book for Travellers.]Bigera,Page  125 UG. baltheus, diplois, CATH. anabatrum.
  • DOBELYN̄', or dublyn̄'. Dupplico.
  • DOCERE of an halle (dosere, K. docere, H. P.)

    1. DORCERE, MS.; but this reading is evidently erroneous, and the word is derived from the French, dossier, or Latin, dosserium. See DOSSE, and DORCERE, which occurs afterwards in its proper place. In a Latin-English Vocabulary, Harl. MS. 1002, f. 144, occur "auleum, scannarium, a dosure;" and another makes the following distinction: "anabatum, hedosour, dorsorium, syd-dosour." Roy. MS. 17 C. XVII. The term occurs in the Awntyrs of Arthure, 431, where a costly pavilion is described;

    "Pighte was it prowdely, withe purpure and paulle,
    And dossours, and qweschyns, and bankowres fulle bryghte."

    Sir F. Madden explains it as signifying here a cushion for the back, but in its usual sense it seems to denote the hangings or "hallyngs" of tapestry, which, before the use of wainscot, were generally used to cover and adorn the lower part of the wall of a chamber. Chaucer uses the word "dosser" in a different sense, speaking of sallow twigs, which men turn to various uses,

    "Or maken of these paniers,
    Or else hutches and dossers."

    H. of Fame, iii. 850.

    Panniers are still called, in many parts, dosses, dorsels, or dorsers. See Ray and Moore. Hollyband renders "hotte, a basket, a dosser."

    Dorsorium, auleum, CATH. C. F.
  • DODDYD, wythe-owte hornysse (wit owtyn hornys, K.)2. [Dodded is used in the North in this sense; see Brockett, and the Craven Dialect. Jamieson gives doddy and dottit with a similar signification. In Norfolk doddy still means low in stature. Phillips has dodded, lopped as a tree, and in Suffolk scathed or withered trees are called dooted, in the North, doddered, words which appear to be derivable from the same source. Skinner suggests "Belg. dodde, caulis, fustis, paxillus."]Decornutus, incornutus.
  • DODDYN̄' trees, or herbys, and oþer lyke. Decomo, capulo, CATH.
  • DODDYD, as trees. Decomatus, miculus (mutilus, P.)
  • DOGGE. Canis.
  • DOGGE, shyppe-herdys hownde. Gregarius, CATH.
  • DOGGYD. Caninus.
  • DOGGYDE, malycyowse. Mali∣ciosus, perversus, bilosus.
  • DORON̄'.3. [This word does not occur in the other MSS.; the reading is probably corrupt, and from the place in which it occurs, DOGON' may be suggested as a correction. This term of contempt seems to be derived from the French "Doguin, brutal, hargneux." ROQUEF. See Dugon in Jamieson's Dictionary.]Degener.
  • DOOKE, byrde (doke, K. fowle or birde, P.) Anas.
  • DOOKELYNGE (birde, P.) Anati∣nus.
  • DOCKEWEDE. Padella (para∣dilla, P.)
  • DOKET, or dockyd by þe tayle. Decaudatus, caudâ decurtus.
  • DOCKYD, lessyd or obryggyd. Abbreviatus, minoratus.
  • DOKKYN̄', or smytyn̄' a-wey the tayle. Decaudo.
  • Page  126DOKKYN̄, or shortyn̄. Decurto, abbrevio, capulo, C. F.
  • DOLE, merke.1. [Agnes Paston writes to her son Edmund, the lawyer, respecting the dispute as to a right of way, between his father and the Vicar of Paston, who had been "acordidde, and doolis sette howe broode the weye schuld ben, and nowe he hath pullid uppe the doolis, and seithe he wolle makyn a dyche ryght over the weye." Paston Letters, iii. 32. Forby gives this word as still used in Norfolk, the mark being often a low post, called a dool-post; it occurs also in Tusser. Bp. Kennett states that landmarks, or boundary-stones, are in some parts of Kent called "dowle-stones," and explains dole or doul as signifying "a bulk, or green narrow slip of ground left unplowed in arable land." See his Glossarial Collections, Lansd. MS. 1033. Queen Elizabeth, in her Injunctions, 1559, directs that at the customary perambulations on the Rogation days, the admonition shall be given, "Cursed be he which translateth the bounds and dolles of his neighbor." Wilkins, Conc. IV. 184. Ang. Sax. daelan, dividere.]Meta, tramaricia.
  • DOLE, or dolefulnesse. Dolor, dolorositas (lamentacio, P.)
  • DOLE, or almesse yevynge (doole of almesse, P.) Roga, CATH. erogacio.
  • DOLEFULLE. Dolorosus.
  • DOLFYNE, fysche. Delphinus.
  • DOLLYD, sum what hotte (or sumdyl hot, K.)2. ["Dollyd, defrutus." CATH. ANG. The Medulla renders "tepefacio, to make leuke."]Tepefactus.
  • DOLLYN̄' ale, or oþer drynke. Tepefacio.
  • (DOLLYNGE, K. doolynge, H. Te∣pefactio.)
  • DOME. Judicium, examen.
  • DOME HOWSE. Pretorium.
  • DOMES MANNE (domysman, K.) Judex, CATH.
  • DOON̄', or werkyn̄'. Facio, ago.
  • DOON A-WEY. Aufero, deleo.
  • DOON' AWKE (don amys, K. H. P.) Sinistro, CATH. (malefacio, protervio, P.)
  • DO GYLE, supra in BEGYLE.
  • DO GOODE. Benefacio.
  • DO LECHERY. Fornicor (luxu∣rior, P.)
  • DO MAWMENTRYE. Ydolatro.
  • DOON̄' of clothys. Exuo.
  • DOO GLOTYNYE. Crapulor.
  • DO ON̄ CLOTHYS, or clothyn'. Induo, vestio.
  • DOON' OWTE, or qwenchyn̄' (liȝth, K. lyth, H.) Extinguo.
  • DO TO WETYN̄', or knowyn̄'. In∣timo, innotesco, innoteo.
  • DO WRONGE a-ȝene resone (ayenst reason or lawe, P.) Injurior, prejudico.
  • DOON̄ wykyddely. Nequito, CATH.
  • DOON' or fulle wroste (done or full wrout, H. wrought, P.) Factus, completus, perfectus.
  • DONET.

    3. The grammar most universally used in the middle ages was that composed by Aelius Donatus in the IVth century, and the term Donet became generally expressive of a system of grammar. See Warton's Eng. Poet. i. 281, Clarke's Bibl. Dict. iii. 144. It was printed among Gramm. Vet. Putsch. p. 1735. The rich hall prepared for the education of the son of the Emperor was decorated with symbols of grammar, musick, astronomy, geometry, arithmetic, rhetoric, and physic.

    "Therinne was paint of Donet thre pars,
    And eke alle the seven ars."

    Seuyn Sages, 181.

    Allusions to Donet occur in Chaucer, and Piers Ploughman. In Sir John Howard's Household Book is a payment, 1466, "fore a donet for master Gorge, 12d." and Caxton mentions it as one of the books in greatest demand, "George the booke-sellar hath doctrinals, catons, oures of our lady, Donettis, partis, accidents." Book for Tra∣vellers. "Donett, Donatus, a Donett lerner, Donatista." CATH. ANG.

    Donatus.
  • Page  127DONGE, matrasse.1. [In the Inventory of Effects of Sir John Fastolfe, at Caistor, 1459, there appear the following items in his own chamber: "j fedderbedde, j donge of fyne blewe, i bolster, ij blankettys of fustians, j purpeynt," &c. Archaeol. xxi. 268. A previous entry mentions a "donge of purle sylke."]Culcitra, ma∣tracia, lodex (fultrum, P.)
  • DONGE, mucke. Fimus, letamen.
  • DONGE CARTE. Titubatorium.
  • DONGE HYLLE. Sterquilinium, fimarium, forica.
  • DUNGEN̄, or mukkyn̄' londe. Fimo, pastino, BRIT.
  • DOPPAR, or dydoppar, watyr byrde.2. [The little Grebe is still known by the names didapper, dipper, or dobchick, the Mergulus fluviatilis of the older naturalists, Podiceps minor of Temminck. Ang. Sax. dop fugel, mergus, dufedoppa, pelicanus, according to the sense in which the word occurs Ps. ci. 7, in the Lambeth Psalter; but its derivation from dufian, immergere, would make the appellation inappropriate to that bird.]Mergulus.
  • (DOPPYNGE, H. P.)3. [Forby and Moore mention the word dop, as used in East Anglia at the present day to denote a short quick curtsy. Ang. Sax. doppetan, mersare.]
  • DORCERE.4. ["Auleum, dorsarium, cortina, anabatrum, anastrum, dosure or curtayne; colate∣rale, syd-dosour." Roy. MS. 17 C. XVII. "A dorsure, dorsorium." CATH. ANG. "Anabatrum, a cortyne. Auleum, an hangyn, i. indumentum aule, cortina, or a cor∣tyne." ORTUS. M. Paris speaks of the "dossale, sive tapesium in quo passio S. Albani figuratur," given to St. Alban's by Abbot Richard, who died 1119. Among the cloths of arras and tapestry work belonging to Sir John Fastolfe, at Caistor, enumerated in the curious inventories taken about the year 1459, occur several "hallyngs" of ta∣pestry and worsted, a term probably synonymous with dorsure. Archaeol. xxi. 259. See above, DOCERE.]Anabatrum.
  • DORE. Ostium.
  • DORLOTT.5. [Dorlott is taken from the French dorelot, which signifies an ornament of female attire generally, but here seems to denote particularly the elegant network, frequently enriched with jewels, in which the hair was enclosed, termed a kelle, caul, or crepine; or the head dress called a volipere, which is mentioned by Chaucer. "Trica, plicatura vel nexus capillorum." ORTUS. "Caliendrum, a voliper." MED. GRAMM. In 1394 Johanna Laburn of York bequeaths "j kyngll, j dorlot, j armari . . . best volet yat se hat, and a red hude singill." Testam. Ebor. i. 196. Cotgrave gives "dorlot, a jewel or pretty trinket, as a chain, brooche, aglet, button, billement, &c. wherwith a woman sets out her ap∣parel;" and by the Statutes of the trades of Paris in 1403 it appears that the craft of doreloterie consisted in making fringes and ribbons both of silk and thread. See Ro∣quefort and Charpentier.]Trica, caliendrum, C. F.
  • DORMAWNTE tre (dormawntre, K.)6. [A dormant or sleeper is a main beam that, resting upon the side walls, serves to support the joists, or the rafters of the roof. It is called in Norfolk a dormer. "Treine, a dorman or great beame." COTGR.]Trabes.
  • DORMOWSE, beste. Glis.
  • DORTOWRE. Dortorium.
  • DOSEYNE. Duodena.
  • (DOSSE, K. P.7. [Doss is at the present time the name given in Norfolk and Suffolk to a hassock, such as is used in church, and panniers are in some places called dosses. See DOCERE.]Dossorium.)
  • DOTARDE (or dosell, P.) De∣sipio, deceps.
  • DOTELLE, stoppynge of a vesselle Page  128 (dottel, H. dossell, P.)

    1. This name for a faucet appears to be a corruption of ductulus, which in the Latin-English Vocab. Roy. MS. 17 C. XVII. is rendered "dosselle," as the word is more commonly written, from the French dosil, doucil, or according to Cotgrave, "doisil, a faucet." Among the pertinencia promptuario, in another Vocabulary, Harl. MS. 1002, is given "clipsidra, a doselpyn." In the Seuyn Sages, it is related how Ypo∣cras pierced a tun in a thousand places:

    "And tho he hadde mad holes so fele,
    In ech he pelt a dosele."

    line 1150.

    See dottle in Jamieson's Dictionary, dossel, Craven Dialect.

    Du∣cillus, ductildus, C. F.
  • DOTRELLE, byrde. Fingus.
  • DOTRELLE, fowle, idem quod DOTARDE.2. [This word appears here to signify a foolish person, not the stupid bird common in Lincolnshire and the neighbouring counties, the Charadrius morinellus, and the repe∣tition caused by the word "fowle" is probably here an error. "A dotrelle, desipa." CATH. ANG.]
  • DOTYNGE. Desipiencia.
  • DOTONE. Desipio.
  • DOTON̄', or dote for age. Deliro, CATH. in lira.
  • DOWE, paste for brede. Pasta, C. F.
  • DOWRE, wedowys parte (dowary, K. P.) Dos (vel perdos, P.)
  • DOWCET mete, or swete cake mete (bake mete, P.)3. [In the Forme of Cury doucets are not named, but "daryols," p. 82, seem almost the same; directions are given in the following recipe, which is taken from Harl. MS. 279, f. 41, b. under the head of "Bake metis, vyaunde furnéz. Doucetez. Take creme a gode cupfulle, and put it on a straynoure, þanne take ȝolkys of eyroun, and put þer-to, and a lytel mylke; þen strayne it þorw a straynoure in-to a bolle; þen take sugre y-now and put þer-to, or ellys hony for defaute of sugre; þan coloure it wit safroun; þan take þin cofyns, and put in þe ovynne lere, and lat hem ben hardyd; þan take a dyssche y-fas∣tened on þe pelys ende, and pore þin comade in-to þe dyssche, and fro þe dyssche in-to þe cofyns, and whan þey don a-ryse wel, take hem out, and serue hem forthe." Among the election expenses of Sir John Howard at Ipswich, 1467, appears the item in his household book, "viij boshelles of flour for dowsetes;" and in the first course at dinner in Sir John Nevile's account of the marriage of his daughter to Roger Rockley, in 1526, appear "dulcets, ten of dish." Palsgrave gives "dousette, a lytell flawne, da∣riolle."]Dulceum, C. F. (ductileus, P.)
  • DOVE, culuyr byrde (dowe brid, K. dowue, P.) Columba.
  • DOVE, yonge byrde. Columbella.
  • DOWYS HOOLE, or dovys howse. Columbar, CATH.
  • DOWER yn the erthe (dovwere, H. douwir, P.) Cuniculus.
  • DOWME, as a man or woman. Mutus.
  • DOWNE (of, P.) federys.4. [DOWME, MS. and K. downe, P.]Pluma, plumula, plumella, UG.
  • DOWNE, or downewarde. Deorsum.
  • DOWNĒ GATE, or downe goynge. Descensus.
  • DOWNE GATE of þe sunne (or mone, H.) or oþer planettys. Occasus.
  • Page  129(DOWPAR, bryd, K. dooper, H. Mergus.)
  • DOWRYS, or dowryble (dowrybbe, K. dovrybbe, H.)

    1. A rybbe is an household implement, which probably received its name from its form, a kind of scraper or rasp used in making bread; thus Palsgrave renders "dow∣rybbe, ratisseur à paste." The term occurs in the gloss on Gautier de Bibelesworth.

    Vostre paste dount pestrez, (kned þi douw)
    De vn rastuer (a douw ribbe) le auge (a trow) moundez,
    Le rastel (a rake) e le raster
    Sount diuerses en lour mester."

    Arund. MS. 220, f. 299, b.

    Hence it appears to have served for scraping and cleansing the kneading trough. An∣other implement, termed likewise a rybbe, was used in the preparation of flax. See hereafter RYBBE, and RYBBYN̄ flax.

    Sarpa, costa pasthalis, C. F. (costapas∣talis, P.)
  • DOWCE EGYR, or sowre an(d) swete menglyd to-gedyr (dowe soure and swete togedyr, K. dovseger, H. menkt togeder, P.)2. [In the Forme of Cury, p. 20, will be found recipes for egurdouce, a compound of the flesh of rabbits or kids with currants, onions, wine and spices; and for egurdouce of fysshe, pp. 63, 113. Directions are also given for concocting "an egge dows," which seems more to resemble the mixture alluded to in the Promptorium, being composed of almonds, milk, vinegar, and raisins. Mulsus signifies a kind of mead, and dowce egyr was probably much the same as oximel.]Mulsus, C. F. musus, C. F. dulce amarum.
  • DOWTE. Dubium.
  • DOWTYN̄'. Dubito, CATH. (he∣sito, P.)
  • DOWTYN̄' bothe partyes a-lyke. Ambigo.
  • DOWTYNGE. Dubitacio, dubietas.
  • DOWTEFULLE. Dubius, ambi∣guus.
  • DOWTELES. Indubius, sine dubio.
  • DOWTELESLY. Indubie, procul∣dubio.
  • DOWSTY, bolde, or hardy (dowty, K. H. P.)3. ["Dughty, ubi worthy." CATH. ANG. A. Saxon, dohtiȝ, instructus.]Audax.
  • DOSTER (dowtyr, K. doughter, P.) Filia.
  • DOSTYR IN LAWE. Nurus.
  • DOWE TROWE (trowghe, P.) Pis∣tralla, alveus, DICC.
  • DRAPLYD (drablyd, K.) Palu∣dosus, CATH. (lutulentus, P.)
  • DRABELYN̄' (drakelyn, P.)4. [This word is still used in Norfolk, in the sense of to draggle, and a slattern is called a drabble-tail. Ang. Sax. drabbe, faeces.]Pa∣ludo, traunlimo (sic.)
  • DRAFFE.

    5. Draffe, or chaffe, is a word that occurs in Chaucer:

    "Why shuld I sowen draf out of my fist,
    Whan I may sowen whete, if that me list."

    Persone's Prol.

    In the Reve's Tale the scholar John complains of being left to lie in his bed "like a draf sak." So likewise in Piers Ploughman's Vision, where allusion is made to casting pearls to swine, it is said that

    "Draf were hem levere,
    Than al the precious perree."

    line 5617.

    In the Vocabulary, Roy. MS. 17 C. XVII. occurs under the head "ad brasorium per∣tinencia, dragium, draf;" and in the Cath. Ang. "draf, segisterium, acinatum, brasi∣purgium." "Segisterium, Anglice, droffe." ORTUS. "Draffe, dracque." PALSG. Ang. Sax. drof, sordidus. Matt. Paris has given a charter of Guarin, Abbot of St. Alban's, dated 1194, in which the word drascum occurs, which appears to signify the grains that remain after brewing, called in French drasche, or drague. Compare CORALLE, or drasse of corne, and DROSSE.

    Segestarium, drascum.
  • Page  130DRAFFE, or drosse, or mater stampyd. Pilumen.
  • DRAGAUNCE, herbe (dragans, P.)1. [Numerous virtues are ascribed by Macer and other writers to the herb dragaunce or nedder's tongue, called also dragon wort, addyrwort, or serpentine, arum or aron. See Roy. MS. 18 A. VI. f. 73. Macer says that "water of dragaunce ys gode to wasshe venome soris," and it appears to have been yearly distilled in the household of the Earl of Northumberland, 1511. See Antiqu. Rep. iv., 284. "Dragence, or nedder gryffe, dragancia, basilisca, herba serpentina." CATH. ANG.]Dragancia, C. F. basilica, dra∣centra, C. F.
  • DRAGGE (dragy, K. dradge, H. P.)

    2. This word is taken from the French dragée, a kind of digestive and stomachic comfits anciently much esteemed. Chaucer says of the Doctor of Phisike,

    "Ful redy hadde he his apothecaries.
    To send him dragges, and his lettuaries."
    Cant. Tales, Prol.
    Dragetum.
  • DRAGGE, menglyd corn̄e (drage, or mestlyon, P.)

    3. In the XIIIth century the grains chiefly cultivated in England, as appears by the accounts of the bailiff of the royal manor of Marlborough, Rot. Pip. 1 Edw. I., were wheat, "berecorn, dragg," or a mixture of vetches and oats, beans and pease. The regulations for the brewers of Paris, in 1254, prescribe that they shall brew only "de grains, c'est à savoir, d'orge, de mestuel, et de dragée;" Réglemens sur les Arts, ed. by Depping. Tusser speaks of dredge as commonly grown in the Eastern counties.

    "Sow barly and dredge with a plentiful hand."

    "Thy dredge and thy barlie goe thresh out to malt."

    Bp. Kennett, in his Glossarial collections, Lansd. MS. 1033, mentions "dredge mault, malt made of oats mixed with barley malt, of which they make an exellent fresh quick sort of drink," used in Staffordshire. "Dragée aux chevaux, provender of divers sorts of pulse mixed together." COTGR. See MESTLYONE, or monge corne.

    Mixtio (mix∣tilio, P.)
  • DRAGGYN', or drawyn̄'. Trajicio, CATH.
  • DRAGGYNGE, or drawynge. Tractus.
  • DRAGONE. Draco (vel drago, P.)
  • DRAKE, byrde. Ancer, vel ancer anatinus.
  • DRAME, wygh̄te. Drama, dragma.
  • DRANE. Fucus, KYLW.
  • DRAPER. Pannarius, KYLW.
  • DRAWKE, wede.

    4. "Drake, or darnylle, zizannia." CATH. ANG. The gloss on Gautier de Bibeles∣worth makes a distinction between these two weeds:

    "Le yueray (darnel) i crest, et le betel (drauke)."

    Gerard assigns the name to a species of bromus sterilis, which he calls small wild oats, in Brabant called drauich, and Skinner suggests that the name may be derived "a Belg. droogh, siccus, quia et actu et potentiâ siccum est." Drawke or drake is well known in Norfolk and Suffolk, and Forby says it is the common darned grass, lolium perenne.

    Drauca, C. F. in lollium.
  • DRAWYN̄', or drawe. Traho.
  • DRAWYN' a-longe. Protraho.
  • D(R)AWYN̄' a-wey. Abstraho.
  • DRAWYN̄' a-ȝene (agayne, P.) Retraho.
  • DRAWE forthe owte of þe ovyne. Effurno.
  • Page  131DRAWE fowlys, or dysbowaylyn̄'. Excaterizo, NECC. eviscero, UG. (exentero, P.)
  • DRAWE lotte. Sorcior.
  • DRAWYN̄' owte. Extraho.
  • DRAWĒN' owt of the shethe (shede, K. P. schede, H.) Evagino.
  • DRAWE to. Attraho.
  • DRAWYN̄' or steryn̄', entycyn' to goodenes, or badnes (styren or meuen, P.) Allicio.
  • DRAWE watur, or oþer lyke. Haurio.
  • DRAWE vp by þe rote. Eradico, evello.
  • DRAWTE, or pulle. Tractus.
  • DRAWTE of drynke (draught, P.) Haustus.
  • DRAWTE of watyr owte of a welle, or oþer lycoure owte of a wes∣selle, idem est.
  • DRAWE BRYGGE (drawte brydge, P.) Superfossorium, pons trac∣tilis, pons tractativus, pons ver∣satilis, COMM.
  • DRAWTE WELLE. Ha(u)rium, UG. in haurio.
  • DREDE. Timor, pavor, terror.
  • DREDEFULLE. Timidus, pavidus.
  • DREDEFULLE and vgely (vggly, P.) Terribilis, horribilis.
  • DREDEFULNESSE, idem est quod DREDE.
  • DREDEFULNESSE, and horrybyl∣nesse. Horribilitas, terribilitas.
  • DREDYN'. Timeo, metuo, formido, vereor, paveo.
  • DREGGYS, or drestys. Fex.
  • DREGGY (dresty, P.) or fulle of drestys. Feculentus, C. F.
  • DREGGYS of oyle (drestis, P.) Amurca, CATH.
  • DREGGYS, or lyys of wyne (drestis or lese, P.) Tartarum, C. F.
  • DREEME. Sompnium.
  • DREMARE. Sompniator.
  • DREMYN̄', or dretchyn̄' yn slepe. Sompnio.
  • DREMYNGE. Sompniacio.
  • DREME REDARE. Solutor, CATH.
  • DRESSYN̄'. Dirigo, rictonnor (sic) KYLW.
  • DRESSYNGE. Directio.
  • DRESSYNGE KNYFE. Mensacula, DICC.
  • DRESSURE, or dressynge boorde. Dressorium, directorium.
  • (DRESTYS, drestys of oyle, drestys, or lyys of wyne, supra in DREG∣GYS, K.)1. [The Medulla renders "fecula, a little traist, feculentus, fulle of traiste," (Harl. MS. 2257); in the Ortus, "dregges." Amurca is explained by Elyot to mean "the mother or fome of all oyles," in Harl. MS. 1002, "drastus." Palsgrave gives "dresty, full of drest, lieux." Horman says "the drastys (floces) of the wyne be medicynable." Ang. Sax. dresten, faeces.]
  • (DRETCHYN̄' yn slepe, supra in DREMYN̄'.)

    2. This verb is used by Chaucer, and other writers, in the sense of being disturbed by dreams.

    "This chaunteclere gan gronen in his throte,
    As man that in his dreams is dretched sore."

    Nonne's Priest's Tale.
    "And if it so bytide this nyght,
    That the in slepe dreche ani wight,
    Or any dreamis make the rad,
    Turn ogayn, and say I bad."

    Ywaine and Gawin, line 480.

    It has also the sense of to delay or hinder, in several passages of Chaucer and Gower. See also Piers Ploughman's Crede, where the baneful conduct of the Friars is exposed, who desert the rule of their order and "dreccheth the puple," lin. 924, 1004. Ang. Sax. dreccan, turbare. See Jamieson.

  • Page  132DRY fro moysture. Siccus.
  • DRYE, or seere. Aridus.
  • DRYE, as kyne (nete, P.) or bestys þat wylle gyfe no mylke (yeue, P.) Exuberis, UG.
  • DRYFTE, or drywynge of bestys.1. [The drift of the forest, agitatio animalium in forestâ, is a legal term which implied a view taken of the cattle feeding in the chase, forest, or waste, at certain seasons when they were driven into an enclosure, in order to ascertain whose they were, and whether legally commonable. The Stat. 32 Hen. VIII. c. 13, among various clauses, devised for the improvement of the breed of horses, directs the drift to be made at Michaelmas, and other convenient times, and under-sized horses to be de∣stroyed. The word is used by Horman metaphorically, in its more ordinary acceptation, "subtyle dryftis (callida consilia) ought nat to sette a iudge out of the ryght wey." Elyot renders "adpulsus, the dryfte of shepe to the water."]Minatus.
  • DRYYN'. Sicco, desicco.
  • DRYLLE, or lytylle drafte of drynke (draught, P.) Haustillus.
  • DRYNESSE. Siccitas, ariditas.
  • DRYNKE. Potus, poculum, pocio.
  • DRYNKARE. Potator, bibax, bibo.
  • DRYNKYN̄'. Bibo, poto.
  • DRYNKYN̄' a-ȝeēn' (ageyne, P.) Rebibo, repoto.
  • DRYNKYN̄' a-bowte (drynkyn. alowt, K. all oute, P.) Ebibo, epoto.
  • DRYNKELYNN̄' (drynklyn, H. drenchyn, P.) Mergo, submergo.
  • DRYPPE, or drope (drepe, P.) Gutta, stilla, cadula, C. F.
  • DRYPPYN̄', or droppyn̄'. Stillo, gutto.
  • DRYPPYNGE, or droppynge. Stil∣lacio.
  • DRYE SCABBE. Impetigo, UG.
  • DRYTE (or, P.) doonge.2. ["To dryte, cacare, egerere." CATH. ANG. In the Wicliffite version, Phil. iii., 8, is thus rendered; "I deme alle thingis as drit;" and the word occurs also in Wicliffe's "Objections of Freres. Freres setten more by stinking dritt of worldly goods, then they don by virtues, and goods of bliss." See Jamieson's observations on the etymo∣logy of the verb to drite, exonerare ventrem. Ang. Sax. ȝedritan, cacare.]Merda, stercus (menda, P.)
  • DRYVYLLE, serwawnte.

    3. Horman speaks of "a dryuyl or a drudge: he is a very dryuell, sterquilinium." Junius gives in this sense "drivell or droile, mastigia, qui ubique expulsus abactusque est. Belg. drevel." See droile in Jamieson's Dictionary. Tusser, in his Points of Huswifery, speaks of an under servant in the dairy termed a droy, or droie, whose duties appear to have been similar to those of the DEYE, described in the note on that word.

    "Good droy to serve hog, to help wash, and to milk,
    More needfull is truly, than some in their silk."
    Ducti∣cius, ducticia.
  • DRYVE bestys. Mino, C. F. CATH.
  • DRYVYN, supra in CONSTREYNYN̄.
  • DRYVYN̄', or constreynyd. Co∣actus, constrictus, astrictus.
  • DRYVYN̄', or ledde. Ductus.
  • DRYVYNGE, or cathchynge (chas∣inge, P.) Minatus.
  • DRYVYNGE, or constreynynge. Compulsio, coactio, constriccio.
  • DROBLY, or drubly (drobely, P.)4. [Chaucer, in the Persone's Tale, says, "he is like to an hors, that seeketh rather to drink drovy or troubled water, then for to drink water of the clere well." "Drovy, turbidus, turbulentus." CATH. ANG. "Turbidus, troubli, drobli, or dark." MED. GRAMM. "Turbulentus, i. non lucidus, drouy." ORTUS. Bp. Kennett, in his Glos∣sarial Collections, Lansd. MS. 1033, gives "dravy or druvy, Bor. druvy, Northumb. drevy, thick, muddy as the water is. Sax. drefend, turbidus." Forby mentions drovy, used in Norfolk as an epithet of loathing, on account of filthiness of the person. Ang. Sax. drof, caenosus.]Turbulentus, turbidus.
  • DROBLY, of drestys. Feculentus, C. F.
  • Page  133DROMEDARY, beste. Dromeda∣rius (dromedus, C. F. P.)
  • DROPE, supra in DRYPPE.
  • DROPSYE, sekenesse. Idropis.
  • (DROPSY man or woman, P. Ydropicus.)
  • (DROPPYNGE of supra in DRIPPYNG, K.)
  • DROPPYNGE of flesshe, or fyshe yn' þe rostynge. Cadula, CATH. C. F.
  • DROSSE of corne.1. [Higins, in his version of Junius's Nomenclator, renders "vannus, a van wherwith corne is clensed from chaffe and drosse against the wind." Ang. Sax. dros, faex, sordes. At Hengrave Hall, in Suffolk, in 1604, is entered in account a delivery "for the swine, of dross wheat." Hist. of Hengrave, 207.]Acus, cribal∣lum, ruscum, CATH.
  • DROSSE of metalle. Scorium, CATH.
  • DROSSE, or fylthe where of hyt be (qwat so it be, K.) Ruscum, rusculum, CATH.
  • DROTARE (droot, P.) Traulus, traula.
  • DROTYN̄' yn' speche.2. [This term, implying difficulty of speech, or stuttering, has not been met with else∣where. The Ortus renders "traulus, a ratelere," a word equally unnoticed by Glos∣sarists, which occurs also in Cath. Ang. "To ratylle, traulare; a ratyller, traulus."]Traulo.
  • DROTYNGE. Traulatus.
  • DROTYNGLY. Traule.
  • DROVE of bestys. Armentum, polia, CATH.
  • (DROWPYN̄', or prively to be hydde, supra in DARYN'.)

    3. In the Anturs of Arther, where a description occurs of the King and his court going forth to the chace, it is said,

    "The dere in the dellun,
    Thay droupun and dares."

    Ed. by Mr. Robson, p. 3.
  • DROWTE. Siccitas.
  • DRUBLY, supra in DROBELY.4. ["Turbidus, troubli, drubli, or darke." MED. In the Ortus and Cath. Angl. drouy occurs in the same sense; Jamieson gives droubly and drumbly; and the verb to drumble, signifying to be confused, is used by Shakespeare. See Nares.]
  • DRUBBLYN̄', or torblyn̄' watur, or other lycoure. Turbo.
  • DRUBLYNESSE. Turbulencia, feculencia, CATH.
  • DRUNKŌN'. Ebrius, temulentus.
  • DRUNKELEW.

    5. This word is used repeatedly by Chaucer, and occurs in Piers Ploughman and the Wicliffite version.

    "Irous Cambises was eke dronkelew,
    And ay delighted him to ben a shrew."

    Sompnoure's Tale.

    Horman uses the word "dronkleu, dronkeleu." In a curious treatise on Obstetrics of the later part of XVth century, Add. MS. 12, 195, are particular instructions for the selection of a nurse, among whose recommendations are "þat sche be wysse and well a-vyssyd, and þat sche lof þe chylde, and þat sche be not dronkeleche."

    Ebriosus.
  • Page  134DRUNKESHEPE.

    1. Gower, speaking of the vices that spring from original sin, says,

    "Wherof the first is dronkeship,
    Whiche beareth the cuppe felauship."

    Conf. Am. lib. vii.

    "Drunkechepe, ebrietas, vinolencia, &c." Harl. MS. 1002, f. 173, b.

    Ebrietas.
  • DWALE, herbe.

    2. Chaucer makes repeated allusion to the somniferous qualities of the night-shade, or dwale, the Atropa belladonna.

    "Arise (quod she) what haue ye dronken dwale?
    Why slepen ye? it is no nitertale."

    Court of Love.

    A strange effect is attributed to this plant in a volume of miscellaneous collections, once belonging to William Worcestre, Sloane MS. 4, p. 2. "For to take alle maner of byrdys. Take whete, or other corne, and take guse of dwale, and menche þe corne þer yn, and ley yt þer þe byrdys hawntene, and when they have eten þer of, þey shalle slepe, þat ye may take þem with yowre handys." Higins, in the Version of Junius's Nomenclator, gives "Solanum letale, banewoort, dwall, or great nightshade."

    Morella somp∣nifera, vel morella mortifera.
  • DUBBYLLE. Duplex, duplus.
  • (DUBLER, supra in DOBELER, K. H. Parapsis, P.)
  • (DUBLET, supra in DOBBELET, K. H. Baltheus.)
  • (DUBBYL garment, K. Diplois.)
  • DUBBYLMAN, or false and de∣ceyvable. Duplicarius, DICC. CATH.
  • DUBBYLLE TONGYDE. Bilinguis.
  • DUBLYN̄', supra in DOBELYN̄', et duplo, CATH. gemino.
  • DUBBYN̄', or make knyghte. In∣signio.
  • DUDDE, cloth̄e.3. ["Amphibalus, a sclaveyn, a faldynge, or a dudd." MED. GRAMM. "Lacerna est pallium fimbriatum, a coule, or a dudde, or a gowne." Harl. MS. 2257. According to the explanation given of birrus, the garment called a DUDDE seems to have been a coarse wrapper or dread-nought, probably the same as the Irish mantle made of raw wool, which was in request in England as late as the time of Charles I., as appears by the Custom∣house rates. "Birrum, vestis pilosa seu grossa, a schypper's mauntel." ORTUS. Forby gives to duddle up, or wrap up with clothes; in the North, as well as other parts of England, rags or clothes in general are called dudds; and Grose mentions a square in Stourbridge fair, where linen cloth was sold, called the duddery. See Jamieson.]Amphibalus, C. F. birrus, CATH. C. F. KYLW.
  • DWELLARE. Incola, mansiona∣rius, C. F.
  • DWELLYN̄'. Maneo, commoror.
  • DWELLYN̄', or longe lettȳn' or taryyn̄'. Moror, pigritor.
  • DWELLYNGE, place. Mancio, habitaculum.
  • DWELLYNGE or (longe, P.) tary∣ynge. Mora.
  • DWEROWE (dwerwh, K. dwerwe, H. P. dwerfe, W.)4. [By early writers this word is written very variously, but approaching more or less to the Ang. Sax. dweorg, dweorh, nanus, which in the valuable fragment of Aelfric's Glossary, discovered by Sir Thomas Phillipps, in the Chapter Library, Worcester, is written "dwaeruh." Thus the gloss on G. de Bibelesworth, "Ieo vey ester un petit neym (dwerouh)." Arund. MS. 220. In Lybeaus Disconus "dwerk" occurs re∣peatedly, and in King Alisaunder we read of "durwes, the leynth of an elne." In Synonym. Harl. MS. 1002, f. 173, occurs the word "dwarof," and in Cath. Ang. "a dwarghe, tantillus." See duergh and droich in Jamieson's Dictionary. In the Catholicon is given the following explanation: "Sessillus, i. parvus staturâ, quia non videtur stare, sed sedere;" and the Ortus gives "Nanus, a dwarfe, or a lytell Turke." Compare COONYONE, or drowtly. Bp. Kennett gives the word "dwerowe" as of local use, but in the Eastern counties it appears to be no longer known; in his Glossarial collections, Lansd. MS. 1033, is the term "durgan, of short or low stature, as, he is a durgan, a meer durgan, a durganly fellow. Isl. duergur, Kiliano, dwergh. West∣m(orland) a dwarwh."]Nanus, C. F. sessillus, CATH. et UG. in sedeo.
  • DWYNYN̄' a-wey (dwyne or va∣nysshe away, P.) Evaneo, eva∣nesco.
  • Page  135(DWFHOWUS, K. dufhows, P. Co∣lumbaria.)
  • DUKE. Dux.
  • DUCHESSE. Ducissa.
  • DULLE of egge. (Obtusus, K. P.)
  • (DULLE of wytte, K. P.) Hebes.
  • DULLARDE (dullare, K.) Duri∣buccius, CATH. agrestis, Aris∣toteles in ethicis.
  • DULLYN̄', or make dulle yn wytte. Hebeto.
  • DULLYN̄', or make dulle in egge toole. Obtundo.
  • DULLYN̄', or lesyn̄' the egge. Hebetesco, C. F.
  • DULY. Debite.
  • DWLY, or trostyly. Secure, firmiter.
  • DULNESSE of egge. Obtusitas.
  • DULNESSE of wytte. Hebetudo.
  • (DUM, K. P. dovm, H. Mutus.)
  • DUMNESSE. Mutitas, taciturnitas.
  • DUNCHE, or lonche (lunche, H. P.) Sonitus, strepitus (bundum, bombus, P.)
  • DUNCHYN̄', or bunchyn'. Tundo.
  • (DVNCHE, K. (dunchinge, or lunchinge, P.) Tuncio, percussio.
  • DUNNYD of coloure. Subniger.
  • DUNNYN' in sownde (in songe, H.) Bundo, C. F.
  • DUNNYNGE of sownde. Bunda, C. F. bombus, C. F.
  • DEWE OFFYCE, or seruyce of dett (dv, K. due, P.) Munium, CATH.
  • (DUARY of wedowys, K. P. Dos.)
  • (DOWERE, or deen, H. dwer', P. duer, W. Cuniculus, CATH.
  • DWRESSE, or hardenesse (duresse, P.) Duricies.
  • DURYN̄', or induryn̄', or lastyn̄'. Duro, perduro.
  • DURN̄, supra, idem est quod DARN̄ (durn or dare, P. Audeo.)
  • DUSTE. Pulvis.
  • (DUSTY, P. Pulverulentus.)
  • DUSTYN̄'. Pulverizo.
  • DWTE, supra in DETTE (dvte or dette, K. dutye, P. Debitum.)
  • EBBE of the see. Refluxus, sa∣laria, KYLW. ledo, CATH.
  • EBAN', tre. Ebanus.
  • EBBYN̄', as the see. Refluo, sa∣lario, CATH.
  • ECCO, sownde. Ecco.
  • EDGROW, gresse (edgraw, herbe, K. ete growe, gresse, H. P.)1. [The Medulla explains bigermen to be the mixed grain called in the Promptorium MESTLYONE, but it seems here to signify after-grass, or after-math, still called edgrow in some parts of England. Bp. Kennett mentions the word in his Glossarial collections, Lansd. MS. 1033. "Eddish, roughings or after-math in meadows, but more properly the stubble or gratten in corn-fields, from Sax. edisc, quod post messem in campis re∣linquitur. This word is in some southern parts corrupted into ersh, and in Surrey into esh, as a wheat esh, a barley esh. In Cheshire eddgrew, eddgrow, eddgrouth, from the Saxon preposition ed (which in composition denotes allwaie again, as re in the Latin,) and ȝrowan, germinare, crescere." This word is not noticed by Mr. Wilbraham, and it does not appear in the East Anglian Glossaries; in Shropshire, according to Hol∣loway's Provincial Dictionary, the after-grass is called "edgrew," or as stated by Mr. Hartshorne, "headgrove, or headgrow." Salopia Antiqua. The common appellation both in Norfolk and Suffolk is eddish, Ang. Sax. edisc, gramen serotinum, but it is also termed rawings, roughings, or rowen, a word used by Tusser and noticed by Ray, which may be a corruption of the older appellation edgrow. See Forby and Moore. Tusser uses the words eddish and etch to signify a stubble, or land that has produced a crop. In a copy of the Practica of John Arderne, Sloane MS. 56, p. 3, are some names of plants in French and English, among which occurs "weldillone, i. edgrowe." possibly some herb of autumnal growth, abounding in the after-grass. The Medulla gives "frutex, a styke, a yerde, and buske, vnderwode, or eddysche."]Bigermen, regermen.
  • EDDYR, or neddyr, wyrme. Serpens.
  • Page  136EFTE (or also, P.) Eciam.
  • EGGE (edge, P.) Acies.
  • EGGYD TOOLE on bothe sydys. Anceps.
  • EGGYD, as teethe for sowre frute. Acidus, C. F. CATH. stupefac∣tus.
  • EGGYD, or steryd, or entycyd to doōn' a dede (steryd to gode or bad, P.) Instigatus, incitatus.
  • EGGYN̄, as teþe for sowre mete.1. [Horman says, "my tethe edge with eating of these codlynges."]Obstupeo.
  • EGGYN̄, or entycyn̄' to doōn' welle or yvele (eggen, or styre to gode or yll, P.)

