- IAGGE, or dagge of a garment.
4. Fractillus is explained in the Catholicon to be "cauda vel fragmen panni fissi; cauda ornatus pendens ex inferiori parte: fractillus dicitur etiam villus in tapeto vel aliâ veste villosâ." Horman says, "he hath a plesure in geagged clothynge, lasciniosâ veste;" and Palsgrave gives "I iagge or cutte a garment, ie chicquette, ie deschicquette, ie descouppe. I iagge nat my hosen for thrifte, but for a bragge. He is outher a landed man, or a foole yt cutteth his garments. Iagge, a cuttyng, chicqueture. If I iagge my cappe, thou hast naught to do." This strange fashion, which, as it has been observed in the note on the word DAGGE, previaled during the reign of Rich. II. was not disused even in the XVIth cent. It is particularly noticed by Hardyng, who states that it was described to him by the clerk of Richard's household.Fractillus, CATH."Cut werke was greate both in court and tounes,Bothe in mennes hoddis, and also in their gounes."
Chron. c. 193.
- IAGGYD, or daggyd. Fractillosus.
- Page 256IAY, bryde. Graculus, ut dicitur secundum communem scolam, sed contrarium dicit. C. F. ut patet infra in ROKE, bryde; vel forte est equivocum: garrulus, C. F.
- IAYLERE, or gayler. Ergaster, KYLW. carcerarius.
- IAKKE of defence, garment (iak of fence, S.)1. [A full account of the defensive armour called a jack is given by Sir S. meyrick, in his observations on ancient military garments worn in England, Archaeol. xix. 224. Mention of it occurs as early as 1375, in the will of Thos. de Hemenhale, who devises "unum iakke de rubio worstede." Transcripts from Norwich Registers, Harl. MS. 10. Walsingham relates that Wat Tyler's mob, in the sack of John of Gaunt's palace at the Savoy, 1381, found "vestimentum preciousissimum ipsius, quale Iacke vocamus." Camd. p. 249. It is mentioned in the will of Henry Snayth, clericus, 1380: "Lego duas loricas ferreas, duas bacinetts cum ventall', et duas iakkys coopertas cum fust';" and in 1391, Margery, widow of Sir Will. de Aldeburgh, bequeaths to her son "unum duplum cum loricâ interius opertum cum rubeo correo caprae. Item, unum iak de∣fencionis opertum nigro velveto." Test. Ebor. i. 113, 150. Sir S. Meyrick questions the authority of Nicot's definition that the jack was an habiliment stuffed with cotton; in the Catholicon Ang. however, written 1483, is given "a iakke, bombicinium." Towards the close of the XVth cent, a less cumbersome defence of a similar nature, termed a jacket, was more in use. Palsgrave gives "iacke, harnesse, iacq, iacque: iacket, seion: iacket without sleues, hocqueton: iacket that hath but four quarters, iacquette." Caxton says in the Boke for Travellers, "Donaas the doblet maker hath performed my doublet and my iaquet, mon pourpainte et mon paltocque." In the accounts of the Lestrange family, 1532, are the following entries: "Item, paid for ij. pownd of twyn for the iacks. Item, paid for iij. elnes of canvas for yr iack. Item, paid to the taylour for the wurkemanshippe of iij. iacks, ix.s. iv.d. Item, paid for twyn for ȝour iacks. Item, paid to Matthew Smith (or the smith) for making of plates for the iackes, iv.s. ij. d." The kind of jack to which this last entry relates is described in Lily's Euph. Eng. where it is said that the armour of the English consists of "cors∣lets, Almaine rivets, shirts of male, iackes quilted, and covered over with leather, fustian, or canvas, over thick plates of yron that are sowed to ye same." It seems to have been identical with the brigandine. The jack may even have been occasionally formed with mail; in Edw. III. i. 2, Capell's Prolus. are mentioned "jacks of gymold mail." Thus Florio explains "Giacco, a iacke of maile, made like a corslet, a iacket or shirt of maile. Giachetta, a iacket or shirt of maile:" and Cotgrave gives "Iaque, a iacke or coat of mail, and thence a iacke for the body of an Irish greyhound, &c. made commonly of a wild boares tanned skinne, and put on him when he is to coap with that violent beast." The sense in which baltheus is used in the Promptorium is singular; it signifies commonly a girdle, but here COTE ARMURE, DOBBELET, and PALTOK, military garments, are rendered by the term baltheus.]Baltheus.
- IAMYS, propyr name. Jacobus.
- IANGELERE. Garrulator, gar∣rulus, CATH. garrula, dicax, C. F. loquax.
- IANGELERE, fulle of wordys. Semiverbius, UG. in sereno.
- IANGELYN̄', or iaveryn̄' (iaberyn, P.)2. ["Dapax, yanglynge, or spekynge of mete." MED. "To iangylle, ubi to chater. Iangyller, fictilis, poliloquus, &c. ubi chaterynge." CATH. ANG. "I iangyll, ie babille, ie cacquette: she iangleth lyke a iaye." PALSG. To jangle occurs in the sense of chat∣tering in the Vis. of Piers Plough.; Chaucer, Man of Lawes Tale, 5194; Gower, &c. "Iangler, to jangle, prattle, tattle saucily, or scurvily." COTG.]Ga(r)rulo, blatero, C. F. garrio, CATH. relatro, UG.
- Page 257IANGELYN̄', iaveryn̄' a-ȝen, þat ys clepyd cleanchyng a-ȝen (clensyng a-ȝen, S.)1. ["Oggarrio, i. contra garrire." CATH. v. Garrio. Compare CLENCHYN aȝen, or chaueryn aȝen for prowde herte.]Oggarrio, CATH.
- IANGELYN̄', and talkyn̄'. Con∣fabulor, fabulor, colloquor.
- IANGELYNGE. Garrulacio.
- IANGELYNGE, or talkynge. Con∣fabulacio, collocucio.