    2. The verb to egg, from Ang. Sax. eggian, incitare, occurs in this signification in R. Brunne, Piers Ploughman, and Chaucer, who uses also the substantive;

    "Soth is it, that thurgh womannes eggement
    Mankind was lorne, and damned ay to die."

    Man of Lawe's Tale.
    Incito, provoco.
  • EGYL, byrde. Aquila.
  • EGYR, or egre.

    3. The old writers give to the word eager the significations of sour, and of fierce; the first from the French "aigre, eager, sharp, tart, biting." COTGR. "Exacerbo, to make eygre." ORTUS. Palsgrave gives "Egernesse, bytternesse. Egar, fiers or mody as a wild beest is, fel."

    "He hente a spere with egre mode." Octovian, line 1653.
    "And sclendre wives, feble as in bataille,
    Beth egre as is a tigre yond in Inde."

    Clerke's Tale.
    Acer.
  • EGMENT, or sterynge. Incitamen∣tum, instigacio.
  • EGYRYMONYE, herbe. Agrimo∣nia, C. F.
  • EY (or egge, P.) Ovum.
  • EYE. Oculus, talmus.
  • EYE LEDE. Supercilium, cilium, palpebra.
  • EYLDYNGE, or fowayle (fowaly, K. fewaly, P.)4. [In the dialects of the North, as observed by Ray, any kind of fuel is called eldin, and the term is applied to the brush-wood of which fences are made. See Brockett, the Craven Glossary, and Jamieson. Ang. Sax. aeld, ignis, aelan, accendere. The word is given by Bp. Kennett among his valuable glossarial collections, Lansd. MS. 1033.]Focale.
  • EYLYN̄'. (Obsto, P.)
  • EYMBRE, hote aschys (eymery or synder, hote asshes, P.) Pruna.
  • EYȜTHE (eyght, P.) Octo.
  • Page  137EYȜTENE (eyghtene, P.) Octo∣decim, vel decem et octo, secun∣dum correcciones fratrum pre∣dicatorum.
  • EYȜTHE HUNDRYD. Octingenti.
  • EYȜTY. Octoginta.
  • EYȜTHE TYMYS. Octies.
  • EYȜTYNDELE, mesure (eyhtyndyl, K. eyghtydell, J. W.)1. [Half a bushel is given hereafter as the same measure which is here intended; and the term EYȜTYNDELE seems to be derived from its being the eighth part of a coom, or half quarter, which has already occurred, COWME of corn̄e, cumba. Compare DELE, and HALVUNDEL. Ang. Sax. dael, pars. Bp. Kennett, in his Glossarial collections, Lansd. MS. 1033, mentions another local name for the same measure, "a tofet, the measure of half a bushel, Kent; some say two fats. Sax. fat, or faet was the same measure as our peck."]Satum, CATH.
  • EYAR, element (eyre, P.) Aer, ether, ethera, CATH.
  • EYYR, or herytage (eyre, P.) Heres.
  • EYTHER, or bothe. Uterque.
  • ELE, fysche. Anguilla.
  • ELBOWE. Cubitus, KYLW.
  • ELDE, or olde, for-weryde (eeld, or worne, P.) Vetustus, de∣tritus, inveteratus.
  • EELDEN̄', agyn̄,2. [Agan̄, MS. The word elde, still retained in the Northern dialect, occurs often as substantive in old writers. Thus in the Wicliffite version, 3 Kings, xv., 23 is thus rendered, "Asa hadde ache in feet in þe tyme of his eelde;" personified, Rom. of Rose. "Senectus, helde; senex, haldman," Vocab. Roy. MS. 17 C. XVII. "Elde, senecta, senium, annositas." CATH. ANG. In the version of Vegecius, Roy. MS. 18 A. XII., it is said that military exercises "must be vsede before in yongthe, or the body be made slewthefulle by age and elde." B. i, c. 4. Ang. Sax. eld, senectus.]supra in A, et ve∣terasco.
  • EL(D)FADYR. Socer.
  • ELDYR, or hyldyr, or hillerne tre (hillar, K. hyltre, or elerne, H. elder, or hyltre, or elorne, P.)

    3. In Norfolk, according to Forby, the elder tree is still called eldern; "sambucus, an eldrun," Harl. MS. 1002. Gautier de Bibelesworth says,

    "Mes de sueau (of ellern, MS. Phill. hildertre, Arund. MS.) lem fet suheaus,
    Vn manger ke est bons et beaus (wiþ milke.)"

    In Worcestershire the elder is termed ellern, and Piers Ploughman speaks of it thus:

    "Impe on an ellere,
    And if thy appul be swete,
    Muchel merveille me thinketh."

    Vision, line 5471.

    "Un sehu, an ellir tree." Harl. MS. 219. Ang. Sax. ellarn, ellen, sambucus. In the North the alder is called an eller, whence several names of places, as Ellerbeck, Eller∣burn, &c. in Yorkshire, are derived. Ang. Sax alr, alnus. "An ellyrtre, alnus; al∣netum est locus ubi crescunt." CATH ANG. In the Ortus is given another name of the elder, "sambucus, burtre, or hydul tre."

    Sambucus.
  • ELDE MAN, or woman. Senex, annosus, veteranus, grandevus, longevus.
  • ELD MODYR (elmoder, K. P.)4. ["An elfadyr, socer; an eldmoder, socrus." CATH. ANG. In the North an ell-mother, or eld-moder, signifies a mother in law, or step-mother, but, as Jamieson observes, must have properly denoted a grandmother, from Ang.-Sax. ealde-moder, avia. John Heworth of Gateshead bequeathed, in 1571, his best horse to his father in law, and adds, "Item, I gyve vnto my eldmoder, his wyffe, my wyffes froke, and a read petticote." Wills and Inv. published by the Surtees Soc. i. 352.]Socrus.
  • Page  138ELDWOMANN'. Anus, vetula.
  • ELEBRE, herbe (elebyr, K. P.) Eleborus.
  • ELEFAUNTE, or olyfaunt, beste. Elephas, elephantus, CATH. barrus.
  • ELEMENT. Elementum.
  • ELEUYN̄'. Undecim.
  • ELFE, spryte.1. [The Catholicon explains lamia to be a creature with a human face, and the body of a beast, or, according to a gloss on Isai. xxxiv, 14, a sort of female centaur, which entered houses when the doors were closed, as old wives' tales went, and cruelly used the children, whence the name, "quasi lania, a laniando pueros." The ancient leeches have given in their books numerous charms and nostrums for the relief of children "taken with elvys;" among which may be cited the following from a curious medical MS. of XVth cent. in the possession of Sir Thomas Phillipps. "For a chylde that ys elfe y-take, and may nat broke hys mete, that hys mouthe ys donne (sic.) Sey iij tymes thys verse, Beata mater munere, &c. In the worchyppe of God, and of our Ladi, sey iij pater noster, and iij aueys, and a crede; and he schal be hole." In Sloane MS. 73, f. 125, it is directed to "take þe roote of gladen and make poudre þerof, and ȝeue þe sike boþe in his metes, and in hise drynkis, and he schal be hool wiþinne ix dayes and ix nyȝtis, or be deed, for certeyn." William Langham, practitioner in physic, recom∣mends this same remedy in his Garden of Health, 1579; and orders the root and seeds of the peony to be hung about children's necks, as a charm against the haunting of the fairies and goblins. The term elf is not, however, applied exclusively to mis∣chievous spirits, but to fairies generally. See in Brand's Popular Antiquities detailed observations on the Fairy Mythology. "An elfe, lamia, eumenis, dicta ab eu, quod est bonum, et mene, defectus. Elfe lande," (no Latin word) CATH. ANG. Horman seems to speak of elves as a sort of vampires: "No man stryueth with deed men but elfis, laruae;" and Palsgrave give "elfe, or dwarfe, nain." Ang. Sax. elf, lamia.]Lamia, CATH. et UG. in lanio.
  • ELYER, or elger, fyscharys instru∣ment.2. [This instrument seems to be the same which in East Sussex and Kent is known by the appellation of an eel-shear, but in other parts better known as an eel-spear.]Anguillaris, fuscina, C. F. fragidica dentata, KYLW.
  • ELYCE, propyr name (Ely, K. P.) Helias.
  • ELM, tre. Ulnus, C. F. (ulmus, K.)
  • ELMES, supra in A, ALMES.
  • (ELMESFULMAN, P. Elemosina∣rius, elemosinaria, rogatarius.)
  • (ELMES HOWS, P. Proseuca, CATH.)
  • ELNE, or elle (mesoure, P.) Ulna, KYLW.
  • ELOQUENT, or welle spoke man or woman. Eloquens, dicosus, UG.
  • ELSYN' (elsyng, K.)

    3. This word occurs in the gloss on Gautier de Bibelesworth, Arund. MS. 220, where a buckled girdle is described:

    "Een isy doyt le hardiloun (þe tunnge)
    Passer par tru de subiloun (a bore of an alsene)."

    "An elsyne, acus, subula." CATH. ANG. "Sibula, an elsyn, an alle, or a bodkyn." ORTUS. In the Inventory of the goods of a merchant at Newcastle, A. D. 1571, occur "vj doss' elsen heftes, 12d. j clowte and ½ a c elson blades, viijs. viijd. xiij clowtes of talier nedles," &c. Wills and Inv. published by the Surtees Society, i., 361. The term is derived from the French alène; "elson for cordwayners, alesne." PALSG. In Yorkshire, and some other parts of England, an awl is still called an elsen.

    Sibula.
  • Page  139ELLE WANDE (elwonde, P.) Ulna.
  • EEM, faderys broþer. Patruus, CATH.
  • EEM, moderys brothere.1. [The Anglo-Saxon word eam, avunculus, is commonly used by Chaucer, Gower, and all the earlier writers, and is not yet obsolete in the North of England. It is related in the life of St. Peter of Melane, that "one his eme whiche was an heretyke de∣maunded of his lesson, and the chylde sayd to hym, credo;—his uncle sayd to hym that he sholde no more say so." Legenda Aur. "An eme, avunculus, patruus. Versus, Patruus a patre pendet, avunculus ex genitrice. An eme son or doghter, patruelis, ex parte patris; consobrinus, ex parte matris." CATH. ANG. Bp. Kennett gives in his Glossarial collections, Lansd. MS. 1033, the following use of the word eam, noticed likewise by Grose: "Eam, an unkle, Bor. This term in the North is familiarly applied to a gossip, and indeed to any friend or neighbour; so is the word unkle in Worcestershire, and adjoining parts, where mine unkle or my nunkle is a common appellation, as mine eam in the North. Ex ore viri doctissimi G. H."]Avun∣culus, CATH.
  • EMBYRDAY (embyr, or embyrday, H. P.) Angarium, vel quatuor temporum.
  • EMME, propyr name. Emma.
  • EMERAWNTYS, or emerowdys. Emorrois, CATH.
  • EMPEROWRE. Imperator.
  • EMTY. Vacuus.
  • EMTYNGE, or a-voydynge (voyd∣inge, P.) Evacuacio.
  • ENCHESONE, or cause (enchesyn, K. H. enchesen, P.)

    2. This word is derived from the French "acheison, encheison; occasion heureuse, loisir, cause de bonheur, dessein," &c. ROQUEF. "Enchesun, causa, occasio, accio, eventus, casus, racio." Synonym. Harl. MS. 1002. See CHESUN, and CAWSE, or enchesone. It is used by Wicliffe, and many early writers. Occleve says of St. Margaret,

    "But understandeth this, I onely commend her nought,
    By encheson of her virginitie."

    Letter of Cupide.
    Causa.
  • ENCRECYN̄'. Accresco, augmento, augmentor, CATH.
  • ENCRES, or incres. Incrementum, augmentum, augmentacio, ex∣crescencia.
  • EENDE. Finis.
  • ENDE, dooke byrde.

    3. This appellation of a duck, which now seems to be quite obsolete, is the Ang. Saxon ened, anas, in Dutch, eend; it occurs in the glosses on Gautier de Bibelesworth.

    "Zlusi a il ane (enede) et plounczoun, (douke)
    Qen riuere ont lour mansioun (woning.)"

    MS. at Middle Hill.

    And in another passage, "de naturell noyse des oyseaus, it is said,

    "En marreis ane iaroille (enede queketh.)"
    Anas.
  • EENDYD. Finitus, terminatus.
  • EENDYN̄', or makyn̄' a(n) ende. Finio, consummo, desino, CATH.
  • ENDYNGE. Finicio, terminacio.
  • ENDYTYD, or indytyd for trespas (of trespas, P.) Indictatus.
  • ENDYTYD (or indityd, K.) as scrip∣ture and spech̄e.4. [ENDYTYD, or yid . . . . . MS. The scribe has left a blank on account of a defect in the MS. from which his transcript was made; this appears to be supplied by the reading of the King's MS.]Dictatus.
  • ENDYTYN', or indytyn̄' scripture and feyre speche. Dicto.
  • ENDYTYN' or (inditen of, P.) tres∣pace. Indicto.
  • ENDYTYNGE, or indytynge of feyre speche, or scripture. Dictamen.
  • Page  140ENDYTYNGE (or indytinge, K.) or trespace. Indictacio.
  • ENDYVE, herbe. Endivia.
  • ENDLES. Infinitus, interminabilis.
  • ENDE METE, for dookelyngys (end∣mete, H. P. edmette, J. enmotte, W.) Lenticula, KYLW.
  • ENGYNNE, or ingyne. Machina.
  • ENGLYSSHE speche. Anglicum, (ydioma, P.)
  • ENGLYSHEMAN, or woman. An∣glicus.
  • ENGLONDE. Anglia.
  • ENHAWNCYN̄', or ynhawnsyn̄' (in∣haunten, P.) Extollo, exalto.
  • ENYOYĒN', or make ioy (enioyn, K. enioyen, P.) Exulto, gaudeo.
  • ENYYNTYSCHEN, or wastyn̄' (en∣yntyschyn, H.) Attenuo, exi∣nanio.
  • ENYN̄', or brynge forthe kynde∣lyngys.1. [The verb to ean or yean, which is commonly applied only to the bringing forth of lambs, here appears to have had anciently the more general signification of the word from which it is derived, Ang. Sax. eanian, eniti, parturire. See Somner, Nares, and Richardson.]Feto.
  • ENMY. Inimicus, hostis, emulus.
  • (ENMYTE, P. Inimicitia, hostilitas.)
  • ENOYNTYD. Inunctus.
  • ENOYNTYN̄', (or innoyntyn, K.) supra in ANOYNTYN̄'.
  • ENOYNTYN̄', or gresyn̄', or ley yn' to a thynge softe matere. Linio
  • ENOYNTYNGE. Inunctio.
  • ENTYRFERYN̄'. Intermisceo.
  • ENTYRYD, or intyryd, as dede men. Funeratus.
  • ENTYRYN̄' (or intyryn, P.) dede mēn'. Funero, C. F. infunero, C. F.
  • ENTYREMENT, or yntyrment. Funerale.
  • ENTYRME(N)TYN̄' (entermentyn, K. P.) Intromitto (vel inter∣mitto, K.)
  • ENTYRMENTYNGE. Intromissio.
  • ENTYRMENTOWERE (entermetoure, P.) Intromissor, intromissatrix.
  • ENTRE. Introitus, ingressus.
  • ENTRYD, or browȝte yn̄'. Induc∣tus, introductus.
  • ENTRYN̄' yn to a place. Introio, intro.
  • ENVYOWS, or invyowse. Invidus.
  • ERANYE, or spyde(r), or spynnare.2. [In the Latin-English Vocab. Roy. MS. 17 C. XVII. occurs among "nomina vermium, aranea, nerane;" the Medulla gives "muscaraneus, a litelle beste that sleethe the flye, the erayne;" and the Catholicon Angl. "Erane, a spyder or an atter∣copp, aranea." Ray mentions arayn as the name given to the larger sorts of spiders in Nottinghamshire, and the word aran, or arain, is still in use in Yorkshire. See ARAYNYE and SPYNNARE.]Aranea.
  • ERBE. Herba.
  • ERBE IŌN', or Seynt Ionys worte. Perforata, fuga demonum, ypericon.
  • ERBARE.3. [A garden was termed an ERBARE, or herber, from the French herbier, and the appellation must not be here confounded with arbour, the derivation of which is pro∣bably from Ang.-Sax. herberga, mansio. Chaucer, however, seems to use the word herber in both significations. "Viretum, locus pascualis virens, a gresȝerd, or an herber." MED. "An herber, herbarium." CATH. ANG. "Herbarium, an herber, ubi crescunt herbe, vel ubi habundant, or a gardyn." ORTUS. Caxton says, "Richer the carter shall lede dong on my land whan it shall be ered, and on my herber (courtil) whan it shall be doluen." Book for Travellers. Hall describes a curious pageant ex∣hibited at the entry of the Emperor Charles Vth into London, A. D. 1522, part of which was "a quadrant stage where on was an herber full of roses, lyllies, and all other flowers curiously wrought, and byrdes, beastes, and all other thynges of pleasure." Chron. 14 Hen. VIII.]Herbarium, virida∣rium, viridale.
  • Page  141ERCHEBUSCHOPPE. Archiepis∣copus, archipresul.
  • ERCHEDEKENE. Archidiaconus.
  • ERCHEPRESTE. Archipresbyter.
  • ERYE, or erthe (erde, K.)1. [It has been observed under the word BLO ERYE, that the reading of the MS. may perhaps be considered as corrupt, by an error of the scribe, who wrote y for þ; but it must be observed that similar errors are of very rare occurrence in this MS. and that the words are here placed in their proper order, as written with a y, whilst ERTHELY will be found in its place afterwards, the letter þ being in the Anglo-Saxon alphabet usually placed at the end, and in the Promptorium next after w. In an early MS. of the Medulla Grammatice, in the Editor's possession, which is equally free from the use of the character y instead of þ, which towards the later part of the XVth century became very general, occurs the word "gliteus, eryen."]Terra, humus, tellus.
  • ERYYN', or of the erthe. Terrenus.
  • ERTHE QWAKE, or erþe dene (er∣dyn, or erde qwave, K. erthdyn, P.)2. ["Ab erthe dyne, terremotus, or an erthe qvake." CATH. ANG. Mention occurs of "erthequaues" in the Legenda Aur. f. xxv. Ang.-Sax. eorð-dyn, terrae motus, cwacung, tremor. Robert of Gloucester uses the words erþgryþe, and erthegrine, signifying an earthquake.]Terremotus, sisimus, C. F.
  • ERNDE, or massage (erdyn, K. H. erden, P.) Negocium, nuncium.
  • ERE of a beste (man, K.) Auris, auricula.
  • ERE of corne. Spica.
  • ERE of a vesselle. Ansa.
  • ERYSY. Herisis.
  • ERYTYKE. Hereticus, heretica.
  • ERYAR of londe. Arator, glebo, C. F. georgicus, C. F.
  • ERYDAY, or eueryday. Quotidie.
  • ERYYN' londe.3. ["To ere, ubi to plughe." CATH. ANG. Palsgrave gives the verbs to ere, or to erye land, in the sense of ploughing; "he hath eared his lande, God send hym good innyng. To erye the yerthe, labourer." Harrison, in his description of Britain, B. ii., c. 24, speaking of the numerous antiquities turned up by the plough, says that "in the be∣ginning of the same Kings daies (Henry VIII.) also at Killeie a man found as he eared, an arming girdle harnessed with pure gold," with spurs of gold, and other precious things, of which part were in the possession of one Dr. Ruthall. Holinsh. Chron. i., 217. Ang.-Sax. erian, arare.]Aro.
  • ERYYNGE of londe. Aracio.
  • ERYTAGE. Hereditas.
  • ERLE, lorde. Comes.
  • ERLDĀM. Comitatus.
  • ERLY, or by-tymys yn þe morn∣y(n)ge. Mane (tempestive, P.)
  • EERLONDE (Erlond, K.) Hiber∣nia, Tanatos, C. F.
  • ERMYNE for forowrys (ermyns or furre, P.) Erminius, C. F.
  • ERMYTAGE. Her(e)mitorium.
  • ERMYTE (eremyte, P.)4. [From the Anglo-Saxon times until the Reformation, hermits, as well as anchorites or recluses, were a numerous class in England; many curious particulars regarding them have been brought together by Fosbroke, in his British Monachism, p. 503. The essential difference between the hermit and the ANKYR, or recluse, the terms occurring in the Promptorium, appears to be defined by Giraldus in his epistle to Abp. Langton, where he makes use of the following expression: "Heremitae solivagi—Anachoritae conclusi." Ang. Sacra, ii., 436. They had both, however, a fixed dwelling-place, al∣though differing in certain conditions; the establishment of an hermitage was among those acts which in former times served to testify, in a signal manner, of the piety of the founder, or his gratitude for divine protection. Thus it appears by Pat 1 Hen. IV. that, having landed in Holderness, on his return after many years of banishment, and been seated on the throne, one of the first acts of that sovereign was the precept "de heremitagio aedificando apud quendam locum vocatum Ravenescrosbourne, in quo Rex ultimo suo adventu applicuit." A curious evidence of the high respect and estimation in which recluses and hermits were held at this period, is afforded by the will of Henry, Lord de Scrop, A. D. 1415, whose bequests in their favour are singularly numerous and detailed. Rymer, ix, 275. ]Heremita.
  • Page  142ERNEST, supra in ARNEST, hansale; et . . . . . a(r)ra, arabo, strena.
  • ERNEST, ceryowste (or arnest, K.) Seriositas.
  • ERNESTLY. Seriose.
  • ERNYN̄', as horse (eerne, P.)

    1. The verb to erne or yerne, signifying to hasten, or run as an animal, Ang.-Sax. yrnan, currere, has not been sufficiently distinguished from the verb to yearn, Ang.-Sax. ȝeornian, desiderare, expressive of anxious longing or deep affection. The former occurs in several of the old romances; thus it is related of the wonderful long-legged race that Alexander found running bare-foot in the Indian forest,

    "Every wilde dere astore,
    Hy mowen by cours ernen tofore."

    K. Alis. line 5003.

    So also of the King of Navarre, when he charged forward to meet the Soudan's cham∣pion,

    "Vpon a stede he gan yerne
    With sper and scheld."

    Octouian, line 965.

    See also line 1934, where it is written "erne." It expresses also the strenuous move∣ment of the sailor.

    "The maryners awey gonne skylle,
    And yorne awey, with good wylle
    Well hastily."

    Ibid. line 561.

    In Piers Ploughman's Vision it is used to signify the flow of water, or running of tears.

    "And then welled water for wicked workes,
    Egrely ernyng out of men's eyen."

    Passus 20.

    Laneham, in his curious account of the reception of Elizabeth at Kenilworth Castle, in 1575, uses the word in describing the eager course of the stag-hound; "the earning of the hoounds in continuauns of their crie, ye swiftnes of the deer, the running of footmen, the galloping of horsez . . . mooued pastyme delectabyl." Bishop Kennett, in his Glossarial Coll. notices the sense of the word to earn, as used in the North, which is given also by Brockett and Jamieson; "to earn, to run as chees doth. Earning, chees rennet, Bor. from Sax. yrnen, currere." Lansd. MS. 1033.

    Cursito.
  • ERTARE. Irritator, irritatrix.
  • ERTYN'. Irrito.
  • ERTYNGE. Irritacio.
  • Page  143ERWYGLE (erewygyll, P.)1. [The earwig is still, according to Forby, called eriwiggle in Norfolk, but it appears to be only a local corruption, as the word is usually written more conformably to its Ang. Saxon original, ear-wiȝȝa, vermis auricularis. Thus in a Vocabulary, Harl. MS. 1002, is found "auriolus, Anglice a ȝerwygge;" and Palsgrave gives "Erwygge, a worme." See ARWYGYLL.]Au∣realis, UG. in auris.
  • ERTHELY. Terrene.
  • ERTHLY (or of erthe made, P.) Terrenus, terrestris.
  • EES, fyschys mete on a hoke (or boyght for fisshes, P.)2. [This curious word appears to be a Latinism; but is, perhaps, more directly taken from the old French, "Esche; appât, amorce; esca." ROQUEF.]Esca, escarium, KYLW.
  • ESCHE, tre. Fractinus (fraxinus, P.)
  • ESCH KEY, frute. Clava, C. F. in fractinus.
  • ESE, or cowmfort. Levamen, consolamen.
  • ESE, or reste. Quies (requies, P.)
  • ESY. Quietus.
  • ESY, or soft, as wedyr. Tranquillus.
  • ESY, or softe yn' sterynge. Lentus.
  • ESYLLE.

    3. This word is used by Chaucer and Lydgate, who in the Troy Book speaks

    "Of bitter eysell, and of eager wine."

    "Acetum, ayselle or bytter wyne." MED. GRAMM. "Acetum, aysyl, or vinegre." Roy. MS. 17 C. XVII. "Acetum, ayesell; Oxigalus, aysell menged." ORTUS. It occurs also in the Forme of Cury. Ang.-Sax. eisile, aisil, acetum.

    Acetum.
  • ESYLY. Quiete, tranquille.
  • ESYLY, or sokyngly. Sensim, paulatim.
  • ESYN̄' or charge, or grevowsnesse. Allevio.
  • ESYN̄', or cukkyn', or schytyn̄' (or voydyn as man at priuy place, K. cuckyn, H. kackyn, P.) Ster∣coriso, merdo, egero, CATH.
  • ESYN' yn herte, of hevynesse. Quieto, delinio.
  • ESPE, tre. Tremulus.
  • EST. Oriens.
  • EESTERNE. Pascha.
  • ESTWARDE. Orientalis (orien∣taliter, P.)
  • EST WYNDE. Eurus.
  • ETYN̄'. Manduco, comedo, ves∣cor, CATH. mando, prandeo, edo.
  • ETYNGE. Manducacio, commestio.
  • ETYNGE HOWSE. Pransorium, CATH.
  • ETYNGE appulle tre. Esculus.
  • EWARE.4. [This word usally signifies a vessel for water; "ewer to wasshe with, aiguier," PALSG.; its meaning seems here to be transferred from the ewer to the person by whom it is carried. The Medulla gives "aquarius, aquaria, a waturberere." Ang. Sax. hwer, huer, cacabus. Among the domestics of the Earl of Essex, mentioned in his will. 1361, occurs "Davy, q'est Barber et Ewer." Nichols' Roy. Wills, 53.]Aquarius vel (aqua)ria.
  • EVENYN̄', or make evyn̄'. Equo, coequo, adequo.
  • (EUEN in menynge, or clothynge, P. Uniformis, et inde uni∣formiter.)
  • EVYN', a-lyke. Equus, equalis.
  • EVYNHOODE (evynhede, P.) Equa∣litas, equitas.
  • EVENEHOLDE, or euenelde (even∣olde, K. euyn olde, P.)5. ["Evyn eldes, coetaneus, coevus, colectaneus, equevus." CATH. ANG. "Coetaneus, unius et ejusdem etatis, euen olde." ORTUS. Horman says, "lyke as I se my son do for his frende and euenȝelde (equalis) and help hym in his maters, so it is right that we olde men shuld help and do eche for oder." Ang.-Sax. efen-eald, coevus.]Coevus, coetaneus.
  • Page  144EVENYNGE, þe laste parte of þe day. Vesper, vespera, CATH. sero, UG. in sereno.
  • EVESE, or evesynge of a howse.

    1. The term evesynge, from the Ang.-Sax. evesung, tonsura, evese, margo, occurs in the Gloss on G. de Bibelesworth; MS. at Middle Hill.

    "Et ceueroundel (sparewe net) à la ceuerounde (at þe euesinge)
    Prent le musshoun et le arounde (swalewe)."

    "Seuerunder à la severunde (a serundel at þe eueses)" Arund. MS. 220, f. 301, b. It would seem hence that it was usual to take small birds, as the muskeron, or sparrow, and the swallow, by means of a net adjusted to the house eaves; they probably served, as they do still in Italy and Southern Europe, as articles of food. In Piers Ploughman's Vision are mentioned "Isykles in evesynges;" and in the Creed "Orcheyarde and erbers evesed wel clene;" in which instance the word seems to be used precisely in the sense of the Ang.-Saxon verb efesian, tondere, unless it may signify that the erber, or garden of herbs, was neatly hedged in. The Medulla renders "intonsus, vnevesed. Antipophara, an evesynge." In the North of England the eaves are called easings. "Severonde, the eaue, eauing, or easing of a house." COTGR.

    Stillicidium, imbrex, imbricium, CATH. domicilium.
  • EVERY DAY. Quotidie.
  • EVESTERRE. Esperus, vesper, CATH.
  • EVYDENS. Evidencia.
  • EVYL. Malus.
  • EVYL, or sekenesse. Infirmitas.
  • EVYL HAPPE, or evyl chefe.2. [The word chefe, signifying chance or fortune, has occurred already, but in the MS. is written, as it would seem erroneously, CHEP. It appears to be taken from the French, chef, chief, which, according to Roquefort, implies not only the head, or the commence∣ment of a thing, but the end, issue, or extremity. Chaucer, in the Merchant's second Tale, speaks of "the boncheff and the myscheff;" and in the account of William Thorpe's examination by Abp. Arundel in 1407, published by Fox from a contemporary authority, it is related that he said, "if I consented to you to doo heere after your will for bonchefe or mischefe that may befall me in this life, I deme in my conscience that I were worthy herefore to be cursed of God."]In∣fortunium, diffortunium.
  • EUER LASTYNGE. Sempiternus, perpetuus, perhennis, eternus.
  • EVYRLASTYNGNESSE. Eternitas, perpetuitas, perhennitas.
  • EUERMORE Eternaliter, per∣petue, perhenniter (semper, K.)
  • EX, instrument. Securis.
  • EXAMYN̄', or apposyn̄', or a-sayyn̄ (posyn, H. posen, P.)

    3. The verb apposyn̄', which does not occur in the Harl. MS. in its proper place alphabetically, has here the same signification as that in which it is used by Chaucer, and many of the old writers, namely, of putting to the question, or examining judicially.

    "May I not axe a libel, Sire Sompnour,
    And answere ther by my procuratour,
    To swiche thing as men wold apposen me?"

    Frere's Tale.

    "I appose one, make a tryall of his lernyng, or laye a thyng to his charge. I am nat to lerne nowe to appose a felow, aposer." PALSG.

    Examino.
  • EXAWMPLE. Exemplum.
  • EXAWMPLERE. Exemplar.
  • EXAWMPLYN̄'. Exemplifico, ex∣emplo, CATH.
  • EXECUTOWRE. Executor, exe∣cutrix.
  • EXCESSE, or owterage. Excessus.
  • EXCESSE of drynke. Bibera, UG.
  • EXCESSE of etynge. Peredia, UG.
  • EXCLUDYD, or put owte. Ex∣clusus.
  • EXCLUDYNGE, or puttynge owte. Exclusio.
  • Page  145EXCUSABLE. Excusabilis.
  • EXCUSACYON'. Excusacio.
  • EXCUSYD. Excusatus.
  • EXCUSYN̄'. Excuso.
  • EXEMPTYDE (exempt, P.) Ex∣emptus.
  • (EXEMPCION, K. P. Exempcio.)
  • EXYLYD. Extorris, C. F. UG.
  • EXYLYN̄', or banyshēn'. Bannio, relego, UG. (exulo, K.)
  • EXPERYMENT. Experimentum.
  • EXPERTFULLE, be dede know∣ynge (expert full knowen, K. P.) Expertus.
  • EXPOSYCYON', or expownynge. Exposicio.
  • EXPRESSYN', or spekyn' owte opynly (shewen openly, P.) Ex∣primo.
  • EXTORCYON'. Extorcio, exactio, angaria.
  • EXTORCYONERE. Extortor, ex∣actor, predator, angarius, BRIT.
  • EXULTRE, or ex tre, supra in A, AXILTRE.
  • FABLE, or tale (fabyll, P.) Fabula.
  • FACE. Facies.
  • FACEET, booke (facet, K. faucet, P.) Facetus.
  • FACYN̄', or shewyn̄' boolde face. Effrono, CATH.
  • FACULTE. Facultas.
  • FACUNDE, or fayrnesse of speche.

    1. Chaucer, in the Assembly of Fowls, uses the word facond both as a substantive and an adjective, as in French, "Facond, éloquent; faconde, éloquence." ROQUEF. So also he says of Virginia,

    "Tho she were wise as Pallas, dare I saine,
    (Her facond eke full womanly and plaine)
    No counterfeited termes at all had shee
    To seeme wise."

    Doctor of Physic's Tale.

    In the Golden Legend it is said that "Martha was ryght faconde of speche, and curteys."

    Facundia, eloquencia.
  • FADYN', or lese the colowre. Marceo.
  • FADYR. Pater, genitor.
  • FADYR YN LAWE. Socer.
  • FADYR and modyr yn' one worde. Parens.
  • FADYRKYN̄', or modyrkyn̄' (fadyrs or moderys kin, K.) Parentela.
  • FADYRLESSE chylde. Orphanus, C. F.
  • FADER QWELLARE. Patricida.
  • FADME, or fadyme.2. [The ancient Anglo-Saxon measure of six feet, faeðem, ulna, the space of both arms extended, was, at the time the Promptorium was compiled, still used as a measure of length, and subsequently more exclusively applied to depth. Horman says, that "in a man that is of laufull stature, the lengthe fro the toppe of his heed to his hele, and fro the both toppys of his myddell fyngers, whan he makethe a vadome, is all one."]Ulna, CATH. in brachium, lacerta.
  • FADMYN' (fadomyn, P.) Ulno, CATH. in brachium.
  • FADEMYNGE. Ulnacio.
  • Page  146FAGYN̄', or flateryn̄'.

    1. "To fage, adulari, assentari, blandiri, blandificare, delinire, palpare. A fagynge, blandicia. Fagynge, blandus." CATH. ANG. This word is derived from the Ang.-Sax. faeȝnian, faeȝenian, gaudere, which has also the signification of flattering. Hardyng, relating the guileful practices of Vortigern on the weak King Constaunce, says,

    "Such subtyle meane to fage the Kyng he fande."

    Chron. c. lxvi.

    Coles gives "fage, a merry tale." Palsgrave gives the verb "I fagge from the trouthe (Lydgate); this terme is nat in our comen use." It may be questioned whether Drayton does not use the verb to fadge in this sense; but it is explained by the Glossarists as signifying only to agree, or accord; Ang.-Sax. feȝan, jungere.

    "With flattery my muse could neuer fadge."