- IAPE.2. [Compare GAWDE, or iape, above. "Nugor, i. nugas facere, trufare, vel nugas frequenter dicere, to tryfle, or iape, or lye. Nugax, i. vanus, fatuus, &c. a iaper or fole. Nugacitas, iaperye." ORTUS. "To iape, nugari; iapande, nugans, nugaculus. Iapanly, nugaciter." CATH. ANG. "I ape, I tryfle, ie truffe, ie truffle, ie me bourde. I dyd but iape with hym, and he toke it in good ernest. Iape, a trifyll, truffe." PALSG. "Il n'est pas gas, it is no iape." Harl. MS. 219. It is said of St. Nicholas in the Golden Legend, that "in his yonge age he eschewed ye playes and iapes of other yonge chyl∣dren." Fabyan relates that William Rufus was warned of his approaching end, "but he set all at nought, and made of it a scoffe, or a iape." Horman says, "he bete me cursedly with a rod, as it had ben in iape, velut per ludum. Leue thy iapys, mitte nugas. At the begynnynge I hadde wente thou haddeste iapyde, putavi te joco fecisse." Junius has detailed the use of this word, especially by Chaucer, and seeks a derivation by comparison with Isl. geip, jactatio. Skinner derives it from Fr. gaber. It appears, moreover, from Speght's Glossary, appended to Chaucer, that, having become of ambiguous import, the word was scarcely admitted in polite parlance; and this is confirmed by Palsgrave, who gives the verb "I aipe a wenche, ie fout, and ie bistocque. It is better to iape a wenche than to do worse."]Nuga, frivolum, scur(r)ili∣tas.
- IAPER. Nugax, nugaculus, CATH. nugigerulus, CATH. gerro, UG. in gero.
- IAPYN̄' (or tryflon̄', infra.) Trupho, illudo, C. F. ludifico (deludo, P.)
- IARDYNE almaunde.3. [Gerarde speaks of "a large sweet almond, vulgarly termed a Jordan almond."]Amigdalum jardinum, amigdalum (jarda∣num amigdalum, S.)
- IASPE, stone. Iaspis.
4. Jagel or jevels is a term of contempt, which signifies, according to Bp. Kennett, "a rascal or base fellow."Lat be, quoth Jock, and call'd him jevel,And by the tail him tugged."
Christ Kirk, st. 7.
Forie a Sax. ȝe-full, immundus, profanus, reus, putidus; or ȝe-fyll. The Lieut. of the Tower, advising Sir Thos. More to put on worse cloaths at his execution, gave this reason, because he that is to have them is but a Javel: to which Sir Thomas replied, Shall I count him a Javel, who is to doe me so great a benefit?" Lansd. MS. 1033. In Roper's Life of More the term employed is "raskall." Skelton uses the word javell frequently: it is one of the opprobrious epithets that ar eput into the mouth of Wolsey, in "Why come ye not to Court?" and occurs in a passage cited by Hearne, and at∣tributed to Skelton, Glossary to Langt. Chron. v. Wroken."These be as knappishe knackes,As ever man made,For javells and for jackes,A jym jam for a jade."
Nares quotes Spenser, and other writers, by whom the word is used, and thinks it may be derived from Fr. javelle, a brush-wood faggot; a name that might be applied to such fellows as Shakespeare calls "rash bavin wits." Holland, in his version of Pliny, speaks of the "javels," stalks or stems of line or flax. B. xix. c. l. See further ob∣servations in Jamieson. Compare IOPPE, or folte, Joppus, and IAPER, Gerro.Joppus, gerro, UG. in gero, joppa.
- Page 258IAWNDYCE, sekenesse. Hicteria (hictericia, K. P. ettericia, S.)
- ICE. Glacies.
- ICHE, or ylke. Quilibet.
- ICHYN̄', or ykyn̄', or ȝykyn̄' (yekyn, K. ȝichyn, S. ekyn, H. P.) Prurio.
- IDYL. Ociosus.
- IDELNESSE. Ociositas, ocium.
- IDYL SPEKARE. Vanidicus, vaniloquus, CATH. (garrilo∣quus, K.)
- IDYOTE, nether fowle ne ryghte wyce (idyote, halfe innocent, H. P. idyothe, nodyr foole, noþer wyses, S.) Idiota.
- IDDYR, or vddyr of a beeste (iddyr, pappe, K. P.) Uber.
- LESSYS, to bynde hawkys wythe (ieshys, to bryng wyth hawkys, S.)1. [Jesses or gesses, used in falconry, are thus defined by Nicot: "Gects (gets, or giez) sont deux petites courroies courtes de peau de chien, une en chaque jambe du faulcon près la serre; au dessus desquels sont les sonnettes tenans à une autre petite courroye à part." Latham says that "Jesses are those short straps of leather which are fastened to the hawks legges, and so to the Lease by Varvels, Anlets, or such like." The origin of the term is evident, as signified by the Emperor Fred. II. in his treatise de arte Venandi, ii. c. 38; namely, "ob hoc jacti dicuntur, quod cum eis jaciuntur falcones, et emittuntur ad praedam." They are also called Getti. See Ducange and Menage. In "Dame Julyans Bernes Processe of hawkyng" it is stated that "Hawkys have abowte theyr leggys gesses made of leddyr moost comynly, some of sylke, whyche scholde be noo lenger but that the knottys of theym sholde appere in myddys of the left honde, bytwene the longe fyngre, and the leche fyngre; by cause the Lewnes sholde be fastenyd to theym wyth a payre of Tyrettys," &c. St. Alban's Book, sign. b. iij.]Jactacula, plur. KYLW. et COMM. (jactula, P. jacula, W.)
2. This word does not appear to be retained in the East Anglian dialect. Tusser uses in both in the sense of strutting about ostentatiously, and of actively busying oneself, or bustling to and fro. In the interesting account of his own life, he says that his desire was ease and contentment, and to live uprightly,"More than to ride with pomp and pride,Or for to jet in others debt."
In his Epistle to the Lady Paget, prefixed to his Book of Huswifery, among the quali∣ties of a good housewife, he says that she "should jetty from morning to night." Palsgrave gives the following illustrations of the use of this word: "I iette, I make a countenaunce with my legges, ie me iamboye. I wotte nat what his herte is, but he ietteth horriblye in his pace. I iette wt facyon and countenaunce to set forthe myselfe, ie braggue. I get, I use a proude countenaunce and pace in my goyng. Se I praye the howe this countrefayte gentilman getteth, comment ce gentyllastre braggue en se pro∣menant. I go a iettynge or a ryottynge, ie raude. Dothe thy father fynde the in the universyte to go a iettynge a nightes? te baille ton père exhibition à l'uniuersité pour aller rauder?" Cotgrave gives "Batre les rues, to iet, reuell, or swagger vp and down the streets in the night. Iamboyer, to iet, or wantonly to go in and out with the legs. Fringuer, to iet or brave it, to be fine, spruce, trimme, to wantonise it," &c. Anchoran, in the Gate of Tongues, p. 178, says that "one made to avoide his countrey wandereth abroad, and gaddeth and ietteth up and downe, vagatur." Ed. 1633. "To jet up and down, vagor, spatior, tolutatim incedere. To jet like a lord, incedo. To jet to and fro, volito. A jetter, gradarius." GOULDM. Compare GETTYN̄ and GETTARE.Verno, C. F. et alia supra in G. GETTYN̄.