    Pastorals, Ecl. 3.
    Adulor.
  • FAGYNGE, or flaterynge. Adulacio.
  • FAGOTT. Fassis, strues, CATH.
  • FAYNARE, or flaterere. Adulator.
  • FAYNE, or fayne (sic.)2. [It would at first sight appear from this reading of the MS. as also from a word that occurs subsequently, FORȜETYN̄, or forȝetyn̄, that the initial ff must have some special power of its own, and not merely represent the capital F. None such, however, can be assigned, and the readings are, probably, in both instances corrupted by the scribe. In the present case the correction appears to be FAYNE, or fawne, and in the second the true reading may be FORȜETYN̄, or forgetyn̄. "Fayne, ubi mery. Alacer, apricus, di∣lectabilis, hilaris. letus." CATH. ANG. Ang.-Sax. faeȝen, laetus. See FAWN'.]Libens.
  • FAYRE yn' bewte. Pulcher, ve∣nustus, decorus, bellus, C. F.
  • FAYRE CHYLDE.

    3. The appellation fair child, bel fils, or BEFYCE, which has occurred previously, was one of endearment or courtesy, afterwards used only to signify a son-in-law. Instances of its use are not infrequent; thus in Piers Ploughman's Vision, when Joseph relates to his father his dream that the sun, moon, and stars "hailsed hym all,"

    "Beau fitz, quod his fader,
    For defaute we shullen,
    I myself and my sones,
    Seche thee for neede."

    line 4819.
    Ephebus, epheba, CATH.
  • FAYRE, mery wedur or tyme (fayir as wedyr, K.) Amenus.
  • FAYRE SPEKAR. Orator, retor.
  • FAYRE SPECHE. Lepos, CATH. C. F. rethorica.
  • (FAYIRNESSE of speche, K. Fa∣cundia.)
  • FAYRNESSE of bewte. Decor, ve∣nustas, pulcritudo, species.
  • FAYRNESSE of wedur, and tyme. Amenitas.
  • FAYTOWRE.4. [A FAYTOWRE was, as it seems, a conjuror, or a quack-salver, so called from the French faiteor, or faiturier, a sorcerer; and thence the name was applied to itinerant pretenders to such skill, to mendicants, and generally to idle livers. "Faitard, faiteor, un parresseux." LACOMBE. The plant called quack-salver's turbith or spurge, the Tithymalus or Esula of the old botanists, Euphorbia, Linn. was much employed in homely physic, as also by the empirics in former times. Its virtues are detailed by Gerarde and Parkinson. See TITYMALLE. The MS. has similator, as also similacio.]Fictor, simulator, simulatrix.
  • FAYTOWRYS gresse, or tytymal (faytours grees, P.) Titimallus.
  • Page  147FAYTERYE (faytre, H. P.) Fictio, simulacio, ficticium.
  • FAYTOWRE, þat feynythe sekenesse for trowantyse (trowandyse, P.) Vagius, UG.
  • FAL. Casus, lapsus, ruina.
  • FALLARE, or he þat oftyn' tyme fallythe. Cadax, CATH. ca∣ducus, cadabundus, UG.
  • FALDYNGE, clothe.

    1. Compare ROW CLOTHE, as faldynge and other lyke, which occurs hereafter. The term faldyng, signifying a kind of frieze, or rough-napped cloth, is derived by Skinner from Ang.-Sax. feald, plica, because coarse wrappers or mantles were usually made of it. Chaucer describes the West Country shipman as clad

    "In a goune of falding to the knee."

    Cant. Tales, Prol.

    Nicholas, the Oxford clerk, had his books, and appliances of science,

    "On shelues all couched at his bed's hed;
    His presse icouered with a faldyng red,
    And all aboue there lay a gay Sautrie."

    Miller's Tale.

    Nich. de Schirburn, an ecclesiastic of York, bequeathed, in 1392, "tunicam de nigro faldyng lineatam;" and Ric. Bridesall, merchant of the same city, makes this devise; "lego patri meo meam armilausam, videlicet faldyng clok." Testam. Ebor. i. 173, 174. "Amphibalus, a sclaveyn, a faldynge or a dudd." MED. GRAMM. "A faldynge, amphibalus. A faldynge, plicacio, convolucio." CATH. ANG. This kind of cloth was supplied, probably, from the North of Europe, and identical with the woollen wrappers of which Hermoldus speaks, "quos nos appellamus Faldones;" Chron. Slav. i. c. l; called by Adam Bremensis "Paldones." Frieze received its name from Friesland, and the rough garments of that country are called by Andrew Borde "dagswaynes," as has been noticed above in the note on that word. The Polonie of Scotland may have re∣ceived its name from its Polish origin; see the curious observations on that word in the Supplement to Jamieson's Dictionary. These garments, as also the Irish mantles, much in request so late as the reign of Charles I. as appears by the Custom-house rates, were, probably, the same as the faldyng; the last were usually imported in pairs, upon which the duty, as rated in 1553, was 5s. and by the Kytson Household Book it appears that in 1573 the price of "a coople of Irish mantells" was 43s. History of Hengrave. "Endromis, vestis villosa de arietis pellibus facta, vel pallium forte villosum, &c. an yrysshe mantell." ORTUS. "Bracca, that kynde of a mantell whiche nowe commeth out of Ireland, or a longe garment made of roughe frise." ELYOT, 1542. Fallin signifies in Irish, according to Lluyd, a mantle, and the term appears to be iden∣tical with that used by Giraldus Camb. in his description of the Irish, composed in 1185; "caputiis modicis assueti sunt et arctis, trans humeros deorsum, cubito tenus protensis, . . . . sub quibus phalingis laneis quoque, palliorum vice, utuntur." Topog. Hibern. 1. iii. c. 10. The fashion of the phalingus is exhibited in marginal drawings in a valuable contemporary MS. of Giraldus, in the possession of Sir Thomas Phillipps; and it is described by the appellation coccula in the Life of St. Cadoc, MS. Landav. Eccl. as cited by Spelman, under that word. See further Tyrwhitt's Chaucer, and Ledwich's Antiquities of Ireland, 267.

    Falinge, amphibalus, C. F. birrus, C. F.
  • FALYYN̄', or faylyn̄'. Deficio.
  • FAYLYNGE, or fawte (falyynge, P.) Defectus.
  • FALLE, or mows trappe.2. [See hereafter MOWSFALLE. "A felle for myse, decipula. A mowse felle, mus∣cipula." CATH. ANG. Ang.-Sax. mus-fealle, muscipula.]Musci∣pula, decipula.
  • FALLYN̄', or ovyr throwyn̄'. Cado, ruo, CATH.
  • Page  148FALLE DOWNE to þe grownde, to dōn' worschyppe. Procido.
  • FALLYN', or happyn'. Accidit, evenit.
  • FALLYNGE downe, idem est quod FALLYNGE evylle, or londe yvelle.1. ["þe falland euylle, epilencia, comicius vel comicialis, morbus caducus, noxa, gerenoxa." CATH. ANG. Epilepsy, or the falling sickness, appears to have been in former times a very prevalent disorder, and had numerous appellations; Cotgrave and Sherwood give the following, in French, "le mal caduque, mal de terre, le mal S. Jean, le gros mal, le haut mal, mal d' Alcide, mal des comices, mal de Mahomet, mal de S. Valentin, maladie de S. Jean, maulubec, malubec." See LONDE IVYL.]Epilencia, vel morbus caducus.
  • FALSE. Falsus.
  • FALSE, and vntrosty. Perfidus.
  • FALSE, and deceyvable, and yvel menynge. Versutus, versipellis, UG. in verto.
  • FALSHEED. Falsitas.
  • FALSHEED yn' boke, for yvel wryt∣ynge. Menda, CATH. C. F. UG.
  • FALSYN', or make false. Falsifico.
  • FALSE MODDER, or wenche.2. [Mawther, in the East Anglian dialect, still signifies a girl, according to Forby and Moore; the explanation of the word carisia given in the Catholicon, has been adopted in the Ortus, "Carisia dicitur lena vetus et litigiosa, unde et fallaces ancille, quia veritate carent, Anglice, false seruauntes." See MODER, servaunte.]Ca∣risia, CATH.
  • FALSE WRYTER. Plastographus, CATH.
  • FALSE WRYTYNGE. Plastogra∣phia, CATH.
  • FALTRYN̄' yn þe tunge. Cespito, vel linguâ cespitare.
  • FALWE LONDE (falowen, P.) Novo, CATH.
  • FALOW, londe eryd. Novale, vel novalis, CATH. (UG. in neos, P.)
  • FAME, or loos of name.3. [See LOOS, or fame.]Fama.
  • FANN to clense wythe cornē.4. ["A fanne, capisterium, pala, vannus, ventilabrum." CATH. ANG. Ang.-Sax. fann, ventilabrum. The ancient form of this implement, explained in the Catholicon to be "instrumentum de vimine factum, in modum scuti, cribrum," has undergone little change during several centuries, as exhibited on the sepulchral brass at Chartham, in Kent, representing Sir Robert de Setvans, or de Septem Vannis, who died in 1306. The fan, or van, here appears both on the armorial surcoat, and the ailettes; the bearing, which is a curious example of the arma cantantia, or armes parlantes, appears to have been, not seven vans, but three, as given in the Roll of Arms, t. Edw. II. Cott. MS. Calig. A. XVIII. A faithful representation of this curious memorial has been given by Messrs. Waller in their valuable Series of Monumental Brasses.]Vannus, CATH.
  • FANE of a stepylle, or oþer lyke.

    5. "A fayne of a schipe, cheruchus, et cetera ubi a wedercoke." CATH. ANG. Ang. Sax. fana, vexillum. Chaucer uses this word repeatedly,

    "O stormy peple, unsad and euer untrewe,
    And undiscrete, and changing as a fane!"

    Clerke's Tale.

    Among the costs of the construction of a dormitory, at Burcester Priory, in 1424, is a charge for "truncis de ferro, cum ij ventilogiis, viz. Vanys de tyn, ponendis super utrumque finem dormitorii;" Kennett's Paroch. Ant. ii., 254; and in the accounts of Thomas Lucas, Solicitor-Gen. to Henry VII. for the building of Little Saxham Hall, in 1507, is the entry, "a vane for my vise (winding stairs); iv vanys for my bruge." Rokewode's Hist of Suff. 151. Chaucer, in the Manciple's Prologue, alludes to the rural sport of justing "at the fan," in some MSS. "van;" which has been explained as sig∣nifying a kind of quintain, so termed from its revolving like the fane of a weather-cock. In the curious version of Vegecius, Roy. MS. 18 A. XII. a passage occurs, however, which would lead to the supposition that Chauser's allusion refers to a rural conflict, with the winnowing fun, by way of shield; it declares "how olde werriours were wont to iuste ith fannes, and pley with the pil, or the pale;" and that tyros or young sol∣diers ought to have "a shelde made of twigges sum what rounde, in maner of a gredryn, the whiche is clepede a fanne—and therwith they sholde haue maces of tree." B. l, c. xi. See QUYNTYNE hereafter.

    Cherucus, ventilogium.
  • Page  149FANGYN̄, or latchyn̄ (lachyn or hentyn, K. H.)1. [To fang or seize, Ang.-Sax. fang, captura, fangen, captus, is a verb used by R. Brunne, and various writers, as late as Shakespeare. See UNDERFONGYN̄, and LATCHYN̄ hereafter.]Apprehendo.
  • FANNE corne, or oþer lyke. Van∣no, CATH.
  • FANTASY, or fantan̄. Fantasma, fantasia, CATH.
  • FANVN', or fanēn' (fanon̄, P.)2. [The etymology of this appellation of the sacred vestment, termed also the maniple, is uncertain; the Latin pannus has been suggested, the German Fahne, or the Ang. Saxon word of the like signification, fana, vexillum. The resemblance of the maniple to the penon on the lance, called in France fanon, or phanon, is obvious. The word can hardly, however, be of Ang.-Saxon derivation, as in Aelfric's Glossary, written towards the close of the Xth cent. the maniple is termed "manualis, handlin;" and among the gifts of Bishop Leofric to Exeter Cathedral, about 1050, are mentioned "iv subdiacones handlin." MS. Bodl. Auct. D. 2, 16. Leo IV. P.P. towards the middle of the IXth cent. ordained thus, "nullus cantet sine amictu, sine albâ, stolâ, fanone et casulâ;" and a contemporary writer, Rabanus Maurus, says, "quartum sacerdotis indumentum mappula sive mantile est, quod vulgo fanonem vocant." Inst. Cler. c. 18. The original intention and use of the maniple is explained by Alcuin and Amalarius, writers of the same period, as follows: "Mappula, que in sinistrâ parte gestatur, quâ pituitam oculorum et narium detergimus." Shortly after, however, the rich and massy ornament bestowed upon the fanon rendered it unsuitable for its original purpose. A specimen discovered at Durham, in the tomb attributed to St. Cuthbert, is still preserved there; it is elaborately ornamented with needle-work, on a ground woven with gold, and was wrought, as appears by inscriptions upon it, by direction of Aelfleda, Queen of Edward the Elder, for Frithelstan, consecrated Bp. Winchester A.D. 905. It was probably brought to Durham, with other precious gifts, by Athelstan, the successor of Edward, in 934. This fanon measures 32¼ in. exclusively of a fringe at the ends. 1¾ in. deep; and its breadth is 2¼ in. Elaborate drawings of this inte∣resting relic, and of the stole discovered with it in 1827, are in the possession of the Society of Antiquaries. They are both ornamented with figures of saints, by which, and other representations, it appears that the fanon was at that period worn loosely thrown over the back of the hand, as on the Bayeux Tapestry in the representation of Abp. Stigant; but subsequently it was attached closely round the wrist. In a few instances the fanon appears carried on the right, instead of the left hand, an example of which occurs in the Bible of Charles the Bald, MS. of the IXth cent. See Montf. Mon. Franc. 1, pl. xxvi. The fanon was usually of the same suit, de eâdem sectâ, as the stole, and the parures of the amice and the alb; the material of which they were formed was most costly. Among the gifts of Will. de Elintune to Rochester, it is recorded, "dedit stolam et fanum de nigrâ purpurâ—de viride ciclade—de albâ purpurâ," &c. Reg. Roff. 119. They were ornamented with gems, pearls, and goldsmith's work, as appears by the inventories of the treasuries at Old St. Paul's and Lincoln, printed by Dugdale. It must be observed that some distinction seems to have been made in Italy in the XIth cent. between the fanon and the maniple, but its precise nature has not been ascertained. See the account of the gifts of Abbot Desiderius, Chron. Monast. Casin. Murat. iv. 429, 487. "Fannell for a preeste's arme, fanon." PALSG. "Fanon, a fannell or maniple, a scarfe-like ornament worne on the left arme of a sacrificing Priest." COTG.]Fanula, DICC. manipulus, CATH.
  • Page  150FARDELLE, or trusse. Fardellus.
  • FARE, or boost. Jactancia, ar∣rogancia.
  • FARE, or ledynge of lyfe. Valitudo.
  • FARE, of schepemen̄ be þe see. Navigium.
  • FARE MAKERE, or bostowre. Jac∣tator, philocompus, C. F.
  • (FARE WELL, P. Vale, valete.)
  • FARE WELLE, or elle mōn' (sic) (badly, K. P.) Valeo, C. F.
  • FARYN̄' owte of þe cuntre. De∣patrio.
  • FARYN̄' ovyr þe see, or watur (on the see, P.)

    1. To fare, Ang.-Sax. faran, ire, is a verb frequently used by the earlier writers, as R. Brunne, Rob. of Gloucester, Langtoft, and Chaucer.

    "Ten thousand prest and yare,
    Into batail for to fare."

    K. Alisaunder, line 1188.

    Sir Thomas de la More, in his Life of Edward II. relates that at Bristol, on the way to Berkeley Castle, Thomas de Gorney put upon his head a crown made of hay, and the soldiers "ironiâ nimis acerbâ dixerunt, fare forth Syr Kynge." Ed. Camden, p. 602. Minot, speaking of the journey of Edward III. into Brabant, in 1338, says,

    "Unto France fast will he fare,
    To confort hym with grapes."

    Various significations of this verb are given by Palsgrave, "I fare, I go a iournay. I fare with one, or entreate hym well or yuell. I fare, I playe at a game so named at the dyse. I fare, I resemble another thyng in my dealing. I fare, I take on, as one doth yt is in sorowe." Occasionally it is used in the sense of compelling to go; thus, in the Towneley Mysteries, Herod, enraged at the birth of Christ, declares,

    "Under my feete I shalle thaym fare,
    Those ladys that wille (not) lere my lare."

    p. 120.
    Meo, transmeo, navigo.
  • FARCYD, as metys. Farcitus.
  • FAARCE mete (farsen, P.) Farcio, farcino, CATH.
  • FARSURE. Farsura, farsumen.
  • FART. Trulla, bombus, CATH.
  • FARTARE. Pedo.
  • FARTON̄'. Pedo, CATH.
  • FARTYNGE. Peditura, bombizacio.
  • FACELYN̄', as clothys (faselyn, P.)2. [Palsgrave gives the verb "I fasyll out, as sylke or veluet dothe, Ie raule; my sleve is fasylled, rauelée. Fasyll of clothe, cassure." ? Ang.-Sax. faes, fimbria. The term to ravel, now generally used in this sense, thus appears to be derived, not from the verb to reave, or tear away, as it has been supposed, but from the French.]Villo.
  • FASYLLE of a clothe (or other lyke, P.) Fractillus, C. F. (vil∣lus, CATH. P.)
  • FASSYONE, or knowlechynge (fa∣cyon, P.) Fassio, confessio.
  • FASSYONE, or factyone, forme of Page  151 makynge. Forma, formefactura, formefactio.
  • FAST, or bowndyn', or festyd. Vinctus, ligatus.
  • FAST, or festyd be clevynge to, or naylynge. Fixus, confixus.
  • FASTE of abstynence (or fastynge, K.) Jejunium.
  • FASTARE. Jejunator, jejunatrix.
  • FAST GONGE, or schroffetyde, or gowtyde (fastyngon, P.)

    1. "Fastyngange, carniprivium." CATH. ANG. Palsgrave gives "at fastyns, at Fastyngonge, à Quaresme prenant." Blount, in his Dictionary of Hard Words, 1680, gives "fasguntide" as a Norfolk word, which Forby considers as now obsolete. In the statement made by the citizens of Norwich respecting a riot that occurred in 1441, termed Gladman's Insurrection, they declare that it originated in the circumstance that the said Thomas Gladman "on Tuesday, in the last ende of Cristemesse, viz. Fastyn∣gonge Tuesday, made a disport with his neyghbours, coronned as Kyng of Cristemesse." Blomf. Hist. ii. 111. A detailed account of such local usages at Shrove-tide will be found in Brand's Popular Antiqu. vol. i. Hardyng, relating the conflict between the Yorkists and Queen Margaret, which closed with the battle of St. Alban's, Shrove Tuesday, Febr. 17, 1461, says,

    "And southward came thei then therfore
    To Sainct Albones, vpon the fastyngange eue (al. fastirne.)"

    Chron. c. 237.

    The term is compounded from Ang.-Sax. faesten, jejunium, and ȝonȝ, iter, or going, the commencement of Lent. "Caresme prenant, Fastnes, or Shrove Tuesday." COTG.

    Carni∣privium (et carnibrevium, P.)
  • FASTYN̄'. Jejuno.
  • FASTYNGE. Jejunus, impransus, C. F.
  • FASTYNGE, idem quod FASTE.
  • FATE, vesselle.2. ["A fatte, cupa, cuva. A fattmaker, cuparius." CATH. ANG. "Cupa, a coupe, or a fatte, or stope." ORTUS. "Fatte, a vessel, quevue. Fatte to dye in, cvuier à taindre." PALSG. "Cuve, an open tub, a fat, or vat." COTG. Ang.-Sax. faet, fat, vas. Caxton, in the Book for Travellers, enumerates "thinges that ben vsed after the hous,—platers, disshes, saussers, sallyers, trenchours; these thinges shall ye fynde of tree, and of erthe. Now after, a disshe fat (esculier) where me leyeth therin the forsaid thinges, and the spones of tree." There was a local measure of grain, called a fat, identical with the cupa, cupus, or cuva, and which contained a quarter, or 8 bushels. The Stat. 1 Hen. V. c. 10, recites that it had been ordained that there should be only one measure, namely 8 bushels to the quarter; but that the purveyors of the Crown were accustomed to take 9, and the merchants and citizens of London take of all sellers the same quantity, as a quarter of wheat, "par un mesure usé deins la dicte Citée, appellé le faat, ove un bussell mys sur le dit faat." The word coupe does not occur in the Promptorium, in the same sense as FATE, but is so given in the Ortus and the Cath. Ang. "A cowpe, cupa. A cowper, cuparius." Caxton says in the Book for Travellers, "Paule the couper maketh and formaketh the keupis (refaict les cuues.)"]Cuva, C. F. cupa vel cupus, C. F. DICC.
  • FAT, or fet. Pinguis.
  • FAT FOWLE, or beste, mestyde to be slayne (masted, P.)3. [See MASTYN̄ beestys, hereafter. Ang.-Sax. maestan, saginare.]Al∣tile, UG. in alo.
  • (FATYN, or lesyn colour, K. Mar∣ceo.)
  • FATNESSE. Pinguedo, crassitudo, adeps.
  • Page  152FAWCETT.1. [Clepsidra is explained in the Ortus to be the same as "docillus, Anglice a perser or a spygote." See DOTTELL, dossell, above. "Faucet, to drawe wyne, faucet, broche à estovper le vin." PALSG. This word is derived from the French, faulcet.]Clipsidra.
  • FAWCHUN, knyfe or swerde.

    2. "A fawchone, rumphea, framea, spata." CATH. ANG. This appellation of a sword with a curved blade is taken from the French fauchon, a diminutive of faux, from the Latin falx. The fauchon is frequently mentioned by Guiart, who wrote at the close of the XIIIth cent. and seems to have been identical with the falso, often named at that period, and the falcio, which is included among weapons that monks were forbidden to bear by the Stat. Cistert. Ord. A.D. 1202. An early instance of the use of this weapon occurs in the curious designs of t. Edward I. discovered in the Painted Chamber at Westminster, given in the Vetusta Monumenta. When Launfal is assailed by the lords of Lombardy, in unequal conflict,

    "Sir Launfal brayde out hys fochon,
    And, as lyȝt as dewe, he layde hem donne."

    Launfal Miles. Cott. MS. Calig. A. II.

    It must be observed, however, that the fauchon and falso seem occasionally to be named with long-handled weapons, and that the falchion may occasionally have been a kind of bill, with the curved or scythe-shaped blade, whence the name was taken. Chaucer uses the word as signifying a sword, and in Piers Ploughman's Vision allusion occurs to St. Paul, keeping the gate of heaven with his "fawchon." Palsgrave gives "Fawchyon, a wepen, marguy baston de ivif;" and Cotgrave, "Malcus, a faulchion, hangar, wood-knife."

    Machera, C. F. et CATH. semis∣pata, UG.
  • FAWKENERE (fawconer, P.) Fal∣conarius.
  • FAWKŌN', hawke. Falco.
  • FAWN', supra, idem quod FAYNE.
  • FAWNYN̄' as howndys. Applaudo, blandior.
  • FAWNYNGE of howndys. Plausus, applausus.
  • FAVORYN̄'. Faveo.
  • FAVOWRE. Favor.
  • FAWTE, or defawte. Defectus.
  • FAWTY, or defawty. Defectivus.
  • FAWTOUR, or meyntynore. Fautor.
  • FEE. Feodus.
  • FEBYLLE, or weyke. Debilis, im∣becillus, BRIT.
  • FEBYLLE, or lytylle worthe. Exilis.
  • FEBYLNESSE, or weykenesse. De∣bilitas.
  • FEBYLNESSE, or lytylle of valure. Exilitas, invalitudo.
  • FEBLYN̄', or make feble (febelyn, P.) Debilito.
  • FEDDE wythe mete. Pransus, pastus.
  • FEDYN' wythe mete. Cibo, pasco, esco, CATH.
  • FEDYNGE, or fode. Pastum, ali∣mentum, alimonia, victus.
  • FEEDE chyldrȳn' wythe pappe mete. Papo, C. F.
  • FEDYR. Penna, pluma.
  • FEDYRFU, or fedyrfoy, herbe. Febriffuga.
  • FEDERYN̄', or feteryn̄'. Compe∣dio, CATH.
  • FEDERYS, or feterys of prysōn' (fettirs, P.) Compes.
  • Page  153FEFFYD. Feofatus (feofactus, P.)
  • FEFEMENT. Feofamentum.
  • FEFOWRE. Feofatus.
  • FETCHE, corne, or tare (fehche, K.) Vicia, UG. in vincio, cro∣bus, C. F.
  • FETCHYN, or fettyn̄'. Affero.
  • FETCHYNGE, or fettynge. Alla∣tura.
  • (FEYAR, or fowar, infra in GOONGE FYRMAR.)1. [The word FEYAR, introduced here on the authority of Pynson's edition, is derived from the verb to fie or fey, used by Tusser, and still known in the East Anglian dialect. "Escureur, a scowrer, cleanser, feyer." COTG. See FYIN̄, and FOWAR.]
  • FEYNARE (feynour, P.) Fictor, simulator.
  • FEYNYD. Fictus.
  • FEYNYD thynge. Ficticium.
  • FEYNYD sleythe of falshede (feyn∣yng, sleithe, H. feyned sleyte, P.) Com(m)entum, CATH. C. F.
  • FEYNYN̄'. Fingo.
  • FEYNYN̄' yn syngynge, or synge lowe.2. [Palsgrave says, "I feyne in syngyng, Ie chante à basse voyx. We may nat synge out, we are to nere my lorde, but lette us fayne this songe."]Succino, CATH.
  • FEYNYNGE. Fictio, simulacio.
  • FEYNT. Segnis.
  • FEYNT HERTYD. Vecors.
  • FEYNTNES of herte, or coward∣nesse (feyntyse of herte, or cow∣ardyse, K. P.) Vecordia.
  • (FEYNTYN, K. H. feynten, P. feōte, J. feyte, W.)3. [In the version of Vegecius attributed to Trevisa, it is recommended that the host in marches "be not highely fayntede with iourneyeng of weyes in the hete of the day," but in summer should rest from "vndren' to myde ouernone." B. iii. c. 2.]Fatesco.
  • FEYNTENESSE, or feyntyse (feble∣nesse, P.) Segnicies.
  • FEYNTLY. Segniter.
  • FEYYR, or feyre. Nundine.
  • FEYGHTE, or fyghtynge (feyt, or feytyng, K.) Pugna, certa∣men.
  • FEYGHTARE. Pugnator, certor, certator.
  • FEGHTARE, or baratowre (feyter, P.) Pugnax, C. F.
  • FEYGH̄TYN̄' (feytyn, K. feythtyn, H.) Pugno, CATH. bello, di∣mico.
  • FEYTHE. Fides.
  • FEYTHE BREKE(R), or comnant (breker.) Fidifragus,fidifraga.
  • FEYTHFULLE and trusty. Fidelis.
  • FEYTHEFULNESSE. Fidelitas.
  • FELLE, or fers.4. ["Felle, acer, acerbus, asper, atrox, austerus, ferox, &c. To be felle, barbarizare, sevire. To make felle, ferare. Felly, acriter. A fellnes, atrocitas, rigor, &c." CATH. ANG. "Fell or fierse, as a person is for modynesse. Fyers, fell, rigoreux, fier. Fell, or felonyshe, felonneux. Felnesse, despiterie." PALSG. Ang.-Sax. fell, crudelis, felnys, crudelitas.]Severus, ferus, fellitus, ferox (bilosus, felleus, atrox, P.)
  • FELA, or felowe (felawe, P.) So∣cius (consors, P.)
  • FELA, or felow at mete. Sodalis.
  • FELA, or felow yn' travayle. So∣cius.
  • FELA, or felow yn offyce. Col∣lega, CATH.
  • Page  154FELOW yn' walkynge by þe way (in iourney, P.) Comes.
  • FELA, or felow in scole. Consors. Socius in periculo, collega in officio, comes in itinere, consors in premio, sodalis in mensâ, vel in sede; hec UG. in sagio.
  • FELOWYS, y-knytte to-gedyr in wykydnesse. Complices, C. F. complex, UG. in plico.
  • FELOWLY. Socialiter, sodaliter.
  • FELYSCHEPE (felowshepe, P.) So∣cialitas, societas, contubernium.
  • FEELDE. Ager, campus, rus, arvum.
  • FELDEFARE, byrde (felfare, P.) Ruriscus.
  • FELEABLE. Socialis.
  • (FEELABYLL, P. Sensibilis.)
  • FELYN̄'. Sencio.
  • FELYN̄' wythe handys, or gropyn. Palpo.
  • FELLYN̄', or castyn̄' downe (fallen, P.) Prosterno, dejicio.
  • FELONE, soore.1. ["Carbunculus, the felone." ORTUS. "Felon, a sore, entracq." PALSG. "Furun∣culus, a soore called a felon; also a soore callid a cattes hear, whiche breketh out in the fingers with great wheales and moche peyne. Tagax, a felon, whiche happeneth on a mann's fynger." ELYOT. Baret gives "A fellon, vncomme, or catte's haire; a bile or sore that riseth in man's bodie, furunculus; Bossette dure, ou froncle, vng clou. A fellon, or impostumation vnder the rootes of the nailes, paronychia;" and Cotgrave, "Furuncule, a fellon, or whitlaw; Panary, a felon, or whitlaw, at the end of a finger." Gerard recommends as a remedy the Persicaria hydropiper, or arsmart, which, "bruised and bound upon an imposthume in the ioynts of the fingers (called among the vulgar sort a fellon or vncome,) taketh away the paine." Elyot explains the term uncome as follows: "adventitius morbus, syckenes that cometh without our defaute, and of some men is callyd an vncome."]Antrax, C. F. carbunculus, C. F.
  • FELONE, thef. Scelestus.
  • FELONYE. Scelus.
  • FEELTE, or qwylte.2. [The Catholicon explains filtrum to be so called "quia ex filis, i. pilis animalium fiat;" and the Ortus renders "fultrum, illud quod ornat lectum, sive lecti apodia∣mentum." The term felt appears to have signified, at a very early period, a material formed of wool, not woven, but compacted together, suitable even for a garment of defence, so that the gambeson is sometimes termed feltrum. "Centrum vel filtrum, felt." Gloss. Aelfrici. In Norfolk a thickly matted growth of weeds spreading by their roots, as couch-grass, is termed a felt.]Filtrum, CATH. C. F. fultrum, KYLW.
  • FELTRYKE, herbe.3. [This herb is the small centaury, which was called fel terre, and in Dutch Eerdegall, from the excessive bitterness, and possibly the deep yellow colour of its juice, which in some countries was used by women to dye their hair, when yellow hair was the pre∣valent fashion. By modern botanists it is known as the Erythraea centaurium. FEL∣TRYKE appears to be merely a corruption of the Latin name; Cotgrave gives "Sacotin, feaver-wort, earth-gall, common centory."]Fistra, fel terre, centaurea.
  • FELWE of a qwele (whele, P.) Cantus, C. F. CATH. timpanum, CATH. circumferencia.
  • FEMEL, no male. Femella.
  • FEMELLE. Feminius.
  • FEMYNYNE, or woman lyke. Mu∣liebris (femininus, P.)
  • FENNE.4. [FENNE has occasionally, as the Ang.-Sax. fenn, the abstract signification of mire. Thus in the version of Vegecius, Roy. MS. 18 A. XII. it is related that Scipio bid his Spanish prisoners cleanse and dig ditches, "with this reprouable scorne; ye ben worthy, he saide, to be blottede and spottede, foulede and defoulede with fenne and with drit of water (luto inquinari) and of blode, þat in tyme of werre ne were not, ne wolde nat be bespreynt ne be wette with ennemyes blode." B. iii. c. 10.]Labina, palus, CATH. UG.
  • Page  155FENCE, or defence of closynge (clothinge, P.) Defensio, muni∣cio, defensaculum, UG. in fenso.
  • FENCE, defence fro enmyes. Pro∣teccio, defensio.
  • FENCYD, or defencyd. Defensus, munitus, defensatus, UG.
  • FENSYN', supra in DEFENCȲN'.
  • FEENDE. Diabolus, demon.
  • FENDOWRE, or defendowre. De∣fensor, protector.
  • FENESTRALLE.1. [Before the general introduction of glazed windows, their place was supplied by framed blinds of cloth or canvas, termed fenestralls, which are mentioned in the accounts of the executors of Queen Eleanor, A.D. 1291, as follows: "pro canabo ad fenestrallas, ad scaccarium Reginae apud Westmonasterium, iijd." Household Expenses, presented to the Roxburghe Club by B. Botfield, Esq. p. 135. "Fenestrall, chassis de toille, ou de paupier (papier.)" PALSG. Horman says that "glasen wyndowis let in the lyght, and kepe out the winde; paper or lyn clothe straked acrosse with losyngys make fenestrals in stede of glasen wyndowes. I wyll have a latesse (clathrum) before the glasse for brekynge. I have many prety wyndowes shette with leuys goynge up and downe (canestellae quae attolli et demitti possunt)." Not long subsequently to the time when Horman wrote, glazed windows became so generally in use that the fenestrall was laid aside. Harrison, who wrote his description of England about 1579, speaks of "lattise made of wicker, or fine rifts of oke in chekerwise," formerly much used in country houses instead of glass, as being then obsolete. He speaks of the use of horn, selenite, and berill, for glazing windows, observing that of the last "an example is yet to be seene in Sudleie castell;" and states that glass had become so cheap and plentiful, being imported from Burgundy, Normandy, and Flanders, as well as made in England, of good quality, that every one who chose might have abundance. B. ii. c. 12. Holinsh. Chron. i. 187. Leland noticed "the Hawle of Sudley Castle glased with rownd Beralls." Itin. iv. f. 170, a; viii. f. 74, b.]Fenestrella, fe∣nestrale.
  • FENKYLLE, or fenelle.

    2. "Fenelle, or fenkelle, feniculum, maratrum." CATH. ANG. The numerous virtues of this herb are thus summed up in the King's Coll. MS. of the Promptorium:

    "Bis duo dat maratrum, febres fugat atque venenum,
    Et purgat stomacum, sic reddit lumen acutum."

    Macer gives a detailed account, in which the following remarkable passages occur: "þe edderes wole ete fenel, when her yen dasnyþ, and so she getiþ a-yene her clere sighte; and þer þoroghe it is founde and preved þat fenel doþ profit to mannis yene: þe yen þat ben dusked, and dasniþ, shul be anoynted wit þe ius of fenelle rotis medeled wit hony; and þis oynement shalle put a-way alle þe dasewenesse of hem, and make hem bryȝt." The virtue of fennel, in restoring youth, was a discovery attributed likewise by Macer to serpents; "þis prouiþ auctours and filisoferis, for serpentis whan men (sic) olde, and willeth to wexe stronge, myghty, and yongly a-yean, þei gon and eten ofte fenel, and þei become yongliche and myghty." MS. in the possession of H. W. Diamond, Esq. FENKYLLE is obviously a corruption of the Latin name; this herb is still called in German Fenchel, and in Dutch Venckel. In Piers Ploughman's Vision mention occurs of

    "A ferthing worth of fynkel-sede for fastynge daies."
    Feni∣culum, C. F. vel feniculus, DICC. (maratrum, P.)
  • Page  156FENKYLLE, or fenelle seede. Ma∣ratrum, C. F.
  • FENTE of a clothe.

    1. In the Assembly of Ladies, a poem attributed to Chaucer, Attemperaunce is described as arrayed in a blue gown of cloth of gold, in tabard-wise, purfled, or trimmed with fur, and set with pearls and diamonds.

    "After a sort, the coller and the vent,
    Like as armine is made in purfeling,
    With great pearles full fine and orient,
    They were couched all after one worching."

    The glossarist interprets vent as signifying "the fore-part;" but this does not suffi∣ciently explain the term. In the XIIIth Cent. the fent or vent appears at the collar of the robe, both in male and female costume, being a short slit closed by a brooch, and which served for greater convenience in putting on a dress so fashioned as to fit closely round the throat. This is shown by the effigies at Fontevrault, engraved by Stothard, and especially by those of Queen Berengaria, at the abbey of l'Espan, and of Richard I., recently discovered at Rouen. Archaeol. xxix. pl. xxi. In these instances it is suffi∣ciently apparent why the fent should be termed, as in the Promptorium, fibulatorium; but at a later period being considerably prolonged, the opening of the robe in front ex∣tending often much below the waist, a brooch was no longer sufficient to close it. At the period when Chaucer wrote, the fent was trimmed with rich furs, and the fastenings were ornaments of chased work, jewelled, of a very splendid description. They are termed in inventories "attaches," and exhibited on the effigies of Lady Mohun, and of Joan of Navarre, Queen of Henry IV., at Canterbury. The less richly decorated effigy of Queen Philippa, at Westminster, presents an example of the fent, simply closed by a lace; and the combination of furs and jewels in this part of costume appears in many MSS. which have furnished Strutt with examples, among which may particularly be mentioned Roy. MS. 16 G. V. See Strutt's Dresses, pl. xciv. The propriety of ap∣plying to the fent thus purfled and adorned, the term fimbria, as in the Promptorium, is evident, as likewise limbus, which is given by Ducange, on an ancient authority, as synonymous with fibulatorium. In the Wardrobe of Sir John Fastolf, A.D. 1459, there was "j jakket of red felwet, the ventis bounde with red lether." Archaeol. xxi. 253. "Fente of a gowne, fente." PALSG.

    Fibulatorium, C. F. fimbria.
  • FEER, or ferdenesse. Timor, terror, et cetera in D, drede, dredefulle.
  • (FERDFULL thinge, quat so it be, K. P. Terribilum, C. F.)
  • FER, or fer a-way. Alonge, procul, eminus, longe.
  • FERSSE (feers, P.) idem quod FELLE, supra.
  • FERCEHEDE. Ferocitas, severitas.
  • FERY over a watyr. Pormeus, CATH. UG. in neo.
  • FERYAGE. Feriagium, naulum, potomium, C. F. CATH.
  • FERYALLE. Ferialis.
  • FERYARE. Pormeus, CATH.
  • FERYBOOT. Portemia, C. F.
  • FERYN̄', or make a-ferde.

    2. The use of the verb to fear, in an active sense, is not uncommon.

    "That rybaude fered me with his loke,
    That confort to me coude I none take."

    Castell of Labour, 1506.

    "Absterrere, i. penitus terrere, Anglice, to fayr. Terreo, i. terrorem inferre, to feere." ORTUS. "I feare one, I make hym afrayde. I feare awaye, skarre away, as we do beestes or byrdes, dechasser." PALSG. Ang.-Sax. faeran, terrere. See FESYN̄'.

    Terreo, perterreo.
  • FERY PLACE, idem quod FERY.
  • FEERME, a rent. Firma.
  • FERME, and stabylle. Firmus, Page  157 ratus, unde dicitur in literâ attornatus, ratum et gratum, ferme and stabylle, CATH.
  • FERMERYE. Infirmaria, infir∣mitorium.
  • FERMYN̄', or take a þynge to ferme. Firmo, vel ad firmam accipio.
  • FERMOWRE. Firmarius.
  • FERROWRE, smythe.1. [In the will of the Earl of Essex, 1361, occur bequests "à Mestre Thomas le ferour, v. marcs; à un garson pur le ferour, xxs.; à un garson feurer, i. marc." Royal Wills, p. 50. Elyot renders "veterinarius medicus, a horseleche, or ferror," now called corruptedly a farrier. In the version of Pliny, by Holland, it is related that the Empress Poppaea "was knowne to cause her ferrers ordinarily to shoe her coach horses, and other palfries, &c. with cleane gold." B. xxxiij. c. 11. In the order of the Pageants of the Play of Corpus Christi, at York, 1415, are enumerated among the various trades, "smythes, fevers." Sharpe's Coventry Mysteries, p. 137. This last appellation is taken directly from the old French, fèvre, febvre, or ferre, a black∣smith.]Ferrarius, CATH. ferrator, COMM.
  • FEERTYR (fertyr, K. fert', P. fertur, J.)2. [Among the appliances of a sacred nature, there were feretra of two kinds; first, the bier for carrying the corpse to the grave, "feretrum, baere," Gloss. Aelfric., thus mentioned in the laws of Henry I., "amici extrahant mortuum, deferentes in fere∣trum, et portantes eum ad ecclesiam." By the Constitutions of Will. de Bleys, 1229, and Walter de Cantilupe, 1240, Bishops of Worcester, as also of Abp. Peckham, 1280, among the ornaments and requisites to be provided in every church, at the charge of the parishioners, was included "feretrum competens ad sepulturam mor∣tuorum." Wilkins, i. 623, 666; ii. 49. In its secondary sense feretrum signified a portable shrine, containing the relics of saints, and carried in processions on a frame similar to the ordinary bier; and also stationary shrines of similar fashion, but which it was not customary to display as gestatory ornaments, such as those of St. Cuthbert at Durham, or St. Thomas of Hereford, in the cathedral there. It is recorded in Reg. Roff. 120, that "Willielmus Rex Anglie magnus, in articulo mortis (1087) dedit—feretrum, cum altari gestatorio deargentato, et pallium cum leonibus." In 1355, Eliza∣beth de Clare, daughter of Gilbert Earl of Gloucester, made the following bequest: "Je devise à Seint Thomas de Hereford un ymage de n're dame, d'argent surorré, d'estre taché sur son fiertre." Roy. Wills, p. 31. In the ancient documents relating to the shrine of St. Cuthbert the term feretrum implies, as Mr. Raine states, not the shrine itself, but the quadrangular space or oratory wherein it stood: the keeper had the title of feretrarius. See Raine's Saint Cuthbert. Amongst numerous representations of the feretrum may be mentioned the procession of St. Alban's shrine, in the MS. of M. Paris, with drawings, supposed to be by his own hand, Cott. MS. Nero, D. I.; Strutt's Manners and Customs, i. pl. lxiv. One occasion on which it was customary to carry the feretra in procession, was at the parochial perambulations in Rogation week, a full account of which will be found in Brand's Popular Antiqu. vol. i. Horman, in his chapter of sacred matters, says, "We two muste beare the feretrum (tensam gestare) a procession in the gange dayes." The term "fertre" occurs in Langtoft's Chronicle; and in the Golden Legend mention is made of the "fyerte," or shrine of St. Alphey, f. 117, b. "Fierte, fiertre, fietre: Châsse, reliquaire, brancard." ROQUEF. The term feretrum in the MS. Ordinar. Ecc. Rotom. signifies the pyxis, wherein the consecrated Eucharist is deposited.]Feretrum.
  • FERVENTE. Fervens, fervidus.
  • FERUENTLY. Ferventer.
  • FERUOWRE. Fervor.
  • Page  158FERTHYN', or ferthynge. Qua∣drans.
  • FESAWNT, byrde.1. [The pheasant was brought into Europe from the banks of the Phasis, in Colchis, according to Martial, by the Argonauts; it was highly esteemed by the Romans, and possibly introduced by them into England. In default of positive evidence as to its existence here in early times, it can only be stated that about the time when the Promp∣torium was compiled, it had become sufficiently abundant in East Anglia. Thus in the Howard Household Book, amongst the costs incurred at Ipswich, in 1467, "whane Syr John Howard and Mastyr Thomas Brewse were chosen knyghtes of the shyre," occurs the item, "xij fesawntes, pryse xijs." Household Expenses, presented to the Roxburghe Club by B. Botfield, Esq. p. 399. "Ornix est gallus vel gallina silvestris, Anglice a fesande or a werkok." ORTUS. "A fesande, fasianus." CATH. ANG.]Fasianus, or∣nix, CATH.
  • FESYN̄', idem quod FERYN̄', supra.2. [R. Brunne uses the word "fesid," which Hearne explains as meaning whipped or beaten (p. 192.) Ang.-Sax. fesian, fugare.]
  • FEST, or teyynge (festnynge, P.) Ligamen.
  • FEST, or teyynge of a schyppe, or bootys (festnynge, P.) Scala∣mus, CATH. pronexium, C. F. restis, C. F.
  • FEESTE of mete and drynke. Fes∣tum, convivium.
  • FEEST, or fedynge of mete and drynke in holy chyrche.3. [The love-feasts, or 〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉 of the primitive Christians, were held in the churches; but this usage was suppressed by the Council of Constantinople, A.D. 691, and discoun∣tenanced by Gregory the Great, in his Letter to the British converts. It is probable that the author here refers solely to the primitive custom. There is no evidence that the practice of feasting in churches had been retained in any part of England; but it appears probable that the agape of the earlier times gave rise to the church-ale, of which, and of wakes, frequently celebrated near the precinct of the church, a full account will be found in Brand's Popular Antiqu. See the Hierolexicon D. Macri, Ducange, and Spelman, v. Agape.]Aga∣pes. Nota, de Agape in Jure, distinctione xlij., Si quis; et Raymundus, lib. 3, tit. 4.
  • FESTYD, or fed wythe goode mete and drynke. Convivatus, CATH.
  • FESTYD, or teyyd fast to a thynge. Fixus, confixus.
  • FESTYN', or cleve to. Figo, af∣figo, configo.
  • FESTYN', or byynd to-gedyr. Ligo, alligo (colligo, P.)
  • FESTYN̄' (within a thinge, P.) or knyttyn̄' yn' to a thynge, or gryffyn̄', or oþer lyke. Insero.
  • FESTYN̄', or make feestys, and feede mēn'. Convivor, CATH.
  • FESTYNGE to a thynge (festnyng to, P.) Confixio, fixura.
  • FESTYNGE wythe mete and drynke. Convivatus, convivatorium, CATH.
  • FEESTRYD, as wowndys (as sores, P.) Cicatricus.
  • FEESTRYD wownde. Cicatrix.
  • FEESTRYN', as wowndys, or sorys. Sanio.
  • FEESTRYNGE of wowndys. Cica∣tricatio, cicatricatus.
  • (FESTU, infra in FYSCHELLE.)4. [In Piers Ploughman's Vision, line 6183, where allusion is made to Matth. vii. 3, the mote in the eye, festuca, is termed "festu." The Medulla likewise renders "festuca, a festu, or a lytul mote." The name was applied to the straw, or stick used for pointing, in the early instruction of children: thus Palsgrave gives "festue to spell with, festev." Occasionally the word is written with c or k, instead of t, but it is apparently a corruption. "Festu, a feskue, a straw, rush, little stalk, or stick, used for a fescue. Touche, a fescue; also, a pen, or a pin for a pair of writing tables." COTG.]
  • Page  159FET, or fatte, as flesshe and oþer lyke. Pinguis, crassus, obesus.
  • FETERYD. Compeditus.
  • FETERYN̄', supra (in FEDERYN̄'.)
  • FETYCE, or praty.1. [Chaucer uses the word fetise, and fetisely, in this sense; it is apparently derived from the old French fetis, or faiteis. Palsgrave gives "featysshnesse, propernesse, feactise;" as also the synonymous word "feate, or proper of makyng, godin, godinet, coint, mignon; felty, nycely, coyntement. I haue apted them together the fetlyest (le plus gentiment) that euer you sawe. Feted, fetered, or well shapen of the lymmes, aligné. It is as well fetered a chylde as euer you sawe. You neuer set your eye upon a fayrer fetered woman, mieulx alignée." Horman likewise speaks of "the feat con∣ueyans of a speche that soundeth well to the eare, argutia plausibilis sermonis. She wereth corked slippers to make hir tal and feet."]Parvunculus, elegantulus.
  • FETTYNGE, supra in FETCHYNGE.
  • FETYR (of prison, P.) supra in FETHYR (sic, sed rectius fe∣derys) et pedica, C. F. pedux, CATH.
  • FETYRLOKKE. Sera compedi∣talis (sera compedita, P.)
  • FETTNESSE, supra in FATTENES, et popa, sagina.
  • FEWE. Paucus, pauculus.
  • FEWENESSE (or scassenes, K.) Paucitas, paucedo.
  • FEWTE. Vestigium.
  • (FEWTE, or omage, H. fewtye, or homage, P.

    2. "Homagium, idem est quod fidelitas, a feaute." ORTUS. William Paston writes, in 1454, of Thomas Bourchier, Bp. of Ely, who was translated in that year to Canter∣bury, "My lord of Ely hathe do hys fewthe." Paston Lett. iii. 222. The word is taken from the French "féaulté, féauté; fidélité, foi, constance." ROQUEF. It is commonly taken for the oath of allegiance in the feudal system:

    "When thise Bretons tuo were fled out of this lond,
    lne toke his feaute of alle that lond helde."

    R. Brunne.
    Omagium.)
  • (FEWTE, K. Fidelitas.)
  • FY.3. [In the Wicliffite version occur the following passages: "he that seith to his brother, Fy (al. fugh) schal be gilty to the counsell." Matt. V. 22. "And as thei passiden forth, thei blasfemeden him, movynge her heddis, and seiynge, Vath, thou that distriest the temple," &c. Mark XV. 29.]Vath, racha (vaa, P.)
  • FY(A)L, or fyolle (fyall, or cruet, H. P.) Fiala, CATH.
  • FYDYLL, or fyyele (fyyil, K.) Viella, fidicina, vitula, CATH. in vitulus, et DICC. vidula, KYLW.
  • FYDELARE. Fidicen, CATH. vitu∣lator, UG.
  • FYDELIN̄, or fyielyn' (fetelyn, K.) Vitulor, DICC. CATH. in vitulus.
  • FYFTENE. Quindecim.
  • FYFTY. Quinquaginta.
  • FYGGE, or fyge tre. Ficus.
  • FYGURE, or lykenesse. Figura.
  • FYIN̄, or defyin̄ mete and drynke (fyyn, K. H. P.)

    4. This word, in the MSS. and in Pynson's edition, occurs among the verbs between FYISTYN̄ and FLAPPYN, which is perhaps an indication that it had been originally written FYȜIN. To fie or fey now signifies in East Anglia, as in Craven and Hallam∣shire, to clean out, as ponds or ditches; it is thus used by Tusser, and also to express the cleansing of grain.

    "Choiced seed to be picked, and trimly well fy'd,
    For seed may no longer from threshing abide."

    August's Husbandry.

    "Escurer, to scowre, fey, rinse, cleanse." COTG. Bp. Kennett, in his Glossarial Coll. gives "to fea, fey, feigh or fow, to cleanse or empty, as to fea a pond, a privy, &c. Dunelm. Isl. faegia, mundare, eluere; whence to feag, by metaphor, applied to whip∣ping or correcting, as, He feag'd him off." Lansd. MS. 1033. In the Wicliffite version, Deut. xxiii. 13 is thus rendered, "þou schalt bere a litil stake in þe girdil, and whanne þou hast sete, þou schalt digge bi cumpas, and þou schalt hile wiþ erþe þingis defied out, where þou art releuyd;" in the Vulgate, "egesta humo operies." See DEFYYN', and FEYAR.

    Digero.
  • Page  160FYKIN̄ a-bowte, infra in FYSKIN̄.
  • FYKYNGE a-bowte in ydylnes. Dis∣cursus, vagatus.
  • FYLBERDE, notte. Fillum, DICC.
  • (FILBERDE, tree P. Phillis.)
  • FYLE. Lima.
  • FYLIN̄ wythe a fyle. Limo.
  • FYLYN̄', idem quod FOWLYN, su∣pra in D.
  • FYLL wythe mete. Sacio, sa∣turo.
  • FYLLE, or fylly(n)ge of mete, or drynke. Sacietas, saturatio.
  • FYLLYN̄'. Impleo, repleo.
  • FYLLYNGE. Implecio, replecio.
  • FYLZOFYR (fillosofere, K.) Phi∣losophus.
  • FYLETTE.1. [Johanna domina de Roos bequeaths, in 1394, "unam longam feletam de rosis de per', &c." Testam. Ebor. i. 203. "Nimbus, fasciola transversa ex auro insuta in lintheo, quod est in fronte feminarum, a felet." ORTUS. "Fyllet for a mayden's heed, fronteau." PALSG. "Fronteau, a fillet, frontlet, forehead cloth." COTG. In a letter written about 1465 to Sir John Paston occurs the request of a lady, who "wuld fayne have a new felet." Paston Lett. IV. 176.]Victa, UG. in vincio, philacterium.
  • FYLME of a notte, or oþer lyke. Folliculus, gallicula, C. F.
  • FYLOWRE, of barbowrs crafte (fil∣lour of barborys crafte, K.)

    2. FYLOWRE, or barbowrs crafte. MS. "A filoure, affilatorium; to filoure, affilare." CATH. ANG. The term affilatorium occurs with the signification of a hone, in the Usus Ant. Ord. Cisterc. c. 85. The implement so called seems to have been identical with that now called a steel, in French fusil, which is rendered by Cotgrave "the steele, wherewith a butcher whets his knives." A resemblance in form to the spindle or spoole used in spinning was probably the origin of the appellations FYLOWRE, filarium, and fusil. In the Boke of Curtasye a "fylour" appears to signify a rod, as that upon which a curtain may be hung, moveably, by means of rings. The word occurs in the directions for the grooms of the chambers, regarding making the pallets, and two beds of greater state, for lords,

    "That henget shalle be with hole sylour,
    With crochettes and loupys sett on lyour,
    Tho valance on fylour shalle henge with wyn,
    iij curteyns streȝt drawen withinne."

    Sloane MS. 1986.
    Acutecula, filarium, KYLW. (acutella, K.)
  • FYLTHE. Sordes, spurcicia, lino, CATH. turpitudo, labes, putre∣do, pus.
  • Page  161FYLTHE of mannys nose, snotte. Polipus.
  • FYLTHE of mannys fete. Petor.
  • FYMTERRE, herbe. Fumus terre.
  • FYNCHE, byrde. Furfurio, C. F.
  • FYYNDARE of thynge loste. In∣ventor, inventrix.
  • FYNDE things loste. Invenio, reperio, comperio.
  • FYNDE COSTE. Exhibeo.
  • FYNDIN̄, helpyn', and susteinyn̄' hem þat be nedy (fynde theym that ar nedy, P.) Sustento.
  • FYYNDYNGE of thynge loste. In∣vencio, repericio.
  • FYYNDYNGE, or helpynge in bo∣dyly goodys at nede.1. [The Privy Purse Expenses of Henry VII. comprise an entry in 1493, "to Dr. May for th' exebucon of Thos. Phepo," who appears to have been King's scholar at Oxford; and the allowance is subsequently termed "the finding, 2 li." Exc. Hist. The term exhibition, or allowance of money, taken from the Latin, which in medieval times had the same signification, is used in this sense by Shakespeare and B. Jonson, as likewise still retained at the Universities.]Exhi∣bicio, subvencio.
  • FYNE, or ryght goode (fyyn, P.) Egregius, excellens.
  • FYNE WYNE.2. [The Medulla renders "Falernum, wyn alþurbest." MS. in the Editor's possession.]Falernum, CATH.
  • FYNE, of bondage. Finum.
  • FYNNE of a fysche. Pinna.
  • FYNGYR. Digitus.
  • FYNGYRLYNGE of a glove. Di∣gitabulum, CATH.
  • FYR, tree. Abies.
  • FYYR. Ignis, rogus, focus, pir.
  • FYYR FORKE. Ticionarium, CATH. pala, arpagio; hec in historiâ scolasticâ de vasis templi.
  • FYYR HERTHE. Focarium, CATH. ignearium, C. F.
  • FYYRE YRYN̄', to smyte wythe fyre. Fugillus, CATH. pirici∣dium, DICC. KYLW.
  • FYYR STOK, infra in HERTHE STOKE.
  • FYYR STONE, for to smyte wythe fyre. Focaris, UG. in laos, vel focare, CATH. ignarium, C. F.
  • FIRBOME, supra in BEKENE.3. [The practice of maintaining beacons, to give warning of approaching invasion, is one that may be traced in Britain to the most remote times. The term itself is Anglo∣Saxon, beacen, signum, beacne torr, specula. The right of erecting beacons was one of the exclusive privileges of the Crown; and a tax for their maintenance, termed be∣conagium, was levied upon every hundred. At an early time, as Coke observes, the beacon was merely a stack of combustibles prepared on an elevated spot, or a rock; Ang.-Sax. beacenstan, pharus; subsequently to the time of Edward III. as he states, "pitch-boxes, as now they be, were, instead of those stacks, set up;" that is, a king of large cresset, raised on an upright pole or beam: hence the appellation FIRBOME, Ang.-Sax. beom, trabs. Blount cites the "Ordinatio pro vigiliis observandis a Lynne usque Yarmouth, t. Edw. II. Quod levari et reparari faciatis signa et firebares super montes altiores in quolibet hundredo, ita quod tota patria, per illa signa, quotiescumque necesse fuerit, premuniri potest;" which is rendered by Stowe, "He ordained biken∣ings or beacons to be set up." A.D. 1326. The care with which these signals were at all periods provided, appears by numerous evidences in the public records. In 1415 Henry V. on his departure for France, provides for the safety of the realm, and directs the provision of "signa vocata bekyns in locis consuetis." Rymer, ix. 255. Hall relates that when Richard III. with false confidence, disbanded his forces, he issued strict commands that on the coast, and the frontiers of Wales, strong ward should be kept according to usage; "for the custome of the countreyes adjoyning nere to ye see is (especially in the tyme of war) on euery hill or high place to erect a bekon with a greate lanterne in the toppe, whyche maie be sene and discerned a great space of. And when the noyes is once bruted that the enemies approche nere ye land, they so∣deinly put fyer in the lanthornes, and make showtes and outrages from toune to toune, and from village to village." 3 Rich. III. This kind of signal, of which representations will be found in Archaeol. I. pl. i. XV. pl. xii. was likewise termed a standard: "A bekyn or a standarde, statela." CATH. ANG. It was taken by Hen. V. as a badge, and appears among the sculptures of his chantry at Westminster. "Beakyn, feu au guet." PALSG. The elevation whereon it was placed was sometimes termed a tote-hill; see that word hereafter.]
  • Page  162FYRIN̄, or sette on a fyre, or brin∣nyn. Ignio, CATH. comburo.
  • FYRMAMENT, or walkyn'. Fir∣mamentum.
  • FYRRYS, or qwyce tre, or gorstys tre.1. [Ruscus is properly the plant with sharply-pointed leaves, called butcher's-broom, but that which is here intended appears to be the Ulex Europaeus, Linn. called com∣monly furze or gorse. In the Wicliffite version, Isai. lv. 13 is thus rendered: "A fir tre schal stie for a gorst (eþer firse) and a myrte tre schal wexe for a nettil." Claud. E. II. In 15 Hen. VI. 1436, licence was given to Humfrey Duke of Gloucester to inclose 200 acres of land, "pasture, wode, hethe, virses, and gorste (bruere et jamp∣norum)," and to form thereof a park at Greenwich. Rot. Parl. iv. 498. "Ruscus, Anglice, firsun." Harl. MS. 1002. "Fyrsbusshe, ionmarin." PALSG. Ang.-Sax. fyrs, genista, rhamnus.]Ruscus.
  • FYRSTE of alle. Primus.
  • FYRSTE, or be-forne. Primo.
  • FYRSTE BE-GOTŌN'. Primogenitus.
  • FYRSTE BE-GETYNGE. Primoge∣nitura.
  • FYYRE, sharpe brusche (firre, whynne, K. fyir or qwynne, P. whynne, J.)2. [Saliunca has occurred already, as the name of an herb called CALTRAP. Cotgrave renders "chaussetrape, the starre thistle, called also the calthrop;" but although the name may have occasionally been so assigned, from its being hurtful to the foot, yet ac∣cording to Parkinson the herb called land caltrops, tribulus terrestris, was not of the thistle species. The saliunca again is, according to the same author, a kind of spike∣nard, whereas in the Medulla it is stated, "Saliunca dicitur vulgariter in Gallico carr∣kerepe, (? carchiofe, an artichoke,) a qwynne." Harl. MS. 2257. In the Ortus it is rendered "a wynne or grost."]Saliunca.
  • FYSCARE a-bowte ydylly. Dis∣cursor, discursatrix, vagulus vel vagator, vagatrix.
  • FISKIN̄ a-bowte yn ydilnesse.

    3. This word does not appear, by the East-Anglican Glossaries, to be still in use; it occurs, however, in Tusser's lessons for waiting servants.

    "Such serviture, also, deserveth a check,
    That runneth out fisking with meat in his beck."

    "I fyske, ie fretille. I praye you se howe she fysketh aboute." PALSG. "Trotière, a raumpe, fisgig, fisking huswife, raunging damsell." COTG. Compare FYKIN̄ a-bowte, and see Jamieson's remarks on that word. It occurs in R. Coer de Lion, 4749.

    Vagor, giro, girovago.
  • FYSCHE. Piscis.
  • FYSCHARE. Piscator, favissor, CATH. et nota ibi bonam causam.
  • FYSCHARYS BOOTE. Phaselus, COMM. oria, C. F.
  • Page  163FYSCH SELLARE. Piscarius, pis∣caria, UG. in pasco.
  • FYSCHELLE of fyschew, or festu.1. [According to the Medulla the term FYSCHELLE is synonymous with FYSCH LEEP; "Nassa, quoddam instrumentum ex viminibus et cirpis, tanquam rhete, contextum, ad capiendos pisces, a pyche or a fysshelle." So also it is related in the Golden Legend, "Than they put hym in to a lytell fysshell or basket well pytched, and set it in ye see, and abandouned hym to dryue wyder it wolde." f. 99, b. "Fiscelle, petit panier de jonc, fiscella." ROQUEF. Fyschew signifies a reed, or supple rod, as osiers, &c.]Festuca.
  • FYSCHYN̄'. Piscor, CATH.
  • FYSCHYNGE. Piscacio, piscatus.
  • FYSCH LEEP.2. [See hereafter LEEP for fysche kepynge. Ang.-Sax. leap, corbis.]Nassa, C. F.
  • FISSHE PONDE. Vivarium, CATH.
  • FYSYCIAN̄', or leche. Medicus, fisicus.
  • FYSNOMYE. Phisonomia.
  • FYSTE of an hande. Pugnus, CATH. (pugillus, P.)
  • FYYST, stynk. Lirida.
  • FYISTYN̄' (fyen, W.) Cacco, C. F. lirido.
  • FYYSTYNGE. Liridacio.
  • FYT, or mete. Equus, congruus, UG. in grus.
  • FYTŌN', or lesynge (fycōn', K. fyttyn, S. fytyn, P.)3. ["Fytten, mensonge." PALSG. In Wiltshire fitten signifies a pretence.]Mendacium, mendaciolum, CATH.
  • FYVE.4. [FEVE, MS.]Quinque.
  • FYVE HUNDRYD. Quingenti.
  • FYVERE (sekenesse, P.) Febris.
  • FYVERE, agu. Querquera, CATH. et UG. in quero.
  • FYTHIL, supra in FEDYLLE.
  • FLAGGE of þe erthe, vide in T. in TURFE.5. [In Norfolk, according to Kennett, Ray, and Forby, the upper turf pared off to serve as fuel, is termed flaks or flags. The repetition of this word below, FLAGGE, drye wythe þe gresse, is apparently a corrupt reading. In the North such sods of turf are called also flags, or flaws, or flaughter. See Jamieson and Brockett. "A flaghte, ubi a turfe. A flaghte (or flyghte) of snawe, floccus." CATH. ANG. Dan. flager, Teut. vlaeghen, deglubere; Isl. flaga, exscindere glebam.]Terricidium (cespes, CATH. et C. F. S. gleba, P.)
  • FLAYNE, or flawyn̄'. Excoriatus.
  • FLAKE (or hame, K.) Floctus, UG. in flo (squama, P.)
  • FLAKETTE, botelle.6. [This word, as also Ang.-Sax. flaxe, the French flac, or flache, &c. appear to be directly taken from the low Latin flacta, adopted probably from the Greek. In William and the Werwolf a certain clerk is mentioned who came to Rome "wiþ tvo flaketes of ful fine wynes," written also "flagetes," p. 68. "Flacta, a flakette. Obba, genus calicis, a bottell, a flaket." ORTUS. "A costrelle, oneferum, &c. ubi a flakett. A flaket, flacta, obba, uter, &c. ubi a potte." CATH. ANG. "A flaget, flacon." PALSG. The term does not appear to be retained in Norfolk, as in the North. "A flacket, flasket, or flask; bottle made in fashion of a barrel. Bor. Flaskin, a wooden bottle, or little barrel which labourers use for beer. Yorkshire." Kennett's Gloss. Coll. Lansd. MS. 1033.]Flasco, flasca.
  • FLANKE, or leske. Ylium, KYLW. inguen, CATH.
  • FLAPPE, or stroke. Ictus (fla∣gellum, K.)
  • FLAPPE, or buffett (flap bofet, P.) Alapa.
  • FLAPPE, instrument to smyte wythe flyys. Flabellum, DICC. muscarium, C. F.
  • Page  164FLAPPYN' wythe a flappe. Flabello.
  • FLASSHE, watyr.1. [The term flash, signifying a shallow pool, does not appear to be now retained in Norfolk; but it occurs in names of places, as Flash-pit, near Aylsham. In low Latin flachia, flasca, and flaco, in old French flache or flesque, have the like signification. A supply of water from the locks on the Thames, to assist the barges, is termed a flash, and in Sussex loose water-soaked ground is called flashy. Plot speaks of the "flashy over-watery taste" of some white fruits. Hist. Oxf. 156. See PLASCHE, or flasche where reyne watyr stondythe, and PYT, or flasche.]Lacuna, CATH.
  • FLATT. Bassus, vel planus.
  • FLAGGE, drye wythe þe gresse.2. [This word, placed here out of its proper alphabetical order, whereas FLAGGE of þe erthe has occurred already, has been retained as found in the MS., on account of the uncertainty whether it is an interpolation, or a vitiated reading. Possibly the correct reading may be flawe, a term synonymous with flagge, a sod of turf. Blount, in his Law. Dict. v. Turbary, cites a charter in which "turbaria bruaria—a flaw-turf, or heath-turf," is mentioned. In the North the words flaw and flaughter are still com∣monly used in this sense. See Jamieson and Brockett.]Globa, UG. in globus.
  • FLATERARE, supra, idem quod FEYNARE.
  • FLATERYD. Adulatus.
  • FLATERYN̄'. Adulor.
  • FLATERYNGE. Adulacio.
  • FLATNESSE. Planicies.
  • FLAWE, supra in FLAKE.
  • FLAWYN', supra in FLAYN'.
  • FLAWME, or lowe. Flamma.
  • FLAWNE, mete.

    3. "A flawne, opacum." CATH. ANG. "Flaton, a flawne. Artocira, a flawne, i. cibus factus ex pastâ et caseo. Laganum est latus panis et tenuis oleo linitus, quasi oleo frixus, a pancake, a flawne." ORTUS. "Flaune meate, flanet, flan, flaon. I loue well a flawne, but and it be well surged I loue it the better." PALSG. Caxton says in the Boke for Travellers, "Of mylke and of egges men make flawnes (flans), of mylke soden with the flour men make printed cakes (rastons)." Recipes for making flawnes will be found in the Forme of Cury; "Flawnes for Lentyn," Harl. MS. 5401, f. 193, 202; and "flathons," under the head of "Vyaunde furnez," Harl. MS. 279, f. 42, b. The following directions "for flaunes" are found in the poem entitled "the slyȝtes of cure."

    "Take new chese, and grynde hyt fayre
    In morter wyth egges, wyth out dyswayre;
    Put powder þerto of suger I say,
    Coloure hyt wyth safrone ful wele þou may;
    Put hyt in cofyns þat bene fayre,
    And bake hyt forthe y the pray."

    Sloane MS. 1986, f. 87.

    In the North the word is still in use, as Bp. Kennett noticed in his Glossarial Collec∣tions, Lansd. MS. 1033. "Flaun or flawn, a custard. Bor. As flat as a flawn, prov. Sax. flyna, flaena, artologanum."

    Flamicia, DICC. flato, DICC. COMM. opacus, ar∣tocasius (apacus, S.)
  • FLAX. Linum.
  • FLATHE, or flathe, fysche (flay, or flacch, fysch, S.)4. [This must not be confounded with the general appellation of flat fish; the ray or scate was formerly called FLATHE, or, according to Willughby and Ray, flaire, still retained in the name of the sting-ray, called in some places the fire-flaire. In N. Britain it is known as the fire-flaw, according to Jamieson. Harrison, in his description of England, uses the name flath, evidently as denoting the ray or scate. In the account of fish usually taken upon our coasts, he observes that "the flat are divided into the smooth, the scaled, and the tailed.—Of the third (are) our chaits, maidens, kingsons, flath, and thornbacke;" and the larger species, as he states, were dried, and formed a kind of export into other countries. B. iii. c. 8, Holinsh. i. 224. The correct reading of the word above is probably FLAÞE, or flaye, fysche.] (R)agadies.
  • Page  165FLEE. Pulex.
  • FLEAR of beest. Excoriator.
  • FLEARE, or rennare a-wey. Fu∣gitivus, fugitiva.
  • FLED, or mevyd. Amotus.
  • FLEGGE, infra in S. idem quod SEDGE.
  • FLECCHERE (fletcher, H. P.) Pe∣tularius, flectarius.
  • FLEYKE, or hydrylle (fleke, S. hir∣dell, P.)

    1. "Crates est instrumentum ex virgis, a fleke." MED. "A fleke, cratis, craticula." CATH. ANG. This word is used by R. Brunne, as also the verb to fleke, or cover with hurdles, which occurs in his account of the construction of a temporary bridge.

    "Botes he toke and barges, þe sides togidere knytte,—
    þei fleked þam ouerthuert, justely for to ligge."

    p. 241.
    "Botes and barges ilkon, with flekes mak þam tighte."

    p. 321.

    Hardyng relates the singular escape of Sir James Douglas, who had been hemmed in by Edward III. in Stanhope Park, and by means of hurdles, which, to prevent pursuit, his men drew after them as they went, passed over a quaking and miry moss.

    "But James Douglas their flekes fell dyd make,
    Which ouer the mosse, echeone at others ende,
    He layde anon, with fagottes fell ouer the lake."

    Chron. c. 178.

    In a satirical poem, put forth in 1550 against the liberty of religious discussion, the services and preachers of the Reformed Church, entitled "An old Song of John No∣body," printed in the Appendix to Strype's Mem. of Cranmer, it is said of those who with ignorant assurance set themselves up as expounders of the Gospel,

    "More meet it were for them to mylk kye at a fleyke."

    p. 138.

    Horman says, "Ley this meate in trayes and flekis, conchas sive aludos," (? alucos) where the term may signify a shallow wicker basket, in some parts termed a flasket. "Alucus, vas factum ad modum alvei, a troughe." ORTUS. In the North hurdles are still called flaiks; see Jamieson.

    Plecta, flecta, cratis, C. F.
  • FLEYL. Flagellum, COMM. UG. V. in T. (tribulum, CATH. P.)
  • FLEYL CAPPE. Cappa, DICC. me∣ditentum, COMM. UG. V. in T.
  • FLEYL STAFFE, or honde staffe (handyll, H. P.) Manutentum, CATH.
  • FLEYLE SWYNGYL.1. [Swyngyl fleyle, MS. "A flayle, flagellum, tribulus, tribulum. Versus. Tres tri∣bulo partes, manutentum, cappa, flagellum. Manutentum, a hand staffe, cappa, a cape, flagellum, a swewelle. A swevylle, tribulum." CATH. ANG. See hereafter SWENGYL.]Vigra, DICC. CATH. tribulum, CATH. COMM.
  • FLEYNGE a-way. Fuga.
  • FLEYNGE of beestys. Excoriacio.
  • FLEKERYN̄', as ionge byrdis. Vo∣lito, nideo.
  • FLEKERYN̄', or waveryn̄' yn vn∣stabylle herte (flyker, P.) Nuto, CATH.
  • FLEKERYNGE of byrdys. Volitacio.
  • FLEKERYNGE, or wauerynge yn an vnstable hert. Nutatus, va∣cillacio.
  • Page  166FLEMMYNGE. Flandricus, Flan∣drica (Flamingus, P.)
  • FLEEN, or flee bestys. Excorio.
  • FLEEN̄ enmyes, or grevowsnesse. Fugio, CATH. affugio, confugio.
  • FLEESE of wulle. Vellus.
  • FLESCHE. Caro.
  • FLESCHE FLYE. Musco, CATH.
  • FLESCHE HOOKE. Creagra, fus∣cina, CATH. tridens, CATH. fuscinula.
  • FLESCHY, or made alle wythe flesche. Carneus.
  • FLESCHY, or sum dele made wythe flesche. Carneatus.
  • FLESCHLY. Carnaliter.
  • FLESHLY, or fulle of flesshe. Carnosus, carnulentus, CATH.
  • FLESCHLYNESSE. Carnalitas.
  • FLET, as mylke or oþer lyke (oþer licour, K. flett of mylke, H. P.)

    1. To fleet, or skim the cream, is a verb still commonly used in East Anglia, and the utensil which serves for the purpose is termed a fleeting-dish. "I flete mylke, take away the creame that lyeth above it whan it hath rested." PALSG. "Esburrer, to fleet the creame potte; laict esburré, fleeted milke; maigne, fleeted milke, or whaye." Hollyband's Treasurie. "Escremé, fleeted, as milke, uncreamed." COTG. Ang.-Sax. flet, flos lactis. A celebrated Suffolk cheese, made of skimmed milk, is called flet-cheese. Tusser, in his lesson for the dairy maid Cisley, on bad qualities of cheese, says,

    "Gehazi his sickness was whitish and dry,
    Such cheeses, good Cisley, ye floted too nigh."
    Despumatus.
  • FLEET, þe watyr of þe see comythe and goythe (flete, there water cometh and goth, H. P.)

    2. The term fleet, signifying a channel, an arm of the sea, or water-course, occurs not infrequently in several parts of England, as Northfleet and Southfleet on the Thames, the Fleet-ditch, London, Holt-Fleet on the Severn, near Worcester, Fladbury, an∣ciently Fleotbury, and Twining Fleet, on the Avon. On the coasts of Norfolk and Suffolk the name is common, and properly, according to Forby, though not invariably, implies a channel filled by the tide, and left at low water very shallow and narrow. At Lynn, where the Promptorium was compiled, there are several channels so called, as White Friars' Fleet, and Purfleet. The grant of the possessions of the Gild of the Holy Trinity, Lynn, by Edward VI. A.D. 1548, alludes to rents laid out in "repairing of banks, walls, fletes, and water-courses in Lenn." Blomf. IV. 598. "Flete where water cometh, breche." PALSG. Ang.-Sax. fleot, sinus. In the North, as Bishop Kennett notices in his Glossarial Collections, fleet signifies water, as in the ancient song over a corpse.

    "This ean night, this ean night,
    Every night and awle,
    Fire and fleet, and candle light,
    And Christ receive thy sawl."