- Page 259IKYL (iekyll, w.)1. [The Gloss on Gaut. de Bibelesworth renders "esclarcyl, en ychele." Arund. MS. 220, f. 300, b. In Gawayn and the Grene Knyȝt, 732, occurs the word "iisse∣ikkles:" and by Chaucer it is written "iseickle." "Stiria est gutta fluens, vel cadens congelata, a nykle." MED. MS. CANT. "Stiria est gutta frigore concreta pendens guttatimque stillans, a yokle." ORTUS. "Stirium, hysehykylle." Vocab. Roy. MS. 17 C. XVII. "An iȝokelle, stirium." CATH. ANG. Grose gives iccles as a word used in the North; and it is given in the Craven Dialect, as likewise ice∣shackles; see also Brockett, v. Ice-shoggle, and Jamieson, v. Isechokill. Ang.-Sax. ises-ȝicel, glacialis stiria. Compare THOWE of snowe, or yclys, or yce, hereafter.]Stiria, UG. in stuprum, CATH. et C. F.
- ICCHE, or ȝiche (ikche, or ȝykche, s.) Pruritus.
- (IKYN, supra in YCHYN, H. echyn, P.)
- ILDE, be-twene too freshe waters (iyld, S.)
2. An island in the Severn, about 4 miles N. of Worcester, called by Flor. Wigorn. "Beverege," and at the present time Bevere, served as a retreat to the people of that city when it was burned by Hardicanute, A.D. 1041, on their resisting the payment of tribute. See the Sax. Chron. Langtoft gives a relation of these circumstances."But þo þat fled wiþ þer godes to þe ilde of Seuerne,And þat wer in þe ilde duelled þer for drede,Untill þe Kyng turned, and his wrath ouer ȝede."
R. Brunne, p. 56.
In another passage, p. 151, he relates that Richard Coeur de Lion took possession of two islands in the Mediterranean, one "that ilde hight Labamare," which is described as situated in the straights of Messina; and another "ilde" called "Griffonie," meaning, perhaps, Sicily. In Kyng Alisaunder the word "ydle," as printed by Weber, seems to be the same word, varying by local pronunciation.Amnis."Euerych ydle, euerych contrey,He hath y-soughth, par ma fey;An ydle he passeth y-hote Perfiens."
- ILDE, londe in the see (iylde, K. ile, W.) insula.
- (ILKE, or eche, supra in ICHE, P.)
- IMAGE. Imago, statua.
- IMAGE on a grave, in mynde made of þe dede (in meend of þe ded man, S.) Colossus, C. F. et CATH.
- IMAGYN̄'. Imaginor.
- IMNE (impne, H. imme, P.) Impnus.
- IMNERE. Imnarium.
- IMPARE, or graffere (gryffar, K. P.) Insertor, surculator.
- IMPE, or graffe (gryf, K.) Sur∣culus, novella, CATH. novellus, CATH.
- IMPYD (or graffed, P.) Insertus.
- IMPYN̄', or graffyn̄' (gryffyn, K.)
3. The verb to imp, Ang.-Sax. impan, inserere, and the substantive imp, a graft. scion, or young shoot, occur in the Vis. of P. Ploughm. 2746; and are used by Chaucer."Of what kynd of ympe in gardein or in frithYmped is, in stocke fro whence it came,It sauourith euer, and is nothyng to blame."
Hardyng's Chron. c. 98.
See also Seuyn Sages, 574. "Insicio, impynge." MED. "An impe, ubi a grafte." CATH. ANG. "Ympe, or graffe, insita, inscita." Vocab. Harl. MS. 1587. "Impe, a yonge springe. Impe or grasse, pasturage." PALSG. "Empeau, an impe to graffe." COTG. Among the disbursements of Thos. Lucas, Sol. Gen. to Hen. VII. when Little Saxham Hall was erected, 1507, is a payment "for setting stokkes for graffes, impes of cherys, damsayns, and filberdes." Rokewode's Hund. of Thingoe, 145. See Nares.Insero.
- Page 260IMPYNGE (or graffinge, P.) In∣sertura.
- IN, of herboroghe (or herborwe, K. inne, P.) Hospicium, diver∣sorium, C. F.
- INAMELYD.1. [The application of enamel to every description of ornamental work in metal was much used in England from the Anglo-Saxon times, until the XVIth cent. The number of existing specimens is, indeed, small; owing, probably, to the precious metals having been most frequently employed for enamelled works, which have been melted down to form ornaments suited to the successive changes of fashion; but an∣cient wills and inventories, especially the lists of crown jewels printed in the Kalendars of the Exchequer Treasury, afford abundant evidence of the profusion of enamelled plate and jewellery in England. There may be but insufficient evidence to show that the earliest works of this kind, such as fibulae, and minor personal ornaments, were executed by British artificers; but the character of ornament which is presented by them, the mention that is made in early records of the skill of our countrymen, and the distinctive term of Opus Anglicanum, to designate their ornamental works in metal, give to such a supposition a high degree of probability. A specimen of interest pre∣served in the Brit. Mus. appears by the legend to have been the ring of Ethelwulf, King of Wessex, from 836 to 858, father of Alfred. See Archaeol. vii. pl. xxx. It is of gold, and appears to be properly an enamelled work, the field, according to the ordinary pro∣cess of the earlier period, being chiselled out to receive a vitrified metallic compound of a dark blue colour, which was fixed by fusion in the cavities formed by the tool, and set off the design produced by those parts of the metal that had been left in relief. Another mode of workmanship, in some degree analogous, appears in the jewel at the Ashmolean Museum, attributed to Alfred; a specimen recently discovered in London, Archaeol. xxix. pl. x. and a few other instances. In these a semi-transparent substance, which appears to be rather a vitreous paste than a true enamel, fills the spaces in the field of the design, the outline being formed, not by chiselling the solid metal, but by means of thin fillets of gold, attached to the surface of the plate, and serving to detach the variously coloured portions of the design. At a later period the pre-eminent skill of the enamellers of Limoges caused their work to be highly esteemed in other coun∣tries. It appears that the tomb of Walter de Merton, Bp. Rochester, 1274, was made by Magister Johannes de Limogiâ, who came to England for the purpose. See the Executor's Accounts, Thorpe's Cust. Roff. 193. At the Reformation this memorial was destroyed; but the enamelled effigy in Westminster Abbey, representing Will. de Va∣lence, who died 1296, if not the work of John of Limoges, affords an interesting spe∣cimen of the art practised at that place. The prevailing use of ornaments of this nature appears also from the Constit. of Will. de Bleys, 1229, and Walt. de Cantilupe, 1240, Bishops of Worcester, prescribing, among the sacred ornaments to be provided by the parishioners, "ij. pyxides, una argentea, vel eburnea, vel de opere Lemovitico, in quâ hostiae reserventur." Wilk. Conc. i. 623, 666. Several of these exist; but the most curious enamelled ornaments of this period, as connected with England, are the small shrines called cofri Lemovicenses, on which is represented the martyrdom of St. Thomas of Canterbury. One of these is in the possession of the Ant. Soc. and another at Here∣ford Cathedral. Enamel was likewise made available for the decoration of sepulchral brasses, to a much greater extent, probably, than might be supposed from the few ex∣amples that have been preserved. In the XVth cent. the older process of chiselling out the design was abandoned, and a mode of enamelling, wholly superficial, came into general use; it appears to have been first adopted in Italy, but was practised for more than a century, in the greatest perfection, at Limoges. Chaucer speaks of "fine ena∣maile" and gold "amiled." Rom. of Rose. Spenser uses the word "aumaild," and in some documents the word is written "anelyd." Compare ANELYN, or enelyn me∣talle, above. Horman says that "goldsmithes use annuelynge, and gravynge, untuntur toreutice:" and Palsgrave gives the verb "I ammell, as a goldesmyth dothe his worke. Your broche is very well amelled, vostre deuise est fort bien esmaillée. I enamell, ib." See Wharton's Eng. Poetry; Ducange, v. Esmaillator, Limogia, Smaltum, &c.]Inamelatus.
- Page 261INAMELYNGE. Inamelatura.
- INBROWDYD (inbrowdred, J. W.) Intextus.
- INBROWDYD clotħe (inbrowdred, P.)1. [IMBROWDYD, MS. "Frigia dicitur quedam vestis que alio nomine dicitur acu∣picta." CATH.]Frigia, CATH. et C. F.
- INCHE. Digitus, pollicium, KYLW. (pollex, P.)
- INCRES. Incrementum, excre∣mentum, CATH. excresc(ens)ia (augmentum, P.)
- INCRESYN̄', or moryn̄'. Augeo, adaugeo, augmento.
- INCRESE, or grow or wax more. Accresco, CATH. excresco.
- INDAWNGERYD. Indomigeratus.
- INDENTYD. Indentatus.
- INDENTYNGE. Indentacio.
- INDENTURE. Indentura, ciro∣graphus, UG. in grama.
- INDYFFERENT, neyther fulle of þe to partye, neþer of tothere (neþer of þe to party, ne of þe toþer, K.) Indifferens.
- INDYTE letterys, as clerkely speke (or clerkly spech, S.) Dicto.
- INDYTYD, as clerkly speche (in∣dyted or endited of clerkly speche, P.) Dictatus.
- INDYTYD be lawe, for trespace. Indictatus.
- (INDITYN for trespas, K. indyte, P. Indicto.)
- INDYTYNGE of clerkly speche (as clerklyspeche, P.) Dictamen.
- INDYTYNGE, or indytement for trespas. Indictacio.
- INDWYN̄, and yeve warysone. Doto.
- INDWYNGE. Dotacio.
- (INGYNE, supra in ENGYNE.)
- INHERYTE, or receyve in herytage (inerytyn, or receyuyn to eri∣tage, K.) Heredito.
- INFECTYN̄, or brynge to sekenesse, as menne take wythe pestylence, or as leprys done hele menne be brethe, or other towchynge (as lepers doþ hole men, S.) Inficio.
- INFORMYN̄, or techyn̄'. Informo, instruo; et alia sunt infra, in KENNYN̄.
- INGROTON wythe mete or drynke, supra in GROTŌN.)
- INIŌYNON̄, or put to, and chargyn̄' to be done (puttyn to a charge to be downe, S. inioynen, P.) Injungo, impono.
- INYOYNYD (inionyyd, K. inioyned, P.) Injunctus.
- INKE. Encaustum, C. F. vel in∣caustum, CATH. attramentum.
- Page 262INKEHORNE. Attramentarium, C. F. incaustorium.
- INMEUABLE. Immobilis.
- (INNIOLF, threde to sow wythe schone or botys, infra in LY∣NYOLF. Indula, licinium.)
- INNOCENT. Innocens.
- (INOYNTED. Inunctus, P.)
- INPOYSYON̄, or poysnyn̄ (poysyn, K. S. inpoysen or poysen, P.) In∣toxico.
- INPRENTYD (imprentid, or im∣pressyd, K.) Impressus.
- INPRENTYN̄ (imprentyn, K. S.) In∣primo.
- INPRENTYNGE. Inpressio.
- (INQVERYD, infra in WEL TETCHYD. Morosus, bene morigeratus.)
- INSESUN, or seson̄, or worldely goodys (insesyn in werdligodys, K. or sesun some, &c. P.) Insesino.
- INSYGHT (insythe, K.) Inspexio, circumspeccio.
- (INSNARLYD, infra in INTRYKYD.)
- INSPYRACYONE. Inspiracio.
- INSTORŌN' (wythe nedefulle thyngys, or astoryn, supra.) Instauro.
- INSTRUMENT, or toole. Instru∣mentum.
- INSURYN̄', or make suere (svyrte, K.)1. [Chaucer uses the word to ensure in the sense of affirming by word of mouth; it had also that of betrothing, or promising in marriage. "I ensure, I trouthe plyght, as man and a woman togyther, ie fiance. I herde saye they were maryed, or euer I knewe they were ensured togyther. I insuer by maryage, id. Howe, saye you be they maryed so sone, I wyste nat that they were insured yet. I insuer, ie promayts, ie assure." PALSG. In Henry VIIIth's Primer, 1545, in the lesson at matins, the following verse occurs: "The aungell Gabriel was sent from God into a cytie of Galile named Nazareth, to a virgyn which was ensured to a man whose name was Joseph." Luke i. 27.]Assecuro.