    Lansd. MS. 1033.
    Fleta, fossa, estuarium, C. F.
  • FLETE of schyppys yn þe see. Classis, C. F.
  • FLETYN̄' a-bovin̄ (fletyn, or hovyn, H. houen, P.)3. ["To flete above ye water; his cappe fleteth aboue the water yonder a farre hence." PALSG. "Naviger, to saile, to fleete." Hollyband's Treasurie. Harrison, in his de∣scription of England, speaking of Lyme Regis, Dorset, says, "the Lime water, which the townsmen call the Buddle, commeth ... from the hils, fleting upon rockie soil, and so falleth into the sea." Holinsh. Chron. i. 58. Ang.-Sax. fleotan, fluctuare. See HOVYN, which has a like signification.]Supernato.
  • Page  167FLETYN̄', or skomyn' ale, or pottys, or oþer lycoure that ho∣vythe. Despumo, exspumo, CATH.
  • FLETE mylke only. Dequacco, exquacco.
  • FLETYNGE of lycowre. Spumacio, despumacio, CATH.
  • FLEW, or scholde, as vessell, or oþer lyke (scold, S. flwe, or sholde of vessels, P.)1. [According to Forby, flue, as well as fleet, has in Norfolk the signification of shallow, as a dish, or a pond. In the North, a flaw peat or flow signifies a watery moss; Isl. flaa, palus. See SCHOLD, or schalowe.]Bassus.
  • FLEW, complexyōn' (flewme of com∣pleccyon, K. flwe, P.) Flegma, CATH. et C. F. in ventriculus.
  • FLEWEMATYKE. Flegmaticus, UG.
  • FLEWME, idem quod FLEW, supra, et sperma.
  • FLYARE. Volator.
  • FLYE. Musca.
  • FLY FLAPPE, supra, idem quod FLAPPE. Muscarium, CATH. C. F. et UG.
  • FLYGGE, as bryddys.2. [Margaret Paston in a letter to her husband in 1460, describing the vain hopes ex∣cited amongst the partizans of Henry VI. says, "Now he and alle his olde felaweship put owt their fynnes, and arn ryght flygge and mery, hoping alle thyng is and schalbe as they wole haue it." Paston Letters, iv. 412. "Flyggenesse of byrdes, plumevseté." PALSG. In Norfolk birds ready to fly are still said to be fligged, and in some parts of England are called fliggurs. Ang.-Sax. fliogan, volare, flyge, fuga.]Maturus, volatilis.
  • FLYGNESSE. Maturitas.
  • FLYYN̄', as birdys. Volo.
  • FLYYN̄' A-WEY. Avolo, evolo.
  • (FLIKERYNGE, supra in FLEKER∣YNGE, K.)
  • FLYKKE of bacōn'. Perna, pe∣taso, baco.
  • FLYNT, stone. Silex.
  • FLYGHTE, fleynge a-way. Fuga, effugium, C. F.
  • FLYGHTE of byrdys. Avolatus, evolatus.
  • (FLYTERE, supra in CUKSTOKE.)
  • FLYTIN̄, or chydin̄.

    3. "To flytte, altercari, certare, litigare, abjurgare, catazizare." CATH. ANG. "Li∣tigo, Anglice to stryff or flyte." ORTUS. Ang.-Sax. flitan, certare.

    "In peese thou ete, and ever eschewe
    To flyte at borde, that may the rewe."

    Boke of Curtasye, Sloane MS. 1986.
    Contendo, CATH.
  • FLYTTIN̄, or remevyn̄ (away, P.) Amoveo, transfero.
  • FLYX, or flux, sekenesse. Fluxus, dissenteries.
  • FLODE. Flumen, fluvius, dilu∣vium, fluctus.
  • FLODEGATE of a mylle. Sino∣glocitorium, DICC.
  • FLOKE of bestys. Grex.
  • FLOKE, or heerde of bestys, what so they be. Polia, CATH.
  • FLOKKYN̄', or gadyr to-gedyr. Aggrego, congrego.
  • FLOKKYS of wulle or oþer lyke. Floccus, CATH. (fultrum, P.)
  • FLORE (or grownde, infra.) Area.
  • FLORSCHARE (florissher, P.) Flo∣rator.
  • FLORSCHYN̄' (florisshen, P.) Flo∣reo, CATH. floresco.
  • FLORYSCHYN̄' bokys. Floro, KYLW.
  • FLORSCHYNGE. Floratus.
  • Page  168FLOTYSE, or flotyce of a pott or other lyke. Spuma, CATH. C. F.
  • FLOT GRESE.1. [Gerard describes the Gramen fluviatile, flote-grasse, or floter-grasse, which grows in waters; and Skinner supposes the name to be derived, "q. d. flood grass." It appears to have been also called wreke, or reke. See WREK of a dyke, or a fenne, or stondyng watyr, ulva.]Ulva, C. F.
  • FLOWYN̄', as the see. Fluo, CATH. (venilio, CATH. S.)
  • FLOWYNGE of þe watur (see, P.) Fluxus, venilia, CATH. KYLW.
  • FLOWRE of tre, or herbe. Flos.
  • FLOWRE of mele. Farina, simila, UG. in similis, pollen, CATH. C. F.
  • FLOWRYN̄', idem quod FLORSCHYN, supra, et floro, CATH.
  • FLOWTE, pype. Cambucus, KYLW. ydraula, calamaula. Versus. Pastor sub caulâ bene cantat cum calamaulâ. The scheperd vndyr þe folde syngythe well wythe hys gwgawe þe pype. (Flatorium, K. P.)
  • FLOWTYN̄', or pypyn'. Calamiso, flo.
  • FLWE, nette (flw, K. flewe, P. flowe, W.)2. [The Catholicon explains tragum to be "genus retis piscatorii, quod aliter verri∣culum a verrendo dicitur;" according to the Ortus, "tragum, a draught nette." In 1391 Robert de Ryllyngton, of Scarborough, bequeathed to his servant "j flew, cum warrap et flot," directing his two boats to be sold, and the price bestowed for the wel∣fare of his soul. Testam. Ebor. i. 157. "Flewe, a nette, retz à pecher." PALSG. See TRAMAYLE, grete nette for fyschynge. Tragum.]Tragum, C. F. CATH.
  • FODE. Alimentum, alimonia, victus.
  • FODYNGE, or norschynge (fodin∣ynge, P.) Fomentum.
  • FODDUR, bestys mete, or forage (foodyr, P.) Farrago, CATH. C. F. et UG. in frugo, pabulum.
  • FOOYNE, furrure. Loero, NECC. et DICC. bacre, NECC. et DICC.3. [The FOOYNE appears to have been the same as the polecat or fitchet, or according to Ray the martin was sometimes so called. "Fowyng, beest, foyne. Foyns, a furre, foynnes." PALSG. "Fouinne, foyenne, a foyne or polecat." COTG. Loero is the name of a small animal, called in old French lairon or lerot, the fur of which was highly esteemed. John de Garlandiâ says in his Dictionary, "Pelliparii—carius vendunt urlas de sabellino et laierone," rendered in the gloss "laierone, Gallice lairons." In the Inventory of the wardrobe and jewels of Henry V. taken in 1423, at his decease, are mentioned "gounes de noier damask furrez de sides de foynes et marterons," and the value of this kind of fur is ascertained by the following entry: "iij panes de foynes, chascun cont' c. bestes, pris le pec' xd. xij li. x s.;" the marteron being more costly, "pris le beste xij d." Rot. Parl. iv. 236.]
  • FOOLE. Stultus, fatuus, babur∣rus, babiger, C. F.
  • FOO(L)DE of shepe. Ovile, caula.
  • FOLDE clothys, or other lyke. Plico, CATH.
  • FOLDYN̄' a-bowtin̄ (abowtyn, K. abowte, P.) Circumplecto.
  • FOLDYN̄' in armys. Amplector.
  • FOOLDYN̄', or put beestys in a folde. Caulo, incaulo, inovilo.
  • FOLDYN' VP. Complico.
  • FOLDYNGE of cloþys, and oþer lyke. Plicacio, plicatura.
  • FOLDYNGE (of shepe, P.) or put∣tynge in felde (sic.) Incaulacio.
  • FOLE, yonge horse. Pullus.
  • FOLETT (idem quod FOLTE, infra, Page  169 et FOPPE.) Fatuellus, stolidus, follus, UG. in foveo (bardus, P.)
  • FOOLE HARDY, or to be bolde (foole herdy, or to bolde, S.) Teme∣rarius, CATH. et UG. in audax.
  • FOLE HARDYNESSE. Temeritas, CATH.
  • FOLY. Fatuitas, stoliditas, stul∣ticia.
  • FOLKE. Gens, plebs, populus.
  • FOLTE, idem quod FOLET, supra (et FOPPE, infra.)1. ["A folte, blas, baburrus, blatus, bardus, nugator, garro, ineptus, morio." CATH. ANG. Roquefort gives "foleté, foleton, &c. extravagant, fou, sot, étourdi; volaticus." TOTTE occurs hereafter as synonymous with FOLTE. See also AMSOTTE, and SOTTE.]
  • FOLTYN̄', or doōn as a foole (folyn, K. fooltyn, H.) Stultiso, CATH. infatuor.
  • FOLTRYE. Fatuitas, stoliditas, follicia, UG. in foveo, insipien∣cia, baburra, C. F.
  • FOLWARE, or he that folwythe (folower in steppys of anothir, K.) Sequax, secutor.
  • FOLWARE, or serwānte folowynge hys mastyr, or souereyne. Pe∣dissequus, vel pedissequa, as∣secla, C. F.
  • FOLWARE, yn' manerys, or condy∣cyons. Imitator, CATH.
  • FOLWYN̄'. Sequor.
  • FOLWYN̄', in felaschyppe. Co∣mitor.
  • FOLWYN̄', in maners and condy∣ciōns. Imitor, sector.
  • FOLWYN̄', or suyn̄' yn' purpose. Prosequor.
  • FOLWYNGE of steppys. Sequela.
  • FOLWYNGE of manerys, or con∣dycyons. Imitacio.
  • FOOME of lycoure. Spuma, CATH.
  • FOMAN, or enmy (foo, P.) Inimicus, inimica, emulus, hostis.
  • FOMEREL of an halle.2. [In the Medulla fumarium is rendered "a chymene or fymrel." The term is de∣rived from the Latin, "Fumerale, Anglice a fumerell. Fumeralis, idem est." ORTUS. "A chymney, caminus, epicasterium, fumerium, fumerale." CATH. ANG. The term chimney seems, however, not to have been originally synonymous with fomerel, but to have signified an open fire-place, or chafer, such as the "chymneye with charecole" in the pavilion prepared for the conflict of Syr Galleroune with Gawayne. See the Awntyrs of Arthure. Thus also in the will of Cecilia de Homeldon, 1407, is the bequest, "lego unum magnum caminum de ferro Abbathiae de Durham." Wills and Invent. Surtees Soc. i. 45. In Gawayn and the Grene Knyȝt, however, composed about the same period, "chalk whyt chymnees" are described as appearing upon the roof of the castle. The FOMEREL was a kind of lantern, or turret open at the sides, which rose out of the roof of the hall, and permitted the escape of the smoke; it had sometimes the appellation of the lover, a word which occurs hereafter; thus Withal, in his Dic∣tionary, mentions the "lovir or fomerill, where the smoake passeth out." Among the disbursements of Thomas Lucas, Solicitor-General to Henry VII., for the erection of Little Saxham Hall, in 1507, occurs a payment "to the plommer for casting and working my fummerel of lede;" and it appears to have been glazed like a lantern, for there is a payment to the glazier "for 50 fete glas in my fummerelle." Rokewode's Hist. of Suff. pp. 149, 150. In the Book of Wolsey's Expenses at Christ Church, Oxford, is an entry relating to the "femerell of the new kitchen." Gutch, Coll. Cur. i. 204.]Fuma∣rium.
  • FOMYN̄'. Spumo.
  • FONDYN', or a-sayyn̄'.

    3. The Medulla gives "Conor, to streyne or fonde," rendered in the Ortus, "to constrayne or fande." "To fande, conari, niti, et cetera ubi to be a-bowte warde." CATH. ANG. Minot relates that David Bruce

    "Said he sulde fonde
    To ride thurgh all Ingland."

    Poems, viii. p. 39.

    The word is used by Rob. Brunne and Rob. of Gloucester in the same sense. Ang.-Sax. fandian, tentare.

    Attempto.
  • Page  170FONDYNGE, or a-saynge. Attemp∣tacio.
  • FONEL, or tonowre.1. [Conowre, MS. See hereafter TONOWRE of fonel. In Norfolk, according to Forby, the term in ordinary use is tunnel, Ang.-Sax. taenel, canistrum. The word funnel ap∣pears to be derived from fundulus, "quasi fundle," as Junius observes. "Infusorium est quoddam vasculum per quod liquor infunditur in aliud vas; vel est vas in quo est oleum quod ponitur in lucernis, a fonell dyshe (al. tonnell dysshe.)" ORTUS.]Fusorium, infusorium, C. F.
  • FOPPE, supra, idem quod FOLET.
  • FORBEDYN̄' (or forfendyn̄'.) Pro∣hibeo, inhibeo, veto, interdico.
  • FORBEDYNGE (or forbode, or fore∣fendynge, infra.) Prohibicio, inhibicio.
  • FOR-BY a place, or oþer þyngys. Per.
  • FOORBYSCHOWRE. Eruginator, DICC.
  • FORBYSCHYD. Furbitus, BRIT. in luna, ut patet ejus versus.
  • FORBYSCHYN̄'. Erugino, CATH.
  • FORBODE, idem quod FORBYD∣DYNGE, supra.
  • FORCELET, stronge place (forslet, H. P.) Fortalicium, munici∣pium.
  • FOORCERE (forcer, K. P.)

    2. Junius thinks that this term was borrowed from the Italian forciere, which is ren∣dered by W. Thomas, in his Italian Grammar, 1548, "a forsette, or a little coafer;" and by Florio, "a forcet, a coffin, a casket, a cabinet, &c." It may be remarked that the most elegant caskets of the Middle Ages, usually of bone or ivory, curiously carved and painted, are, with few exceptions, of Italian workmanship; but as Flanders also furnished these and numerous other ornamental appliances, the origin of the name forcere may perhaps be sought in the Belg. fortsier, a banded coffer. The importation of "ascune manere ware depeinte, forcers, caskettes, &c." was forbidden by stat. 3 Edw. IV. c. 4, A.D. 1463. In William and the Werwolf it is related that the Queen sought by means of a ring to charm the monster.

    "Seþe feiþli of a forcer a fair bok sche rauȝt,
    And radde þer on redli riȝt a long while."

    Chaucer says in "La belle Dame sans Mercie,"

    "Fortune by strength the forcer hath vnshete,
    Wherein was sperde all my wordly richesse."

    v. 65.

    Caxton, in the Book for Travellers, says, "The joyner made a forcer for my loue, her cheste, her scyrne, un forcier, sa luysel, son escrin. Set your jewellis in your forcier, that they be not stolen." Palsgrave gives "fo(r)sar, or casket, escrain; fo(r)cer, a little cofer, cofret," and coffret is rendered by Cotgrave "a casket, cabinet, forset, (sic) &c."

    Cis∣tella, teca, clitella, scrinium, DICC. forcerium, COMM.
  • FOORCYD, as mennys beerdys (or pollyd, infra.) Capitonsus.
  • FOORCYD, as wulle. Tonsus.
  • FOORCYN̄', or clyppyn̄'.3. [This word is taken from the French forces, shears for clipping wool or cloth. Fourceler, to clip or shear. See ROQUEF. The stat. 8 Henry VI. c. 20, forbids the fraudulent practice termed forcing wool, reciting the loss in the customs arising from those who "clakkent et forcent les bones lains du roialme, pur eux carier dehors dicelle en estraunges paiis; ordinez est que nulle estraunger ne face forcer clakker ne barder nulle maner des leins, pur carier hors du roialme," upon pain of forfeiture, with a penalty of double the value, and imprisonment. Stat. of Realm, ii. 256.]Ton∣deo.
  • FOORCYNGE. Tonsura.
  • Page  171FORSYGHTE (forsyȝt, K. forsythȝ, H.) Previsio, previsus.
  • FORCLYD (or fvrclyd, infra; for∣kelyd, P.) Furcatus.
  • FORDŌN', or dystroyn̄'.

    1. This verb, Ang.-Sax. for-don, perdere, occurs in the Vision of P. Ploughman.

    "Allas! that drynke shal for-do
    That God deere boughte."

    line 5284.

    In the Golden Legend it is said in the Life of Becket, that Henry II. "wolde fordoo suche lawes as his oldres hadde vsed to-fore hym." Palsgrave says, "What so euer he do on the one day, on the morowe I wyll fordo it, defaire."

    Destruo.
  • FORDERYN̄', or fortheryn̄', to incres, or a-vantage (fordryn, or forthyn, K.) Promoveo, proveho.
  • FORDERYN̄', in spedynge (forthren, P.) Expedio, accelero.
  • FORE, or forowe of a londe. Sul∣cus, CATH. lira.
  • FORELLE, to kepe yn a boke.2. [Jocelyn de Brakelonda relates in his Chronicle, p. 84, that Abbot Samson ex∣amined the relics of St. Edmund in 1198, and when the shrine was closed up, "positus est super loculum forulus quidam sericus, in quo deposita fuit scedula Anglice scripta, continens quasdam salutaciones Ailwini Monachi," with a memorial of the opening of the shrine, which was subscribed by all who had been present. Foruli, according to Papias, are "thecae vel cistae librorum, tabularum, vel aliarum rerum, ut spatae; dictae, quod de foris tegant;" in French, fourreau, or fourel, has the like meaning. Horman says, "I hadde leuer haue my boke sowed in a forel (consuatur in cuculli invo∣lucro) than bounde in bourdis, and couerede, and clapsed, and garnysshed with bolyens." Jennings, in his Observations on the Dialects of the West, states that the cover of a book is still termed a forrel. Palsgrave gives "coueryng for a book, chemi∣sette," a term which appears to be synonymous with forelle, and which has been ex∣plained by Charpentier, v. Camisia libri. In an Inventory taken at Notre Dame, Paris, in 1492, is mentioned "ung petit messel, couvert de cuir rouge, garni d'une chemisette de chevrotin rouge." Two of the mourners, whose figures are seen around the tomb of Richard Beauchamp, at Warwick, hold each a book, wrapped in the forelle, or chemisette; see Stothard's Monumental Effigies. Its fashion is more clearly ex∣hibited in a picture at Munich, by Schorel, which has furnished the subject of a plate in Shaw's Dresses and Decorations.]Forulus, CATH. BRIT. in forus.
  • FORESTE. Foresta, indago, C. F.
  • FORETTE, or ferette, lytyll beste. Furo, C. F. furetus, vel furun∣culus, C. F.
  • FOR EVYR. Semper, eternaliter, perpetue.
  • FORFENDYN̄', idem quod FOR∣BEDYN̄', supra.3. [This verb is derived from the Ang.-Sax. for, which often gives in composition the sense of privation or deterioration, and fandian, tentare. "God forfende it!" PALSG. To forhinder, signifying to prevent, is retained in the East-Anglian dialect, according to Forby. Many other words similarly compounded have become wholly obsolete, se∣veral of which are given by Palsgrave, as the following; "To forbreake, Lydgate; to forderke, make derke; to fordewe, sprinkle with dewe; to fordreynt, Lydgate, drowne; to fordull, make one dull of wyt; to forlye, as a nouryce dothe her chylde whan she kylleth it in the nyght; to forwaye, go out of the waye, Lydgate; to forwery, &c."]
  • FORFENDYNGE, idem quod FOR∣BEDYNGE.
  • Page  172FORFETYN̄'.1. [Chaucer, Gower, and the early writers generally, use the verb to forfeit in its pri∣mary sense of committing a transgression; in French forfaire has the same significa∣tion. "Forisfacio, id est offendere vel nocere, to forfeyte." ORTUS. "What have I forfayted against you?" PALSG.]Forefacio, delin∣quo.
  • FORFETYNGE, or forfeture. Fore∣faccio, forefactura.
  • FORFETOWRE. Forefactor.
  • FOORGE of smythys. Fabrateria, CATH. fabrica, CATH. COMM.
  • FORGYN̄'. Fabrefacio.
  • FORHED. Frons, sinciput.
  • (FORHELYN, K. H. P. for-hyllyn' cowncel, S.2. [Ang.-Sax. forhelan, celare. See HYLLYN̄.]Celo.)
  • FOR-HUNGRYD, and an-hungryd.

    3. Hardyng relates the honours that were falsely paid to the remains of Richard II.

    "Fro Poumfret brought with great solempnyte,
    (Men sayde forhungered he was) and lapped in lede,
    At Poules his masse was done and diryge."

    Chron. c. 200.
    Famelicus.
  • FORKE. Furca, pala.
  • FOR-LATYN̄', or leve desolate. Desolo.
  • FORLATYN'. Desolatus.
  • FORLATE PLACE. Absoletus, C. F.
  • FORME. Forma.
  • FOORME, longe stole. Sponda, DICC.
  • FOORME of an hare, or oþer lyke. Lustrum, KYLW.
  • FOORMYD. Formatus.
  • FOORMYN̄', or makyn̄'. Formo.
  • FOORMYNGE, or makynge. For∣macio.
  • FOORMYNGE, or techynge, or in∣formynge (or infourmynge of techinge, P.) Instruccio, in∣formacio.
  • FORMOWRE, or grubbynge yrȳn' of gravowrys.4. [The Catholicon gives the following explanation: "A scrobs dicitur scrofina, quod∣dam instrumentum carpentarii, quia herendo scrobem faciat." "Runcina est quoddam artificium fabri lignarii gracile et recurvum, quo cavantur tabule ut una altera alteri connectatur; Anglice, a gryppynge yron." ORTUS. Palsgrave gives the term "for∣mowr, or grublyng yron," which appears to signify a gouge. See GROWPYN̄' wythe an yryn, as gravowrys, runco.]Scrofina, CATH. runcina, C. F.
  • FORNE parte of a thynge (fore part, P.) Anterior pars.
  • FORNE parte of a schyppe, or for∣schyppe. Prora.
  • FOR-SAKYN̄'. Desero, relinquo, derelinquo, renuo.
  • FORSAKYN̄', and denyyn̄'. Abnego.
  • FORSAKYN̄', and refusyn̄'. Ab∣renuncio, refuto, recuso.
  • FORSAKYN', or refusyd. Refutatus.
  • FOR-SAKYN̄', or lefte. Derelictus, relictus, dimissus.
  • FORSAKYNGE, or refusynge. Re∣futacio, C. F. derelictio, desercio, dimissus.
  • Page  173FORSOTHE. Vere, utique, quinimo, profecto, siquidem, Amen.
  • FOR-SPEKYN̄', or charmyn̄'.1. ["Facina, a forspekere, or a tylstere (al. tylyere). Fascino, to forspeke or ouersee." MED. GRAMM. "To forspeke, fascinare, incantare: a forspekynge, fascinacio, facinus." CATH. ANG. Palsgrave says, "I forspeake a thyng by enchauntementes. Some witche hath forspoken hym, quelque vaudoyse la enchanté." W. Turner, in his Herbal, 1562, says that "there are sum date trees in whose fruite is a stone bowyng after ye fasshon of an half moon, and thys sum polyshe with a toothe, with a certayn religion agaynst forspekyng and bewitchyng." The Ang.-Sax. for-spaec has merely the signification of a preface, fore-speca, prolocutor; by Shakespeare and other writers to forespeak is used with the sense of forbidding. The use of the word in the sense of fascinating or charming arose probably from a superstitious belief, which is not extinct at the present time in North Britain, that certain persons had the power of injuring or bewitching others by immoderate praise. See Jamieson's observations upon this word.]Fas∣cino, CATH.
  • FORSTERE, or fostere. Foresta∣rius, indagarius, indago, vel indagator (viridarius, P.)
  • FORSWERERE, or he þat ys oft forsworon̄'. Labro, C. F.
  • FORSWERYN̄'. Perjuro.
  • FORSWERYNGE. Perjurium, per∣juracio, objuracio.
  • FORSWORNE. Perjurus.
  • FORTHYNKYNGE of dede done. Penitudo, CATH.
  • FORTHYNKYN̄'.2. [Richard Earl of Arundel, having made in Parliament certain complaints against John of Gaunt, which were answered by Richard II., the Earl was obliged to make before the House an apology which was enrolled, wherein he thus expresses himself: "Hit forthynketh me, and byseche yowe of your gode Lordship to remyt me your mau-talent." Rot. Parl. III. 314, A.D. 1393. "To rewe, penitere, &c. ubi to for∣thynke. A forthynkynge, compunccio, contricio, penitencia." CATH. ANG.]Penitet, luo, UG.
  • FORTHEGATE. Transitus, pro∣feccio.
  • FORTHEGONE. Profectus.
  • FORTHYRST. Sitibundus, siciens.
  • FORTOPPPE. Aqualium, CATH. calvaria, CATH. et C. F.
  • FORTUNE, or happe. Fortuna, eventus, casus.
  • FORWARDE, or cumnawnt.

    3. In the romance of Richard Coer de Lion it is related that Saladin made a treaty with him that for three years pilgrims should have free access to the holy city.

    "The next day he made forewarde
    Of trewes to the Kyng Richard."

    line 7115.

    In Sir Amadace the White Knight makes an agreement in these terms;

    "Butte a forwart make I with the, or that thou goe,
    That euyn to part be-twene vs toe,
    The godus thou hase wonun and spedde."

    Stanza 42.

    See also the Avowynge of King Arther, stanza 35; Cant. Tales, Prologue, 831, 854. Ang.-Sax. fore-weard, pactum.

    Con∣vencio, pactum.
  • FORWARDE, or more vttyr. Ultra, ulterius.
  • FORWHY (forqwhy, H.) Quin (quia, quoniam, P.)
  • FOR THE NONYS (nones, W.)4. ["For ye naynste, abintento." CATH. ANG. Various are the conjectures that have been made with regard to the derivation of this phrase. See Tyrwhitt's note on Cant. Tales, v. 381; Jamieson's Dict. v. Nanes; and Sir Frederick Madden's glossaries appended to William and the Werwolf, and Syr Gawayn. In the last he retracts the opinion previously expressed, and is disposed to conclude that the original form of the phrase was the Saxon "for than anes." It implies occasion, purpose, or use; thus Palsgrave gives "for the nonest, de mesmes; for the nones, à propos, à escient. C'est un gallant de mesmes, et de fait apence. This dagger is sharpenned for the nones, affillé tout à esciant." Horman says, "he fayned or made hymselfe sicke for the nonis, deditâ operâ. He delayeth the matter for the nonys, de industriâ. It is a false mater deuysed for the nonys, deditâ operâ conficta." Occasionally, as in the following in∣stance, it is used ironically: "You are a cooke for the nones, wyll you sethe these roches, or you haue scaled them? vous estes ung cuisinier de mesmes," &c. PALSG. "He is a popte fole, or a starke fole, for the nonys, homo fatuitate monstrabilis." HORM.]Idcirco, ex proposito.
  • Page  174FORȜETARE (forgeter, P.) Im∣memor, oblitor.
  • FOR-ȜETYLLE, or fretefulle (forget∣full, P.)1. [The word fretefulle seems here evidently a corrupt reading, which is corrected by Pynson. For letenus should probably be read letheus, "i. obliviosus." ORTUS.]Obliviosus (letenus, P.)
  • FORȜETYN̄'. Obliviscor, necligo.
  • FORYETYN̄' lessonys, or other loore and techyngys. Dedisco, CATH. in disco.
  • FOR-ȜETYN̄' or for-ȝetyn̄' (sic.)2. [The correct reading, probably, is here either FORYETYN̄, or forȝetyn̄; or possibly forgetyn̄. See the note on the word FAYNE.]Oblitus.
  • FOR-ȜETYNGE. Oblivio.
  • FOR-YEVYN̄' trespace, or dette (forgeuen, P.) Indulgeo, re∣mitto, condono.
  • FOR-YEVENESSE (forgyuenesse, P.) Venia, remissio.
  • FORYEVYNGE, idem quod FOR∣YEVENESSE, supra.
  • FOORDE, passage ouer a water (forthe or water passinge, P.) Vadum, CATH.
  • FORTHERYNGE, or promocyon (forthe, or fortheringe, P.) Pro∣mocio.
  • FOSTERE, supra, idem quod FOR∣STERE.
  • FOOT. Pes.
  • FOOT BE FOOT. Pedetetim.
  • FOOTE, mesure. Pedalis, CATH.
  • FOTYNGE. Peditacio.
  • FOTYNGE, or fundament. Fun∣damentum.
  • FOT MANN, or he þat goythe on foote. Pedester, pedes, C. F.
  • FOOT STAPPE. Vestigium.
  • FOTE STEPPE, of a mann only. Peda, CATH. et KYLW.
  • FOWAYLE (or fowaly, P.)

    3. See EYLDYNGE, or fowayle. In the Romance of Richard Coer de Lion this word seems to have the more general sense of provisions, or needful supplies. When Richard arrived at Cologne the heads of the city issued the command,

    "No man selle hem no fowayle."

    line 1471.
    Fo∣cale.
  • FOWAR, or clensare.4. [See FEYAR, FYIN̄, and GOONGE FYRMAR. The appellation Fowar occurs as a surname in the Issue Roll of the Exch. 44 Edw. III. "Will. Fowar, falconer."]Mundator, emundator, purgator, munda∣trix, purificatrix.
  • FOWARE, or clensare of donge, as gongys, and oþer lyke. Fi∣marius, oblitor, C. F.
  • FOWER, or fewelere, or fyyr maker (fovwer, H.)5. ["Focarius, a fuelere, or makere of fyre." MEDULLA. See Nares, v. fueler.]Focarius, vel fo∣caria, focularius.
  • Page  175FOWYD, or clensyd. Mundatus, pur∣gatus, purificatus, emundatus.
  • FOWYN̄', or make clene.1. ["I fowe a gonge, ie cure un retraict, or ortrait. Thou shalte eate no buttered fysshe with me, tyll thou wasshe thy handes, for thou hast fowed a gonge late." PALSG. Forby gives the verb to fie, fey or fay, as still used in Norfolk in this sense. See FYIN̄.]Mundo, emundo, purgo, purifico.
  • FOWYNGE, or clensynge. Emun∣dacio, purgacio, purificacio.
  • FOWYR. Quatuor.
  • FOWRE TYMES. Quater.
  • FOWLE, bryd. Avis, volucer.
  • FOWLE, of fylthe. Turpis, vilis, sordidus.
  • FOWL, on-thende, or owte caste (vnthende, P.) Abjectus.
  • FOWLARE. Auceps, avicularius.
  • FOWLYN̄', or take byrdys. Au∣cupor, COMM.
  • FOWLYN', or defowlyn̄' (defylen, P.) Turpo, deturpo, maculo, coinquino, fedo, polluo.
  • FOWLYNGE, of fylthe. Detur∣pacio, pollucio, sordidacio.
  • FOWLYNGE, or takynge of byrdys. Aucupium, UG. in aueo.
  • FOOWNE, beeste (fown, K. H.) Hinnulus, vel innulus, CATH.
  • FOWNDER of a place. Fundator.
  • FOWNDOWRS (fowndowresse, H. foundresse, P.) Fundatrix.
  • FOWNDRYD, as horse.
  • FOWNDERYN̄' (fowundryn, P.)2. [Palsgrave gives the verb "to fownder as a horse, trébucher." Dr. Turner, in his Herbal, 1562, makes use of the term in allusion to ailments of the human body, where he says that Pyrethrum "is excellently good for any parte of the body yt is fundied or foundered." In his treatise of baths and mineral waters, he says that the baths of Baden, in High Germany, "heate muche membres that are foundre or fretished wyth cold, and bringe them to theyr naturall heate agayne;" and that the Pepper bath has virtues to restore "limbs fretished, foundered and made numme wyth colde."]
  • FOWNDRYNGE.
  • FOWRE, supra (in FOWYR.)
  • FOWRE CORNERYD. Quadran∣gulus, quadrangularis.
  • FOWRE FOLDE. Quadruplus.
  • FOWRE FETYD (fotyd, K. foted, P.) Quadripes.
  • FOWRE HUNDRYD. Quadringinti.
  • FOWRE SQUARE (fowre scware, or fowre sware, H.) Quadrus.
  • FOWRE SQUARE STONE. Tessel∣lum, C. F. (peretalum, P.)
  • FOWRTHE, or the fowrte. Quartus.
  • FOWRETENE. Quatuordecim.
  • FOWRE TYMES. Quater.
  • (FOURTY, P. Quadraginta.)
  • FOWRTY TYMES. Quadragesies.
  • FOWRTNYGHT. Quindena.
  • FOX, beeste. Vulpes, CATH.
  • FOXYSHE (foxich, K.) Vulpinus.
  • (FRACCHYN̄', supra in cherkyn̄', as newe cartys; frashin, S.)3. [This word appears to be now only retained in the North Country expression to fratch, signifying to scold or quarrel. It seems to be derived from A.S. freoðan, fricare. Compare Jamieson, v. Frate.]
  • FRAYLE of frute (frayil, K.) Pa∣lata, CATH. carica, CATH. et UG. in copos.

    4. The Catholicon gives the following explanation: "A palus dicitur palata, quia fit de palis, et palate sunt masse que de recentibus ficubus compingi solent, quas inter palas ad solem siccant;" and carica properly signifies dates preserved in a similar manner. In the Romance of Coer de Lion are mentioned, among provision for the army,

    "Fyggys, raysyns in frayel."

    line 1549.

    "A frayle of fygys, palata." CATH. ANG. "Frayle for fygges, cabas, cabache." PALSG. Minsheu would derive the term "a fragilitate," and Skinner from the Italian fragli; but it more closely resembles the old French "Fraiaus, frayel; cabas, panier de jonc." ROQUEF. In Suffolk, according to Moore, a flexible mat-basket is called a frail. See Bp. Kennett's and Nares' Glossaries.

  • FRAYYN̄', idem quod FERYN̄', supra (fraiyn, or afrayn, K. afrayin, P.)
  • Page  176FRAKINE (fraken, K. frakne, H. freken, P.)

    1. Chaucer makes use of this word in his description of the King of Inde.

    "A fewe fraknes in his face y-sprent,
    Betwixen yelwe and blake somdel y-meint."

    Knight's Tale.

    In the gloss on the Equivoca of Joh. de Garlandia it is said, "lenticula est quedam macula in facie hominis, Anglice a spotte or frecon: lenticulosus, fraconed." "Frecken, or freccles in one's face, lentile, brand de Judas." PALSG. Forby observes that the word frekcens is still used in Norfolk. A. S. fraecn, turpitudo.

    Lentigo, C. F. len∣ticula, C. F.
  • FRAKNY, or fraculde (frekeny, P.) Lentigi(n)osus.
  • FRAKNYD, idem quod FRAKNY.
  • FRAME of a worke. Fabrica.
  • FRAMYD. Dolatus.
  • FRAMYD TRE. Assa, UG. et CATH. cadia.
  • FRAMYN̄' tymbyr for howsys (or hewyn, P.)2. [Previously to the XVIth cent. the ordinary mode of constructing houses in the eastern counties, as likewise in other parts of England, was by forming a frame of wood, or skeleton structure, the intervals or panels being afterwards filled up with brickwork, lath and plaster, or indurated earth, by the process called in Norfolk dawbing. Such constructions are usually termed timbered houses, or, in Shropshire, Cheshire, and neighbouring counties, where they are found highly ornamented, black and white houses. Harrison, who wrote his description of England about A.D. 1579, being re∣sident in Essex, observes that "the ancient manours and houses of our gentlemen are yet and for the most part of strong timber, in framing whereof our carpenters haue been, and are, worthilie preferred before those of like science among all other nations. Howbeit, such as be latelie builded are comonlie either of bricke or hard stone, or both." B. ii. c. 12, Holinsh. Chron. i. 188. It is from ths period that a marked change in the costly and ornamental character of domestic architecture in England is to be dated; previously, with the exception of some parts where the abundant supply of stone occasioned a more frequent use of such solid materials, houses were ordinarily of framed work. Palsgrave says, "My house is framed all redye (charpenté), it wanteth but setting up." Among the disbursements for building Little Saxham Hall, A.D. 1507, by Thomas Lucas, Sol. General to Henry VII. occur payments "to the joy∣nours for framyng of 6 chambres, 25s. For framyng of my great parlour and great chambre, 10s." Rokewode's Hist. Suff. 147. The stat. 37 Hen. VIII. c. 6, 1545, recites that certain novel outrages had of late been practised, such as "the secret burnynge of frames of tymber prepared and made, by the owners therof, redy to be sett up, and edified for houses." This misdemeanour was made felony.]Dolo.
  • FRAMYNGE of tymbyr. Dolatura.
  • FRAMYNGE, or afframynge, or wynnynge.3. [Forby gives the verb to frame, as meaning in Norfolk to shape the demeanour to an occasion of ceremony. In N. Britain it has the signification of succeeding, and is de∣rived by Jamieson from A. S. fremian, valere, prodesse. In the Craven dialect it im∣plies making an attempt.]Lucrum, emolu∣mentum.
  • Page  177FRANK, kepynge of fowlys to make fatte.1. [The word frank appears to be derived from the old French. Cotgrave gives "Franc, a franke or stie to feed and fatten hogs in;" and Florio renders Saginario, "a franke, or coupe, or penne; a place where beasts or birds are fatned." Ital. Dict. Harrison, in his description of England, speaking of the mode of making brawn, says, "it is made commonlie of the fore part of a tame bore, set vp for the purpose by the space of a whole yere or two, especiallie in gentlemen's houses (for the husband men and farmers neuer franke them for their owne vse aboue three or foure moneths), in which time he is dieted with otes and peason," &c. B. iii. c. i. Holinsh. Chron. i. 222. This verb is used by Shakespeare, and repeatedly by Holland, in his translation of Pliny. See Nares' Glossary.]Saginarium, DICC.
  • FRANKYD. Saginatus.
  • FRANKYNGE. Saginacio.
  • FRANKINCENS. Olibanum, fran∣cum incensum, C. F. (thus, P.)
  • FRANKELEYNE. Libertinus, KYLW.
  • FRAUNCE, londe. Francia (Gal∣lia, P.)
  • FRAWNCHEMUL, puddynge (fraun∣chem, P.)