- INTENCYONE, or mevynge (sic, S. intent or menynge, K. P.) In∣tencio.
- INTERDYTE. Interdictus.
- INTERDITE, or interdytement (in∣terdyten, S.) Interdictum.
- INTERDYTYN̄'. Interdico.
- INTERLARDE, of fet flesche (inter∣layed of fat flesshe, P.) Abdomen, KYLW. CATH. C. F. et UG. in hostio.
- INTERLOGE of a pley.2. [On the subject of interludes much information has been brought together by Mr. Payne Collier, in his Hist. of Dramatic Poetry. In the XVth cent. they were much in fashion, and a special clause of exception is made in the Stat. of Apparel, 3 Edw. IV. 1463, in favor of "ministrelles, et jouers en lour entreludes." It was only in 1542 that it was enjoined that no plays or interludes should be acted in the churches. "Interlude, moralité." PALSG.]Prelu∣dium, interludium, CATH.
- INTERPRETOWRE, or expownere. Interpres.
- INTYCYN̄, or steryn̄ to doōn a dede (or tycyn, &c. S.) Incito, instigo.
- INTRAYLE, or yssu of a dede beeste (intrelise, K. intralyze, H. intralyce, P.) Intesti(n)um; et alia infra in ISSU.
- INTRYKYD, or insnarlyd. Intri∣catus, illaqueatus.
- INTRYKYN̄', or snarlyn̄'.3. [Chaucer speaks of one "that love most entriketh," (Assemblie of Foules) and the word is likewise used by Gower, Conf. Am. IV. It is evidently taken from the French "Intriquer, to intricate, insnare, involve, intangle." COTG. "I entryke, I hynder or lette. He that is entryked (empesché) with worldly busynesse is nat mete to be a studyent." PALSG. See Ducange, v. Intricare. Ital. "intricare, to intricate, to intangle, to inwrap, to garboile." FLORIO. See SNARYN̄, or snarlyn̄.]Intrico, illaqueo.
- Page 263INTRYKYNGE. Illaqueacio, in∣tricacio.
- INVEYNE, or vayne. Vanus, in∣vanus.
- INVEYNLY, or wythe owte pro∣fytte (inveyn, or wit owtyn profyȝt, K. profyth, S.) Vane, invanum, inutiliter.
- INVENYMYN̄. Veneno, CATH.
- INVYE, or envye. Invidia, invi∣dencia, C. F.
- INVYOUSE. Invidus, C. F.
- INVYSYBLE. Invisibilis.
- (IOBBYN wythe the bylle, supra in BYLLYN'.)
1. To job signifies in the East Anglian dialect to peck with the beak, or with a mat∣tock; and is used in the former sense by Lestrange and Tusser, who directs boughs to be stuck among runcival pease, upon which they may climb (February's husbandry.)"So doing, more tender and greater they wex,If peacock and turkey leave jobbing their bex."
Holland, in his version of Pliny, B. x. c. 18, says that birds that "job and pecke holes in trees," are of the race of spights, martins, or wood-peckers; and speaks of "wood∣pecks, or jobbers," c. 29. "Becquer, to pecke or bob with the beake. Becquade, a pecke, job, or bob with a beake. Hocher, to shake, jog, job, nod." COTG. "Sitta, a bird called a nutjobber." GOULDM. Willughby, in his Ornithology, describes the nut∣hatch, or nut-jobber, Picus cinereus. Ash gives to job, in the sense of striking suddenly with a sharp instrument, as the word is used in Shropshire. See Hartshorne's Salopia.
- IOGLYN̄' (iogelyn, K. P.) Pres∣tigior, CATH. UG. et C. F.
- IOGULOWRE (iogulour, K. ioge∣lowere, P.)2. [In Domesday mention occurs of the joculator and the joculatrix regis, T. i. f. 38, b. and 162: Ang.-Sax. ȝeoȝelere, prestigiator. The juggler and the minstrel are, as Wharton observes, frequently confounded together. Music formed a part of the en∣tertainments provided by both, and it was not, perhaps, until the XIVth cent. that the two denominations were properly distinguished. The juggler was called also TREGET∣TOWRE, a term which occurs in the Promptorium. His performances were very varied, comprising sleight of hand, tricks of all kinds, tumbling, and buffoonery. Strutt has collected much information on this subject in his Sports, B. iii. c. iv. Chaucer, in the third Book of Fame, seems to distinguish the jugglers from the minstrels and musicians, and speaks of them as playing with magicians, "tragetours, and Phetonisses, charme∣resses," &c.; but in the Rom. of the Rose he mentions minstrels and jugglers, as if their performances were similar. He repeatedly alludes to the wonderful tricks which were exhibited by them. "Balatro, a yogelowre. Pantomimus, a iogeloure. Paras∣citaster, id." MED. "To iugille, joculari. A iuguler, gesticulator, &c. ubi a harlott. A iugulynge, gesticulacio, jocamen." CATH. ANG. Horman says, "The iugler carieth clenly under his gublettis, prestigiator scite visum ludificat cum acceptabulis. A iugler with his troget castis (vaframentis) deceueth mens syght." "Iogelour, batel∣levr. Iogelyng caste, passe, passe. I iogyll, ie ioue de pas pas. Mathewe iogyled ye cleanest of any man in our dayes. I iuggyll, &c. ie iougle." PALSG. In the Northum∣berland Household Book, 1511, a reward of 6s. 8d. is appointed "to the Kyngs iugler, if he haue wone." See Essay on ancient Minstrels, Percy's Reliques, i. xcii.]Mimus, CATH. et UG. prestigiator, CATH. et UG. in magi, et C. F. histrio, CATH.
- IOGULYRYE, or iogulment (iogul∣rye, Page 264 K.) Prestigium, CATH. et UG. in magi, pancracium, UG. et CATH. mimilogium, UG. in mimus.
- IOYE. Gaudium, gloria.
- IOYE, and gladnesse yn chere. Leticia, jocunditas, exultacio.
- IOYE yn herte. Jubilus, jubilacio.
- IOY, or pley þat begynnythe wythe sorow, and endythe wythe gladnes (ioye or myrthe þat be∣gynnyt wit sorw, &c. K.)1. [See PLEY, hereafter.]Co∣media, CATH.
- IOY, or pley þat begynnythe wythe gladnesse, and endythe wythe sorow (and grevowsnesse, S. ioye or myrthe þat be-gynnyt wit gladnes, &c. K.) Tragedia, CATH.
- IOYN̄, or make ioy (ioyin, K. S. ioyen, P.) Gaudeo, jocundor, letor, exulto.
- IOYNYN̄, or ionyōn. Jungo, com∣pagino, pango, conjungo.
- IOYNTE. Junctura.
- IOYNTE, or knytty(n)ge to-gedur, what so they be (knyttynge to∣gedur of what thyng so it be, K. cutting togeder, P. puttynge, W.) Compago, compages.
- IOYNTE, or hole of the knokylle bone (cleped the whirlebone, K. P.) Ancha, C. F. et hic di∣citur whyrlebone.
- IOL, or heed (iolle, K. S. P.)2. ["Brancus, a gole or a chawle." Vocabulary, Harl. MS. 1002. Skinner gives "Jowl, caput, parum deflexo sensu ab A.S. ceole, fauces, hoc a Lat. gula; hinc a jowl of ling nobis appellatur non tantum caput sed etiam aesophagus." The term is applied likewise to the heads of other kinds of fish, as the sturgeon. "Iolle of a fysshe, teste." PALSG. "A jole of fish, fauces piscium. Joll, as of salmon, &c. caput." GOULDM. Compare CHAVYLBONE, or chawlbone. An extraordinary prescription, the chief in∣gredient being a fat cat, is given in Sloane MS. 1571, f. 48, b. "for bolnynge vndur þe chole." In the Master of Game mention occurs of the "iawle bone" of a wild boar. Vesp. B. XII. f. 34, b. "Bucca, mala inferior, &c. the cheeke, iawe, or iowll." Junius, by Higins.]Caput.
- IOLY. Vernus, lascivus, C. F. re∣dimitus, gaudiosus.
- IOLYTE. Vernancia, C. F. las∣civia, C. F. gaudiositas.
- ION̄, propyr name (Ione, S. Iohn, P.)3. [This proper name was anciently used as a term of contempt, especially as applied by the Reformers to the lower classes of the Romish priesthood. See Todd's note on Spenser, Sheph. Cal. May, 309; Dr. Wordsworth's Remarks on the Life of Lord Cobham, Eccl. Biog. i. 265. John Bradford, writing to his mother, in 1553, on the revival of Popery, says, "now let the whoremonger ioy, with the dronckard, swearer, couetous, malicious, and blynd bussard Syr Iohn, for ye masse wil not bite them, nei∣ther make them to blushe as preaching woulde." Martyrs' Letters, p. 292, orig. ed. In Reliqu. Ant. i. 1, an instance occurs where the priest is termed Sir John, early in XVth cent.? "Ian, as Iean, John, also a cuckold. "Ian de blanc, the consecrated bread, tearmed so by the Calvinists. Ian gipon, a gull, sot, ninny, fop, cokes." COTG.]Johannes.
- (IONE, proper name, H. P. Jo∣hanna.)
- IONYOWRE (ioynour, P.) Com∣paginator, pactor, archarius, arcularius, BRIT. et UG. in arceo.
- Page 265IOPPE, or folte.1. [Compare IAVEL. In N. Britain a bigheaded, dull, lazy-looking fellow is called a Jupsie. See Jamieson. Coles gives "Jobelin, a sot, or fool."]Joppus, C. F. joppa.
- IOPPERYE, or foltery. Jopperia.
- IOROWRE (or iurowre, infra.) Su∣surro.
- IOROWRYE (iorory, P.) Susurrium.
- IOWEL, or iuelle. Jocale, clino∣dium, KYLW. (monile, P.)
- IOVELERE, or iuelere (ioweller, K. P.) Jocalarius.
- (IOWYN' wythe the bylle, as byrdys, supra in BYLLYN', et in IOB∣BYN. Rostro.)
- IOWNCYNGE, or grete vngentylle mevynge (iownsynge, or gentil∣mevynge, K. ioyuncynge, S. iont∣inge, P.)2. [To jounce signifies in Norfolk "to bounce, thump, and jolt, as rough riders are wont to do." FORBY. Shakespeare uses "jauncing" in a similar sense. Rich. II. V. 5. "Iancer vn cheval, to stirre a horse in the stable till he swart with all; or as our to jaunt; (an old word.)" COTG.]Strepitus.
- IOWPE, garment.3. [Neccham, in his Treatise de nominibus utensilium, written early in the XIIIth cent. describing the ordinary dress of the master of the family, when at home, says, "perhendinaturus (li asuiurner) jupam habeat penulatam (furé) et tunicam (cote) manubiis (manches) et birris (geruns) munitam et manubiatam," &c. Titus, D. xx. f. 7, b. When mounted for the journey he was to wear the capa, with sleeves and hood. The jupa appears to have been a long garment worn by all classes, secular and religious, and both sexes. See Ducange. It was loosely made, for Chaucer uses the comparison "riueling as a gipe;" but the diminutive term jupon seems to imply that the military garment so called, which fitted the person closely, was a kind of jupa. Chaucer mentions the gipon as part of the attire of the knight, Cant. T. Prol. v. 75, and Knight's T. v. 2122. A full account of the jupon, or guippon, will be found in Sir S. Meyrick's Treatise on Military Garments worn in England, Archaeol. xix. 236. In Ly beaus Disconus the garment is termed a "gypell." In N. Britain a kind of short cloak for women, as also a wide coat, is termed a jupe.]Jupa, NECC.
- IOWE, or chekebone (iovwe, S.) Mandibula.
- IOWS of frutys, or herbys, or other lyke (iowse or iwse, K.) Jus, succus.
- IOWTYS, potage.
4. Sir John Maundevile says of the monks of Mount Sinai, that they drink no wine, "but ȝif it be on principalle festes, and thei lyven porely and sympely, with joutes and with dates." Voiage, p. 71. In the Vision of P. Ploughman, Wrath describes himself as having been cook in a monastery."I was the Prioresse potager,And maad hem joutes of janglyng."