    2. Lutanca, MS. "A franchemole, lucanica." CATH. ANG. The Catholicon observes, "Lucanica—quoddam genus cibi, et ut dicunt salsucia, quia primo in Lucaniâ est facta." It is a term of French derivation; Cotgrave gives "Franchemulle d'un mouton, a sheepes call or kell," and it seems to have signified a viand much the same as the haggis. Di∣rections for compounding it will be found in the "Kalendare de leche metys," Harl. MS. 279, f. 32. "Nym eyroun with þe whyte, and gratid brede, and chepis talow. Also grete as dyse nym pepir, safroun, and grynd alle to-gederys, and do in þe wombe of þe chepe, þat is þe mawe, and sethe hem wyl, and serue forth." See also the Forme of Cury, p. 95. The following metrical recipe "for fraunche mele" occurs in the "Crafte of Cure," Sloane MS. 1986, f. 85.

    "Take swongene eyrene in bassyne clene,
    And kreme of mylke þat is so schene,
    And myyd bred þou put þer to,
    And powder of peper þou more do.
    Coloure hyt with safrone in hast,
    And kremelyd sewet of schepe on last;
    And fylle þy bagge þat is so gode,
    And sew hyt fast, sir, for þo rode.
    Whenne hyt is soþun þou schalt hyt leche,
    And broyle hyt on gredel as I the teche."
    Lucanica, C. F.
  • FRAUNCHYSE (francheyse, K.) Libertas, territorium.
  • FREE. Liber.
  • FREDĀM. Libertas.
  • FRE HERTYD in yeftys (in ȝiftys, K. free of giftis, P.) Liberalis.
  • FREYL, and brokulle, or brytylle (febyl, K. febyll or brekyll, P.) Fragilis.
  • FREYLNEESSE. Fragilitas.
  • FREYTHE of caryage (freyt, or freythe, K. freight, or carriage, P.) Vectura, nabulum, C. F. et UG. trajectio, CATH.
  • FREYHTE, or feer (freyt, or fer, K. freyth, H.) Timor, pavor, terror.
  • FREYTOWRE. Refectorium.
  • Page  178FRELY. Libere, gratis.
  • FREMANN. Liber, libera.
  • FREMANN, made of bonde (manu∣misyd, K.) Manumissus, coli∣bertus, manumissa, coliberta, C. F. libertus, CATH.
  • FREMYD, or strawnge (frend, or strange, K. fremmed, H. P.)

    1. Fremyde is a word used by most of the older writers.

    "Sal neuer freik on fold, fremmyt nor freynde,
    Gar me lurk for ane luke lawit nor lerd."

    Golagros and Gawane, 1079.
    "Mony klyf he ouer clambe in contrayeȝ straunge,
    Fer floten fro his frendeȝ fremedly he rydes."

    Gawayn and G. Knyȝt, 714.

    It occurs in Rob. of Glouc. and Chaucer; and signifies both strange, as regards country, and alien, as to kindred.

    "Whether he be fremd, or of his blod,
    The child, he seyd, is trewe and gode."

    Amis and Amiloun, 1999.

    "Those children that are nursed by frembde men's fires are, for the most part, more harde and strong then they be which are daintily brought up in their owne fathers houses." Precious Pearle, translated by Coverdale, A.D. 1560. "Fremmyd, exterus, externus. To make fremmyd, exterminare." CATH. ANG. "Exter, the last, frem∣mede, or strange." MEDULLA. "Estrangé, separated from, growne fremme or out of knowledge, and acquaintance. Estrangier, a stranger, alien, outlander, a fremme bodie, that is neither a dweller with, nor of kinne vnto us." COTG. Ang.-Sax. fremed, alienus.

    Ex∣traneus, alienus, externus, UG. V.
  • FREEND. Amicus, amica.
  • FREENDFULLE. Amicabilis.
  • FREENDLY. Amicabiliter.
  • FRENESSE of hert, or lyberalyte. Liberalitas.
  • FRENESY, sekenesse. Frenesis, mania.
  • FRENETYKE (frentyk, K.) Fre∣neticus, maniatus.
  • FRENGE, or lyoure. Tenia, glossâ Merarii (orarium, K.)
  • FRENSCHYPPE (frenchepe, H.) Amicicia, amicabilitas.
  • FRERE (fryer', P.) Frater.
  • FREES, idem quod FREYL, supra (fres, or freel, K. or brokyl, or broyyl, H. broyle, P.)2. [Compare BROKDOL, or frees, where possibly the correct reading should be brokyl; and SPERE, or fres.]
  • FRESCHE. Recens, friscus.
  • FRESCHE, ioly and galaunt (fresshe and gay, P.)3. [Chaucer and Gower use the word fresh in the sense of handsome, or ornamented; Horman says, "the buyldynge is more fresshe than profitable, majoris ostentationis est quam usus. Our churche hath a sharpe steple with a fresshe top, cum ornato fastigio." So likewise Palsgrave gives "fresshe, gorgyouse, gay, or well besene, frisque, gaillart."]Redimitus, CATH.
  • FRESCHLY, and newly. Recenter, noviter.
  • FRESCHLY, or iolyly, and gayly. Gaudiose, friscose, redimite.
  • FRESYN̄', froste. Gelat, C. F.
  • FRESYNGE, or froste. Geliditas, CATH.
  • FRESTE, or to frest yn byynge or borowynge (frest, or frestynge, K.) Mutuum.
  • FRESTYN̄', or lende to freste Page  179 (frestyn, or leendyn, H.)1. [Ray gives among his N. Country words "to frist, to trust for a time." A.S. fyrstan, inducias facere. Jamieson explains it as signifying in the primary sense to delay, or postpone, and thence to give on credit, to grant delay as to payment. Germ. fristen, prorogare tempus agendi. "To friste, induciare." CATH. ANG.]Presto, comodo, accomodo, mutuo.
  • FRETYN̄', or chervyn̄' (choruyn, H.) Torqueo, CATH.
  • FRETYN', or weryn', as metalle be ruste (or knawyn, H. gnawen, P.) Corrodo, demollio.
  • FRETYNGE. Corrosio.
  • FRETYNGE, payne yn' þe wombe. Torcio.
  • FRYYD. Frixus, confrixus.
  • FRYKE, or craske, or yn grete helthe. Crassus.
  • FRYKENESSE. Crassitudo.
  • FRYYN̄' yn a pann'. Frigo, frixo, C. F.
  • FRYYNGE. Frixatura, CATH.
  • FRYYNGE PANN. Sartago, frix∣orium, CATH.
  • FRYSARE, or he þat frysythe clothe. Villator.
  • FRYSE, or frysyd clothe. Pannus villatus.
  • FRYSE clothe. Villo.
  • (FRYSED, as clothe, P. Villatus.)
  • FRYSYNGE of clothe. Villatura.
  • FRYTOWRE, cake. Lagana. (La∣gana sunt latâ panes sarta∣gine plagâ. K.)
  • FRO A-BOWYN̄' (fro abovyn, K. from aboue, P.) Desuper, de∣sursum.
  • (FRO BE-NETHYN, K. H. from be∣nethe, P. Deorsum.)
  • FRO FERE (fro far, P.) Eminus, de longe.
  • FROGGE, or froke, munkys abyte (frok, monkes clothinge, J. W.) Flocus, in Jure, libro vj.
  • (FROKE, monkes habyte, K. P. frogge, H. Cuculla, culla, CATH.)2. ["A froke, cucullus." CATH. ANG. There is much ambiguity in the use of the term froccus, the monastic frock, which occasionally appears to have been confounded with the cuculla, although properly a distinct garment. At the General Council at Vienna, 1312, Clement V. defined the cuculla to be a long, full, and sleeveless garment; the floccus, considered identical with froccus, to be a long habit, with long and wide sleeves. They are evidently distinguished by Ingulph, who states among the ordinances of Egelric, Abbot of Croyland from 975 to 992, "Induit omni anno totum conventum cum sectâ suâ de tunicis, omni altero anno de cucullis, et omni tertio anno de froccis." Rerum Angl. Script. i. 54. The distinction appears likewise to be made by M. Paris, where he speaks of the unbecoming changes in monastic attire, introduced at St. Alban's during the time of Abbot Wulnoth, towards the close of the Xth cent. So also in the enumeration of garments allowed by custom to each monk of Glastonbury, at the latter part of the XIth cent. it is stated, "unusquisque fratrum ij cucullas, et ij froccos, et ij stamina, et ij femoralia habere debet, et iv caligas, et peliciam novam per singulos annos." G. de Malmsb. de Antiqu. Glast. Hearne, ed. Domerham, i. 119. At an early period the cowl appears to have been portion of a sleeveless garment which sometimes was a mere cape, but occasionally reached quite to the heels, and was worn over the long, full, and sleeved habit termed a frock. See the illustrative plates in Murat. Script. Ital. i. part 2, Chron. Vulturnense; Mabill. Ann. Bened. i. 121. At a subsequent time it seems that these garments ceased to be distinct, and the long dress of the monk, having the cowl attached to it, was termed indifferently froccus, frocca, and floccus, or cuculla. Further information on this subject will be found in Ducange.]
  • Page  180FROGGE, or frugge, tode. Bufo.
  • FROHENS forewarde. Amodo, de∣inceps, actenus, decetero.
  • FROHENS (frohethyn, K. fro heyin, H. fro heyine, S. fro heym, P.) Hinc, dehinc (abhinc, K.)
  • FRO NY (or fro nere, K. P.) Co∣minus.
  • FRONT, idem quod FORHED, supra.
  • FROYD custummere þat byythe of a-nother, as ȝerne byers (froth custumnare, þat byyþ off a-noder, as ȝarne byars, S.)1. [A satisfactory interpretation of this word has in vain been sought. The practice of buying up woollen yarn for exportation was carried to a great extent in Norfolk, and other parts of England. It was highly injurious to the interests of the cloth-workers, and occasioned loss to the revenue. Many enactments appear in the statutes to protect both the weavers of Norfolk, and the customs, against the crafty proceedings of merchants, both strangers and denizens, "regrators and gatherers of woll." See particularly stat. 23 Hen. VI. c. 2; 7 Edw. IV. c. 3; 4 Hen. VII. c. 11; 33 Hen. VIII. c. 16. Perhaps froyd may imply the artful diligence with which covetous traders persisted in eluding the statutes, and robbing the staple manufacturers of Norfolk. Jamieson explains "frody" as signifying cunning; Teut. vroed, industrius, attentus ad rem. In the North, ac∣cording to Brockett, froating means anxious unremitting industry.]
  • FROYSE.2. [A pancake is called in the Eastern counties a froyse, a term derived, as Skinner conjectures, either from frixare, or the French froisser, because the substances of which it is compounded are beaten up together. Forby gives, as a Norfolk proverb, the following phrase: "If it won't pudding, it will froize;" if it won't do for one purpose, it will for another. See ancient recipes in the Forme of Cury, p. 96; and the "Kalendare de Leche metys. Froyse out of Lentyn." Harl. MS. 299, f. 36. "Froyse of egges, uovte d'oevfz." PALSG. Voulte d'oeufs is the ancient appellation of an omelet. "Fritilla, a froyse or pancake." ELYOT.]Frixura, CATH. Ver∣sus. Frixa nocent, elixa ju∣vant, assata coartant. Hec C. F.
  • FROKE, or frosche (frosh, K. froske, or frosche, H. S. P. or frogge, W.)3. [A small frog, according to Forby, is called in Norfolk a fresher. The distinction which appears to be here made between FROGGE, tode, and FROKE, or frosche, is pos∣sibly dialectical; they seem properly, however, to be synonymous, the former derived from A.S. frogga, rana, while the latter assimilates more nearly to the Germ. frosch, Dan. frosk, a frog. TOODE, fowle wyrme, occurs hereafter. "Rana, a froske, or frogge." ORTUS. "A froske, agredula, rana, rubeta, ranula." CATH. ANG. In the Golden Legend, in the Life of St. Peter, is a relation of the deceit practised upon Nero by his physicians, when he ordered them, "Make ye me wt chylde, and after to be delyuered, yt I may know what payne my moder suffred: which by craft they gaue to hym a yonge frosshe to drynke, and it grewe in his bely."]Rana.
  • FROST. Gelu.
  • FROTHE. Spuma, CATH. spu∣mula, KYLW.
  • (FROWARDE, S. P.) Contrarius, perversus, protervus.
  • FROWARDNESSE. Perversitas, contrarietas, protervitas.
  • FRO WYTHE YN'. Abinter, deintus.
  • FRO WYTHE OWTE (fro wit owtyn, K.) Abextra.
  • FROWNAR. Fruncator, CATH. in nario, rugator.
  • FROWNCE of a cuppe.4. [This term appears to signify the kind of ornament which in modern goldsmith's work is called gadrooned, from the French "goderonné, a fashion of imbossement used by goldsmiths, and termed knurling." COTG. Fronce implies a wrinkle, crumple, or gather, generally in allusion to dress, as in the Vis. of Piers Ploughm. 8657. "Froun∣syng, froncement." PALSG. Frontinella is not explained by Duc. and in the Ortus is rendered "the pyt in the necke;" it seems, therefore, to mean a wrinkled or irregular depression of surface. Possibly the correct reading may be froncinella. Fronciatus, i. rugatus, Duc.]Fronti∣nella (frigium, P.)
  • FROWNYN̄'. Frunco, CATH. in subsamno, sanno.
  • Page  181FROWNYN̄' wythe the nose. Nasio, CATH.
  • FROWNYNGE. Fruncacio, CATH. in subsamno, rugacio.
  • FROWNT, or frunt of a churche, or oþer howsys. Frontispicium, C. F. CATH.
  • FRUCE, or frute. Fructus.
  • FRUTUOSE, or fulle of frute (fruc∣tuowse, K.) Fructuosus, uber.
  • FRUMPYLLE. Ruga, rugula.
  • FRUMPLYD. Rugatus, rugulatus.
  • FRUNTELLE of an awtere.1. ["A fruntalle, frontale." CATH. ANG. The frontal of an altar is defined by Lynd∣wood to be "apparatus pendens in fronte altaris, qui apparatus alias dicitur Palla." Provinc. 252. The synod of Exeter, A.D. 1287, ordained that in every church the pa∣rishioners should provide "frontellum ad quodlibet altare." Wilkins, ii. 139. Abp. Winchelsey, in his Constitutions, A.D. 1305, prescribes that provision be made of "frontale ad magnum altare, cum tribus tuellis." Lyndw. 252. The frontal must not be confounded with the permanent decoration of the fore-part of the altar, properly termed tabula, or tablementum, which was formed either of sculptured or painted work, and sometimes of the most precious metals, chased, enamelled, and set with gems, as was that in Winchester cathedral, described in the Inventory given by Strype, Life of Abp. Parker, App. 187. The frontal was formed of the most costly stuffs, and often, if not properly by prescribed usage, was of the same suit or colour as the vestments used at the same time in the service of the altar. As there were both the tabula fron∣talis, and superfrontalis, which last seems to have been identical with the retro-tabula, or post-tabula, so likewise there were the pannus frontalis, and superfrontalis, the second being in both cases the decoration placed above the altar, and attached or ap∣pended to the wall or screen against which it was placed. The inventory of sacred or∣naments in the Wardrobe Book of 29 Edw. I. A.D. 1300, enumerates "Duo frontalia broudata majora et minora, de unâ sectâ," p. 350; identical, probably, in purpose with those termed "frontella ij pro altare, unum videlicet superius, et aliud inferius pro eodem," which were purchased by John de Ombresley, Abbot of Evesham, from the executors of Will. de Lynne, Bp. of Worcester, who died in 1373. Harl. MS. 3763. In Pat. 3 Hen. VI. these ornaments are again differently termed. Among various gifts to churches in France delivered by the executors of Henry V. it appears that they sent to St. Denis "unam altam frontellam, et unam bassam frontellam de velvet, rubeas, cum foliis aureis brouderatas." Rym. x. 346. In the inventory of the gifts of Abp. Chicheley to All Souls' Coll. A.D. 1437, there appears to be a distinction between the terms frontale and frontellum, as it enumerates, among many others, "j frontale et suffrontale de blodio velvet operatum cum stellis, patibulo, et salutatione; j frontellum de blodio velvet cum foliis quercinis aureis; vj frontys, et vj suffrontys unius sectae, steynid, pro secundis altaribus," &c. Gutch, Coll. Cur. ii. 262. The precise difference is not apparent, but each secta, or totus apparatus for an altar, comprised, according to this document, the "frontale, suffrontale, frontellum, ij curtinae, j des-cloth, j teca," or corporas case: possibly frontellum may be only a diminutive of the other term. Ducange gives the term "refrontale, apparatus altaris," the same, probably, as the pannus superfrontalis; as likewise the tabula suprafrontalis was, as has been observed termed also retro-tabula.]Fron∣tellus.
  • Page  182(FRUTE, P. Fructus, supra in FRUCE.)
  • FRUTYN̄', or brynge forþe frute. Fructifico.
  • FUL. Plenus, repletus.
  • FUL of wynde. Ventosus.
  • FULLE of wordys. Verbosus.
  • FULLARE. Fullo.
  • FULE of golde, quod dicitur gold∣fule (goldfoyl, K.) Brateum, vel bratea, in plur. CATH.
  • FULFYLLN̄', or fyllyn̄'. Impleo, repleo.
  • FULFYLLYN̄', or make a-cethe in thynge þat wantytħe (makyn a-set for þyngys þat wantun, S.) Supleo.
  • FULFYLLE wythe mete. Sacio, saturo.
  • FULLE clothe. Fullo, CATH.
  • FULLYNGE. Fullatura.
  • FULMARE, best (fulmard, H. P.)1. ["A fulmerd, fetoncrus." CATH. ANG. The polecat is commonly called in the North a foumart. See Jamieson, Brockett, &c. The Acts of James II. King of Scots, A.D. 1424, regulate the export of "fowmartis skinnis, callit fithowis." The foumart appears, however, to be distinct from the fitchew: in the Boke of St. Alban's, among "bestys of the chace of the stynkynge fewte," are named "the fulmarde, the fyches, &c. and the pulcatte." Harrison, speaking of indigenous animals, and the hunting of foxes and badgers, observes, "I might here intreat largelie of other vermine, as the polcat, the miniuer, the weasell, stote, fulmart, squirrill, fitchew, and such like." Descr. of Eng. B. iii. c. 4. Isaac Walton mentions "the fitchet, the fulimart, the polecat," &c. Compl. Angler, i. c. 1. See hereafter POLKAT (pulkat, MS.) idem quod fulmere.]Pecoides, DICC. fetontus, petor.
  • FULNESSE. Replecio, implecio.
  • FULNESSE of mete (or fulsūnesse, infra.) Sacietas, saturacio.
  • FULNESSE of sownde. Sonoritas.
  • FULNESSE or plente (fulsūnesse, K. H. P.) Habundancia, copia.
  • (FULSŪNESSE of mete, K. P. Saci∣etas.)
  • FUMETER, herbe. Fumus terre.
  • (FUMRELL of an hows, K. P. supra in FOMERELL. Fumarium.)
  • FUNDAMENT, or grownde of a byggy(n)ge (byggyn, K. be∣gynnynge, H. P.) Fundamentum.
  • FUNDAMENT, or grownde. Fundus.
  • FUNDELYNGE, as he þat ys fownd∣yn̄', and noman wote ho ys hys fadur, ne hys modyr. Inventi∣cius, inventicia, aborigo, UG.
  • FUNKE, or lytylle fyyr.

    2. Forby gives funk as signifying touchwood. The word may be derived from Germ. funk, Dan. funke, scintilla. R. Brunne uses the phrase "not worth a fonk," seeming to imply a brief existence, evanescent as a spark; Langt. Chron. p. 171. In another passage he relates that King John vowed vengeance upon Stephen Langton, and the monks who had chosen him Archbishop, against the royal pleasure.

    "Be beten alle fonkes, or in prison þam binde."

    p. 211.

    Gower describes the amorous Perithous and Ipotasie as having drunk

    "Of lust that ilke firie fonke."

    Conf. Am. lib. vi.
    Igniculus, foculus.
  • FUNT, or fant. Baptisterium, fons baptismalis.
  • FURBYSCHOWRE, idem quod FORBYSCHOUR, supra.
  • (FURCLYD, supra in forclyd, H. furcled, supra in forcled, P.)
  • FURGŌN' (furgont, K. furgun, or fyre forke, P.)3. ["Furgone for an ouyn, uavldree." PALSG. Cotgrave gives "Fourgon, an oven∣forke, tearmed in Lincolnshire, a fruggin," &c. This word is still in use in the North. See Brockett, v. fruggan. "A frugon, vertibulum, pala, furca ferrea." CATH. ANG.]Rotabulum,Page  183 UG. in ruo, vertibulum, CATH. arpagio. Vide alia in FYRE FORKE.
  • FURRODE (furryd, K.) Furratus.
  • FURRYN̄' wythe furre. Furro, penulo, KYLW.
  • FURRYNGE, Furratura (pelli∣catura, K.)
  • FURLONGE. Stadium.
  • FURMENTY, potage. Frumenti∣cium.
  • FURNEYS. Furnus, fornax, CATH. fornacula, KYLW.
  • FURST, or fyrst. Primus.
  • FURST BEGOTŌN'. Primogenitus.
  • FURSTE frute, or fruce. Primicie.
  • FURWRE, or furrure (furre, K. furwur, H. furrour, or furringe, P.) Penula, DICC. furratura, CATH.
  • FUSTYAN, clothe (or fusteyn, H. P.) Furesticus, DICC.
  • FUTE, odowre.

    1. The fute is the scent of a fox or beast of chace. Compare FEWTE, vestigium, which occurs previously. In Will. and Werwolf, when the monster returns to his den and discovers that the shepherd has carried the child away, he is sore grieved,

    "And as þe best in his bale þer a-boute wente,
    He found þe feute al fresh where forþ þe herde
    Had bore þan barn beter it to ȝeme.
    Wiȝtly þe werwolf þan went bi nose,
    Evene to þe herdes house, and hastely was þare."

    p. 4.

    See also pp. 2, 79; Gawayn and the Grene Knyȝt, 1425; the Boke of St. Alban's, and Malory's Morte d'Arthur, B. 18, c. xxi. It seems probable that the term feuterer may be hence derived; but the Glossarists have supposed it to be a corruption of vaultrier, a keeper of the dog called in French "vaultre, a mongrel between a hound and a maistiffe; fit for the chase of wild bears and boars." COTGR. Bp. Kennett no∣tices the term in his Glossarial Coll. Lansd. MS. 1033: "A feuterer, a dog-keeper; the word is corrupted from vautrier, Fr. vaultrier, Lat. veltrarius, one that leads a lime-hound, or grey-hound for the chace." In a vocabulary written in the latter part of the XVth cent. Harl. MS. 1002, f. 142, after "haywarde, parcare," &c. occurs "Fede∣rarius, a fewterer." Nares cites several passages in which this term is used.

    Odor, vel odos, olfactus.
  • GABBAR (or lyare, infra.)2. [Sir John Maundevile, speaking of false diamonds, says, "I schal speke a litille more of the dyamandes, alle thoughe I tarye my matere for a tyme, to the ende that thei that knowen hem not be not disceyved be gabberes (Fr. barratours) that gon be the contree, that sellen hem."]Men∣daculus, mendacula, mendax.
  • GABYL, or gable, pykyd walle.3. ["A gavelle of a howse, frontispicium." CATH. ANG. Rob. of Glouc. uses the word gable in the sense of high. See Bp. Kennett's Glossary, v. Gabulum.]Murus conalis (gabyll wall, or pyke wall, murustenalis, P.)
  • GABBYN̄'. Menticulor, mencior.
  • GABBYNGE, or lesynge (lye, P.)4. [In Wickliffe's Confession given by Knyghton, he declared respecting the real presence, that "before the fende fader of lesyngus was lowside, was never this gabbyng contryvede." Decem Script. col. 2650. Ang.-Sax. ȝabbunȝ, derisio, or delusion by way of mockery and jesting.]Mendacium, mendaciolum, CATH.
  • Page  184GAD, or gode (gadde or qhyp, H. whyppe, P.) Gerusa, KYLW. scutica, C. F.
  • GAD, to mete wythe londe (gadde, or rodde, P.) Decempeda, CATH. pertica, C. F.
  • (GADERYD, K. Congregatus.)
  • GADERYN'. Colligo, lego. Ver∣sus. Fur legit es, flores virgo, viator iter.
  • GADERYN̄' tresowre. Thesaurizo, CATH.
  • GADERYNGE to-gedur. Colleccio, congregacio.
  • GAGELYN̄', or cryyn̄' as gees. Clingo.
  • GAGELYNGE of geese, or of gan∣ders. Drancitus (drācticus, P.)
  • GAGGYN̄', or streyne be the þrote. Suffoco.
  • GAY. Ornatus.
  • GAYLER, or iaylere. Gaolarius, carcerarius, CATH. pretor.
  • GALACHE, or galoche, vndyr solynge of mannys fote (galegge, or galoch, S. vndirshone, K. vnderschoyinge, H.)

    1. Sunt obstringilli qui per plantas consuti sunt, et ex superiori parte corrigiâ con∣trahuntur." CATH. The galache was a sort of patten fastened to the foot by cross latchets, and worn by men as early as the time of Edw. III. Allusion is made to it by Chaucer.

    "Ne were worthy to unbocle his galoche."

    Squire's Tale, 10,869.

    In the inventory of the effects of Hen. V. taken A.D. 1423, mention occurs of "j peir de galages faitz d'estreyn, iv d.;" but it is not easy to understand how straw should be a proper material for the purpose. See Rot. Parl. IV. 329. In Sir John Howard's Household Book, A.D. 1465, p. 314, are named both galaches and pynsons, which last are in the Promptorium explained to be socks. See Household Expenses in England. This kind of shoe was occasionally an article of luxury and ostentatious display, which probably suggested the allusion that occurs in the Vision of Piers Ploughman, where one is described as coming eagerly, as if to be dubbed a knight,

    "To geten hym gilte spores,
    Or galoches y-coupled."

    line 12,099.

    The term "y-couped" seems to imply the extravagant fashion of the long-peaked toe: "Milleus, a coppid shoo." ORTUS. In the reign of Edward IV. a statute was passed, by which the higher classes alone were permitted to wear shoes, "galoges," or boots, with a peak longer than 2 inches (Rot. Parl. V. 505, 566; Stat. of Realm. II. 415); but, from certain allusions in ancient romance, it would seem that the fashion was, by the usage of a much earlier period, permitted to none under the degree of a knight. See Sir Degore, 700; Torrent of Portugal, 1193, &c. The curious drawings in Cott. MS. Julius, E. IV. (t. Hen. VI.), one of which, representing King John, has been given in Shaw's Dresses, exhibit the galache in its most extravagant form. "Solea, a shoe called a galage or paten, whiche hathe nothynge on the fete, but onely lachettes." ELYOT. "Gallozza, a kind of wooden patins, startops, gallages, or stilts. Cospi, wooden pattins, or pan∣tofles, shoes with wooden soles, startops or galages," &c. FLORIO. "Galoche, a woodden shoe or patten made all of a peece, without any latchet or ty of leather, and worne by the poore clowne in winter." COTG. See Spenser, Sheph. Cal. Febr. and Sept. In the Wardrobe Book of Prince Henry, A.D. 1607, are mentioned "1 pair of golossians, 6s. 16 gold buckles with pendants and toungs to buckle a pair of golosses." Archaeol. xi. 93.

    Crepitum, crepita, C.F. obstringillus, CATH.
  • Page  185GALAWTE.1. [This word occurs in the Harl. MS. alone, and possibly the correct reading may be GALAWNTE. "Gallaunt, a man fresshe in appareyle." PALSG. Ang.-Sax. ȝal, libidinosus. For lessivus, should probably be read lascivus, i.e. "petulans, luxurians, vel superbe se agens, ioly or wanton." ORTUS.]Lessivus.
  • GALLE of a beeste. Fel, bilis, CATH.
  • GALLE of appulle, or oþer frute (galle, oke appyll, P.) Galla.
  • GALLE, soore yn mann' or beeste. Strumus, marista, C. F.
  • GALEYE, schyppe. Galea.
  • GALYN̄, as crowys or rokys.2. [By Chaucer the nightingale is said to "cry and gale," Court of Love, 1357; in which sense the word may be derived from the Ang.-Sax. ȝalan, canere. Jamieson gives to gale, or gial, to cry with a harsh note, a term applied to the cuckoo; and to galyie, to roar or brawl. According to Forby, to yawl signifies, in Norfolk, to scream harshly, as the cry of a peacock; and Moore gives yalen, to cry as a fretful child. "Japper, to bark or baye like a dog, to yawle, to bawle. Hoüaller, to yawl, wawl, to cry out aloud. Moüaner, to mawle, yawle, or cry like a little child." COTG. Ang.-Sax. ȝyllan, ȝiellan, stridere.]Crocito, KYLW. crosco.
  • (GALYNGALE, idem quod GANYN∣GALE, infra.)
  • GALLYD (gally, S.) Strumosus.
  • GALLYN, or make gallyd. Strumo.
  • GALLYNGE. Strumositas.
  • (GALLOCHE, supra in GALACHE. Callopedium, P.)
  • GALONE, mesure. Lagena, galo, DICC.
  • GALWE TREES (galowe, P.) Furce, plur. vel furca, galofurcium, KYLW.
  • GALTE (or gylte) swyne. Ne∣frendus, CATH.
  • GAME, pley. Ludus, jocus.
  • GAMME of songe. Gamma.
  • GANYNGE, or ȝanynge.3. ["To gane, fatiscere, hiare, inhiscere. To gayne, oscitare." CATH. ANG. "I gane, or gape, I yane, ie baille. He ganeth as he had not slepte ynoughe." PALSG. Ang.-Sax. ȝanung, oscitatio. In the gloss on G. de Bibelesworth the verb to galp occurs, "Par trop veiller hom baille, galpeþ." See also the Vis. of P. Ploughm. 8,214; Cant. Tales, 10,664, 16,984. Horman renders "he that galpeth, oscitans."]Oscita∣tus, KYLW.
  • GANDYR, byrde or fowl. Ancer.
  • GANYNGALE, or galyngale, spyce.4. [Among the spices used in ancient cookery, the powder of galingale is frequently named, as may be seen in the Forme of Cury. It was the chief ingredient in galen∣tine, which, as Pegge supposes, derived thence its name. It was also employed in me∣dicine, as a cardiac and cephalic. In the version of Macer's Treatise on Spices, MS. in the possession of Hugh W. Diamond, Esq. it is stated that "Galyngale resolueþ þe fleume of þe stomak; hit helpiþ þe deiestione; it doþ amende þe sauour and odour of þe mouthe if it be eten." He further attributes to it virtues of a carminative and aphro∣disiac nature. It occurs among spices mentioned in the Household Roll of the Countess of Leicester, A.D. 1265; "pro vj lib. Galingalium, ix. s." (Manners and Expenses of England, p. 14.) Chaucer makes allusion to its culinary use, Cant. Tales, 383. The annual provision of spices for the household of the Earl of Northumberland, A.D. 1512, comprised "Galyngga, j quarteron." According to Parkinson, the real galingale was the root of a Chinese plant, of which he gives a representation; but it appears that the root of the rush called English galingale, Cyperus longus, Linn. was much used in place of it, both as a drug and a condiment.]Galanga.
  • GANNEKER (ganokyr, S.)5. [Ganeo is explained by Ducange to signify "gulosus, popinator, tabernio;" in French, "ganeon; ivrogne, debauché." ROQUEF. The Proclamation of the Mayor of Norwich, on coming into office, set forth "that all Brewsters and Gannokers selle a gallon ale, of the best, be measure a-selyd, for 1d. ob. and a galon of the next for 1d." A.D. 1424. Blomf. ii. 100.]Ga∣nearia, UG. in capio, ganeo, UG.
  • Page  186GANTE, byrde.1. [The bird now called gannet, or Solan goose, sula alba, abounds only on the Bass Island, in the Firth of Forth. In the Exch. Roll of Normandy, A.D. 1180, p. 57, an entry occurs "pro pastu gantarum que venerunt de Angliâ, et pro lx. de illis ducendis ad Argentomum, et lx. ad Burum, vi li. iij so. et ix d." Giraldus mentions the GANTE among the birds of Ireland; "Aucae minores albae (quae et gantes dicuntur) et gre∣gatim in multitudine magnâ, et garrulâ venire solent, in hos terrarum fines rarius adveniunt, et tunc valde rare." Top. Hib. i. c. 18. Ang.-Sax. ȝanot, fulica.]Bistarda, C. F.
  • GAP of a walle. Intervallum, intercapedo, UG. in valeo, et CATH. capedo, C. F.
  • GAPYN̄'. Hio, oscito, UG.
  • GAPYNGE. Hiatus, hiacio.
  • GARBAGE of fowlys (or gyserne, infra.) Entera, NECC. vel en∣teria, C. F. vel exta, NECC. C. F. profectum, UG. V.
  • GAGE, lytylle belle (lytyll bolle, S.)2. [The reading of the Winchester MS. is probably here correct. In Norfolk a gage is, according to Forby, a bowl or tub to receive the cream, as it is successively skimmed off; so called, as he observes, from its use as a gauge, to show when a sufficient quantity has been collected to be churned. The word does not occur in the other MSS.]
  • GAARCE. Scarificacio, NECC. sesura, C. F. inscisio, scissura.
  • GAARCYD. Scarificatus, inscissus.
  • GAARCYN̄'.3. [In a treatise of the seasons, printed with Arnold's Chron. p. 172, it is recom∣mended that in winter "men shulde lete them bloode in ther bodys by garsinge, but not on veynes, but if it be the more nede;" meaning the operation of cupping, called in the Promptorium BOYSTON'. "To garse, scarificare." CATH. ANG. "Caesura, a cut, a garse, an incision." ELYOT.]Scarifico, C. F. UG. V. et KYLW.
  • GARCYNGE. Scarificacio, inscisio.
  • GARDEYNE. Ortus.
  • GARDENERE. Ortolanus.
  • (GARDERE, infra in GARTERE.)
  • GARFANGYL, or elger.4. [The term ANGYLLE, to take wythe fysche, meaning a fishing rod, has occurred already, as also ELYER, or elger, which appears to be an eel-spear. "Contus, an algere, a shaft, a dartt, a polloure. Fuscina, a hoke for fysshe, an algere." MED. MS. CANT. The word GARFANGYL seems wholly obsolete; possibly the first syllable may be traced to Ang.-Sax. ȝar, jaculum, or the implement may be a kind of spear used in taking the GARFYSCHE.]Anguil∣laria, anguillare.
  • GARFYSCHE (or hornkeke, infra.)5. [Sir T. Brown, in his account of the fishes of the Norfolk coast, mentions the gar∣fish, or greenback (Esox belone Linn.) Harrison mentions it among fish usually taken; "Of the long sort are congers, eeles, garefish, and such other of that forme." Descr. of Eng. Holinsh. Chron. i. 224. "Trompette, the needle-fish, garre-fish, horne-beake, horne-fish, or piper-fish. Aiguille, a horne-backe, piper-fish, or gane-fish. Esguille, a small fish called a horne-beake, snacot-fish, gane-fish. Orphie, the horne-kecke, piper-fish, garre-fish." COTG. The appellation is doubtless taken from its peculiar form; Ang.-Sax. ȝar, jaculum. Jamieson states that at Dundee the porpoise is called gairfish.]
  • GARGULYE, yn' a walle.6. [Will. of Worc. uses the term gargyle; Itin. p. 282. This appellation of the quaintly-fashioned water-spouts in the forms of men or monsters with yawning mouths, of which medieval architecture presents so endless a variety, is taken from the French. "Gargyle in a wall, gargoille." PALSG. See also Roquefort, v. Gargoile. Horman says, "Make me a trusse standing out upon gargellys, that I may se about: podium, suggestum, vel pulpitum, quod mutulis innitatur. I wyll haue gargyllis under the beamys heedis: mutulos, sive proceres, &c." Elyot renders "frumen, the vppermoste parte of the throte, the gargyll." A remarkable application of the gargoyle in archi∣tecture occurs on the south side of Notre Dame, at Paris; all the piscinas of the apsidal chapels surroudning the choir on that side being furnished with external gargoyles, which are fashioned like the upper parts of a lion, or dragon, and answer the purpose of the ordinary interior drains, which served to allow the water used in ablutions at the altar to pass into the earth. Their date is of the XIIIth cent. and nothing of a similar kind has been noticed in this country.]Gor∣gona, C. F. gurgulio (gargulio, P.)
  • Page  187GARYTTE, hey solere.

    1. In the Creed of Piers Ploughman is a curious and graphic description of a monas∣tery, with its numerous and stately buildings,

    "With gaye garites and grete,
    And iche hole y-glased."

    line 425.

    A GARYTTE was, in the original sense of the term, a watch tower, or look-out, on the roof of a house, or castle wall, called garita, in French guerite. In the version of Vegecius, Roy. MS. 18 A. XII. it is said of the defence of a camp, and keeping watch by night, "it is nat possible algate to haue highe garettes, or toures, or highe places for watche men, therfor it nedethe to haue out watche." B. iii. c. 8. Caxton, in the Book for Travellers, says "of thinges that ben vsed after the hous,—hit behoueth to the cham∣bres, loftes, and garettis, solliers, greniers." Cotgrave explains garitte, or guerite, to be a place of refuge from surprise, made in a rampart; a sentry, or watch-tower; and "tourel à cul de lampe, a small out-juttyng garret, or tower like a garret, on the top of a walle." See SOLERE hereafter.