Gower speaks of Diogenes gathering "ioutes" in his garden;; in the context they are called "wortes." Conf. Am. B. vii. Numerous recipes for preparing joutes occur in books of ancient cookery: in a curious collection in the possession of Sir T. Phillipps is the following: "Nou greyþe we Ioute Doré, of moni muchel y-wylned. Ye clene bete, and sclarie hokke i-boilled and wel i-bakked in an crouhhe clene y-washen. Hakke ioutes gentil and veire; do to ȝeoþen ouer þe fure grece of pork, hakke saffron, and peopur," &c. XIVth cent. MS. Heber, 8336. The metrical recipe in the Liber cure cocorum, Sloane MS. 1986, p. 97, gives a longer list of pot-herbs for compounding joutes, "cole, borage, persyl, plumtre leues, redde nettel crop, malues grene, rede brere croppes, auans, violet and prymrol." These were to be ground in a mortar, and boiled in broth. Compare the directions for "Eowtus of flesshe," and "Jowtus of Almaund mylke," Forme of Cury, pp. 13, 45. Joutes are given under the head of "Potage dyuers," Harl. MS. 279. See also Julius, D. VIII. f. 91, 94. Sloane MS. 1571, f. 36, b. "Iowtes, hee lappates." CATH. ANG. See Ducange, v. Jutta. Armoric, Joud, puls.Brassica, KYLW. vel brissica, KYLW. cum C. F. juta, COMM. (brastica, P.)
- Page 266IPOCRYSYE. Ipocrisis.
- IPOCRITE. Ipocrita.
- IRREPREUABLE. Irreprehensibilis.
- IRYNE. Ferrum.
- IRKESOUM (irksum, K. P.) Fas∣tidiosus.
- IRKESUMNESSE. Fastidium.
- IRKYN̄'. Fastidio, accidior.
- ISYL of fyre.
1. G. de Bibelesworth, in the chapter on domestic matters, lighting the fire, &c. says,"Va quere breses en vne teske (a pot schoord.)—Gardez vos draas de falemecches (from hiseles.)"
Arund. MS. 220, f. 302, b.
The MS. in Public Library at Cambridge, according to Reliqu. Ant. ii. 84, gives the reading "flaumecches, huyssels." "Est scintilla proprie accensa, favilla vero ex∣tincta, a ysel." MED. "Favilla, i. scintilla, ysyle or sperkell. Versus: Ardet scin∣tilla, non ardens esto favilla." ORTUS. "A iselle, favilla, or a sperke." CATH. ANG. Ang.-Sax. ysle, favilla. Bp. Kennett has the following note amongst his Gloss. Coll. Lansd. MS. 1033: "Isles, embers, hot ashes, Lanc. Easles, in Essex. Icelandic, Eysa, cinis ignitus." This word is still used in N. Britain: see Jamieson, v. Aizle, Eizle, or Isillis.Favilla, UG. in scindo (CATH. P.)
- ISYLKAKE, or chesekake, or ey∣kake bakyne vndyr askys.2. [Eykake is a cake compounded with eggs. Compare EY, ovum. Flamicia signifies a FLAWNE. See the note on that word.]Fla∣micia, COMM.
- ISOPE, herbe. Isopus.
- ISSU, entre. Ingressus.
- ISSU (or, K. P.) owt-gate. Exitus, egressus.
- ISSU (of) a slayne beeste (flayn, S.)3. [In stat. 12 Ric. II. c. 13, 1338, it is ordered that the "fymes, et autres ordures des issues et entrailles sibien des bestes tuez, come des autres corrupcions," cast into the ditches adjoining to towns, shall be removed, under a penalty of £20. In the English version the word here is rendered "garbage." Stat. of Realm, ii. 59. In the Office of the Celleresse of Barking, the "yssues of the larder" are explained to be the hides, inwards, and tallow of oxen, &c. which were sold, and of which she was charged to render an account. Cott. MS. Nero, D. VIII. Mon. Ang. i. 81. "Les issuës d'vne beste, the head and intrals of a beast." COTG.]Intrale, vel in plur. intralia, enteria, extum, UG. in suo.
- IVE (Iy, S.) Judeus.
- IUCE, idem quod IOWCE, supra.
- (IUELLE, supra in IOWEL.)
- IVEL SPEKARE. Maledicus, C. F. maledica.
- IEWESSE. Judea.
- IUGE, or domysman. Judex.
- IUGEMENT, or demynge. Ju∣dicium.
- IVY. Edera.
- IVYL, or wykkyd. Malus, iniquus.
- IVYL, or wykkydnesse. Malum, iniquitas.
- IVYL, or sekenesse. Egritudo, in∣firmitas.
- IUNYPYR, tre. Juniperus.
- Page 267IVOR, or ivery (iwr, or iwery, H. yvory, S. iuyr, P.) Ebur.
- IURDONE, pyssepotte.1. ["Madula, Iordeyne or pisse-potte." MED. "A Iordane, madula, madellum, minsarium." CATH. ANG. Walsingham relates the appropriate punishment imposed upon a quack physician, who was compelled to ride through London with his face to the horse's tail, his neck garnished with "duae ollae, quas Iordanes vulgo vocamus." A.D. 1382, ed. Camd. 288. Holinshed, who calls him "a coleprophet," terms them "two iorden pots." Chron. iii. p. 440. Chaucer speaks of urinals and "jordanes" (Pardonere's Prol.), and if not identical, they seem to have been similar in form. See the marginal sketch in Sloane MS. 73, f. 138, b. where it is said, in the directions for preparing vermillion, "take a good thicke Iordan of glas," which, after being well covered with luting, was to be used as a sort of crucible. It is precisely of the same shape as the glass vessel usually held by the leech, or water-doctor, in ancient representations. The word is found in the Vision of P. Ploughman, and is used by Shakespeare. Skinner thinks it is not derived from the name of the river Jordan, but from Ang.-Sax. ȝor, sordes, and den, receptaculum; an etymology which has been adopted by the author of the Craven Glossary. The derivation from Armoric, dourden, urina, has also been sug∣gested. Blount states that the jordan was a double urinal, but offers no explanation.]Jurdanus, madella, C. F. madula, C. F. urna.
- IVRYE, where Ivys dwelle (Iwry, S.)