    Specula, C. F. pergamium, UG. in gamio.
  • GARLEKKE. Allium.
  • GARLONDE. Sertum.
  • GARMENTE. Indumentum, vesti∣mentum.
  • GARMENT of grete valure (or robe, P.) Mutatorium, CATH.
  • GARMENT of clothe, made of dyuers clothys (colours, P.) Panucia, C.F.
  • GARNYSCHE of vesselle (garniche, K.)2. [A garnish signified commonly the set or service of pewter, and likewise, in more stately establishments, of more precious material. Previously to the introduction of fictile ware of an ornamental description in the later part of the XVIth cent. the ordinary service of the tables of our ancestors was on vessels of pewter, the silver plate being for the most part reserved to decorate the cup-board, or buffet. Harrison, in his descrip∣tion of Eng. written about 1580, speaking of the great skill to which English pewterers had attained, says, "Such furniture of household of this mettall, as we commonlie call by the name of vessell, is sold usuallie by the garnish, which dooth conteine 12 platters, 12 dishes, 12 saucers, and those are either of siluer fashion, or else with brode or narrow brims, and bought by the pound, which is now valued at six or seuen pence, or perad∣uenture at eight pence. In some places beyond the sea a garnish of good flat English pewter of an ordinarie making, ... is esteemed almost so pretious, as the like number of vessels that are made of fine siluer, and in maner no lesse desired amongst the great estates, whose workmen are nothing so skillful in that trade as ours." Holinsh. Chron. i. 237. In the inventory of the college of Bishop's Auckland, A.D. 1498, the silver plate having been described, there are enumerated "XX pewder platers, xij pewder dishes, viij salsers, j garnishe of vessell." Wills and Inv. Surt. Soc. i. 101.]Garnitum.
  • Page  188GARNYSCHYD. Garnitus.
  • GARNYSCHYN̄' vesselle. Garnio, garniso, polio.
  • GARNYSCHYN̄' pursys, and oþer lyke.
  • GARSONE, stronge place (gary∣zone, or garzone, strong holde, H. garyson, or garson, P.) Mu∣nicipium, C. F.
  • GARTERE, or gardere. Subligar, C. F. pelliper, CATH.
  • GARTERYN̄'. Subligo (obligo, K.)
  • GARWYNDYLLE (garwyndyl, or ȝarnwyndyl, S. garwyngyll, P.)1. ["A gyrus dicitur gyrgillus, instrumentum femineum, quod alio nomine dicitur volutorium, quia vertendo in gyrum inde fila devoluntur. Filum de colo ducitur in fusum; a fuso in alabrum, vel traductorium; ab alabro in gyrgillum vel devoluto∣rium; a gyrgillo in glomicellum." CATH. "Girgillum, Anglice a haspe, or a payre of yerne wyndle blades." ORTUS. "A garwyndelle, devolutorium, girgillus." CATH. ANG. "Yarne wyndell, tornette." PALSG. "Tournette, a rice, or yarwingle to wind yarne on. Travouil, a rice or a turning reele." COTG. See ȜARNE WYNDEL.]Girgillus, CATH.
  • GASPYN̄'. Exalo, hisco, C. F.
  • GASPYNGE, idem quod GAPYNGE, supra.
  • GATE, or wey. Via, iter.
  • GATE, or ȝate (yate, P.) Porta, foris, fores, CATH. (janua, P.)
  • GATE DOWNE. Descensus.
  • GATE DOWNE, or downe gate of þe sunne, or any oþer planete.2. [Palsgrave gives "At the sonne gate downe, sur le soleil couchant."]Occasus.
  • GATE SCHADYLLE (gateshodel, K. H. gate schodil, P.) Compitum, C. F. clinium, UG. in clino.
  • GATE SCHADYL, yn-to twey weyys. Bivium.
  • GATE SCHADYL, yn-to iij weyys. Trivium.
  • GATE SCHADYL, yn-to iiij weyys (or a carphax, H. P.)

    3. "A gateschadylle, bivium, diversiclivium, compitum." CATH. ANG. From the Ang.-Sax. sceadan, separare, is derived the obsolete verb to shed; "Discrimino, to shedde and departe." MED. MS. CANT. "To shede one's heed, parte the heares euyn from the crowne to the myddes of the foreheed." PALSG. Chaucer says of the Clerk Absolon,

    "Full straight and euyn lay his jolly shode."

    Miller's Tale.

    Hence also seems to be taken the term GATE SCHADYLLE, the division of a road into two or more directions. It appears to be wholly obsolete, and unnoticed by the Glos∣sarists. See Carfax (cartehouse, MS.) above, p. 62.

    Quadri∣vium.
  • GAWDE, or iape.

    4. In the Romance of the Seuyn Sages, the Emperor had given ear to the false ac∣cusation brught against Florentine by his step-mother; but the truth was at length made known.

    "A! Dame, said the Emperowre,
    Thou haues ben a fals gilowre,
    For thi gaudes, and thy gilry,
    I gif this dome that thou sal dy."

    line 3957.

    Mr. Weber has printed the word here gande, to which he gives the sense of a wile or mischievous design. Minot, in his poem on the Battle of Halidon Hill, says,

    "The Scottes gaudes might nothing gain."

    Chaucer uses the word in the signification of a trick, or joke. See Pardonere's Tale, 12,323, and Troil. B. ii. It implies also an ornament or toy of little value. Sher∣wood gives "a gaude, babiole," which Cotgrave renders "a trifle, whimwham, guigaw, or small toy for a child to play withal." See Jamieson, and Nares, v. Gaud.

    Nuga.
  • Page  189GAWDY grene. Subviridis.
  • GAVEL of corne.1. [To gavel signifies in Norfolk, according to Forby, to collect mown corn into heaps, in order to its being loaded. "Iaveler, to swathe, or gavell corn; to make it into sheaves, or gavels." COTG. Moore gives the word likewise as used in Suffolk.]Geluma, ma∣nipulatum, C. F. manipulare, CATH. merges, KYLW.
  • GAVELYN̄' corne, or oþer lyke. Manipulo, CATH. mergito, KYLW.
  • GAWGYN̄' depnesse. Dimentior, CATH.
  • GAWGYNGE of depenesse. Di∣mencionatus.
  • GAWL, fowayle (gavl, or gawyl, wode or fowayl, H. P.)2. [The Myrica gale, Linn. sweet gale, or bog myrtle, grows in boggy places in many parts of England, and before drainage had been carried to any extent in the fenny Eastern counties, it was probably found in sufficient abundance to be commonly used as fuel. Gerarde says that the Myrtus Brabanticus, gaule, sweet willow, or Dutch myrtle, grows plentifully in sundry places, as in the Isle of Ely, and the fenny places thereabouts; "whereof there is such store in that countrey, that they make fagots of it, and sheaues, which they call Gaule sheaues, to burn and heat their ovens." He mentions also that it was used to give an intoxicating quality to beer or ale, as it is still employed in Sweden.]Mirtus, CATH.
  • GAWNCELY, sauce (f)or gose flesche (gawnsely, saunce, K. gavcely, S. gawnly, P.)3. ["Gaunselle, applauda." CATH. ANG. The composition of this sauce is thus given in Arund. MS. 344; printed in Household Ordin. 441; and Warner's Cookery, 65. "Gaunsell for gese. Take floure, and tempur hit with gode cowe mylke, and make hit thynne, and colour hit with saffron; and take garlek, and stamp hit, and do therto, and boyle hit, and sew hit forthe." Caxton says, in the Book of Travellers, "Nycholas the mustard maker hath good vynegre, good gauselyn, gausailliede." The term is evi∣dently derived from "gausse d'ail, a clove of garlick." COTG. The Ortus explains "applauda vel appluda, dicitur sorbitiuncula ex paleis facta, (a gaunselle," MED.) This Latin word properly means chaff of corn, or husks, but here is taken in reference to the gousses, or husk-like covering of the garlic.]Ap∣lauda, KYLW.
  • GAWNT, or lene. Maciolentus, (macer, P.)
  • GAWNTE, or swonge (or slendyr, K.)4. [Ray mentions gant, slim or slender, among South and East country words. Forby gives ganty-gutted, lean and lanky; and Moore says that gant signifies scanty in Suffolk. Ang.-Sax. ȝewant, part. of the verb ȝewanian, tabescere. See SWONGE hereafter.]Gracilis.
  • GEAWNT. Gigas.
  • GEFFREY, propyr name. Gal∣fridus.
  • GEYNE, redy, or rythge forthe (ryȝht forth, S.)5. [In the Eastern counties gain signifies handy, convenient or desirable, and in the North near, as "the gainest road," which seems most nearly to resemble the sense here given to the word. See Brockett, Jamieson, and Hartshorne's Glossary.]Directus.
  • GEYNEBYYN̄', or byyn̄' a-ȝene.6. [In the later Wicliffite version Exod. vi. 6 is thus rendered; "y am þe lord þat schal lede out ȝou of þe prisoun of Egipcians, and y schal delyuere fro seruage, and y schal a-ȝen bie in an hiȝ arm;" in the earlier, "forbigge in an ouerpassynge arme;" "redimam in brachio excelso." Vulg. In the Golden Legend it is said, "We have grete nede of a doctour, or techer, of ayenbyer, of a delyuerer," &c. Compare A-GAYN∣BYER, or a raumsomere, and BYYN' a-ȝen'.]Redimo.
  • GEYNECOWPYN̄', or chasyn', or Page  190 stoppyn̄' in gate (geynstoppyn of gate, K. H. geyne cowpyn, or charyn, S.)1. [Compare CHARYN, or geynecowpyn'. Ray gives among South and East country words, "to gaincope, to go cross a field the nearest way to meet with something." In the Promptorium it signifies opposition, in both instances from Ang.-Sax. ȝean, obviam, adversus, and ceapian, negotiari.]Sisto, CATH.
  • GELDERE of beestys. Castrator.
  • GELDYN̄', Castro, testiculo, CATH. emasculo, CATH.
  • GELDYNGE of beestys, or fowlys. Castracio.
  • GELDYNGE, or gelde horse (gelt horse, K. P.) Canterius, CATH. canterinus, UG. in cavo, et C. F. vel equus castratus.
  • Hic caute attendat lector varia∣ciones soni hujus litere G. cum videlicet E. vel I. sequitur im∣mediata.
  • GELLE, or gelly. Gelidum, C. F. (congelidum, P.)
  • GELLYN̄, or congellyn' (to-gedyr, K.) Gelat, congelat.
  • GELLYD (or congellyd, K.) Con∣gellatus.
  • GELOWS, or geluce. Zelotipus, CATH.
  • GELUSYE (gelowsye, K.) Zelo∣tipia, CATH.
  • GELT. Castratus.
  • GELT MANN. Spado, eunuchus.
  • GEMETRYE. Geometria.
  • GENCYANE, or baldmony. Gen∣ciana.
  • GENDYR. Genus.
  • GENDRYN̄'. Genero, gigno.
  • (GENERAL, K. S. P.) Gen(er)alis.
  • GENTYL. Generosus.
  • GENTYL, of awncetrye (of an∣sware, S.)2. [GENTYL, or awncetrye, MS. of auncetry, K. P. So also, GENTRY, or awncetrye, MS.]Ingenuus, C. F.
  • GENTYL, and curteyse. Comis, CATH.
  • GEYTYLMANN. Generosus.
  • GENTILWOMAN̄. Generosa.
  • GENTYL, be fadyr and modyr. Ingenuus, UG. V. in N.
  • GENTRY. Generositas.
  • GENTRY, of norture and maners (gentilnes, K. gentyll, P.) Co∣mitas.
  • GENTRY, of awncetrye (gentilnes, K. gentry of awncetrye, P.) In∣genuitas.
  • GERFAUCUN (gerfawkyn, K. P.) Herodius.
  • GERMAWNDER, herbe. German∣dra.
  • GERMYYNE, propyr name. Ger∣manus.
  • GERNERE, howse of corne kepynge. Granarium.
  • GERTHE, hors gyrdylle (hors gyrdyng, H. P.) Cingula, CATH. cingulus est hominum, UG.
  • GESSARE (or a soposare, K.) Es∣timator.
  • GESSYN̄', or amyn̄. Estimo, ar∣bitror, opinor.
  • GESSYNGE (or wenyn, K.) Esti∣macio.
  • Page  191Nota in hoc capitulo multiplicem sonum, et soni mutacionem hujus litere G. et ideo bene caveas quod sonat per I. literam.
  • GEST, strawngere. Hospes.
  • GEESTE, or romawnce. Gestio (gestus, CATH. P.)
  • GESTYN̄' yn romawnce.1. [It would hence appear that the recital of gests, the deeds of conflict or gallantry, which was the proper business of the gestour, was accompanied by appropriate action, or gesticulation. "Gestire, i. gestus facere, scilicet diversis modis agitare, gaudere, luxuriari, &c." CATH. Hearne stated erroneously that gests were opposed to romance, Chron. Langt. pref. p. 37; a mistake which Warton has properly corrected. Chaucer uses "to geste," to relate gests; and "to tell in geste;" Cant. T. 17,354, 13,861; and these pasages apparently imply that gests were chiefly written in alliterative verse. He calls the Gesta Romanorum, "the Romain gestes." See Tyrwhitt's notes on Cant. T. 17,354, 13,775, and Warton's Eng. Poetry. "Gest, a tale. Gestyng, bourde, bourde." PALSG.]Gestio, CATH.
  • GESTYNGE, or romawncynge. Ges∣ticulatus, rythmicatus.
  • GESTOWRE. Gesticulator.
  • GET, or gyn' (gett, or gyle, K. gette, or gyty, S.) Machina.
  • GET, or maner of custome.

    2. Palsgrave gives "gette, a custome; newe iette, guise nouvelle." This phrase occurs often in the old writers. In a poem on the dissolute lives of the clergy, in the reign of Edw. II. Polit. Songs, ed. Wright, p. 329, some, it is said,

    "Adihteth him a gay wenche of the newe jet."

    line 118.
    "Yit a poynte of the new gett to telle wille 1 not blyn,
    Of prankyd gownes, and shulders up set, mos and flokkes sewyd wyth in."

    Towneley Myst. 312.

    Chaucer says the gay pardoner thought he rode "al of the newe get," or fashion; and he also uses the word in the sense of crafty contrivance, where he relates the deceit practised by the Alchemist, by means of a stick filled with silver filings.

    "And with his stikke above the crosselet,
    That was ordained with that false get,
    He stirreth the coles."

    Chan. Yem. T. 16,745.
    Mo∣dus, consuetudo.
  • GEETE, or blake bedys (gett for bedys, K. S. P.)

    3. It appears that in former times great virtues were attributed to jet. Alex. Nec∣cham, Abbot of Cirencester, who died A.D. 1217, says in his work De Rerum Naturâ, "Gagates ... aquâ ardet, oleo restinguitur: attritu calefactus applicata detinet, atque succinum: ydropicis illum portantibus beneficium prestat." lib. ii. c. 97, Roy. MS. 12 G. XI. f. 53. The observation of the electric properties of this mineral led him in the succeeding chapter to make some detailed remarks "de vi attractivâ," among which will be found a notice of the use of the magnet by mariners. In Trevisa's version of Barth. de propr. rerum, are the following observations: "Gette hyght gagates, and is a boystous stone, and neuer the less it is precious." It is best and most abundant in Britain, of two kinds, yellow and black, both of which have by friction the power of attracting light substances. It drives away adders, relieves fantasies, and has virtues against the visits of fiends by night. "And so if so boystus a stone dothe so greate wonders, none shuld be dispisid for foule colour without, while the vertu that is hid within is vnknowe." lib. xvi. c. 49. It was also regarded as a test of virginity, and rendering signal aid in parturition; these, and other properties, are noticed in Caxton's "Boke callid Caton," sign. e, viij. Even in the XVIth cent. it was valued for certain medicinal qualities; for Dr. Turner, Dean of Wells, says in his Herbal, 1562, "Miscel burde lyme melteth a swelled milt, if it be sodden, and layd to wyth a gete stone, or the Asiane stone." Beads, used for the reptition of prayers, were frequently formed of this material; thus among the gifts of Philip le Hardi to his daughter, on her marriage with the King of Bohemia, A. D. 1393, occurs, "Item, j paternostres de perles et de jayet, ou il y a xxxvj grosses perles, et ix enseignaulx d'or." Hist. de Bourg. iii. Alianor Duchess of Gloucester bequeaths, A.D. 1399, "un pare de paternostres d'ore, cont' xxx aviez, et iiij gaudes de get, qe fuerent à mon seignour et mari." Royal Wills. See also Testam. Ebor. i. 381. There is evidence that by some persons such beads were superstitiously regarded as gifted with extraordinary virtue; and to this belief Bp. Bale appears to make allusion, Kynge Johan, p. 39.

    "Holy water and bredde shall dryve awaye the devyll;
    Blessynges with blacke bedes wyll helpe in every evyll."
    Gagates, plur.
  • Page  192GETARE of goodys. Adqui∣sitor.
  • GETTARE.1. [Palsgrave gives "Gettar, a braggar, fringuereau. Iettar, a facer, facer, braggart. Iettar of nyght season, brigveur;" and Cotgrave, "Fringuereau, a ietter, spruce minion, gay fellow, compt youth." Compare hereafter SCHAKERE, or gettare: lascivus.]Gestulator, gestu∣osus (gesticulator, K. H. P.)
  • GETEE of a solere (gete, K. H. P.)2. [This term denotes the signular projection of the solars or upper stories in old tim∣bered houses, of which most picturesque specimens are still seen at Chester, and other towns. "Proceres dicuntur capita trabium que eminent extra parietes. Hecteca dicitur solarium dependens parietibus cenaculi." ORTUS. The Catholicon explains menianum to be the same as solarium, so named from Menianus, who made in the Forum certain convenient places for beholding public spectacles. "Meniana, buildings outward in prospectes and galeries, especially when they be so builded that the edifice iutteth out in length from the piller or other part of the house, wherin the building especially resteth; buildings of pleasure hanging and iutting out." COOPER. Horman says that "buyldynge chargydde with iotyes (maeniana aedificia) is parellous whan it is very olde." In Macbeth, act I. sc. vi. Shakespeare makes use of the term "jutty" in this sense, where Banquo commends the position of Macbeth's castle. Florio, in his Ital. Dict. 1598, gives "Barbacane, an outnooke, or corner standing out of a house, a jettie. Sporto, a porch, bay-window, or out-butting, or jettie of a house, that jetties out farther than anie other part of the house." Cotgrave renders "surpendue, a iettie, an outiutting roome. Soupendue, soupente, a pent-house, iuttie, or part of a building that iuttieth or leaneth ouer the rest." Steevens cites an agreement made by P. Hens∣lowe for building a theatre in 1599, with "a juttey forwards in eyther of the two upper stories."]Techa, procer, C. F. meniana, C. F. vel menianum, CATH. (hec∣theca, K. theca, CATH. P.)
  • GETYN̄', or haue be prayere. Im∣petro.
  • GETYN̄' or wynnyn̄'. Lucror, ob∣tineo, C. F. vel optineo, C. F.
  • (GETYN, or begetyn, K. P. Genero.)
  • GETTYN̄'.3. [See IETTYN̄, hereafter.]Verno, lassivo, ges∣ticulo, C. F. gestio, CATH. C. F. gesticulor, UG. V.
  • GETYNGE, or hauynge by wyn∣nynge. Lucrum, adquisicio.
  • GETTYNGE in iolyte. Gestus, CATH.
  • GETTYNGLY. Gestuose, CATH.
  • (GIAWNT, supra in GEAUNT, K.)
  • GYBEE, horse.4. [Festus and Papias state that certain monstrous images that were exhibited in the games of the circus, or on the stage, were termed by the Romans, manduci. Cooper gives "Manduces, images carried in pageantes with great cheekes, wide mouthes, and making a great noyse with their iawes." The Ortus renders "Mandicus, a gaye horse," and Forby gives the following explanation of the term; "Jibby-horse, a showman's horse decorated with particoloured trappings, plumes, streamers, &c. It is sometimes transferred to a human subject." In the MS. the word mandicum is placed under GYBELET; but its proper place is here. See Uguc. Vocab. Arund. MS. 508, f. 141, b.]Mandicus, KYLW. et C. F. mandicum, UG. in mando (manducus, S.)
  • Page  193(GYBBE, infra in KNOBBE yn a beestys backe or breste.)1. [This word seems to be taken from the Lat. gibbus. "Gibbe, a bunch or swelling, a hulch, anything that stands poking out." COTG.]
  • GYBELET, idem quod GARBAGE.
  • GYBELET of fowlys. Profectum, UG. V.
  • GYBET. Patibulum, calafurcium.
  • GYBONN, or Gylberde, propyr name (Gybbon', or Gylbert, S.) Gilbertus.
  • GYDE, or ledare. Ductor, duc∣trix.
  • GYBELOT (gyglot, S.)2. [Compare GYGELO(T) in the next page. The words are retained as found in the MS. and the reading seems here to be an error, which is corrected by the Winch. MS.]Ridax.
  • GYYLDE, or newe ale (gile, K. gyyl, H. gyle of nw ale, S. gyle, P.)3. [Forby gives "gyle, wort. Ang.-Sax. ȝylla, stridere, or Teut. ghijl, cremor cere∣visii." Ray has gail or guile-fat, among N. Country words, and it is given also by Brockett and Jamieson. "A gilefatte, acromellarium." CATH. ANG. In 1341, Thos. Harpham, of York, bequeaths "unam cunam, quae vocatur maske-fat, et ij parvas cunas quae vocantur gyle-fatts." Testam. Ebor. ii. 2. The term occurs repeatedly in the Wills and Invent. printed by the Surtees Soc.; and in the Invent. of Jane Hall, Durham, 1567, a distinction is apparent between the "gile-howse," and the brew-house, the former being perhaps the chamber where the wort was set to cool. See vol. i. 279. In the accounts of the building of Little Saxham Hall, 1507, it is called the "yele house." Rokewode's Suff. 146. See Invent. of Sir John Fastolfe's effects, 1459, Archaeol. xxi. 277; Unton Invent. pp. 3, 13; and Hartshorne's Shropshire Gloss. v. Illfit.]Celium, vel celia, C. F.
  • GYYLDE. Gilda, fraternitas.
  • GYLDE HALLE, dome howse. Pretorium, CATH.
  • GYLDYN̄' wythe golde. Deauro.
  • GYLDYNGE wythe golde. Deau∣racio.
  • GYYN̄', or ledyn̄'. Duco.
  • GYYN̄', or wyssyn̄' (dressyn, S. wysshen, P.)

    4. In medieval Latin guiare signifies to lead or conduct in safety, to instruct, "quasi viare," according to Ducange. In the Ward. Book of 28 Edw. I. there is a payment "pro vadiis unius Lodmanni conducti pro navi guiandâ inter Kircudbirth et Karla∣verok." p. 273. Roquefort gives "guier: mener, guider, conduire à la guerre, gou∣verner," &c. Chaucer uses the verb to gie, Cant. T. 15,604, 15,627. Gower says of the education of Alexander by Aristotle,

    "But yet he set an examplayre,
    His body so to guye and rule,
    That he ne passe mot the rule."

    Conf. Am. lib. vii.

    See also the Vis. of P. Ploughm. 1257. R. Brunne uses both the verb, and the noun "gyour," a leader; and in the Romance of K. Alis. 6023, "divers gyours, and sump∣teris" are mentioned as attending on his Eastern expedition. "Commino, to lede, or to gye." MED. Palsgrave gives the verb, "I gye, or gyde, Lydgate."

    Dirigo.
  • Page  194GYYN̄', or rewlyn̄'. Rego.
  • GYLE, or deceyte. Fraus, decepcio.
  • GYLLE, fowle clothe (fulclothe, H. P.)1. [The explanation of the word Melotes given in the Catholicon will be found in the note on the word BARNYSKYN, which seems to signify a coarse apron.]Melota, velmelotes, CATH.
  • GYLLE, lytylle pot. Gilla, vel gillus, vel gillungulus. Hec ha∣bentur in vitis patrum.
  • GYLLE of a fysche. Branchia, senecia, CATH.
  • GYLLYN̄', or gylle fysche. Ex∣entero, C. F. et UG. in stateo.
  • GYLLYNGE of fysche. Exente∣racio.
  • GYGELO(T), wenche (gygelot, wynch, S.)

    2. Forby derives the East-Anglian appellation gig, a trifling, flighty fellow, from Ang.-Sax. ȝeȝas, nugae. In the North giglet still signifies a laughing girl; the word occurs in "the Northern Mother's blessing," in admonition to her daughter,

    "Go not to the wrastling, ne shoting the cock,
    As it were a strumpet or a giglot."

    "Quo magis fetosa mulier magis luxuriosa, ye fayrare woman ye more gyglott." De Reg. Gramm. Sloane MS. 1210, f. 134. See Junius, v. Giglet. Compare GYBELOT above, a word occurring in the Harl. MS. alone, and probably an erroneous reading.

    Agagula.
  • GYLLOFRE, herbe. Gariophilus (galiofolus, S.)
  • (GYLLOFYR, clowe, K. P. Garie∣pholus.)
  • GYLTE wythe golde. Deauratus.
  • GYLTE, swyne, idem quod GALTE, supra.3. ["A gilte, suella." CATH. ANG. A gilt, or gaut, signifies in the North a female pig that has been spayed; see Grose, Brockett, and Jamieson. Bp. Kennett, in his Glossarial coll. gives "galts and gilts, boar-pigs and sow-pigs, Bor. from old Dan. gallte, porcus. Sax. ȝilte, suilla." See Yorksh. Dial. p. 39. Any female swine is called a gilt in Staff. Lansd. MS. 1033. See Hartshorne's Shropshire Glossary.]
  • GYLTE, or trespace (gylt, or de∣faute, P.) Culpa, reatus.
  • GYLTY (or defawty, K. fauty, P.) Reus, conscius, culpandus (cul∣pabilis, P.)
  • GYLTLES. Immunis, inculpan∣dus (inculpabilis, P.)
  • GYMELOT. Penetral, UG. V. pe∣netrale, CATH.
  • GYMOWE of a sperynge (gymmew, K. gymew, S. H.)4. [This word is still used in Norfolk, precisely in the sense that it has here. Forby gives "Gimmers, small hinges, as those of a box or cabinet, or even of the parlour door." A sperynge here denotes that by which a place is closed up, as a door or window, the lid of a chest, &c. The derivation of the word is doubtless from the French, gémeaux, twins; and the term applies properly not only to a hinge, composed of two portions, of exactly similar form and size, jointed together, but to anything else which is formed of twin-pieces of like dimension, united in any manner, either as a hinge or otherwise. In the version of Vegecius attributed to Trevisa, an expedient is described, to be used in a besieged fortress, against the battreing ram: "Somm hathe an iren, made as it were a peire tonges, i-iemewde as tonges in the myddes," by which the head of the ram is seized, and turned aside. B. IV. c. 23. Roy. MS. 18 A. XII. Among the disbursements for building Little Saxham Hall, A.D. 1507, under smith's work are mentioned "iij pair of jemews for almerys," or cupboards, as many for portal doors, and a pair for the buttery windows. Rokewode's History of Suff. pp. 146, 149. Ray, among N. country words, gives "Jimmers, jointed hinges, in other parts called wing-hinges;" and the term occurs in the Craven dialect, with the observation, that "being often formed like the letter H, they are called H. jimmers." In the Ortus the term denotes a pair of forceps, "Vertinella est forceps medici, a sclyce, or a gemowe;" and it frequently occurs as the name of a kind of ring formed of two interlinked portions, which could be united into one connected ring, and frequently used as a token of be∣trothal. See Nares, Brand's Popular Ant. and Archaeol. xiv. 7. Palsgrave has "Gymewe of a gyrdell, crochet d'une troussure. Gymell song, jumeau;" and Higgins, in his ed∣tion of Huloet's Dict. gives "Gimow (or gemoll) a little rynge to weare on the fynger. Gimmow (or gemoll) or rynge to hange at one's eare, as the Egyptians have, Stalog∣nium, inauris. Gimmow of a door, Vertibulum, cardo; le gond d'un huis." "Quin∣quaillerie, all kinds of small yron worke, as padlockes, snuffers, gimmers, or hindges for doors, &c. Alliances, gimmoules, or gimmoule rings. Souvenance, a ring with many hoops, whereof a man lets one hang down, when he would be put in mind of a thing. Verge, a plain hoope, or gimmall, ring. Membre d'esperon, the gimmew or ioynt of a spurre." COTG. "Gemmew ring, souvenance." SHERW. "Annulus purus, an hoope ring, a gimmall, a plaine ring without a stone." Junius's Nomenclator, by Fleming.]Vert(i)nella, gemella.
  • Page  195(GYN', idem quod GET, supra.)

    1. A gin signifies, according to the old writers, a cunning or deceitful device, and thence an ingeniously constructed machine of any kind. Chaucer uses the word in both senses; thus the crafty trick of the Alchemist, which is termed "a false get," as has been observed in the note on the word GET, is called also "a false gin." In the Squire's T. it is related that the magical steed of brass would bear its rider at pleasure,

    "And turne again with writhing of a pin;
    He that it wrought, he coude many a gin."

    In the Golden Legend, the wiles of Satan are termed "gynnes of temptacyon." Life of St. Bernard. In the Romance of Coer de Lion warlike machines are termed gins; as they are continually in Trevisa's version of Vegecius, Roy. MS. 18 A. XII. "Troclea, the gyn, whyche is called a crane." ELYOT. See Hartshorne's Shropshire Glossary. "Exostra, a vice or gin of wood, wherewith such things as are done within, out of sight, are shewed to the beholders, by the turning about of wheeles." Junius's No∣menclator, by Fleming.

  • GYNGELYN̄' in sowndynge. Re∣sono, DICC.
  • GYNGELYNGE of gay harneys, or oþer thyngys. Resonancia.
  • GYNGERE. Zinziber, CATH.
  • GYPCYERE (gypsere, K. gypcer, H. P.)

    2. This word is a corruption of the French "Gibbecière, a pouch, bag, poake, budget," COTG. properly such as was used in hawking, &c. but commonly worn by the merchant, or with any secular attire. Chaucer says of the Frankelein, or country gentleman,

    "An anelace and gipsere all of silke
    Hing at his girdle, white as morrow milke."

    In the Invent. of valuables, the property of Hennry V. A.D. 1423, is enumerated "j gipcer de noier velvet, garniz d'or, pris, 66s. 8d." Rot. Parl. IV. 215.

    Cassidile.
  • GYRDYLLE. Zona, cingulum, CATH. succentorium.
  • GYRDYN̄'. Cingo, succingo, CATH. ubi sic habetur; accingimur bel∣laturi, precingimur ituri, et succingimur ministraturi.
  • GYRDYNGE. Succinctio.
  • GYSE. Forma, modus.
  • GYSERNE (of fowles, P.) idem quod GARBAGE, supra.
  • GYSERNE, wepene (wepone, K. vepne, H.)3. ["A gesarne, gesa." CATH. ANG. "Gesa, gysserne." Roy. MS. 17. C. XVII. Gesa is, according to the Catholicon, "genus armorum quod Gallice dicitur gisarma, a gero, vel cesa, a caedendo: et sunt gese vel cese Gallorum, pila Romanorum." In the curious Dictionary of John de Garlandiâ, printed in the Collection of documents re∣lating to French history, Paris, 1837, there is an enumeration of weapons and engines of war, used at the siege of Toulouse, in 1218: the writer says that he saw "secures, bipennes, cathagesa Gallicorum, catheias et pugiones, cum dolonibus, avelancias Angli∣corum (anelacias, al. MS.) pila Romanorum, &c." The MS. at Rouen gives the fol∣lowing reading, "secures Dachos, jesa Gallicorum." But, although the gisarme seems in these passages to be appropriated as a Gaulish weapon, Wace, in the Roman de Rou, written about 1160, repeatedly describes the English in Harold's army as armed with sharp gisarmes and hatchets, whereas their opponents fought with long lances and swords. See lin. 12,908, 12,928, 13,437. It may be observed, however, that on the Bayeux tapestry the Saxons are represented as combating with the heavy axe, but no weapon appears which resembles the gisarme. In the Royal mandate, 36 Hen. III. 1252, printed by Wats at the end of his edition of M. Paris, the sheriffs are commanded to assemble all persons from the age of 15 to 60, and cause them "jurare ad arma," according to the amount of their lands and chattels; those who were rated under 40 shillings land, or from 40 shillings to 10 marks chattels, "jurati sunt ad falces, gisarmas, cultellos et alia arma minuta." From this document, and the stat. Wint. 13 Edw. I. c. 6, 1285, it is apparent that the gisarme was one of the weapons in ordi∣nary use among the inferior ranks of the English army. See Stat. of Realm, i. 97. A curious description of the conflict of the King of Niniveh, armed with "gysarme and sweord bothe," occurs in the Romance of Kyng Alis. line 2302. See also Havelok, 2553; Ritson's Metr. Rom.; Chaucer, R. of Rose, 5978. The gisarme was used in England as late as the battle of Flodden, 1513; it was of two kinds, according to Sir S. Meyrick, namely, the glaive gisarme, and the bill gisarme; the distinctive mark of the weapon being a spike rising at the back, as may be seen in Grose's Armour, pl. 28, and Skelton's Illustr. of the Armoury at Goodrich Court, ii. pl. 84, 85.]Gesa, CATH.
  • Page  196GYYSTE, balke.1. [This seems to be the same word which is now written joist, derived from the French giste, and denoting a beam, so called from gisir, to rest, to lie along. "Gyst that gothe over the florthe, solive, giste." PALSG. "Trabes, a traho, quia de unâ parte parietis and aliam trahitur, a beme, or balke of a house." ORTUS.]Trabes, trabe∣cula, COMM.
  • GYTERNE.2. [The gyterne, getron, or cittern, Fr. guiterne, was a stringed instrument, which seems, from the repeated mention that is made of it by Chaucer, to have been much in favour, probably as an accompaniment to the voice. In the Lat. Eng. vocabulary, Roy. MS. 17 C. XVII. are given "giga, getyrne: gigator, getyrner." f. 43, b. Amngst the curious representations of musical instruments in Sloane MS. 3983, t. Edw. II. f. 13, the harp is called "giga vel lira," but the same is named "arpes," f. 4, b.; with the former there is seen an instrument with five strings, and the head recurved, which perhaps exhibits the form of the gyterne at that early period. In default of any positive information on the obscure subject of the early history of music, it may be stated, conjecturally, that the gyterne is the instrument which was held in an horizontal position, and played either by hand or with a plectrum, as may be seen in almost every representation of the angelic choir, whether in sculpture, painted glass, or illuminated MSS. The minstrels gallery on the N. side of the nave, at Exeter Cath., sculptured in the reign of Edw. III. may be noticed as a remarkable instance. In Hawkins' Hist. of Music, iv. 113, a figure is given of the cittern, from Mersennus, Harmonie Univers∣selle, 1636, which represents an instrument with six strings, differing from the Spanish guitar in the pear-shaped form of the belly. It was little esteemed, and chiefly used in places of lewd resort, or barbers' shops. See Nares, v. Cittern. Elyot renders "fidi∣cula, a rebecke, or a gytterne;" and Fleming, in his version of Junius, gives "lyricus, lyricen, fidicen lyrae, a player vpon the lute or cyterne." "A gitterne, cistre, quiterne, giterne, guiterre. A small gitterne, mandore." SHERW.]Samba, citolla, DICC. quintrena.
  • Page  197GYTONE.

    1. A GYTONE, or guidon, is the name of a sort of banner, or streamer, called in Latin guido, which Ducange derives from guida, a guide. Guidon has been supposed to be a corruption of guide-homme; and is written "guydhome" in Harl. MS. 2258, where it is stated that its length was to be 2½ or 3 yards: "euery standard and guydhome to have in the chief the crosse of St. George, to be slitte at the ende, and to conteyne the creste or supporter, with the posey, worde, and device of the owner." From Harl. MS. 838, it appears that every baronet or superior estate should display a banner, if he were chief captain; every knight a pennon, and "euery squier or gentleman his getoun or standard." It is also directed that both the last should be slit at the extremity, whence probably the getoun was called conscisorium, as given above. In the contempo∣rary poem descriptive of the siege of Rouen, A.D. 1415, it is said,

    "There was many a getoun gay,
    With mychille and great array."

    line 1214.

    See Sir Fred. Madden's note on this line, Archaeol. xxii. 396; and Retrosp. Rev. i. 511, N.S. It appears that a gytone was not only carried in the field, but attached to the mast of a ship; thus, in a bill of expenses for the Earl of Warwick, A.D. 1437, is a charge, "Item, a gyton for the shippe, of viij yardis longe, poudrid full of raggid staves, for the lymmyng and workmanship ij s." Dugd. Warw. In the Will of Joh, Baron de Graystok, A.D. 1436, is this bequest: "lego pro mortuario meo optimum equum cum totâ armaturâ meâ, cotearmour, penon, et gyton's, &c." Wills and Inv. i. 85, Surtees Soc. Palsgrave gives "Guyderne, a baner in a felde, guidon: Gyderne, guidon;" and Cotgrave has "guidon, a standard, ensigne, or banner, under which a troop of men of arms do serve; also he that bears it."