2. The Jewish community being regarded as the property of the Sovereign, is termed in ancient records "Judaismus Regis, Judaismus noster, or communitas Judaeorum nos∣trorum;" and the Jews were bound to reside only in royal cities and boroughs. See "Les Estatutz de la Jeuerie," t. Edw. I. Stat. of Realm, i. 221. They were marked by a badge, and although it does not appear that they were compelled to dwell in one part of a city, appropriated to them, as is the Ghetto in the cities of Italy, yet they seem to have congregated in a district, probably on account of the detestation in which they were held, and it is remarkable, that although more than five centuries have elapsed since they were totally expelled by Edw. I. in 1290, the memorial of their settle∣ments in many cities in England is still preserved in the local name of Jewry. M. Paris speaks of the Judaismus at Worcester, which was ravaged by Rob. de Ferrars in 1264; and Rob. of Glouc. says of the great outrage at the accession of Richard, Coeur de Lion,"Ther was many a wilde hine, that prest was ther to,And wende in to the Gywerie, and woundede, and to drowe," &c.
R. Brunne uses "Juerie" in a like signification. See Chaucer's account of the "Jewerie" in a Christian city in Asia; Prior. T. 13,419. Besides the Old Jewry in the metropolis, there is still the Jewry at Canterbury. Leland speaks of the street at Win∣chester, leading from the High Street to the North Gate, "caullyd the Jury, by cause Jues did enhabite it, and had theyr synagoge there," Itin. iii. f. 71, and says of Warwick, "The suburbe without the East-Gate is called the Smithes streete; I hard ther that the Jues some tyme dwellyd in it." Itin. iv. f. 165, a. In ancient deeds relating to Warwick "the Jurye" is mentioned, and the Jury street still exists. At Lynn, where the Promptorium was compiled, the Jews had formed a numerous settlement at an early period, and there is still the Jews' street. Blomf. Norf. iv. 578. In low Latin the part of a city reserved for the Jews was called Judaearia, Juderia, Jutaria, or Judaea, in French Juierie, Juirie, or Juterie; wherein, in some countries, they were compelled exclusively to dwell. See further of the early settlements of the Jews in England in Dr. Tovey's Anglia Judaica, and Caley's Observations, Archaeol. viii. 389.Judea, Judaismus.
- IURYSDICTIŌN (or an auctorite, P.) Jurisdictio.
- Page 268IURNALLE, lytylle boke. Diurnale.
- IURNEY.1. [Dieta, according to the Catholicon, signifies a day's journey: the term occurs in this sense in Bracton and Fleta, where it is said that "omnis rationabilis dieta constat ex xx. milliaribus." Chaucer uses the word in this sense, Knight's T. 2740; Chaucer's Dream, 1945; and also in that of a day's work, Rom. of Rose, 579. Journey had also the signification of a day's conflict, in like manner as the expression "the day" is used at present. Thus in the Paston Letters it is said of the Battle of St. Alban's, 1455, that "alle the Lordes that dyed at the journey arn beryed at Seynt Albanes;" and the en∣gagement is termed "the male journey" of St. Alban's, meaning, apparently, the dis∣astrous battle. Vol. i. 108, 110. See Jamieson, v. Jorneye. In Norfolk, Journey implies the time a man is at plough, about six hours; if he works nine, two Journeys are taken.]Dieta.
- IURNEY, of walkynge. Viagium.
- IUROWRE (iurrour, K. P.) idem quod IOROWRE, supra.2. [In the Catholicon susurro is rendered murmurator, and susurrium, murmur, latens locutio. Both the English and Latin words are here evidently onomatopeias, and in like manner the sound produced by different birds is termed jurring, or jarring. In the Liber vocatus Femina, MS. Trin. Coll. Cant., amongst the noises of animals, it is said that "Colure ierist, et cok chaunt, coluere iurrut, and cok syngeþ." To jurre signifies also to strike harshly against any thing, in which sense it is used by Holland, Pliny, B. ix. 30; Livy, p. 963. Cotgrave gives "Bocquer, to butte or jurre. Heurter, to knock, push, jur, joult, or hit violently against." Jamieson gives jurr as signifying the noise of water falling among loose stones.]
- (IVRROWRY, H. P. or iorowrye, supra. Susurrium, CATH.)
- IUSSELLE, or dyschelle, dyshemete (iuschel, or dishel, S.)
3. Jusselle was a compound of eggs and grated bread, with saffron and sage, boiled in broth. The name seems to have been taken from the ancient dish called Juscellum by Apicius. See directions for making "Jusshell" in the Forme of Cury, pp. 28, 97; Harl. MS. 5401, p. 198. The Liber cure cocorum supplies, under the head de Potagiis, the following metrical recipe for "Iusselle.""Take myud bred and eyren þou swyngeTo hom to-gedur wyth out lettyng;Take fresshe brothe of gode befe,Coloure hyt wyth safron þat is me lefe;Boyle hyt softly, and in þo boylyngDo þer to sage, and persely ȝoyng."
Sloane MS. 1986, p. 58.
Elyot gives "Minutal, a meate made with chopped herbes, a iussell." See Ducange v. Jussellum, and Juscellum. "Jossel, an hodge-podge. North." Grose; Craven Dial.Jussel∣lum, COMM.
- IUSTARE. Hastilusor.
- IUSTYN̄ wythe sperys. Lancino, CATH. hastiludo.
- IUSTYNGE. Hastiludus, hastilu∣dium.
- IUSTE, potte.4. [ppotte, MS. "Obba, quidam vas liquidorum, Anglice a iuste." MED. "Ono∣phorum, a crostell, or a wyne potte. Justa, olla monachi." ORTUS. According to Ducange the term justa demesuralis occurs in the signification of a certain measure, by which wine was served to the monks. So likewise in the Consuetudinary of Evesham, printed by Dugdale from the document in the Augmentation Office, the "justa" is named as the measure by which drinks were at certain seasons to be served by the cel∣lerer. Mon. Angl. i. 149. Roquefort states that the Juste contained about a pint, but the Juta, which Ducange considers as synonymous, is accounted to hold two quarts.]O(e)noferum, C. F. (CATH. P. justa, S.)
- IUSTYCE. Justiciarius.
- IUSTYFYȲN', or make rygh(t)efulle (rythfulle, K.) Justifico.
- IUWERE (iver, H. iwere, S. iuwr', P.) Remedium.
- Page 269KABLE, schyppe rope. Curculia, CATH. rudens, C. F. restis, CATH.