    Conscisorium, KYLW.
  • GYVYS, or feterys of presone (fettirs of prison, P.) Compes.
  • GLACYN̄, or make a þy(n)ge to shyne.2. [This word seems to have implied not only to furbish arms, or armour, but, by means of some kind of varnish, to preserve the polish from rust. Sir John Paston gives the following direction; "As for my byll that is gylt, I wolde it were taken head to; there is von in the town can glaser weel I nowe, and ellys late it be weel oylyd." Palsgrave gives the verb "I glase a knyfe to make it bright; ie fourbis."]Pernitido, polio.
  • GLACYNGE, or scowrynge of har∣neys. Pernitidacio, perluci∣dacio.
  • (GLASINGE in scornynge, H. P. Intulacio.)
  • GLACYNGE, or wronge glydynge of boltys or arowys (glansyng, S. glaunsinge of shetinge, P.) Devolatus.
  • GLAD, or mery. Jocundus, letus, hillaris.
  • GLAD, and gretely mery. Jo∣cosus, gaudiosus.
  • GLADYN̄', or cheryn'. Hillaro, exhillaro, letifico.
  • GLADLY, or bleþely.3. [Bleyely, MS.]Libenter, hillariter, letanter (voluntarie, P.)
  • GLADLY, or ioyfully. Gaudiose, gaudenter.
  • GLADNESSE. Jocunditas, hilla∣ritas, leticia.
  • GLADONE, herbe.4. ["Gladyne, gladiolus, quedam herba." CATH. ANG. The name gladwyn now de∣notes only the Iris foetidissima, Linn., but probably the more common species, Iris Pseud-acorus, may be here intended. In Mr. Diamond's MS. version of Macer, it is said, "Gladen is y-clepid in Englisshe, iris, in Latin, for his floure haþ a colour like þe raynebowe .. Take þe rootis of þis erbe, and kyt hem in rounde gobetis, and ryfe hem vpon a þrede, so þat none of hem touche oþer, if þou wilt drye hem." The virtues of this root are numerous, taken with wine, mead, or vinegar; the following is curious, as a cosmetic. "Do take ij parties of þis pouder of gladen rotys, and þe iij part of þe poudre of ellebre, þat some men clepen cloffynnge, and medele boþe þise poudres to-gider in hony. A plaster of þis wole purge and clense þe face of frekelis, also it wole resolue the pockys, and whelkys of þe face." Elyot renders "Xyphium, an herbe lyke the blade of a sworde, gladen; it is also called Xyris;" and Cotgrave gives "Glayeul, corne-sedge, corn-gladen, right gladen, gladen, glader, sword-grasse."]Gladiolus,Page  198 C. F. accorus, accolus, C. F. iris, C. F.
  • GLADSŪNESSE, idem quod GLAD∣NESSE (gladsunnesse, H.)
  • GLARYN̄', or bryghtly shynyn̄' (bryt shynyn, K.) Rutilo (elu∣cido, elumino, P.)
  • GLASSE. Vitrum.
  • GLASSE WRYTE (glaswrygh, K. wryth, H. wryȝthe, S.) Vitrarius.
  • GLASY, or glasyne, or made of glas (glasyn of glasse, P.) Vitreus.
  • GLASYN' wythe glasse. Vitro, vel vitrio.
  • GLEYME, or rewme.1. [In a medical treatise, Cott. MS. Jul. D. VIII. f. 119, b. a pottage composed of gentian, tormentil, fennel, and honey, is directed to be given "for a gleymede stomak, þat may noȝt kepe mete."]Reuma.
  • GLEYME of knyttynge, or byy(n)d∣ynge to-gedyrs (kuttynge or byndinge, H. cuttinge, P.)2. [Byy(n)dynge to-gedyys, MS. "Viscus, gleme, or lyme." ORTUS. Compare CLAM', or cleymows; where the other MSS. read gleymous. "Visqueux, clammy, cleaving, bird∣lime-like. Iotteux, claggy, clammy, cleaving. Glazeux, clammy, fat, clayish." COTG.]Limus, gluten, glucium.
  • GLEYMOWSE, or fulle of rewme. Reumaticus.
  • GLEYMYN̄', or yngleymyn̄'. Visco, invisco.
  • GLEYMOWS, or lymows. Limosus, viscosus, glutinosus.
  • GLEYMOWSENESSE, or lymow(s)-nesse. Limositas, viscositas.
  • GLEMYN̄, or lemyn̄', as fyyr. Flammo.
  • GLEMYN̄, or lemyn', as lyghte. Radio.
  • GLEMYNGE, or lemynge of lyghte (lyȝth, K.) Conflagracio, flam∣macio.
  • GLEYRE of eyryne, or oþer lyke (gleyere, K. gleyȝyr of eyre, H. gleyȝyer' of eyr', P.)

    3. "La glaire d'un oeuf, the white of an egge. Aubin d'vn oeuf, the white or gleare of an egge." COTG. In the Cant. Tales, the Chanon's yeoman, enumerating the num∣berless requisites employed in alchemy, mentions

    "Unsleked lime, chalke, and gleire of an eye."

    In a curious MS. in the possession of Sir Thomas Phillipps, concerning the craft of limning, is the following recipe. "To couche gold: take gleyere, and safferoun grounde, and couche on thy golde, whyle hit is moyste." Fox relates that one Margery Backster, being accused of heresy, thus declared her opinion of images; "lewd wrights of stocks hew and forme such crosses and images, and after that, lewd painters gleere them with colours." The French word glaire has also, according to Cotgrave, the signification of "gravell, sand, and small pible stones, or sand mingled with stones; also a whitish and slimy soil, in Latin glarea; hence it is said in Caxton's Mirrour of the World, part ii. c. 85, that "by Acres the cyte is founden a maner of sande, and there is founden also of the glayre of the see, whiche ben medled to gydre, and of thyse two myxtyons is made good glasse and clere. Bosworth derives glare from A.-S. ȝlaere, pellucidum quidvis.

    Glarea, C. F.
  • Page  199GLENAR of corne. Spicator, con∣spicator, spicatrix.
  • (GLENE, K. H. P.1. ["Arista est spica, an ere of corne or a glene. ORTUS. "An evene of corne." MED. "A glene, arista, conspica. Gloy, spicamentum." CATH. ANG. A glene seems to be here put for that which is gleaned, from the Fr. glane, the corn left for the gleaner. "A glean, a handfull of corne gleaned and tied up by the gleaner, or reaper. Kent. Bp. Kennett's Gloss. Coll. Lansd. MS. 1033. The Medulla gives, "Conspico, to glene, or els to gadyre songles. Aristor, i. colligere spicas, to glene, or to gadre songles. MS. Cant. Mr. Wilbraham gives songow, used in this sense in Cheshire.]Spicatum, CATH.)
  • GLENYNGE. Conspicacio.
  • GLYARE, or goguleye (gloyere, or gogyl eye, S. gogyll iye, P.)2. [Gogyrleye, MS. "A gleer, limus, strabo, obliquus. CATH. ANG. Skinner gives the verb to gly as used in Lincolnshire, signifying to squint, or look askance, possibly, he observes, from Ang.-Sax. ȝlowan, candescere, "q. d. incensis et prae irâ flamman∣tibus oculis conspicere. See Jamieson, v. Gley. Compare GOGULEYE, hereafter.]Limus, C. F. strabo, C. F. et CATH. strabus, CATH. straba, hirquicallus, CATH. et UG. V.
  • GLYDARE. Serptor, serptrix, C. F. (graditor, P.)
  • GLYDERYN̄'. Rutilo.
  • GLYDYN̄' Serpo (gradior, P.)
  • GLYDYNGE. Serpcio, gressus.
  • (GLYYNGE, K. H. P. Strabositas.)
  • GLYMERYN̄', Radio.
  • GLYMERYNGE of lyghte (lyȝt, K.) Lucubrum. C. F. et CATH.
  • GLYSTERY, or glystere (glisere, K.) Glisterium, glistere, C. F.
  • GLOFFARE, or devowrare3. [In the Vision of Piers Ploughman the word "glubbere" occurs in this sense, line 5274; "y-glubbed," line 3165, meaning gorged with liquor; and in the Crede, "glop∣pynge of drynke," line 184.]. De∣vorator, vorator, lurcus, UG. in ambrosia.
  • GLOFFYNGE, or devowrynge. De∣voracio, voracio, lurcatus.
  • GLORYFYYN̄'. Glorifico.
  • GLORYYN̄', or wythe onclene þynge defoylyn̄' (wyth ny on-clene thyng defowlyn, S. with foule thinge to defylyn, P.) Ma∣culo, deturpo.
  • GLORYOWSE. Gloriosus.
  • GLORYOWSNESSE. Gloriositas.
  • GLOSARE of textys. Glosator.
  • GLOSAR, and flaterere. Adulator.
  • GLOSE of a boke. Glosa.
  • GLOSE textys, or bookys. Gloso.
  • GLOSYN̄', or flateryn̄'.4. ["To glosse, ubi to fage. To glose, gloare, glosulare." CATH. ANG. The verb to glose occurs in this sense in the later Wicliffite verion, in which Judges xiv. 15 is rendered "glose thin hosebonde (blandire viro tuo. Vulg.) In the earlier version this verse is thus given, "faage to thi man, and meue hym that he shewe to thee what bitokeneth the probleme." This significaion of FAGYN̄' has been noticed above.]Adulor, blandior, CATH.
  • GLOSYNGE, or expownygne. Glo∣sacio.
  • Page  200GLOSYNGE, or flaterynge. Adu∣lacio.
  • GLOTONE. Gluto, CATH. epulus, KYLW. epulo (vorax, nebulo, P.)
  • GLOTONYE. Gula, crapula.
  • GLOVARE. Cirothecarius.
  • GLOVE. Cirotheca.
  • GLOWYN̄', as hoote yryne. Candeo, CATH.
  • GLOWYNGE of hoote fyre, or yryn, or oþer lyke (of hote fyre yron, P.) Candor, CATH. corusca∣cio, CATH.
  • GLU, of festynge. Viscus.
  • GLU, or mynstralcye (glw, K. gle, P.)

    1. Glu, or glee, denotes properly, as Sir W. Scott observes, the joyous science of the minstrel, which was called in Ang.-Sax. ȝliȝ, and the musician ȝliȝman, an appellation that denoted also the player, or joculator. See Bp. Percy's Essay on Minstrels, Sir Tristrem, Havelok the Dane, Jamieson, &c. In the vision of Piers Ploughman a sin∣gular comparison occurs, doubtless used proverbially, as an analogous expression is at the present time. Gloton, having drank deep, till his legs totter, is said to go

    "Lik a gle-mannes bicche,
    Som tyme aside,
    And som tyme arere.

    line 3180.
    Musica, armonia. C. F.
  • GLWYN̄'. Visco.
  • GLUYNGE to-gedyr. Congluti∣nacio, conviscacio, CATH.
  • GLUYNGE MATERE, as paste, or oþer lyke þat gluythe ij thyngys to-geder. Gluten, C. F. glu∣tinum, C. F.
  • GLUMAN̄, or mynstral (glwman, K. gleman, P.) Musicus, musica.
  • GLUSCARE, idem quod GLYARE.2. [GLUSTARE, MS. Forby explains glusky as signifying sulky in aspect.]
  • (GLUSKYNGE, idem quod GLYENGE, K. P. Strabositas.)
  • GNASTE of a candel, infra in KNAST.)
  • GNASTERE (gnachar, K.) Fremitor.
  • GNASTYN̄' (gnachyn, K.)3. ["Strideo, fortiter sonare, horribilem sonum facere, to gnayste. Stridor, gnast∣ynge. ORT. "To gnaste, fremere, est furorem mentis usque ad vocis tumultum ex∣citare; frendere, est proprie dentes concutere. A gnastynge, fremor, est hominum, fremitus bestiarum. CATH. ANG. "To gnaste or gnasshe with the tethe, grincer. Gnastyng of the tethe, strideur, grincement. PALSG. In the Wicliffite version this word is of frequent occurrence.]Fremo, strideo, CATH.
  • GNASTYNGE (gnachynge, K. ) Fremitus.
  • GNAWYN̄', or gnavyn, or fretyn̄' vn∣gentely wythe tetħe (wheten with the tethe, P.) Rodo, corrodo.
  • GNAWYNGE, or fowle bytynge. Corrosio.
  • GOOARE. Ambulator, viator ambulatrix.
  • GOARE on fote, idem quod FOTE∣MANN, supra in F.
  • GOBET, lumpe. Frustrum, massa.
  • GOBET, parte.

    4. The word gobbet formerly imlied not only a lump, but generally a piece or por∣tion of anything. In the Wicliffite version, iv. Kings, 20, 7, is thus rendered; "And Isaie seide, bringe ȝe to me a gobet of figis (massam ficorum, Vulg.); and whan þei hadden brouȝt it, and hadden putte it on his bocche, he was heelid." Among the curious relics that were carried about by the Pardoner,

    "He saied, he had a gobbet of the saile
    That Sainct Peter had, when that he went
    Upon the sea, till Jesu Christ him hent."

    Cant. T. Prol.

    Sir John Maundevile says of the apples of Paradise, growing in Egypt, "and thoghe ȝee kutte hem in never so many gobettes or parties, overthwart, or end-longes, evere∣more ȝee schulle fynden in the myddes the figure of the Holy Cros." p. 60. "Gleba, a gobet of erthe." MED. "Gobbet, a lumpe, or a pece, monceau, lopin, chanteau." PALSG. The derivation appears to be from "Gobeau, a bit, gobbet, or morsell." COTG.

    Pars.
  • Page  201GOBET, of a thynge kutte (of cuttynge, K. P.) Scissura.
  • GOBET, of a broke thynge (of hole thinge, P.) Fragmen, frag∣mentum, C. F.
  • GODDE. Deus.
  • GOODE. Bonus.
  • GODE, idem quod GADE, supra.
  • GODFADYR.1. ["A goffe, ubi a godefader. A gome, ubi a godmoder." CATH. ANG. In the North goff signifies a fool, according to Brockett and Jamieson. Cotgrave gives "commère, a she-gossip, or godmother, a gomme," but the term appears to be now obsolete.]Patrinus, CATH. (patrius, compater, K. P.)
  • GODHED. Deitas.
  • GOODLY. Benignus, benevolus.
  • GOODELY, adv. Benigne, bene∣vole.
  • GOODLYNESSE. Benignitas, be∣nevolencia.
  • GODMODYR. Matrina, materna, CATH.
  • GODDOWTER. Filiola, CATH.
  • GODSON̄', or gossōn' (godsune, or gosson, S. cossone, H.) Filiolus, CATH.
  • GOODE WYNE. Temetum, CATH.
  • GOD ȜATE (Godȝote, K. Goodȝoth, H. Godwolde, P.)

    2. The interjection Goddot, Goddoth, occurs frequently in Havelok the Dane: Sir F. Madden, in his Glossary appended to that curious poem, supposes it to be a corruption of God wot! formed in the same manner as Goddil for God's will, in Yorkshire and Lancashire; a conjecture which appeared to be confirmed by the following passage, where it is related that Havelok made a vow to found a priory,

    "And therof held he wel his oth,
    For he it made, God it woth!"

    line 2527.

    The word, it is further observed, appears to have been limited to Lincolnshire or Lan∣cashire, and a single instance of its occurrence is cited from a poem written in the former county, t. Edw. I. From the form, however, of the word, as it occurs in the Promptorium, the derivation appears to be more obviously from A.-S. ȝeatan, concedere.

    Utinam.
  • GOGULEYE, supra, idem quod GLYARE (gogyleyid, limus, strabo, K. gogelere, S. gogyl iye, P.)3. [This term occurs in the Wicliffite version, Mark ix. 46; "If thin yghe sclaundre thee, caste it out; it is bettre to thee to entre gogil-yghed (luscum, Vulg.) into the rewme of God, than have tweyne yghen" &c. Palsgrave gives among the adverbs, "a goggell, en louchet. Goggle-eyed man, lovche." Junius thinks it may be derived from A. S. sceȝl eȝede, strabo.]
  • GOIONE of a poleyn' (goyvn off a polene, HARL. MS. 2274.)4. [In some parts of England a piece of projecting iron at each end of a roller, which connects it with the frame, is stil called a gudgeon, from the Fr. "goujon, the pin which the truckle of a pulley runneth on; also the gudgeon of the spindle of a wheele." COTG. Among the expenses of Thos. Lucas, Sol. Gen. to Hen. VII. in building Little Saxham Hall, A.D. 1507, are these items among smiths' work; "for goions and colars, with ij stireppis for my bruge, weiyng 36½ lb." These were probably for suspending a drawbridge. Rokewode's Suff. p. 150.]Ver∣tibulum, C. F. cardo.
  • Page  202G(O)IONE, fysche. Gobius, gobio. (golnus, P.)
  • GOLDE. Aurum.
  • GOOLDE, herbe.1. [The plant here intended is perhaps the corn marigold, Chrysanthemum segetum, Linn. called in the North, goulans, guilde, or goles, and in the South golds. See Ray and Jamieson. The virtues of "gowlde" are detailed in the curious metrical treatise and Jamieson. The virtues of "gowlde" are detailed in the curious metrical treatise of herbs, sloane MS. 1571, f. 26, b. Dr. Turner says that "Ranunculus is called in English crowfoot or kingeux, or in some places a gollande." Herbal, part ii. Nares states that gold is the cudweed, or mothwort, Gnaphalium Germanicum, Linn.]Solsequium, quia sequitur solem, elitropium, calendula.
  • GOLDEFYNCHE, byrde. Cardu∣elis, KYLW.
  • GOOLDFUYLE, supra (in FULE, gold∣fule, K.) Bratea, in plur. CATH.
  • GOLDSMYTH. Aurifaber.
  • GOLET, or throte. Guttur, gluma, gula, DICC.
  • GOLFE of corne2. [A rick of corn in the straw laid up in a barn is called in Norfolk, according to Forby, a goaf; every division of the barn being termed a goaf-stede: to goave signifies to stow corn therein. See also Ray and Moore. Tusser uses the verb to gove, to make a mow or rick; see August's Husbandry, st. 23. In a short Latin-Eng. Vocabulary of XVth cent. written apparently at Creak, in Norfolk, Add. MS. 12,195, occur "Gelimo, to golue. Ingelimum, golfe." Palsgrave gives "goulfe of corne, so moche as may lye bytwene two postes, otherwyse a baye."]. Archenium, KYLW. et COMM. acervus (ar∣conium, K. arthonium, tassis, P.)
  • GOLYŌN, garment (clothe, P.)

    3. Roquefort gives "goléon, sorte d'habit de guerre;" but in the Promptorium golyon and gown seem to be almost synonymous, both being rendered by the Latin gunellus, a diminutive of gunna. The term is used by Gower, where he relates the exchange of garments made by Hercules and Iole, in order to deceive Faunus.

    "He hath hir in his clothes clad,
    And cast on hir his golion,
    Whiche of the skin of a lion
    Was made."

    Conf. Am. lib. v.
    Gunella, gunellus.
  • GOLVYN̄', or golvon̄'. Arconiso.
  • GOME yn' mannys mowthe (goomys, S.) Gingiva, vel gingive, plur.
  • GOON̄'. Ambulo, pergo, vado, io, gradior (meo, eo, transio, P.)
  • GOON̄ a-bowtȳn', or w(h)yryllyn̄ (wyrlyllyn, S.) Circino.
  • GOON̄ a-forne. Precedo.
  • (GOON aftyr, S. Succedo.)
  • GOON̄ a-wey. Recedo, discedo.
  • GOO be-hynde, or folow (gon be∣hyndyn, or folwyn, K.) Se∣quor (retrogradior, P.)
  • GOO downe. Descendo, CATH.
  • GOO foorthe. Procedo.
  • GOO forthe yn a iurneye. Profi∣ciscor.
  • GOON̄ yn to a place. Introio, in∣gredior.
  • GOON̄ on fote (gon afote, K.) Pe∣dito, C. F.
  • GOON̄ owte. Exio, egredior.
  • GOO slowly. Lento, C. F.
  • GOO to, and be-gyn̄' a dede. Ag∣gredior.
  • GOO to pryvy, or to shytyn̄. Acello.
  • GOO wronge. Devio, deliro.
  • Page  203GOONGE, preuy.

    1. This word occurs in the glosses on G. de Bibelesworth, Arund. MS. 220, as the rendering of foreyn, a place retired, a "withdraught," as it was called,

    "Vn maueys vint en ma forere (an heuedlond,)
    Ou par despit fist foreyn hier (gonge.)"

    Hence the term "chambre forene," which is used by Robert of Glouc. In the Seuyn Sages it is related that a father and son went together to commit a robbery, and the father falling into a pit, bid his son cut off his head, that he might not be recognized. He carried the head away to conceal it,

    "But als he com bi a gong,
    Amidde the pit he hit slong."

    line 1315.

    Fabyan gives the following tale, 43 Hen. III. "In this yere fell that happe of the Jewe of Tewkysbury, whiche fell into a gonge vppon the Saterdaye, and wolde not for reuerence of his sabbot day be plucked out; wherof heryng the Erle of Glouceter, that the Jewe dyd so great reuerence to hys sabbot daye, thought he wolde do as myche to his holydaye, whych was Sondaye, and so kept hym there tyll Monday, at which season he was found dede." The Medulla gives "Birsa, cloaca, a gonge;" and Pals∣grave "Gonge, a draught, ortrait." A.-S. ȝonȝ-settl, ȝanȝ-pytte, ȝanȝ-tun, latrina.

    Cloaca, latrina.
  • GOONGE fyrmar (gongefowar, K. H. S. feyar, P.)2. ["Gonge farmer, maister de basses oevures, guigueron, curevr d'ortraitz. I ferme a siege, or priuy, i'escure. Neuer come to your newe house, tyll your seges or priuyes be fermed, tant que vous ayez curé les orttrays." PALSG. Thomas, in his Ital. Gramm. 1548, gives "Piombino, a certein instrument of leade, that the gongfermours use." "Gadouard, a gould-finder, jakes-farmer, feyer of priuies. Maistre phy phy, a jakes feyer, who hath often occasion enough to say, phy." COTG. Bp. Kennett gives the following note in his Glossarial Coll. Lansd. MS. 1033: "To farm, to cleanse or empty, Bor. Oxfordshire; as, to farm kine, to farm a stable or cow-house; from Sax. feormian, purgare, whence the cleansers of jakes or privies are in some places called jakes-farmers." Compare FOWAR, FOWYN̄, and FYIN̄.]Cloacarius, latrinarius, COMM.
  • GOO(N)GE hoole. Gumphus, NECC.
  • GORE, or slory.

    3. Flory, MS. Slush and gore are generally mentioned together in Norfolk, as Forby observes, the former expressing the thin, the latter the thick part of the mire. Ang.-Sax. ȝor, lutum. Brockett gives gor, in the Northern Dialect.

    "For gore and fen, and full wast,
    That was out y-kast,
    Togydere they gadered, Y wys."

    Lybeaus disconus, line 1471.
    Limus, tessequa, COMM.
  • GOORD. Cucumer, cucurbita, col∣loquintida.
  • GOORE of a clothe.

    4. Lacinia is explained in the Catholicon to be "vestis lacerata, vel ora sive extre∣mitas vestimenti;" to which the following addition is made in the Ortus, "vel nodus clamidis, a hemme of clothe, or a gore, or a trayne." G. de Bibelesworth says,

    "Car par deuaunt avez eskours (lappes,)
    Et d'encosté sont vos girouns (sidgoren.)"

    This word is used repeatedly by Chaucer, and Tyrwhitt observes that its meaning was not intelligible. It seems, however, to imply a slit in a garment, whereby a piece is either inserted or taken away, so as to widen or contract it; thus the attire of the Car∣penter's young wife is described, who wore

    "A barm-cloth, as white as morwe milk,
    Upon her lendes, ful of many a gore."

    Miller's T. 3237.

    Here it doubtless signifies that her apron was gathered in with numerous plaits, in girding it about her hips. Sir Thopas says, where he relates his dream,

    "An elf-quene shall my lemman be,
    And slepe under my gore."

    Cant. T. line 13,719.

    Here the expression seems to be one of those conventional phrases of romance of which the meaning cannot be closely defined, and implying ample coverings, garments full and rich. In Emare, the Queen of Galys is said to be "goodly unther gore,—wordy unther wede,—comely unther kelle." Rits. Metr. R. ii. 243. "Goore of a smocke, poynte de chemise." PALSG. "Gheroni, the gores of a woman's smocke, or other lyke garment." W. Thomas, Ital. Gramm.

    Lacinia, C. F.
  • Page  204(GORSTYS TRE, or qwyce tre, supra in FYRRYS.)1. [In the North, and other parts of England, the Ulex Europaeus, Linn. or common furze, is called gorse. Ang.-Sax. ȝorst, erica, rubus. See the note on the word FYRRYS, above. "Ruscus, a gorst, or a furse." MED. MS. CANT. In the margin is the addition in Somner's hand, of the Ang.-Sax. words, "cneoholen, fyres." Cotgrave gives "genest espineux, furres, whinnes, gorse, thorne-broom."]
  • GOOSE. Auca.
  • GOSYS GRES, or camoroche, or wylde tanzy.2. [The Potentilla anserina, Linn. or wild tansy, is called in the North, according to Ray, goose-grass, because eaten by geese. The plant, however, most commonly known by the name, is the Galium aparine, or cleavers, which, as Moore observes, is called in Suffolk "guse-grass." Dr. Turner, in his Herbal, 1561, speaks of "Gooshareth or clyuer." Cotgrave gives "Grateron, the small bur called goose-share, goose-grasse, love-man, cleaver, and claver. Riéble, cleaver, goose-grasse, &c." Huloet calls the same plant "goslingweede, rueba (sic, rubea?) minor."]Camaroca, vel tanasetum agreste.
  • GOSHAWKE. Aucipiter, herodius.
  • GOSHERDE. Aucarius, aucaria.
  • GOSELYNGE. Ancerulus.
  • GOSSYP, mann.

    3. GOSSYPMANN, MS. The Baptismal sponsors were formerly called gossips, a term which Skinner derives from Ang.-Sax. God, Deus, and syb, affinitas, as it were "cognati in Deo;" and by the Canon law marriage was forbidden between persons thus allied, as much as between relatives by blood. In the Lay le Freine, it is related that the knight, to whom two sons were born, sent to greet a knight who was his neighbour,

    "And pray him tht he com to me,
    And say he schal mi gossible be."

    It would hence seem that the term comprised not only the co-sponsors, but the parents of the child baptized. Verstegan, in his explanations of ancient words, observes upon "Godsip, now pronounced gossip. Our Christian ancestors understanding a spiritual affinity to grow between the parents and such as undertook for the child at baptism, called each other by the name of Godsib, which is as much to say, as that they were sib together, that is, of kin together through God." p. 175, edit. 1655. Fabyan says of the repudiation of Ingebert of Denmark by Philip Augustus, king of France, "yt was not longe or she were from hym deuorced for cause of alyaunce of gossypred, or other∣wise." Part vii. c. 242.

    Compater, C.F.
  • (GOSYP, woman, S. P. Commater.)
  • GOSPEL. Evangelium.
  • Page  205GOOSTE, Spiritus.
  • GOSTELY. Spiritualiter.
  • GOSTELY mann, or womann. Spi∣ritualis.
  • GOOSTLYNESSE. Spiritualitas.
  • GOSSOMER, corrupcyon (gossum∣myr, or corrupcion, H. P.)

    1. "Lanugo, i. lana super poma, vel flos tribuli qui postquam bene siccatus est levi flatu effertur in aerem." CATH. In the Promptorium an allusion is made to another and strange supposition regarding the production of gossamer, noticed by Skinner, namely, that it was formed from the dew scorched by the morning sun, and thence, as it seems, termed here corruption. It is evident from Chaucer that this phenomenon had exer∣cised the ingenuity of curious observers in ancient times.

    "As sore wondren som on cause of thonder,
    On ebbe and floud, on gossomer, and on mist,
    And on all thing, til that the cause it wist."

    Squiere's T. 10,572.

    An allusion to the anciently received notion occurs in Spenser, who speaks of

    —"the fine nets which oft we woven see
    Of scorched dew."
    "As light and thin as cobwebs that do fly
    In the blew air, caus'd by the autumnal sun,
    That boils the dew that on the earth doth lie;
    May seem this whitish rug then in the scum,
    Unless that wiser men make't the field spider's loom."

    H. More.

    Even Dr. Hooke advances a conjecture that the great white clouds seen in summer might consist of gossamer. Microgr. 202. Dr. Hulse and Martin Lister first observed the real mode of its production by a species of spider. See Ray's Letters, 36, 69; Lister de Araneis; and the interesting relation in White's Hist. Selb. The etymology of the word is very obscure; Skinner suggests gossampine, Fr. gossipium, Lat. the cotton plant. The derivation proposed in the Craven Glossary, from its appelation "summer∣gauze, hence gauze o' th' summer, gauzamer, alias gossamer," is hardly tenable, when it is considerd that the term was probably received in our language long before the in∣troduction of the tissue called gauze. An early instance of its occurrence is in the gloss on G. de Bibelesworth, whose treatise was composed in the time of Edw. 1.

    "Regardet cy la filaundre (gosesomer.)"

    Arund. MS. 220, f. 301.

    "Filiandra, Anglice, gossomer." Lat. Eng. Vocab. Harl. MS. 1002. "Gossommer, thynges that flye in sommar lyke copwebbes." PALSG. "Couvrailles, gossymeare, or the white and cobweb-like exhalations which flye abroad in hot sunnie weather." COTG. In N. Brit. according to Jamieson, it is called also sun-dew webs, or moosewebs. In German, unser Frawen Haar, the Blessed Virgin's hair. See Jamieson, v. Garsummer; and Nares.

    Fi∣landrya, lanugo, CATH.
  • GOOT, beste. Hircus, edus, capra.
  • GOTE, or water schetelys (goote, H. water schedellys, S.)2. [The stat. 33 Hen. VIII. c. 33, after setting forth the decayed state of the fortifi∣cations of Hull, grants certain duties levied on the importation of fish, to repair and maintain the walls, ditches, and banks, as also "other clowes, getties, gutters, goottes, and other fortresses there," for the defence of the town and haven. Stat. of Realm, iii. 872. The stat. 2 and 3 Edw. VI. c. 30, states that the channel of the Camber, near Rye, had become choked up, in part by casting ballast into it, "and partely bycause dyuers mershes inned take in no water to scower the channell, but lett oute ther freshe water at guttes;" so that the road for shipping was much injured. Vol. iv. 72. This word is retained in use in several parts of England; Skinner and Ray give gowts, a word signifying in Somersetshire channels or drains under-ground. Bp. Kennett has the following notes in his Gloss. Coll. Lansd. MS. 1033: "A wide ditch, or water-course that empties itself into the sea, is called in Romney Marsh a gut, from old Dan. giota, scrobs: thence gutter, dim. a mill gut, a gote, i. a floud-gate, Northumb. Ang.-Sax. ȝeotan, fundere." In the Craven Dialect gote denotes a channel of water from a mill∣dam, as does goyt in Hallamshire. Jamieson gives goat and got, a small trench or drain. A similar word occurs in old French; "Goute: gouttière, égout." ROQUEF.]Aquagium, sinoglocitorium, C. F.
  • Page  206GOTERE. Aquarium, imbricium, guttatorium, guttera, aqua∣lacium, C. F. aquagium, UG. V.
  • GOTERE vndyr þe grownde. Ca∣taduppa, cataracta, C. F. sed cataracte in plur. sunt fenestre celi, nubes, vel meatus pluvi∣arum, C. F. (cadadirpa, P.)
  • GOTERE, ad purgandum feces coquine. Ruder, CATH.
  • GOOTYS BERDE. 1. [GOOTYS HERDE, MS. berde, S. H. P. "Stirillum, barba capre, et dicitur a stiriâ, quia pendens ad modum stirie, i. gutte." CATH.]Stirillum, CATH. et UG. in stuprum.
  • GOOT HERDE. Capercus, C. F.
  • GOTOWS mann, or womann' (go∣torous, P.) Guttosus.
  • GOTŌN', or had be trawayle (gotyn, or get, P.) Adeptus, adquisitus, assecutus.
  • GOVERNAWNCE. Regimen, gu∣bernacio, gubernaculum.
  • GOUERNOWRE. Gubernator, rec∣tor.
  • GOUERNOWRE of mony yn an howsholde, vndur a lorde or mayster. Massarius, massaria, CATH. in massa.
  • GOVERNYN̄'. Guberno, rego.
  • GOVERNE a towne. Villico, vil∣licor, CATH.
  • GOUERNYN̄', and mesuryn̄' in manerys, and thewys. Moderor, modifico, CATH.
  • GOWLARE, or vserere.2. ["Danista, Danus, a gowlere, an vserere." MED. MS. CANT. The derivation appears obviously to be from gula, in French goule or gole, significative of his rapacious avidity.]Usura∣rius, fenerator.
  • GOWLE, or vsury. Usura, fenus.
  • GOWNDE of þe eye.

    3. Skinner gives the word gound as used very commonly in Lincolnshire, signifying the running or impure secretion of the eyes. It occurs in the glosses on G. de Bibe∣lesworth, Arund. MS. 220, f. 297, b.

    "Vostre regardz est gracious (louelik,)
    Mes vos oeyz sunt saciouz (gundy;)
    Des oeez outez la sacye (þe gunde,)
    E de nees la rupye (þe maldrope.)"

    Bp. Kennett, in his Glossarial Coll. Lansd. MS. 1033, has the following note: "Gunded eyes, Westm. Goundy, filthy like running sores, Gower. Gunny eyes, Yorksh. Dial." Ang.-Sax. ȝund, pus, sanies. Skelton describes the "eyen gowndye" of Elynour Rumming.

    Ridda, al∣bugo, C. F. et UG. v.
  • GOWNE, garment. Toga, epi∣togium, DICC. gunellus.
  • GOWTE, sekenesse. Gutta.
  • GOWTON̄', as candelys. Gutto.
  • GRACE. Gracia.
  • GRACELES. Akaris, C. F. vel acaris, C. F. et CATH. ingraciosus.
  • Page  207GRACYOWS. Graciosus, eukaris, C. F. et CATH.
  • (GRAFFE, infra in GRYFFE.)
  • (GRAFFYN̄', infra in GRYFFYN̄'.)
  • GRAYLE, boke (grayȝylle, HARL. MS. 2274.)1. [A grayle is a service book containing the responses, or gradalia, so called because they are sung in gradibus, or by course. It is thus described by Lyndwood: "Gra∣dale—ponitur pro libro integro, in quo contineri debent officium aspersionis aquae benedictae, missarum inchoationes, sive officia, Kyrie, cum versibus Gloria in excelsis, gradalia, Halleluja, et tractus, sequentiae, symbolum cantandum in Missâ, Offertorium, Sanctus, Agnus, Communio, &c. quae ad chorum spectant in Missae solennis decanta∣tione." Provinc. iii. tit. 27. At the synod of Exeter, A.D. 1287, it was ordained that certain books should be provided in every parish, at the charge of the parishioners, among which is named the gradale. Wilkins, Conc. ii. 139. It is likewise included in the constitution of Abp. Winchelsey, to the same effect, A.D. 1305. Lyndw. The stat. 3 and 4 Edw. VI. for abolishing divers books and images, enacts "that all books called antiphoners, missals, grails, processionals, &c. heeretofore used for service of the church, shall be cleerelie and vtterlie abolished, and forbidden for euer to be vsed or kept in this realme."]Gradale, vel gra∣dalis.
  • (GRAME, S. infra in WAYTYNGE to dōn harme.)

    2. This word, which is found in the Winchester MS. only, is frequently used by the old writers.

    "Bithenk hou oft rape wil rewe,
    And turn to grame wel grille."

    Amis and Amiloun, 657.
    "Lordynges, he saide, y am aschamed,
    And sore anoyed, and agramed."

    K. Alis. 3310.

    In Havelok the verb to greme occurs, line 442, and the adjective gram, meaning angry or incensed, line 214. See also Seuyn Sages, 2703; Cant. Tales, 16,871; and Jamieson, v. Gram. Ang.-Sax. ȝrama, molestia, ȝremian, irritare.

  • GRAMARYONE. Gramaticus, gra∣matica.
  • GRAMERE. Gramatica.
  • GRAMERCY. In plurali, has grates, accusativo tantum.
  • GRAPE. Uva.
  • GRAPE of grete quantite. Bu∣masta, CATH.
  • GRATE for brede. Micatorium, DICC.
  • GRATE for gyngure, or oþer lyke. Fricellum, frictellum, ex CATH. in frico.
  • GRATE, or trelys wy(n)dowe (treues wyndowe, p.) Cancellus.
  • GRATE brede.3. [It may be oserved in the Forme of Cury, and all books of ancient cookery, that "myyd," or grated bread, was continually employed in the composition of a variety of dishes. Palsgrave says, "I holde a penny that I shall grate this lofe, or you can grate a rasyn of gynger;" that is, a root, racine.]Mico.
  • GRATE gynger (grate gynjors or oder lyke, HARL. MS. 2274.) Frictico, CATH. (frico, CATH. P.)
  • GRATYNGE of brede. Micacio, micatura.
  • GRATYNGE of gyngure, and oþer lyke. Frictura.
  • GRAVE. Monumentum, sepul∣chrum, tumulus.
  • GRAVE, solempnely made, or gravyn (solenly made and arayyd, K. P.) Mausoleum, C. F.
  • GRAVELLE. Arena, sabulum, eciam sonde.
  • GRAVEL PYTTE. Arenarium.
  • Page  208GRAVE STONE. Cippus, CATH.
  • GRAVYN, or grubbȳn yn þe erthe. Fodio.
  • GRAVYN̄' ymagys, or oþer lyke (imagery, K. P.) Sculpo.
  • GRAVYN̄', or puttyn yn þe grave, or yn þe erthe.1. ["To grave, ubi to bery. To grave, cespitare, fodere, percolere, foditare, pastinare. A graver, cespitator, cultor, fossor. A gravynge, cultura." CATH. ANG. The verb to grave is used by most of the old writers in the signification of digging, and thence of depositing in the grave. Ang.-Sax. ȝrafan, fodere. Sir John Maundevile gives a re∣lation of the legend regarding the origin of the trees of which the cross was formed; that when Adam sent Seth to crave oil of mercy of the angel that kept Paradise, the angel refused to give it, "but he toke him three graynes of the same tree that his fadre eet the appelle offe, and bad hym, als sone as his fadre was ded, that he scholde putte theise three greynes undre his tonge, and grave him so. And of theise three greynes sprong a tree—and bare a fruyt, thorghe the whiche fruyt Adam scholde be saved." p. 14. To grave still signifies, in the North, to break up ground with the spade.]Humo, &c. idem quod BERYYN̄', supra.
  • GRAVYNGE in tymbyr, or metal. Sculptura.
  • GRAVYNGE, or delvynge. Fossio, fossatura,
  • GRAWNSYRE, fa